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Introduction of Signaling



Introduction of Signaling

The participant is able to

explain the differences between common channel signaling and channel associated  explain the advantages of common channel signaling  name the basic elements in the common channel signaling network

1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 Introduction Signaling Network Components of a Signaling Network Modes of Signaling Signaling Network Structure 3 13 14 16 20



Introduction of Signaling



Introduction of Signaling Siemens Introduction 3 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .

this information is called signaling. Channel (16)dedicated to carrying signaling information (Line signals). All 30-speech channels have to share the capacity of this one signaling channel. Time slot 16 of any one frame is always assigned to two different speech channels simultaneously. The nodes have to exchange some information in order to control the setup and clear down of these connections and also to maintain the network itself. Basically we have two kinds of signaling information:  Signaling between the terminal equipment and the nodes. Signaling between two nodes is divided into Two different types. {Discussed in the ISDN part}  Signaling between two nodes. images etc. Channel (0) dedicated to carrying frame synchronization information.Siemens Introduction of Signaling Why do we need signaling? Communication networks connect terminal equipments by using nodes (exchanges) to communicate speech.Channel-Associated signaling 4 TW2101EU01EG-0001 . data. Exchange A Exchange B Speech channel Common channel Figure 1. with each speech channel being allocated 4 bits respectively. text. Channel-associated signaling systems re used mainly in networks employing preferably analog exchanges.  Type 1: Channel-associated signaling (CAS) In such a system the 32 channels are divided as follows:    30 channels available for up to 30 voice calls and also can carry Register signals.

16 Ch. 5 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .30 Ch.2 Ch.+Register Signals PCM 1 Ch.Connection between two exchanges using CAS signaling.0 Ch.31 Line Signals Exchange Exchange A Synchronization User Info.Introduction of Signaling Siemens Synchronization User Info.0 Ch.1 Ch.1 Ch.16 Ch.31 Line Signals Figure 2.30 Ch.2 Ch.+Register Signals B PCMn Ch.

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Frames of one of the PCMs in case of using CAS signaling. 7 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .Introduction of Signaling Siemens Frame 0 FAS TS 1 TS 2 TS 16 TS 17 TS 30 TS 31 FAS SW Frame 1 SW TS 1 TS 2 TS 16 TS 17 TS 30 TS 31 TS 1 T S 17 Frame 2 FAS TS 1 TS 2 TS 16 TS 17 TS 18 TS 30 TS 31 TS 2 T S 18 Frame 15 SW TS 1 TS 15 TS 16 TS 17 TS 18 TS 31 T S 15 T S 31 Figure 3.

Siemens Introduction of Signaling Type 2: Common channel signaling (CCS) In such a system one common signaling channel is provided for a number of speech channels. which connects two exchanges. The control of signaling information transfer is separated from the control of speech-channel through-connection.e. The signaling link can be viewed as a tunnel. i. the capacity of the signaling channel is available as a common pool and is used by the speech channels according to the dynamic demand. Exchange A Exchange B Speech channel Common channel Figure 4. The common signaling channel (often referred to as signaling link) carries out the signaling information transport for a number of speech channels. possesses a typical transmission rate of 64 kbit/s and accepts and conveys all signaling information. Signaling information transfer is made possible by sending messages. Thus. there is no permanent assignment of signaling channel to speech channel.Common channel signaling 8 TW2101EU01EG-0001 . A message is an information block whose structure and meaning of the single elements in the block are defined by specifications.

2 Ch.30 Ch. PCM 1 Ch.Introduction of Signaling Siemens Synchronization User Info.0 Ch. n Ch.31 Figure 5.0 Ch.1 Ch. 9 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .Connection between two exchanges using CCS signaling.30 Ch.31 Signaling Chanel Exchange Exchange A Synchronization User Info.1 Ch.2 Ch. B PCM n Ch.

The layered structure of the system gives us the ability to change a level without affecting the other levels. 7 (SS7) Only SS7 will be dealt with in this description. operating and administration functions. CCNR. The creation of common signaling channels allows unrestricted communication and flexible data transfer between two exchanges and/or their processors. The common signaling channels can also be used to exchange non-circuit-related control information between exchanges (e. Common channel signaling also supports services such as User-to-user signaling Messages are exchanged directly between two terminals and pass through the network in transparent mode. Reduced call setup times thanks to the high transmission capacity (normally 64 kbit/s) and the usage of message structures (one message can include all called party digits). If one signaling link fails. etc. and without disturbing the calling or called party. Rerouting guarantees that the signaling information will still be transferred. End-to-end signaling Messages are exchanged between the originating and destination exchange without being evaluated in the transit exchanges. Processor-friendly message structure (multiples of 8 bits). Signaling information can be exchanged without regard to the speech channel or circuit status.g.Siemens Introduction of Signaling What are the advantages of common channel signaling systems?   The separation between speech channel network and signaling network is the key to the more flexible communications networks of the future (ISDN). CCBS. Like most modern protocols.       Reliability is high because error detection and correction measures provide for error-free message transmission. This means future services and applications can be implemented fast and costeffectively The first two common channel signaling systems specified internationally by ITU-T were ITU-T signaling system No. 6 (CCS6) and ITU-T signaling system No. This data transfer can also be used for network management. IN applications.). the SS7 protocol is layered.  10 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .

Introduction of Signaling Siemens Exchange A Exchange B Exchange C Speech channels Common channel signaling links Figure 6.Alternative paths through the signaling network 11 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .

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Introduction of Signaling Siemens Signaling Network 13 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .

each of these nodes requires to implement the necessary “within node” features of SS7 making t hat node a signalling point within the SS7 network. A signaling transfer point may be integrated in a signaling point (e. In a communications network both these points are usually exchanges. The signaling transfer points forward received signaling messages to another signaling points.g. These data links are the signalling links of SS7 signalling network. To communicate using SS7. The combination of signalling points and their interconnecting signalling links form the SS No. Signaling network components Signaling points A distinction is made between:  Signaling points (SP) and  Signaling transfer points (STP). there will be a need to interconnect these signalling points such that SS7 signalling information (data) may be conveyed between them. No call processing of the message takes place in a signaling transfer point.Siemens Introduction of Signaling 2. The signaling points are the sources (origination points) and sinks (destination points) of the signaling traffic. 7 signalling network. an exchange) or may be a separate node in the signaling network. In addition. 14 TW2101EU01EG-0001 . All signaling points in a SS No. 7 network are identified by a unique code known as a point code (Signaling Point Code (SPC)) defined by a corresponding numbering scheme and can therefore be addressed specifically in a signaling message.1 Components of a SS7 Signaling Network Basic concepts A telecommunications network served by common channel signalling is composed of a number of switching and processing nodes interconnected by transmission links.

If one signaling link fails the SS7 functions cause the signaling traffic to be diverted to functioning alternative links. referred to as adjacent signaling points.Introduction of Signaling Siemens Signaling link The common channel signalling system uses signalling links (time slots belonging to an existing transmission route [e. more than one signaling link generally exists between two signaling points. Switching network Circuits Switching network Signaling link terminal Signaling link Signaling link terminal Control Control Figure 7. from a signaling network structure point of view. a PCM30 link] ) to convey the signalling messages between two signalling points. For redundancy purposes. Two signaling points that are directly interconnected by a signaling link are.g. A number of signalling links that directly interconnect two signalling points forms what is called a signalling link-set.Signaling and circuit network 15 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .

one or more signaling transfer points handle the signaling for the circuit group. If the associated mode of signaling is used. the signaling link is connected with those signaling points. This signaling mode is recommended in cases where the traffic relation between the signaling points A and B carries high traffic loads. That is to say. 16 TW2101EU01EG-0001 . which are also the end points of the circuit group. the signaling link is routed together with the associated circuit group.2 Modes of signaling Two different signaling modes can be used in the signaling network. This mode is advantageous for less busy traffic relations as it allows one signaling link to be used for several destinations simultaneously. Although the circuit group connects the signaling points A and B directly. In the quasi-associated mode of signaling the signaling links and the circuit group follow different routes.Siemens Introduction of Signaling 2.

Introduction of Signaling Siemens Signaling point A Circuit group Signaling point B Signaling link Figure 8.Quasi-associated mode of signaling 17 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .Associated mode of signaling Signaling point A Circuit group Signaling point B Signaling links Signaling point C/ signaling transfer point Figure 9.

These routes comprise the signaling route set for B. Signaling routes The path determined for the signaling between an origination point and a destination point is termed the signaling route. is the destination point of that message. 18 TW2101EU01EG-0001 . at which a message is generated. is a Signal Transfer Point (STP). All the signalling routes that may be used between an originating point and a destination point by a message traversing the signalling network is the signalling route set for that signalling relation. LSET2 and LSET3.Siemens Introduction of Signaling Signaling point modes A signaling point. Between these two signaling points the signaling traffic can be distributed over several different signaling routes. A signaling point to which a message is destined. In Figure 10 the signaling routes from A to B are LSET1. is the originating point of that message. A signalling point at which a message is received on one signalling link and is transferred to another link.

Signaling route set 19 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .Introduction of Signaling Siemens T1 T5 LSET1 Originating point A LSET2 T2 T4 Destination point B LSET3 T3 Tx: Signaling transfer point Figure 10.

A network can be structured with a uniform mode of signaling (associated or quasi-associated) or else with a mixed mode (associated and quasi-associated). 20 TW2101EU01EG-0001 . Each network has a separate numbering scheme for its own signaling points.Siemens Introduction of Signaling 2.3 Signaling Network structure The definition of two different modes of signaling allows various signaling network designs. the first one is the international level and the second one is the national level. The circuits between two adjacent signaling points are combined to form a circuit group. The worldwide signaling network is categorized by two functionally independent levels.

Introduction of Signaling Siemens NAT0 D NAT0 C NAT1 E F G NAT0 A NAT1 B Gateway INAT0 H Gateway NAT0 Figure 11. Network Structure 21 TW2101EU01EG-0001 .

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