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Physics Based Modeling of Turbulent Heat Flux

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**Physics Based Modeling of Turbulent Heat Flux in Shock Dominated Flows
**

By R. Quadros,† A N D K. Sinha‡,

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai

Interaction of a purely vortical isotropic turbulence with a normal shock wave is considered for analysis. Theoretical tool called Linear Inviscid Analysis (LIA) is used for studying this canonical shock turbulence problem. RuT which represents the normalized turbulent heat ﬂux, is studied in the region downstream of the shock for a range of upstream Mach numbers. DNS data available from literature for similar conﬁguration is used as benchmark for comparison. Effect of Mt and Reλ on generation and evolution of RuT is studied from DNS data and compared with LIA results. Finally, the effect of upstream energy spectrum shape on prediction of RuT is analyzed.

1. Introduction

Shock-boundary layer interaction is commonly seen in high speed ﬂows and is an important phenomenon. In the region of such interactions, high wall pressure and wall heat ﬂux is observed along with topological changes such as boundary layer separation [1]. Accurate prediction of these high aero-thermal loads is important from a design point of view. Numerical simulation of such ﬂows of engineering interest largely relies on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. RANS equations solve for the mean ﬂow variables. The effect of turbulence on the mean ﬂow is modeled in terms of suitable constants and mean ﬂow variable gradients. Conventional RANS models incorrectly predict the wall heat ﬂux in the region of shockboundary layer interaction [2]. This indicates to additional physics that is uncaptured by RANS models and is a cause for further investigation. An important term in the Reynolds averaged energy equation is the turbulent heat ﬂux vector u′ h′ where u′ and h′ denotes the velocity and enthalpy ﬂuctuations respectively. This term represents the turbulent convection of ﬂuctuating internal energy or enthalpy by velocity ﬂuctuations. This correlation is modeled as per gradient diffusion hypothesis by considering it proportional to mean temperature gradient. The proportionality constant is written in terms of eddy viscosity µt and turbulent Prandtl number P rt [3]. Morkovin hypothesis applicable for compressible boundary layer suggests that the velocity-temperature correlation coefﬁcient RuT = −1 which implies a P rt value of 1 [4]. RANS models consider a constant value of P rt = 0.89 for modeling turbulent heat ﬂux in boundary layer ﬂows. It is to be noted that the basis for Morkovin hypothesis relies on the fact that the total temperature ﬂuctuations are small in the ﬂow ﬁeld. The upstream turbulent ﬂuctuations interacting with the shock, makes it oscillate about a mean position and the total temperature ﬂuctuation across such a shock wave is of signiﬁcant level [5].

† Graduate student, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay ‡ Associate Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

v and w respectively. This isolates the effect of turbulence on the shock without getting in additional complexities such as boundary layer gradient. t) (see ﬁgure 1). 1D. The turbulence is purely vortical with no temperature. The transverse derivative ξy and ξz denote the angular deviation of the shock in x − y and x − z planes respectively where x.1) (3. Methodology 3. The associated velocities are u. Quadros & K. uniform mean ﬂow is considered upstream and downstream of a normal shock. the shock distortion from its mean position is described by a distance ξ (y. The wave properties behind the shock are obtained by solving linear Euler equations in the downstream regime with linear Rankine-Hugoniot equations applied at the shock boundary. The shock in turn ampliﬁes the turbulence as it passes through it. The overall downstream turbulence is a linear superposition of the results obtained for these independent interactions [5]. the effect of upstream turbulence spectrum on the generation of post-shock correlation coefﬁcient is also studied. z. The mean ﬂow upstream of the shock carries a purely vortical turbulence which is homogeneous and isotropic in nature. Flow description A steady. LIA formulation Consider a two-dimensional plane vortical wave of the form given below u′ 1 = lAv eik(mx+ly−U1 mt) U1 ′ v1 = −mAv eik(mx+ly−U1 mt) U1 (3. The DNS data is available for cases with upstream ﬂow having different mean Mach number. For this study. The objective in this work is to study the generation of turbulent heat ﬂux correlation as the ﬂow passes through the shock wave. ﬂow separation etc. turbulent Mach number and Reynolds number upstream of the shock. Sinha This indicates to a varying P rt value across the shock and in the past varying P rt RANS models have shown improved heat ﬂux results in shock dominated ﬂows [2]. y and z represent the coordinates in the lab frame of reference. Finally. Correlation coefﬁcient RuT obtained downstream of the shock is studied for these cases of varying Mt and Reλ and compared with LIA. For the purpose of theoretical analysis. Using LIA we study the generation of streamwise turbulent heat ﬂux u′ T ′ across a shock.1. The temporal derivative of shock deviation given by ξt represents the stream wise velocity of the shock wave. streamline curvature. generating disturbance that could be vortical. Extensive DNS data [6] is also available for this simpliﬁed case thus providing signiﬁcant insight into essential physics of the problem.2) . The shock distorts from its mean position due to the presence of upstream turbulence. pressure or density ﬂuctuations and is carried by a 1-D uniform mean ﬂow.2 R. A theoretical tool called Linear Inviscid Analysis (LIA) is used for studying this problem. 3. acoustic and entropic in nature. 2. LIA models the upstream turbulence as combination of 2-D planar disturbance waves [7]. Each of these waves is considered to interact independently with the shock. we consider the canonical form of homogeneous isotropic turbulence interacting with a normal shock.

6) (3.3) u and v representing ﬂuctuations in the streamwise and transverse directions. Also. Therefore.8) K ˜ ρ′ 2 = eikx eik(ly−mU1 t) + Qeik(mrx+ly−mU1 t) ρ ¯2 γ p′ ˜ ik(ly −mU1 t) 2 ikx ¯2 = Ke e P . vorticity and entropy waves. Acoustic wave has its contribution to pressure. Upon interaction of this single vorticity wave with the shock. Av and k represent the complex amplitude and the wave number of upstream vorticity wave. temperature and density respectively. three waves are generated. Those are acoustic.4) (3. the waveforms downstream of the shock can be written as u′ ˜ 2 = F eikx eik(ly−mU1 t) + Geik(mrx+ly−mU1 t) U1 ′ v2 ˜ = Heikx eik(ly−mU1 t) + Ieik(mrx+ly−mU1 t) U1 ′ γ−1 T2 ˜ = Keikx eik(ly−mU1 t) + Qeik(mrx+ly−mU1 t) ¯ γ T2 (3.5) (3. temperature and density. p′ . Schematic showing a shock wave distorted upon interaction with turbulent ﬂuctuations p1 = T1 = ρ1 = 0 ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ (3. Entropy wave has its contribution to temperature and density. velocity. T ′ and ρ′ represent the ﬂuctuations in pressure. Vorticity wave has its contribution only to velocity.Template SFB/TRR 40 Summer Program Report 2013 3 F IGURE 1.7) (3. m = cos ψ and l = sin ψ where ψ is the angle between wave number vector and the mean ﬂow direction as shown in ﬁgure 1.

I . Also.10) m where ξt and ξy represent shock speed and shock distortion.9) l Leik(ly−mU1 t) (3. H and K represent the magnitude of acoustic components related to streamwise velocity ﬂuctuation. In order to solve for the complex amplitudes. K . D1 and E1 are functions of upstream Mach number given by B1 = C1 = D1 = 2 (γ − 1)M1 −2 2 (γ + 1)M1 (3. F . The solutions are E1 = mr ˜ = −m − βD1 l + l [−αD1 l + B1 l] L l mr E1 m − βD1 − l (1 − B1 + αD1 ) (3. Quadros & K. Q and L. The boundary condition at the shock is given by linearised Rankine-Hugoniot(R-H) equations. G and I represent the contribution from vorticity wave to stream-wise velocity ﬂuctuation and stream-normal velocity ﬂuctuation. The wave characteristics associated with shock are given by ξt = Leik(ly−mU1 t) U1 ξy = − (3.11) ′ v′ v2 = 1 + E1 ξ y U1 U1 (3. C1 . ρ2 /ρ1 .4 R. Q represents the contribution of entropy wave to both temperature and density ﬂuctuation. Streamwise wave number for the downstream vorticity and entropy wave is ampliﬁed by a factor r which denotes the density ratio.14) 4 2+2 (γ − 1)M1 2 4γM1 2 2γM1 − (γ − 1) 2 2(M1 − 1) 2 (γ + 1)M1 The governing equations downstream of the shock are linearised Euler equations. Sinha where F . we substitute the downstream waveforms. stream-normal velocity ﬂuctuation and pressure ﬂuctuation. k represents wave number of the generated acoustic wave.15) .4 − 3. u′ 2 − ξt = B1 U1 u′ 1 − ξt U1 (3.13) u′ p′ 1 − ξt 2 = D1 p ¯ U1 2 B1 . G.8) in linearised R-H and Euler equations to get a set of linear algebraic equations which can be easily solved. H . (3.12) ρ′ 2 = C1 ρ ¯ 2 u′ 1 − ξt U1 (3.

for a single vorticity wave upstream of the shock having wave number k at an angle ψ to the streamwise direction. Turbulent statistics being an important measure of any turbulent ﬁeld.5 u2 T2∗ + u2∗ T2 ′ ′ ′ ′ (3. For example.4)-(3.17) (3. the statistics associated with streamwise velocity ﬂuctuation downstream of the shock can be calculated as u22 = u2 u2∗ ′ ′ ′ (3.15)-(3. the downstream properties can be calculated using (3.19) (3.20) (3. can be derived from downstream waveforms.23) ˜ |2 ei(k ˜ |2 + F ˜G ˜∗ ei(k ˜∗ Ge = [| F +|G +F 2 U1 which is the streamwise component of turbulent kinetic energy.16) (3.4) and (3. α and β are given by k a2 k α = 22 γU1 m − ˜ ˜ k kr β= l a2 2 2 γU1 m− ˜ k kr Thus.18) (3.8) with the aid of solutions (3.22) where over-line implies averaging on transverse direction and time. For example. The downstream turbulent energy ﬂux u2 T2 can also be written in a similar way as u 2 T2 ′ ′ 2D = 0.24) The values of the above expression can be calculated using (3.4) we get 2 (u ′ ∗ )x ˜ −k ˜ ˜ −kmr )x 2 ) 2D ˜ −i(k˜∗ −kmr)x ] | Av |2 (3. The upstream turbulence is modeled as a collection of waves with a 3D energy spectrum tensor .21). L = L Av . The subscript ’2D’ indi′ ′ cates the value for a single wave analysis. ∗ denotes complex conjugate.21) The tilde on the complex variables represents normalization by Av .6). Using (3.Template SFB/TRR 40 Summer Program Report 2013 ˜ = D1 (1 − L ˜) K ˜ = αK ˜ F ˜ = βK ˜ H ˜=L ˜ (1 − B1 + αD1 ) − αD1 l + B1 l G ˜ ˜ = − mr G I l ˜ ˜ = − K + C 1 (l − L ˜) Q γ 5 (3.

ko × Lǫ is a quantity that relies on the shape of the spectrum. we obtain |Av |2 = ∞ u 2 T2 ′ ′ 3D = 4π k=0 π 2 ψ =0 u 2 T2 ′ ′ 2D k 2 sin ψ dψ dk 3.06 to 6. Simulations were performed for 20 cases. x can be normalized by dividing with the wavelength of the peak wavenumber (λo = 2π/ko ). Also. The time dependent solution obtained from the DNS is averaged over a ﬁnite time interval to give turbulent statistics for each of these cases. In the present theoretical study. the total turbulent statistics downstream can be calculated by integrating single wave analysis results over all wave numbers and angles of incidence. Number of grid points used for each of the cases are also highlighted. have been considered for study. [6] carried out DNS for the case of purely vortical turbulence interacting with a normal shock. Table 1 displays the DNS cases whose data sets have been used for the current study. The length scale of turbulence at which dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy occurs is given by Lǫ = (Rkk /2)3/2 /ǫ where Rkk and ǫ represent twice of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate respectively. The number of time steps over which the averaging is performed is displayed for individual cases. a value of ko × Lǫ ∼ 3 − 4 can be considered. From this expression also. the peak upstream wavenumber for the incoming turbulence is taken as ko = 4.38. DNS data Larsson et al.6 R. Quadros & K.2.25) where k is the upstream wave number and ko is the peak wave number. A quantity of interest with respect to DNS data is the dissipation length scale denoted by Lǫ . For example. two cases of upstream Reynolds number based on Taylor-scale. the grid size is 828 × 3842 where the domain consists of 828 points in x-direction and 384 points in y and z directions each. .15 and 0. an equivalent Lǫ for theory can be obtained to normalize along x-direction. Turbulent Mach number for these cases were between 0. Sinha k ko e − 2( k o ) k 2 E (k ) ∼ (3. turbulent Mach number or Reynolds number. higher number of grid points have been used as the scales of turbulence are smaller and the domain needs to be better resolved. each varying in either upstream Mach number. For the case of Reλ = 75. This scale is adopted for x-directional normalization while plotting quantities of interest along the domain length x. Therefore. For theoretical analysis. These cases highlight the effect of shock strength. Upstream Mach number considered ranged from 1. It can be further shown from analysis that |Av |2 can be written as E (k ) 4πk 2 For a given upstream spectrum of waves. for the case of M = 1. upstream turbulent intensity and viscous mechanisms on the shock-turbulence interaction. Further.05.

5 0.2 0 ›0.Template SFB/TRR 40 Summer Program Report 2013 7 M Mt Reλ Ö Ë Þ Ì Ñ ¹×Ø Ô× ÓÒ× Ú Ö Ö Ò ÓÖ 1.28 1.15 0.5 0 0.87 2.23 0. x = 0 represents the shock location. Variation of RuT with downstream distance x obtained from linear interaction analysis 4. just downstream of the shock.50 0.22 0.15 0. List of DNS cases used in the present study 1 0.5 2 F IGURE 2.05 1.70 6.23 0. Results For a purely vortical upstream turbulence.5 k0x/2π 1 1.38 0. RuT takes a negative value and rises .50 1.5.6 0.5 0.50 1.22 0.8 M= 3.50 3.4 ›0.16 0.00 1.50 3.15 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 75 75 75 75 828 × 3842 1040 × 3842 1040 × 3842 1257 × 3842 1257 × 3842 1257 × 3842 1257 × 3842 1257 × 3842 2234 × 10242 2234 × 10242 2366 × 10242 2234 × 10242 128 64 8 8 8 8 8 8 48 48 48 48 TABLE 1.50 1. The velocity temperature correlation namely RuT is given by RuT = u′ T ′ u ′2 T ′2 The evolution of RuT as per LIA is shown for two upstream Mach numbers in ﬁgure 2.05 0.2 ›0. For M = 1. a ﬁnite correlation between velocity and temperature ﬂuctuations is obtained downstream of the shock.4 RuT M= 1.14 0.22 0.50 4.

Acoustic ﬂuctuations are generated behind the shock and they decay with distance from the shock. For a higher Mach number. This corroborates with the fact that LIA is applicable for ﬂuctuations of small magnitude as compared to corresponding mean variables. a higher value of far-ﬁeld correlation coefﬁcient is obtained. As the upstream Mt is decreased. Further. Figure 4 shows the variation of RuT along x for Mach number M = 1. there also exists temperature ﬂuctuations yielding a ﬁnite negative RuT upstream of the shock (see ﬁgure 3). it can be seen that although a sinusoidal pattern is obtained post the transient peak. Three different upstream Mt values are taken from the available DNS data sets for comparison. in the far-ﬁeld.5 to have a positive transient peak.22. The reason for this steady increase in the oscillation is unknown and needs further probing. DNS also shows a negative near-ﬁeld RuT just downstream of the shock followed by a transient peak and a fairly constant far-ﬁeld value. for the case of Mt = 0.38 Mt= 0. Due to acoustics that are unphysical. Based on this analysis. The transient nature of RuT variation can be attributed to this phenomenon as velocity and temperature ﬂuctuations both have acoustic components associated with them. DNS and LIA results are compared for an upstream Mach number M = 1. the RuT values post the transient peak attain a fairly constant mean value displaying some oscillations along the downstream. Quadros & K. Figure 3 also shows generation of RuT in the region downstream of the shock.15 ›0. As seen. A mean value can be obtained by averaging all RuT values between x/Lǫ ∼ 2 and the . a steady positive RuT value is obtained.5 at two different Mt values. the RuT values head closer towards LIA result. The upstream ﬂow in DNS is meant to have only vortical ﬂuctuations.5. This happens especially for higher Mt values and inﬂuences the downstream RuT predictions. Similar trend is seen for M = 3. However. Sinha 0.5 case except that the value just downstream of the shock is positive.8 ›2 0 2 4 6 8 10 x/Lε F IGURE 3. Comparison between LIA and DNS for RuT evolution behind the shock.4 R uT 0 ›0.8 R. for the case of Mt = 0. Upstream Mach number M = 1.38.8 LIA 0. a single far-ﬁeld RuT value cannot be assigned for each case. the trend rises steadily along x. Similar to linear theory results.4 Mt= 0.22 Mt= 0. We note that RuT = 0 in the linear theory results which have purely vortical disturbance upstream of the shock.

Re = 40 t λ ›0. Re λ= 75 R uT 0 M= 1. the RuT value is close to 0.2 M= 1.38. Re = 40 t λ Max.50. . M = 0. The near-ﬁeld RuT for low upstream Mach number takes negative values and asymptotes to a steady positive value for M → ∞.2 ›1 1 3 5 x/Lε F IGURE 5.5. RuT ›0.8 0 2 4 6 x/Lε F IGURE 4.22.4 ›0.31. Variation of RuT with downstream distance x obtained from DNS showing the difference in far-ﬁeld RuT evolution for different cases 0. Figure 5 shows one such case where maximum. M t= 0. minimum and average RuT end of domain. It remains negative only for a very small range of upstream Mach numbers close to unity. The maximum and minimum RuT in this span are considered in deﬁning the error bar. Variation of RuT with downstream distance x obtained from DNS for a single case showing the maximum.8 0. M = 0. For higher Mach numbers.Template SFB/TRR 40 Summer Program Report 2013 9 0.7. The far-ﬁeld RuT also displays a similar trend.4 M= 1.5. RuT 0 Max. minimum and the average value o RuT have been displayed. Figure 6 shows the LIA result for near-ﬁeld and far-ﬁeld RuT for varying upstream Mach numbers.

DNS and LIA results are compared and the effect of upstream Reynolds number on RuT is shown.2 2 3 M 4 5 6 F IGURE 7.8 0.6 ›0. The DNS study considers two upstream Reynolds numbers based on Taylor micro-scale namely . RuT as predicted by DNS also shows negative value for very low upstream Mach numbers and reaches as steady positive value for higher Mach numbers.8 0.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M F IGURE 6. Variation of RuT with upstream Mach number M for near-ﬁeld and far-ﬁeld obtained from LIA 0.2 R. This increase along x-direction in the post-shock region can be attributed to the decay of acoustic ﬂuctuations generated behind the shock.4 RuT 0.6 Reλ= 75 0.4 ›0. Quadros & K. Sinha Far›field RuT Near›Field RuT RuT 0 ›0. Figure 7 shows the variation of far-ﬁeld RuT with upstream Mach number.2 ›0.4 0. the far-ﬁeld value of RuT is higher than the near-ﬁeld value for all upstream Mach numbers.10 0. Comparison between LIA and DNS results for far-ﬁeld RuT for varing upstream Mach number M From the ﬁgure.6 0.2 Reλ= 40 0 ›0.

The turbulence upstream of the shock was considered to be purely vortical. (k 4 + 35) along x direction for a single upstream Mach number 5. LIA gives a much higher value of RuT as compared to DNS. RuT corresponding to Reλ = 75 yields a higher positive value as compared to Reλ = 40. Both spectra are implemented in the theory and their effect on RuT generation downstream of the shock is shown. Energy spectrum obtained from DNS for the case of Reλ = 75 and its curve-ﬁt Reλ = 40 and Reλ = 75. In the recent DNS simulations. This shows that for theoretical analysis. For low upstream Mach numbers.the transient peak and the far-ﬁeld RuT for both the cases of LIA have similar values. spectrum shape has no effect on the far-ﬁeld RuT value but only on the nature of acoustic generation behind the shock. However. The spectrum however is appropriate for low Reynolds numbers. For the same upstream Mach number.25 Figure 9 shows variation of RuT of M = 1. Also shown is the RuT variation as per DNS for a case of low upstream Mt value. It is to be noted that LIA is based on inviscid theory and formulations are for limiting case of Re → ∞ ignoring the effect of viscosity.25).5. The curve-ﬁt for this spectrum has the form E (k ) ∼ k4 1. The modiﬁed spectrum reveals an early decay of acoustic ﬂuctuations as compared to conventional spectrum result and the DNS case. the energy spectrum obtained for the case of Reλ = 75 is shown in ﬁgure 8. However. LIA predicted negative RuT just behind the shock. The form of energy spectrum in the LIA formulation to represent the upstream isotropic turbulence is seen in (3.Template SFB/TRR 40 Summer Program Report 2013 11 100 10 ›1 Curve fit 10›2 10 ›3 E 10›4 10 ›5 10›6 10 ›7 DNS 101 102 k F IGURE 8. Conclusions Generation of turbulent heat ﬂux across a normal shock was studied. the value of RuT reaches a steady positive value after passing through a transient peak value. For high .

For low Mt values and higher Reλ values. LIA predicted similar trend except that the post-shock value of RuT was positive. AIAA Journal. [2] X IAO. (Eds. C. C. The authors wish to thank Professor Johan Larsson of the University of Maryland for useful discussions and DNS data. Turbulent heat ﬂux vector modeling in RANS frame work is based on the assumption that RuT ∼ −1.. AND H ASSAN .6 RuT›Conventional Spectrum 0. DCW Industries . F.. J.. A.16 ›0.2 0 DNS.5. A positive value of RuT in the far-ﬁeld indicated towards exploring alternate RANS modeling strategies for similar ﬂows. D.G.469. 45. AND B LOTTNER . However LIA over-predicted the RuT value for the entire downstream region.4 0 2 4 6 x/Lε F IGURE 9. X. 1415 [3] W ILCOX . Quadros & K. only altered the acoustic generation downstream of the shock and had no effect on far-ﬁeld RuT values. the DNS values approached towards theoretical predictions.8 0. Analysis of appropriate cases of DNS showed that RuT values were sensitive to the upstream turbulent Mach number Mt and Taylor-scale Reynolds number Reλ . (2001). A fairly good qualitative match was obtained on comparison with DNS.4 RuT 0. 42. Acknowledgements Financial support has been provided by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – DFG) in the framework of the Sonderforschungsbereich Transregio 40. References [1] R OY. It was also seen from theory that change in upstream energy spectrum shape. Figure shows the effect of upstream spectrum on variation of RuT along x direction. (2007). Progress in Aerospace Sciences.12 R. Mach numbers. Review and assessment of turbulence models for hypersonic ﬂows. The upstream Mach number is M = 1.)(2000) Turbulence Modeling for CFD. Modeling scramjet ﬂows with variable turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. Sinha RuT›Modified Spectrum 0.2 ›0. H. Mt= 0.

(1962). Journal of Fluid Mechanics. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 20. TF-69.74-110 [9] M AHESH . V. S.Template SFB/TRR 40 Summer Program Report 2013 13 [4] M ORKOVIN . K.. Turbulence in supersonic ﬂow. Report No.. Department of Mechanical Engineering. A. [6] L ARSSON . B ERMEJO -M ORENO.353 . K. AND M OIN . The interaction of a shock wave with a turbulent shear ﬂow. Mecanique de la Turbulence (ed. (1996). Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientiﬁque. M. S. Thermosciences division. P. K. J. S. S.. K. Reynolds-and Mach number effects in canonical shock-turbulence interaction Journal of Fluid Mechanics. L. K. Stanford. CA. L ELE . (2012). AND M OIN . (2013). L ELE . G. Effects of compressibility on turbulent ﬂows. AND L ELE . Paris. 707. The inﬂuence of entropy ﬂuctuations on the interaction of turbulence with a shock wave. (1997).. Aeronaut. 1996. 334. (1953). Sci. Favré).293-321 [7] KOVASZNAY. Evolution of enstrophy in shock/homogeneous turbulence interaction. I. 367–380 [5] M AHESH . 717. J. P. Stanford University.657 [8] S INHA . K.

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