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Section 8.

2

8.2 Stress Analysis for Plasticity
This section follows on from the analysis of three dimensional stress carried out in §7.2. The plastic behaviour of materials is often independent of a hydrostatic stress and this feature necessitates the study of the deviatoric stress.

8.2.1

Deviatoric Stress

Any state of stress can be decomposed into a hydrostatic (or mean) stress σ m I and a deviatoric stress s, according to
⎡σ 11 σ 12 ⎢σ ⎢ 21 σ 22 ⎢ ⎣σ 31 σ 32 where

σ 13 ⎤ ⎡σ m 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ s11 s12 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ σ 23 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 σ m 0 ⎥ ⎥ + ⎢ s 21 s 22 σ 33 ⎥ 0 σm⎥ ⎣ s31 s32 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0 ⎦ ⎢

s13 ⎤ s 23 ⎥ ⎥ s 33 ⎥ ⎦

(8.2.1)

σm =
and

σ 11 + σ 22 + σ 33
3

(8.2.2)

⎡ s11 ⎢ s 21 ⎢s ⎣ 31

s12 s 22 s 32

(2σ 11 − σ 22 − σ 33 ) s13 ⎤ ⎡ 1 3 ⎢ s 23 ⎥ = σ 12 ⎢ s 33 ⎥ σ 13 ⎦ ⎣

1 3

(2σ 22

σ 12 − σ 11 − σ 33 ) σ 23

σ 13 ⎤ ⎥ σ 23 1 ( )⎥ 3 2σ 33 − σ 11 − σ 22 ⎦
(8.2.3)

In index notation,

σ ij = σ mδ ij + sij

(8.2.4)

In a completely analogous manner to the derivation of the principal stresses and the principal scalar invariants of the stress matrix, §7.2.4, one can determine the principal stresses and principal scalar invariants of the deviatoric stress matrix. The former are denoted s1 , s 2 , s 3 and the latter are denoted by J 1 , J 2 , J 3 . The characteristic equation analogous to Eqn. 7.2.23 is
s 3 − J1s 2 − J 2 s − J 3 = 0

(8.2.5)

and the deviatoric invariants are (compare with 7.2.24, 7.2.26)1
unfortunately, there is a convention (adhered to by most authors) to write the characteristic equation for stress with a + I 2σ term and that for deviatoric stress with a − J 2 s term; this means that the formulae for J2 in Eqn. 8.2.5 are the negative of those for I 2 in Eqn. 7.2.24
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Solid Mechanics Part II

252

Kelly

8.2 J 1 = s11 + s 22 + s33 = s1 + s 2 + s3 2 2 2 − s 23 − s31 J 2 = − s11 s 22 + s 22 s33 + s33 s11 − s12 = −(s1 s 2 + s 2 s3 + s3 s1 ) 2 2 2 − s 22 s31 − s33 s12 + 2s12 s 23 s31 J 3 = s11 s 22 s33 − s11 s 23 = s1 s 2 s3 ( ) (8. the stress matrix is of the form [σ ] = ⎢σ ij ⎡ 0 ⎢σ ⎣ 13 12 σ 12 σ 13 ⎤ 0 σ 23 ⎥ σ 23 0 ⎥ ⎦ (8.2.11) The stress state at a point is one of pure shear if for any one coordinate axes through the point one has only shear stress acting.2.2.3.2. ) (8. 6 [ ] (8. the principal directions of stress coincide with the principal directions of the deviatoric stress. the deviatoric invariants are related to the stress tensor invariants through {▲Problem 5} J2 = A State of Pure Shear 1 3 (I 2 1 − 3I 2 .6) Since the hydrostatic stress remains unchanged with a change of coordinate system.7) Note that.e. the first invariant of the deviatoric stress.2.2. from the definition Eqn.10) Further. the sum of the normal stresses.8) The second invariant can also be expressed in the useful forms {▲Problem 3} J2 = 1 2 (s 2 1 2 2 + s2 + s3 . {▲Problem 4} J2 = 1 (σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 )2 .2.9) and. J 3 = ) 1 27 (2I 3 1 − 9 I 1 I 2 + 27 I 3 ) (8.2. i.12) Solid Mechanics Part II 253 Kelly .Section 8. in terms of the principal stresses. and the decomposition can be expressed with respect to the principal directions as ⎡σ 1 0 ⎢0 σ 2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 ⎤ ⎡σ m ⎥=⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ σ3⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ s1 ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥ + ⎢0 σm⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0 0 s2 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ s3 ⎥ ⎦ σm 0 (8. is zero: J1 = 0 (8.

a new Cartesian coordinate system is constructed with axes parallel and perpendicular to the octahedral plane. this is the plane shown shaded in Fig. whose normal n a makes equal angles with the principal directions. 8. i.1. Hence the deviatoric stress is one of pure shear.16 to this stress matrix and using the fact that the transformation matrix Q is orthogonal.2 The Octahedral Stresses Examine now a material element subjected to principal stresses σ 1 .2. ′ + σ 22 ′ + σ 33 invariant is zero. σ 2 . By definition. Fig. σ 11 8.e.Section 8. σ 3 as shown in Fig.2. QQ T = Q T Q = I . Solid Mechanics Part II 254 Kelly . 8. one finds that the first ′ = 0 . It is so-called because it cuts a cubic material element (with faces perpendicular to the principal directions) into a triangular plane and eight of these triangles around the origin form an octahedron.3.2.2.2. 3 na 2 1 Figure 8.1: stresses acting on a material element Consider next the octahedral plane.2.2: the octahedral plane Next.2. One axis runs along the unit normal n a . 8. 3 σ3 σ1 σ2 σ1 1 σ2 2 σ3 Figure 8.2.2 Applying the stress transformation rule 7. no shear stresses act on the planes shown.

3. ( ) ( ) na = 1 ⎡1⎤ ⎢1⎥.2.15) Solid Mechanics Part II 255 Kelly . where e1 = (1.2. The final unit vector n b is chosen so that it forms a right hand Cartesian coordinate system with n a and n c . − 1 / 6 . b.2 this normal has components 1 / 3 . 2⎢ ⎦ ⎣1⎥ nc = 1 ⎡2⎤ ⎢− 1⎥ 6⎢ ⎦ ⎣− 1⎥ (8. i. construct the stress transformation matrix: ⎡ e1 ⋅ n a Q = ⎢e 2 ⋅ n a ⎢e ⋅ n ⎣ 3 a e1 ⋅ n b e2 ⋅ nb e3 ⋅ nb 0 e1 ⋅ n c ⎤ ⎡1 / 3 ⎢ ⎥ e2 ⋅ nc = 1/ 3 − 1/ 2 ⎢ e3 ⋅ n c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎢1 / 3 1 / 2 2/ 6 ⎤ − 1/ 6 ⎥ ⎥ − 1/ 6 ⎦ ⎥ (8. n a × n b = n c . In summary.13) 3 b nb e3 na a θ0 θ0 e2 nc 2 c e1 θ0 1 Figure 8.1 / 3 . The components of this vector are {▲Problem 6} n c = 2 / 3 . any two perpendicular unit vectors which lie in (parallel to) the octahedral plane can be chosen.2. 8.1 / 3 with respect to the principal axes.0.2. Fig.Section 8.e. c directions. The angle θ 0 the normal direction makes with the 1 direction can be obtained from n a ⋅ e1 = cos θ 0 .0 ) is a unit vector in the 1 direction.14) and the new stress components are ⎡σ aa ⎢σ ba ⎢σ ⎣ ca σ ab σ ac ⎤ 0⎤ ⎡σ 1 0 σ bb σ bc ⎥ = Q T ⎢ 0 σ 2 0 ⎥Q ⎢0 0 σ3⎥ σ cb σ cc ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 ( + + − 16 (σ 2 − σ 3 ) σ σ σ 1 2 3) 3 ⎢ 1 = ⎢ − 16 (σ 2 − σ 3 ) (σ 2 + σ 3 ) 2 1 1 ⎢ 3 2 (2σ 1 − σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 3 (σ 2 − σ 3 ) ⎣ 1 3 2 (2σ 1 − σ 2 − σ 3 )⎤ 1 (σ 2 − σ 3 ) ⎥ ⎥ 2 3 1 ( )⎥ 6 4σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ⎦ (8. Choose one which is along the projection of the 1 axis down onto the octahedral plane.2.3: a new Cartesian coordinate system To express the stress state in terms of components in the a. 3⎢ ⎦ ⎣1⎥ nb = 1 ⎡0⎤ ⎢− 1⎥. To complete the new coordinate system. − 1 / 6 .

σ ab .Section 8.2. with respect to the (a.2 Now consider the stress components acting on the octahedral plane.2.18) Solid Mechanics Part II 256 Kelly .17) = 1 3 (σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 )2 The octahedral normal and shear stresses on all 8 octahedral planes around the origin are the same.4: the stress vector σ and its components The magnitudes of the normal and shear stresses acting on the octahedral plane are called the octahedral normal stress σ oct and the octahedral shear stress τ oct . σ ac . Referring to Fig. 8. σ aa . from Eqn.16) 3 • σ ab τ oct σ ac 1 t (na ) σ aa = σ oct 2 Figure 8.b.c) axes: t (n a ) = σ aa n a + σ ab n b + σ ac n c (8.2.2. Indeed.2.4. 7. 8.2. This implies that the deviatoric stress has no normal component in the direction n a and only contributes to shearing on the octahedral plane. ⎡ s aa ⎢ s ba ⎢s ⎣ ca s ab sbb s cb 0 − 16 (σ 2 − σ 3 ) s ac ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ ( ) s bc ⎥ = ⎢ − 16 (σ 2 − σ 3 ) −1 6 2σ 1 − σ 2 − σ 3 ⎥ 1 1 s cc ⎦ ⎢ (2σ 1 − σ 2 − σ 3 ) (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 3 ⎣3 2 1 3 2 (2σ 1 − σ 2 − σ 3 )⎤ 1 (σ 2 − σ 3 ) ⎥ ⎥ 2 3 1 ⎥ ( ) 2 σ σ σ − − 1 2 3 ⎦ 6 (8. Eqn. Recall from Cauchy’s law.4.9. Note that the octahedral normal stress is simply the hydrostatic stress. these can be expressed as {▲Problem 7} σ oct = σ aa = 2 τ oct = σ ab 1 (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) = 1 I1 3 3 2 + σ ac = 2J 2 3 (8. that these are the components of the traction vector t (n a ) acting on the octahedral plane. Fig. 8.15.2.2.

it remains at equal angles to the 2 and 3 axes. 8. J2 = 1 2 (s 2 1 2 2 + s2 + s3 ) 4. derive Eqn.3 Problems 1.2. For the stress state ⎢σ 21 σ 22 ⎢σ ⎣ 31 σ 32 (a) the hydrostatic stress (b) the deviatoric stresses (c) the deviatoric invariants σ 13 ⎤ ⎡1 2 4⎤ σ 23 ⎥ = ⎢2 2 1⎥ .11. 8.Section 8. 8. The second invariant of the deviatoric stress is given by Eqn. 8.6. J 2 = −(s1 s 2 + s 2 s3 + s3 s1 ) By squaring the relation J 1 = s1 + s 2 + s3 = 0 . ( ) ( ) 2 3 6. na x1 cos θ 0 = 1 3 θ0 nc project down Octahedral plane Solid Mechanics Part II 257 Kelly . 8. note the geometry shown below and the fact that when the 1 axis is projected down. 2 1 J2 = 1 J 3 = 27 2 I 13 − 9 I 1 I 2 + 27 I 3 3 I 1 − 3I 2 . Fig. What are the hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses for the uniaxial stress σ 11 = σ 0 ? What are the hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses for the state of pure shear σ 12 = τ ? In both cases. ⎡σ 11 σ 12 2. Show that a unit normal n c in the octahedral plane in the direction of the projection of the 1 axis down onto the octahedral plane has coordinates ( .3.2. calculate σ 33 ⎥ ⎣ 4 1 3⎥ ⎦ ⎦ ⎢ 3.2. To do this. Use the fact that J 1 = s1 + s 2 + s3 = 0 to show that I 1 = 3σ m 2 I 2 = ( s1 s 2 + s 2 s 3 + s 3 s1 ) + 3σ m 3 I 3 = s1 s 2 s3 + σ m ( s1 s 2 + s 2 s3 + s 3 s1 ) + σ m Hence derive Eqns.− 1 6 ).2.− 1 6 .9 (and your work from Problem 3) and the fact that σ 1 − σ 2 = s1 − s 2 . Use Eqns.10. ( )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 )2 J2 = 1 6 σ1 − σ 2 [ ] 5. to derive 8.2. verify that the first invariant of the deviatoric stress is zero: J 1 = 0 . 8.2 The σ ’s on the right here can be replaced with s ’s since σ i − σ j = si − s j .2.2. etc.9.

For the stress state of problem 2.2. 8. 8. calculate the octahedral normal stress and the octahedral shear stress Solid Mechanics Part II 258 Kelly .Section 8.15 to derive Eqns. 8. Use Eqns.17.2 7.2.