You are on page 1of 80

Message Transfer Part

Siemens

"##$$##%egister!&'hlung##$$##(0

Message Transfer Part

Objectives
The participant is able to
     

explain the functions of the MTP describe the structure of the different units explain the exchange of signal units explain the function of signaling link control explain the function of message handling explain the network management function

Contents

TW2101EU01E ! 0001

1

Siemens

Mess a g e Transf er Part

2

TW2101EU01E ! 0001

Message Transfer Part

Siemens

1 Functions of the Message Transfer Part

TW2101EU01E ! 0001

3

Siemens

Mess a g e Transf er Part

4

TW2101EU01E ! 0001

The me s s a g e tran sf e r part "MTP( is respo n sibl e for mes s a g e trans p o r t.g. telep h o n e ( the MTP ".a)ers 1! 0(. The MTP and *++P ass ur e that the me s s a g e reach e s the addr e s s e d partn e r withou t errors. Mess a g e loss 9o mor e than one mes s a g e in 106 me s s a g e s ma) be lost due to an error in the MTP.Message Transfer Part Siemens The tran s p o r t s)st e m for mes s a g e s betw e e n two signaling points is the me s s a g e tran sf e r part "MTP( and signaling conn e c tio n control part "*++P(. 4urth e r m o r e 2 the MTP is cap a bl e of reacting to failures occurring in the signaling netw ork.e/els 1! 0( effects this transf er. -n the cas e of circuit! relat e d user parts "e. -n the cas e of non! circuit relat e d application s "e. : rang e of functions were define d and alloca t e d to the indi/idu al le/els in order to me e t thes e re3uir e m e n t s .g. mobile radio( the task is han dl e d 1ointl) b) MTP and *++P ". -t mus t ens ur e that mes s a g e s reach the addr e s s e d part n e r without inform a tio n loss2 without duplication2 without an) chan g e s in the me s s a g e se3u e n c e and withou t errors. -ncorrec t se3u e n c e of me s s a g e deli/er) 9o mor e than one mes s a g e in 1010 me s s a g e s ma ) be deli/er e d in the incorrec t se3u e n c e "incl.   TW2101EU01E ! 0001 5 . me s s a g e duplication( due to a MTP proble m . -TU!T "5607( specified that the MTP mus t guar a n t e e the following grad e s! of! ser/ice for all user parts8  Undet e c t e d fault) mes s a g e s 9o mor e than one error in 1010 errors ma) rem ain und e t e c t e d .

Unlike . Lev el 3 .e.e/el 0 is res po n sible for tran s p o r t of a mes s a g e to its des tin a tio n. The function "sign aling netw ork function( of .e/el 0 handle s all sign aling links. . directing the mes s a g e to the re3uire d sign aling point and user part. 9ormall)2 7.g.e/el 0 is comp o s e d of two sub! function s.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part Lev el 1 .! kbit<s chan n el s are use d as signaling dat a links in a digital netw ork. The /arious . 6 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .e/el 2 and ser/ing the purpo s e s of fault det e c tio n and correc tion..e. *econ d2 the sign aling netw ork ma n a g e m e n t 2 i.e/el 1 "signaling dat a link( defines the ph)sical2 electrical and function al attribu t e s of a signaling dat a link as well as the acce s s e3uip m e n t .e/el! 0 functions intero p e r a t e with entities associat e d with other le/els and also with the e3ui/ al e n t functions in other signaling points.e/el 2 has the function of guar a n t e e i n g a prot ec t e d mes s a g e tran sf e r betw e e n two signaling points that are directl) conn e c t e d . chan g e o / e r of sign aling links when a failure occurs2 restorin g nor m al oper a tio n after rep air. controlling mes s a g e traffic2 e. The following tasks are the mos t import a n t 8       start u p and restoring error! free oper a tio n after distur b a n c e s tran s mi t tin g and recei/ing **6 me s s a g e s error det e c tio n using check bits and flags det e r mi nin g that a me s s a g e is missing error correc tion b) me s s a g e retra n s mi s sio n error! rat e monitoring on the rout e To allow thes e tasks to be perfor m e d 2 the mes s a g e which has to be exch a n g e d betw e e n two sign aling points is pack e d in a fra m e gen e r a t e d and an al)> e d b) . 4irst2 the mes s a g e handling2 i.e/el 1 repr e s e n t s the carrier for a sign aling link. :ltern a ti/ el)2 analog chan n el s "prefer a bl) with bit rate .= kbit<s( can be use d /ia mod e m as signaling dat a link.e/els 1 and 22 which are assign e d directl) to each sign aling link2 . Lev el 2 .

Message Transfer Part Siemens TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

1 ! TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part Signaling network function Level 3 Message handling Signaling network management 2 Signaling link function 1 Signaling data link 4ig.

Message Transfer Part Siemens TW2101EU01E ! 0001 " .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 2 For#at of $ignal %nits 1& TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

Thes e insert e d 0s are then remo/ e d b) the recei/ing side.Message Transfer Part Siemens The me s s a g e tran sf e r part trans p o r t s mes s a g e s in signal units of /ar)ing lengt h. me s s a g e s from user parts ". Three differe n t t)pe s of sign al unit exist8    mes s a g e signal units "M*U(2 link stat u s sign al units ".e.(2 as well as sign aling netw ork ma n a g e m e n t me s s a g e s ". Fla g 'F( :s the lengt h of the signal units /aries2 e/er) sign al unit is delimit e d b) a flag "bit patt e r n 8 0111 1 1 1 0 ( at the beginnin g and end. To pre/ e n t flag repro d u c tio n inside a me s s a g e 2 the tran s mi t tin g exch a n g e inserts a 0 if it det e c t s a bit se3u e n c e of @ ones "bit insertion(.e/el . The fill!in sign al units are use d to maint ai n the acknowle d g m e n t circuit if no other me s s a g e s ne e d be sent in one of the two directions . The me s s a g e tran sf e r part uses mes s a g e signal units to trans mi t user me s s a g e s 2 i. for align m e n t (.2 me a ni n g the) were specified for thes e le/els. Thes e thre e fields are gen e r a t e d and e/alu a t e d b) the . The .e/el 22 and were specified for .g. The sign al units are di/ide d into se/er al fields with a fixed num b e r of bits2 i. :ll the fields shown on the pre/ious pag e are gen e r a t e d and e/alu a t e d b) . TW2101EU01E ! 0001 11 .e. The struct u r e "form a t( of the signal units is specified.e/el 2. The fields and their me a ni n g s are describ e d below.e/els 0 and .**U(2 and fill!in signal units "4-*U(. the me a nin g of e/er) bit is specified. The onl) exce p tio n s are the ser/ice inform a tio n octe t "*-?(2 the sign aling inform a tio n field "*-4( and stat u s field "*4(. The closing flag norm all) functions as the ope nin g flag for the next sign al unit. The link stat u s sign al units cont ain inform a tio n for oper a tin g the sign aling link "e.e/el 0(.e/el! 2 functions gen e r a t e a sign al unit. :s well as the me s s a g e 2 a sign al unit cont ain s control inform a tio n for me s s a g e exch a n g e .

:s acknowle d g m e n t for rece p tion of an inco min g signal unit2 the A*9 cont ain s the forward se3 u e n c e nu mb e r of the signal unit. s e . : nu mb e r rep er t oir e from 0 to 126 is a/ailable for the forward se3 u e n c e nu mb e r .u e n c e nu # b e r ')$. The lengt h indicat or field cont ain s differe n t /alue s accordin g to the sign al unit t)p e8    0 B fill!in signal unit 1 or 2 B link stat u s sign al unit mor e than 2 B me s s a g e sign al unit.ic a t o r 'L/( The lengt h indicat or is used to discrimin a t e the thre e signal units. The recei/ing side us es the 4*9 to sup er/is e the se3u e n c e integrit) of signal units and so pre/ e n t tran s mi s sio n errors.u e n c e nu # b e r 'F$. s e . ?ne backw ar d se3 u e n c e num b e r can be used also to acknowle d g e a se3 u e n c e of signal units. -t indicat e s whet h e r a signal unit is being trans mi t t e d for the first time or is being retra n s mi t t e d . Len g t h in. in. ( : cons e c u ti/ e forwar d se3 u e n c e num b e r is assign e d to e/er) sign al unit which has to be tran s mi t t e d . For+ ar . 70 is the maxi m u m /alue in the lengt h indicat or field2 e/e n if the signaling inform a tio n field cont ains more than 72 octet s . : num b e r rep er t oir e from 0 to 126 is a/ailabl e for the backw ar d se3 u e n c e num b e r s . For+ ar .ic a t o r bit 'F/)( The forward indicator bit is nee d e d for the basic error correction proce d u r e . )ac* + a r . in. ( The backw ar d se3 u e n c e num b e r ser/ e s as acknowle d g m e n t signal in the cours e of fault handling. The 4*9 is incre m e n t e d b) each mes s a g e signal unit but not b) link stat u s sign al units and fill!in signal units. -t indicat e s the nu mb e r of octet s "one octe t B = bits plus insert bits2 if an)( betw e e n the check bit field and the length indicator field.ic a t o r bit ')/)( The backw ar d indicat or bit is ne e d e d for the basic error correc tion proce d u r e in order to re3u e s t retr a n s mi s sio n of fault) signal units for error correction.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part )ac* + a r . 12 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

'$/F( The sign aling inform a tio n field is includ e d in me s s a g e sign al units onl). Che c * bit s 'C0( The check bits are gen e r a t e d on the trans mi t tin g side from the cont e n t of the signal unit and app e n d e d to the signal unit as redu n d a n c ). Cep e n di n g on the result of the check2 the sign al unit will be acknowle d g e d as error! free or fault). The form a t and coding of the user me s s a g e is define d specificall) per user part. -t cont ains the actu al user me s s a g e . $ta t u s fiel . $ig n a li n g inf or # a t i o n fiel. The netw ork indicat or shows whet h e r mes s a g e s in the nation al or intern a tio n al netw ork are in/ol/ed. The maxi m u m lengt h of a user me s s a g e is 262 octe t s . '$F( The stat u s field is includ e d in link stat u s sign al units onl)2 and cont ains stat u s indicat ors for align m e n t of the trans mi t and recei/e direction s. The check bits are calculat e d with a pol)no mi al di/ision. The ser/ice indicat or notifies the me s s a g e tran sf e r part of the user part from which a mes s a g e originat e s 2 and ther efor e indicat e s the user part to which the mes s a g e mus t be deli/er e d . -t cont ains the ser/ice indicat or and the netw ork indicator. :fter re! calculating the check bits2 the me s s a g e tran sf e r part on the recei/ing side can comp a r e thos e recei/e d with its own res ults and in this wa) det er mi n e whet h e r tran s mi s sio n was error! free. The sign aling inform a tio n field is ma d e up b) the mes s a g e field and the addr e s s field. The me s s a g e tran sf e r part interpr e t s both indication s . TW2101EU01E ! 0001 13 . The addr e s s of the des tin a tio n to which a user me s s a g e mus t be tran s mi t t e d part of the user mes s a g e . ?ne ser/ice indicator is assign e d to each user of the me s s a g e tran sf e r part.Message Transfer Part Siemens $ er vi c e infor # a t i o n oct e t '$/O( The ser/ice inform a tio n octe t is includ e d in me s s a g e sign al units onl).

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 8 $% !" n x 8 (n S# > 2) 8 S#& Message signal unit 2 % L# $ # ) ( S' $ ) # ) ( )S' 8 )its 8 $% n x 8 (n > $ or 2) 2 L# % $ # ) ( S' $ ) # ) ( )S' 8 )its !" S !!S Link status signal unit 8 $% 2 L# % $ # ) ( $ ) # ) ( 8 )its +irection of transmission Levels . Level 2 !" S' )S' il *in signal unit 4ig.-. 2 4ormats of the different signal units 14 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

The content of the signaling link selection field specifies the signaling route and signaling link o/er which the message should be transmitted.e/els 2 of ad1acent message transfer parts. . The message transfer part at the destination uses the ser/ice indicator to identif) the user part to which the message is addressed.ink status signal units and fill!in signal units do not need addresses2 as the) are exchanged onl) between the . The originating point code indicates the signaling point from which the message originates. The message transfer part uses this code for message routing. This code must be uni3ue inside the network. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 15 .Message Transfer Part Siemens The a.*( E/er) signaling point in the signaling network is assigned a code on the basis of a number scheme. The destination point code in the message signal unit identifies the particular signaling point to which a message must be transmitted. is made up b) the    destination point code "CP+( originating point code "?P+( signaling link selection field "*. The network indicator indicates whether the message is for national or international traffic.ress fiel.. Thus2 the signaling link selection field is used for load sharing on the signaling links between two signaling points. The ser/ice information octet "*-?( supplies further message routing information.

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part MTP frame Message field /ddress field SLS . &P! $. MTP frame )its 4ig. 0 *ignaling information field 16 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . +P! $.

e. routing to the unit connected to the indicated circuit(. user 2arts use an extended address field "routing label( containing the speech channel number "circuit identification code8 +-+( as well as the destination and originating point codes and signaling link selection field. The +-+ identifies a speech channel "circuit(..e.ress fiel. including the +-+ facilitates not onl) intra!network message routing but also message routing inside the recei/ing exchange "i. The +-+ is uni-ue per circuit group. Thus2 a circuit group is also characteri>ed b) the network indicator2 ser/ice indicator and the codes "*P+( of the ad1acent signaling points.Message Transfer Part Siemens The circuit1relate. a. The e3ten. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 1 . : circuit group consists of all circuits connecting two ad1acent exchanges belonging to one network and one user part.

MTP frame )its 4ig. +P! $. . @ Extended address field 1! TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . &P! $. 9etwork *tructure MTP frame Message field extended address field !#! $2 SLS .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part !#!13 T2P 'etw5 indic5 $ 0xchange SP!1) T2P #S2P SP!13 T2P #S2P 0xchange SP!14 #S2P !#!13 #S2P 'etw5 indic5 6 0xchange SP!1) #S2P 0xchange SP!1/ !#!13 #S2P 'etw5 indic5 $ International network Network indicator 1 !#!13 #S2P 'etw5 indic5 6 National network Network indicator 0 #S2P 4ig.

Message Transfer Part Siemens TW2101EU01E ! 0001 1" .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 3 43change of $ignal %nits 2& TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

The chec*1bit an. The transmit control writes the completed part of the message signal unit re3uiring transmission to the transmit buffer and retransmission buffer simultaneousl).e/el 2( assigns to the user message the next forward se3uence number and the forward indicator bit. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 21 .e/el 0( determines the signaling link o/er which the user message is to be transmitted. Proces sin g of a user me s s a g e re3uiring tran s mi s sio n begins in . Trans#it control ". The function also appends the backward se3uence number and backward indicator bit as acknowledgment for the last message signal unit recei/ed.e/el 0 of the me s s a g e tran sf e r part. -t does so b) anal)>ing the destination point code and the signaling link selection field in the address part of the user message.Message Transfer Part Siemens 5351 Trans#ission of a $ignal %nit The me s s a g e pas s e d b) a user to the me s s a g e tran sf e r part cont ains the user inform a tio n2 the addr e s s 2 the ser/ice indicat or2 the network indicator and a lengt h indicator. To pre/ent a coding "01111110( occurring in the message signal unit from being mistaken for a flag2 the user messages are monitored for the occurrence of fi/e consecuti/e ones prior to flag insertion. -f so2 a forced >ero is inserted.e/el 12 in which the M*U is transmitted onto the signaling data link. :ll message signal units re3uiring transmission are retained in the retransmission buffer until their error!free reception has been acknowledged b) the recei/ing side. The check!bit and flag generator passes a complete message signal unit to .e/el 2( generates check bits for the message signal units as a precaution against transmission errors and sets the flag to separate the signal units. 4ollowing acknowledgment2 the message signal units are deleted from the retransmission buffer. 4ollowing this2 the function passes the user message to the appropriate signaling link ". Message routing ".e/el 2(. flag generator ".

Message routing Message handling Message discrimination Signaling traf ic management Signaling route management Signaling link management Signaling network management Signaling link status control other signaling links MTP 0rror*rate monitoring Level 2 Transmit control8 transmit 7uffer8 retransmission 7uffer 9eceive control !ontrol for initial alignment !heck*7it and flag generator lag8 alignment and failure detection Level $ Signaling data link 4ig.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 2P T2P Level . 7 4unctional distribution in the message transfer part 22 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . #S+'*2P other 2P Message distri7ution Level .

Message Transfer Part Siemens 5352 6ece2tion of a $ignal %nit The bit stre a m trans p o r t e d on a sign aling dat a link is recei/e d in . TW2101EU01E ! 0001 23 . The rece2tion control ". -f this check is positi/e and the signal unit is a message signal unit2 the reception control forwards the user message to .e/el 2( uses the bit patterns of the flags to monitor the alignment of transmit and recei/ing side. -f a recei/ed user message is addressed to one of the connected user points "signaling point(2 it is passed on to the #essage .e/el 0( accepts the correctl) recei/ed user messages2 and determines whether the message is to be deli/ered to one of the directl) connected user parts or forwarded to another signaling link "3uasi!associated message(.e/el 2( examines the recei/ed bit stream for flag patterns. The se3uence of bits between two flag corresponds to one signal unit.etection ".e/el 2.istribution function ".e/el 0(.iscri#ination ".e/el 1 and pas s e d on to . The message distribution function anal)>es the ser/ice information octet "*-?(2 identifies the user part in/ol/ed and deli/ers to it the message. The error . Error!free signal units are passed on to the reception control2 fault) signal units are discarded.e/el 0 and causes a positi/e reception acknowledgment to be sent for the message signal unit.etection ". Message discrimination passes on user messages passing through the signaling point onl) as a signaling transfer point directl) to the #essage routing function2 which handles these messages like user messages ha/ing to be transmitted.e/el 2( uses the check bits included to check whether a signal unit has been recei/ed correctl). -f a specified error rate is exceeded2 the error!rate monitor informs the signaling link status control2 which remo/es the link from ser/ices and sends a message to .e/el 0. The flag . -f the forward se3uence number of the deli/ered message does not match the anticipated one2 the reception control detects a transmission error and re3uests the retransmission of the message signal unit and all follow!on message signal units "see section8 DError correction proceduresD(. The #essage .etection ". The align#ent . Message discrimination makes this decision after anal)>ing the destination point code.e/el 2( checks whether the deli/ered signal unit bears the anticipated forward se3uence number and forward indicator bit. The reception of a fault) signal unit is notified to an error!rate monitor so that the error rate on the recei/e side of a signaling link can be checked continuousl).

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 24 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

g.ure is used on signaling links with low propagation times "E 1@ ms2 e.ures :s the occurr e n c e of mutilation in signaling ma) lead to fault) reaction s b) the call control function in particular2 it is nec e s s a r ) to reduc e tran s mi s sio n errors to a minimu m . This procedure preser/es message se3uence integrit). :cknowledgments used for the basic procedure consist of the backward se3uence number "A*9( and backward indicator bit "A-A(. -n a positi/e acknowledgment the backward indicator bit has the same /alue as the one contained in the preceding message. Aoth proc e d u r e s are bas e d on the retr a n s mi s sio n of fault) mes s a g e s . ?n recei/ing a positi/e acknowledgment the recei/e control on the originating side causes the corresponding message signal unit in the retransmission buffer to be deleted. ?n recei/ing a negati/e acknowledgment2 the recei/e control on the originating side prompts the transmit control to stop transmitting new signal units and retransmit the message signal unit for which a negati/e acknowledgment was recei/ed. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 25 . terrestrial links(2 and works with positi/e and negati/e acknowledgments.Message Transfer Part Siemens 5353 4rror Correction Proce. 535 3 5 1 )asi c 4rror Corre c t i o n Proc e . The recei/e control on the destination side recogni>es retransmitted message signal units b) the in/erted forward indicator bit "4-A(8 The forward indicator bit in a retransmitted message signal unit and all subse3uent new signal units is the in/ersion of the 4-A included in the signal units up to detection of the error. u r e The basic error correction 2roce. 4ollowing this2 the recei/e control resumes the anal)sis of incoming message signal units. :fter detecting a transmission error2 the recei/e control on the destination side discards all incoming message signal units until the message signal unit for which a negati/e acknowledgment was sent is recei/ed correctl). 4ollowing this2 all message signal units still stored in the retransmission buffer are retransmitted consecuti/el). -n a negati/e acknowledgment the backward indicator bit is the in/ersion of the one contained in the preceding message. **6 offers two differe n t error correction proce d u r e s 8   the basic error correction proce d u r e 2 and the P+% error correction proce d u r e "error correc tion proce d u r e with pre/ e n ti/ e c)clic retr a n s mi s sio n(.

oint ) 4ig.oint / )S' :2 S' $2 !" )S' :. :: :% $2( 9etransmission 7uffer Signaling . S' $. )#) S' )S' $6 6 !" :2 :.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part #) S' 6 !" S' :: )#) )S' $$ #) S' :. :. !" $2( )#) #) )#) #) $6 $$ $2 $. 9etransmission 7uffer Signaling . 6 Aasic error correction procedure 26 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

**U( mes s a g e signal units "M*U( for which a neg a ti/ e acknowle d g m e n t was recei/e d new mes s a g e signal units "M*U( fill!in signal units "4-*U(. We shall now look at an exa m pl e of disturb e d ad undist ur b e d tran s p o r t of me s s a g e sign al units. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 2 .Message Transfer Part Siemens When the basic error correc tion proc e d u r e is applied2 the differe n t sign al units are trans mi t t e d in the following order of priorit)8     link stat u s sign al units ".

:8 )S ' 1. . : . . 2 8 . ) #S 2 ( S ' 1 . : n e w . .2) #S 2 ( S ' 1 . % ) #S 2 ( S ' 1 . 2 a c k n o w le d g e d 8 . : ) 4ig. . a c k n o w le d g e d . . n e w .. a c k n o w le d g e d . = Example of error free transmission 2! TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . . % n e w 8 a c k n o w le d g e . % 8 ) S ' 1 . .:8 )S ' 1. : a c k n o w le d g e d a c k n o w le d g e . : M S2 ( S' 1. 2 a c k n o w le d g e d a c k n o w le d g e . .%8 )S ' 1. a c k n o w le d g e . 2 . % a c k n o w le d g e d a c k n o w le d g e . .) #S 2 ( S ' 1 . : a c k n o w le d g e d 8 . % 8 ) S ' 1 . % ) #S 2 ( S ' 1 . : 8 . : n e w 8 a c k n o w le d g e . % 8 ) S ' 1 . ) M S2 ( S' 1. . % a c k n o w le d g e d a c k n o w le d g e . 8 ) S ' 1 . a c k n o w le d g e d a c k n o w le d g e . ) #S 2 ( S ' 1 .8 )S ' 1. a c k n o w le d g e d . .2) .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 0 xchang e / Level 2 S ig n a lin g lin k 0 xchange ) Level 2 a c k n o w le d g e . . .:) M S2 ( S' 1.. % . a c k n o w le d g e d . n e w . : 8 ) S ' 1 . . : n e w . . : ) #S 2 ( S ' 1 . : 8 ) S ' 1 . % . a c k n o w le d g e . % n e w 8 . . : a c k n o w le d g e d M S2 ( S' 1. 8 ) S ' 1 . : n e w 8 .

The next message recei/ed b) Exchange A is an M*U with 4*9B1.. Exchange A therefore detects that one M*U has been lost2 and transmits a negati/e acknowledgment "in/erted A-A(. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 2" . Exchange A recei/es the retransmitted message 10 with 4*9B10 and 4-AB12 i.Message Transfer Part Siemens :ll messages up to 4*9B10 are recei/ed error!free in Exchange A. The message with 4*9B10 is fault) and is therefore discarded.e. Exchange A discards all subse3uent messages until an in/erted 4-A indicates that the calling side has begun retransmission. the transmission error has been corrected and normal proceedings will now be resumed.

BSN=14. BIB=1) MSU (FSN=14. BSN=12. BSN=12. BSN=12. FIB=0.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part Exchange A Level 2 '$gnal$ng l$n Exchange B Level 2 ac no!le"ge 10. FIB=0. 13 ac no!le"ge" ac no!le"ge 12. 13 ne! ac no!le"ge 11. BSN=10. FIB=0. FIB=0. FIB=0. #ran'($# 14 14 ac no!le"ge" MSU (FSN=12. #ran'($# 13 12 ne!. BSN=11. 14 ne! nega#$ve ac no!l% &or 13 ac no!le"ge 11. 14 ne! ac no!le"ge 14 • • • 4ig. 12 ne! 11ne!. BIB=0) MSU (FSN=11. 12 ac no!le"ge" ac no!le"ge 11. FIB=1. BSN=11. BIB=0) FISU (FSN=12. BSN=13. ac no!le"ge 12 &a)l#* rece+#$on $ncorrec# 'e. BIB=0) MSU (FSN=12. 12 ne! 11ne!.)ence (11 ac no!le"ge") nega#$ve ac no!l% &or 13 11 ac no!le"ge". BIB=0) MSU (FSN=13. BSN=11. BIB=1) MSU (FSN=13. F Example of fault) transmission 3& TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . ac no!le"ge 13 12 ac no!le"ge". BIB=1) 10 ac no!le"ge". FIB=0. 13 re#ran'($##e" 12 ne!. BIB=0) error MSU (FSN=14. FIB=1. FIB=0. BIB=0) FISU (FSN=11.

-f the recei/e control on the destination side detects a transmission error when P+% is acti/e2 it continues to acknowledge the last error!free message signal unit recei/ed and waits for the error!free reception of the fault) message signal unit when it is retransmitted.ure The PC6 error correction 2roce. This reaction is identical with that to the reception of a positi/e acknowledgment in the basic error correction procedure. ?ne disad/antage of this method is the possibilit) of retransmission buffer and transmit buffer o/erflow. Howe/er2 to keep the signal unit format identical for both error correction procedures2 the backward indicator bit and forward indicator bit are set to one /alue and then included unchanged in e/er) signal unit. This procedure is continued until the current /alue is below the threshold /alue. The backward indicator bit and the forward indicator bit are not re3uired for this procedure. long terrestrial links2 satellite links(.g. 9ew message signal units normall) ha/e higher priorit) and interrupt the c)clic retransmission of messages.ure is used on signaling links with long propagation times "G 1@ ms2 e. The /arious signal units are transmitted in the following order of priorit) with the P+% error correction procedure8      status signal units message signal units that ha/e to be retransmitted and the retransmission buffer threshold has been reached new message signal units message signal units re3uiring retransmission fill!in signal units TW2101EU01E ! 0001 31 . -f this counter reaches a pre!defined threshold /alue2 no new M*U are accepted for transmissionI instead2 priorit) is gi/en to the c)clic retransmission of the M*U in the retransmission buffer. The acknowledgment for recei/ed error!free messages is made up onl) of the backward se3uence number. The 4orced Transmission Procedure "5600( was introduced to pre/ent message loss resulting from such o/erflow. Unlike the basic procedure2 the P+% procedure uses onl) positi/e acknowledgments.Message Transfer Part Siemens 535352 Preventive 6etrans#ission Proce. Message signal units are not retransmitted on re3uest following occurrence of an error2 but all message signal units stored in the retransmission buffer are retransmitted as a proph)lactic measure whene/er no new message signal units are waiting for transmission. ?n recei/ing an acknowledgment the recei/e control on the originating side causes the corresponding message signal unit "or M*U se3uence( to be deleted in the retransmission buffer. The number of M*U in the retransmission buffer is monitored permanentl).

a ls o / c k n o w l5 f o r $ 2 a n d $ . 10 Example of P+% error correction procedure 32 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ : 8 ) #) 1 6 ) # S 2 ( S ' 1 $ . te d *> d is c a r d e d d is c a rd (s e = u e n c e ) o 5k M S 2 ( S ' 1 $ . e a t M S 2 $ . 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ : 8 ) # ) 1 6 ) 4ig. 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ : 8 ) #) 1 6 ) o 5k / c k n o w l5 9e. e a t M S 2 $ 2 / c k n o w l5 re . 8 ) #) 1 6 ) o 5k / c k n o w l5 m essage a lr e a d < a c k n o w l5 M e s s a g e r e t r a n s m it t e d 8 a s a c k n o w l5 n o t < e t r e c e iv e d M S 2 ( S ' 1 $ : 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ $ 8 ) #) 1 6 ) new M S2 M S 2 ( S ' 1 $ 2 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ : 8 ) #) 1 6 ) c o r ru . 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ : 8 ) #) 1 6 ) new M S2 M S 2 ( S ' 1 $ 2 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ : 8 ) #) 1 6 ) re . M S 2 ( S ' 1 $ .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 0 xchange / Level 2 S ig n a li n g lin k 0 xchange ) Level 2 M S 2 ( S ' 1 $ $ 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ . m e a n w h i l e r e c e iv e d e 5g 5 M S 2 ( S ' 1 $ 2 8 #) 1 6 8 ) S ' 1 $ : 8 ) #) 1 6 ) a lre a d < a c k n o w l5 a lre a d < a c k n o w l5 M S 2 ( S ' 1 $ . e a t M S 2 $ .eat M S2 $28 a s a c k n o w l5 n o t < e t r e c e iv e d 9 e .

Message Transfer Part Siemens TW2101EU01E ! 0001 33 .

ossi7le even with long .ositive acknowledgements • .anc< level of retransmission 7uffer re=uires monitoring Preferred service areas • signaling links with short .reventive c<clic re.elled signaling PCR procedure • transmitted messages are stored in retransmission 7uffer until acknowledged • (.ro.ro.ro.ro..etition onl< on re=uest • .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part Basic error correction procedure !haracteristic attri7utes> • no com.ro. 11 +omparison between the two error correction methods 34 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .agation time and and8 where a.agation time> • @ $: ms • > $: ms 4ig.eriods .endent • less suita7le for signaling channels with • less suita7le for signaling links with high loads long .agation*time de.etition of retransmission 7uffer content • onl< load*de.ositive and negative acknowledgements • re.ro.agation times as the signal dela< as the signal dela< times (following times (following transmission errors) transmission errors) increase according to the increase according to the .etition c<cle if new signal units are to 7e sent Signal dela<s following a transmission error • onl< .agation times • automatic error correction (self*healing) at loads @ :6 A +isadvantages> • time*consuming handling of identification 7its ( #)?)#)) • time*consuming .lica7le8 high loads low load • national signaling links • signaling links via satellite • intercontinental signaling links international signaling linksB single .agation*time*inde.endent signal dela< after transmission error8 i5e5 short dela< .endent signal dela< after transmission errors8 i5e5 short dela< .ositive) acknowledgement of ever< single message signaling unit (MS2) • .ro.ossi7le even with high traffic loads55 • no handling of #+ 7its ( #)?)#)) re=uired • .agation time load • automatic error correction (self*healing) is lost at load levels > :6 A5 • occu.endent /dvantages> • sim.agation times • signaling links with long .eriods .le handling of transmission 7uffer • load*inde.rocedure for the re.ro.

-f the count e r reach e s a thres h old /alue "7. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 35 .Message Transfer Part Siemens 535353 Failure 6ate Monitoring Curing nor m al sign aling link oper a tio n a count e r "*UE%M( kept for incorrec t incomin g sign al units is incre m e n t e d with e/er) error and decr e a s e d when 2@7 cons e c u ti/ e error! free signal units are recei/e d. 9o more sign al units are recei/e d and the link stat u s sign al units *tatu s -ndication ?ut of *er/ice "*-?*( are sent to the part n e r.a)er 0 and the sign aling link goes into the idle stat e .(2 an error mes s a g e is sent to .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 4 $ig n a l i n g Lin* Func ti o n 36 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

The re3uest acts as initiation for initial alignment2 causing state 0 to be assumed. $tate 37 . when the link status signal unit "*-9B*tatus -ndication 9ormal :lignment *tatus( is recei/ed. $tate 57 /n $ervice 4ollowing expir) of pro/ing2 either fill in signal units "4-*U( or message signal units "M*U( will be sent or recei/ed. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 3 . $tate 27 /. following pow er u p or rep air of defecti/ e e3uip m e n t 2 will caus e the link to ass u m e stat e 2. $tate 47 8ligne.ot 8ligne.Message Transfer Part Siemens 545 1 $ig n a l i n g Lin* $ta t e Contr ol The sign aling link can ass u m e fi/e stat e s . The link mo/es into state .g. -n this state the two ends of the signaling link are not )et aligned. due to discon n e c t e d pow er suppl) or defec ti/ e e3uip m e n t .g.le -n this state the signaling link is read) to take up operation on re3uest. $ta t e 17 Out of $ er vi c e The sign aling link is not oper a bl e2 e.9 Proving -n this state the link status signal unit *-9 or2 as applicable2 *-E "*tatus -ndication Emergenc) :lignment( is transmitted and recei/ed. The transmitter sends the status link signal units *-? with the meaning Dnot alignedD "*-?B*tatus -ndication ?ut of :lignment( and recei/es *-? likewise. The link mo/es out of this state when the link is to be remo/ed from ser/ice or the failure rate becomes excessi/e. : *T:%T sign al2 e. 9o signal units will be tran sf e rr e d .

12 *tates of the signaling links and their transitions 3! TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .5 / lig n e d 8 P r o v in g P r o v in g e r ro r 0 m e rg e n c < a lig n m e n t :5 #n S e r v ic e ' o rm a l a lig n m e n t $5 & u t o f S e r v ic e #r r e .5 ' o t / lig n e d #n itia l a lig n m e n t S ta rt / li g n m e n t / li g n m e n t e r r o r 25 #d le .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part . a r a 7 le d e fe c t #n * s e r v ic e fa ilu r e r a t e e x c e s s iv e 4ig.

e/el 2. -nitial align m e n t can be spe e d e d up in an em e r g e n c )2 for exa m pl e when a non! align e d res er/ e sign aling link has to be take n into ser/ice. -f the res ult of the pro/ing period is neg a ti/ e 2 the initial align m e n t can be rep e a t e d . : special t)p e of s)nchro ni>ing sign al is assign e d to eac h ste p.@ s in the cas e of a 7. *-E sign als are sent inste a d of *-9 signals in the cas e of em e r g e n c ) align m e n t . :fter recei/ing the first *-9 sign al2 the initiating side send s *-9 signals likewis e. The initial align m e n t control records failures occurring during the pro/ing period "=.Message Transfer Part Siemens 5452 Control of /nitial 8lign#ent Either end of the signaling link can initiat e the initial align m e n t .! kbit<s link( and decid e s whet h e r the link can be en a bl e d for norm al ser/ice.! kbit<s signaling link( and reduc e s the pro/ing re3uire m e n t s . The control report s the result of the pro/ing period to .e/el 0. -nitial align m e n t begins when the initial align m e n t control on the initiating side pro m p t s the tran s mi t control to send *-? sign als. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 3" . ?n transition to norm al ser/ice2 both ends of the sign aling link trans mi t filling signal units "4-*U( until the first mes s a g e sign al unit "M*U( can be tran sf e rr e d .2 s for a 7. -nitial align m e n t is initiat e d in se/er al ste p s . The pro/ing period now begins for the sign aling link. Thes e s)nchro ni>ing sign als are tran sf e rr e d inside ++* stat u s signaling units.e/el 02 take s plac e purel) in . This me t h o d cuts the pro/ing time dras tic all) "down to 0. -nitial align m e n t is perfor m e d b) the exch a n g e of s)nchro ni>ing sign als and2 althou g h initiat e d b) . The opposit e side recei/ e s the s e sign als and res po n d s with *-9 sign als.

10 *)nchroni>ing signals S ig n a lin g . 1.S Mean$ng S #a#)' $n"$ca#$on o)# o& al$gn(en# S #a#)' $n"$ca#$on nor(al al$gn(en# S #a#)' $n"$ca#$on e(ergenc* al$gn(en# S #a#)' $n"$ca#$on o)# o& ' erv$ce 4ig. o in t ) T r a n s m it c o n tro l 9 e c e iv e c o n tro l S ig n a lin g d a t a l in k 9 e c e iv e c o n tr o l T r a n s m it c o n tro l S ta te > #n it ia l / lig n m e n t & u t o f S e r v ic e S #& S #& S ta te > & u t o f S e r v ic e S #& S #' n o t a lig n e d a lig n e d S #& S #' S #' S #' S #' n o t a lig n e d a lig n e d S #' S #' S #' S #' S #' P r o v in g S #' #S 2 M S2 S #' S #' #S 2 M S2 P ro v in g #n S e r v ic e # n S e r v ic e 4ig. Exchange of s)nchroni>ing signals during initial alignment 4& TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . S IN S IE S I. o in t / S ig n a l in g .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part S *nchron$-$ng ' $gnal S I.

. : *ignaling .ink Test :cknowled g m e n t "*.T:( that cont ains the loope d! back tes t patt e r n .TM!CP+B*.TM( cont aining a test patt e r n is sent to the part n e r sign aling point.e/el 0 errors cann o t proce s s mes s a g e signal units2 *-?* signal units are tran s mi t t e d inste a d of the filler units2 causing the link to be remo/ e d from ser/ice once ag ain and the align m e n t proce d u r e rest a r t e d .+( the *P+ "*. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 41 .Message Transfer Part Siemens -f a signaling link for which initial align m e n t was succ e s sful can trans mi t or recei/e filler sign al units but due to caus e s such as .T:!?P+( the tes t patt e r n -f a signaling link is remo/ e d from ser/ice due to exce s si/ e sign al! failure rat e2 a first att e m p t will alwa)s be ma d e to restor e the link b) me a n s of initial align m e n t . The test is carried out b) Testing and Mainte n a n c e "TJM(.ink +ode "*. The tes t checks the .2 functions and correct M*U tran sf e r betw e e n two ad1ac e n t signaling points.e/el 0 det e c t s errors b) tes ting the align e d sign aling link prior to the trans mi s sion of me s s a g e sign al units "*ign aling . The tes t checks the following dat a8 a( b( c( the *ignaling .ink Test(. The latt er acknowle d g e s the me s s a g e with a *ignaling .ink Test Mess a g e "*.

Level 2 / lig n m e n t Level 2 / lig n m e n t $) LSS2 Level . 'M L2 L2 ' M 2) .) SLTM SLT/ SLTM SLT/ 1) S$gn$ng l$n al$gn(en# 2) /e'# o& A0'$"e 3) /e'# o& B0'$"e 4ig. 1@ *ignaling link test 42 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part Level .

Message Transfer Part Siemens TW2101EU01E ! 0001 43 .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 5 Message :an.ling 44 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

Message Transfer Part Siemens 5551 Message . The decision is ma d e according to the Cestin a tio n Point +ode "CP+( in the addr e s s field. Mess a g e s addr e s s e d to the own sign aling point are pas s e d on to the DMess a g e CistributionD function.iscri#ination The DMess a g e Ciscrimin a tio nD function exa mi n e s the me s s a g e s recei/e d b) . TW2101EU01E ! 0001 45 . A) contr a s t 2 a transit me s s a g e re3uiring to be forwar d e d "sign aling transf er point( is supplied to the Mess a g e %outing function.e/el 2 to det er mi n e whet h e r the) are addr e s s e d to the own signaling point or ha/ e to be forward e d to oth er signaling points.

o in t fo r L e v e l 2 Level 2 M e s s a g e tr a n s fe r . M essage r o u tin g M essage d is c r i m i n a t i o n S e r v ic e a c c e s s . 17 Message discrimination 46 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . o i n t fo r L e v e l .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 2 s e r . a rt (L e v e l 2 ) 4ig. S e r v ic e a c c e s s . a rts Level . M essage d is t r i7 u t io n Level .

istribution The Mess a g e Cistribution pas s e s on the me s s a g e s it recei/e s to the conn e c t e d user parts "e. 9ext figure de m o n s t r a t e s such a proc e d u r e .g. -*C9 user part(.Message Transfer Part Siemens 5552 Message .ser/ e s as the *er/ice :cces s Point -dentifier re3uire d b) the s)st e m mod el. The ser/ice indicat or *. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 4 .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part Se. 16 Example of message distribution and message discrimination 4! TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .)ence1 + P!1 SP! of own exchange <es S# 1 ' M no no <es STP in d ic a t o r D <es no S # 1 T M no <e s M S 2 fo r m essage d is tr i7 u t io n M S 2 fo r TCM M S 2 fo r 'M M S2 f o r 9 o u tin g + is c a r d in g of M S2 4ig.

-n such a cas e the *.(8  load sharing inside one signaling link set -n the cas e of load sharing inside one sign aling link set the me s s a g e s to all signaling des tin a tio n s points acce s sible /ia the link set are di/ide d betw e e n the links in the set.Message Transfer Part Siemens 5553 Message 6outing The me s s a g e routing function exa min e s the des tin a tio n point code "CP+( of the addr e s s field in order to det e r mi n e the outgoing signaling link.* is use d to det e r mi n e the signaling link. Two differe n t load! sharing mec h a nis m s are define d b) -TU!T "560. load sharing betw e e n signaling rout e s -n the cas e of load sharing betw e e n signaling rout e s the me s s a g e s to a specific des tin a tio n are distribut e d o/er se/er al singling rout e s . This me t h o d is sign aling! des tin a tio n! point! specific. -f ther e are se/ er al signaling links to a specific des tin a tio n2 load sharing can be acti/at e d betw e e n the links.  TW2101EU01E ! 0001 4" . This proc e d u r e is link! set! specific.

oad sharing between signaling routes 5& TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . o in t s S L S 1 x / ) E 2 S L S 1 < E n 4ig. o in t s + e s t in a t io n .oad sharing between signaling links & r ig in a t io n . o in ts S ig n a lin g . 1= . o in t / ) E ! 4ig. 1F . o in t S L S 1 x S L S 1 < S ig n a lin g .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part & r ig in a tio n . o in ts + e s t in a t io n . o in t s E $ S ig n a lin g .

Message Transfer Part Siemens TW2101EU01E ! 0001 51 .

Siemens

Mess a g e Transf er Part

6 $ignaling .et+or* Manage#ent

52

TW2101EU01E ! 0001

Message Transfer Part

Siemens

5651 $ignaling Traffic Manage#ent Function
The main task of the *ignaling Traffic Manag e m e n t function is to maint ain traffic during distur b a n c e s in the sign aling netw ork2 i,e, when a link2 link set or signaling des tin a tio n point fails, Moreo/ e r2 the function mus t reduc e traffic in the e/e n t of o/erlo a d, The *ignaling Traffic Mana g e m e n t function is e3uipp e d with special functions and proce d u r e s for han dling thes e tasks, "560;(, Chan g e o v e r : special chan g e o / e r proc e d u r e allows the function to di/ert signaling traffic
 

to a differe n t signaling link in the sa m e link set "1( or to a differe n t link set "2(, -f no oth er alter n a ti/ e s exist for reachin g the des tin a tio n2 i,e, the signaling des tin a tio n point is inacc e s sible2 the rele/ a n t user part mus t be notified accordingl), Chan g e b a c * : special chan g e b a c k proce d u r e rest a r t s a signaling link which beco m e s a/ailable once mor e and rout e s the di/ert e d sign aling traffic back to the original sign aling link or link set, Forc e , 6ero u t i n g : forced reroutin g proce d u r e ens ur e s that signaling traffic una ble to reach a des tin a tio n point /ia the specified sign aling rout e "due to failure of the latt er( is di/ert e d to an altern a ti/ e sign aling rout e, -f the failed signaling rout e was the last one leading to a des tin a tio n point2 this me a n s the des tin a tio n point is no long er acce s sible, The rele/ a n t users mus t be notified in such a cas e,

TW2101EU01E ! 0001

53

Siemens

Mess a g e Transf er Part

& r ig in a t io n ; o in t s S ig n a lin g ; o in t
$ $

+ e s t in a tio n ; o in t

S i g n a l in g ; o in t

/ 2

) S ig n a lin g ; o in t

!

4ig, 20 +hangeo/er

& r ig in a t io n ; o in t s + e s t in a t io n ; o in t

S ig n a lin g ; o in t
/

S i g n a l in g ; o in t T P
)

+

S i g n a l in g ; o in t !

4ig, 21 4orced %erouting

54

TW2101EU01E ! 0001

Message Transfer Part

Siemens

Con tr oll e , 6ero u t i n g The aim of controlled rerou ting on the restor e d signaling rout e is to ens ur e that the rout e is restor e d to ser/ice with minimu m distur b a n c e , $ig n a li n g Poin t 6e s t a r t The purpo s e of this proce d u r e is to coordin a t e the res u m p ti o n of sign aling traffic to a signaling point which has bee n restor e d , The proce d u r e is design e d to pre/ e n t sign aling me s s a g e s from being sent to sign aling points while the) are in the start u p phas e , There is no guar a n t e e for the /alidit) of the dat a b a s e of a signaling point which has be e n isolat e d from the netw ork, ?nce the sign aling point is restor e d 2 ther efor e2 the netw ork dat a relating to its en/iron m e n t nee d to be upd a t e d before signaling traffic com m e n c e s , : rest a r t period within which all rest a r t acti/ities mus t be comple t e d is define d for the netw ork dat a upd a t e , :t the beginning of a rest a r t the sign aling point ass u m e s that all des tin a tio n s and rout e s are a/ailable, :s soon as the first signaling rout e s are a/ailable2 ther efor e 2 the ad1ac e n t points notif) a rest a r tin g MTP of des tin a tio n s it mus t /iew as una/ aila bl e, ?nce the rest a r tin g MTP has compl e t e d its acti/ities or the rest a r t timer has expire d2 the MTP send s T%: mes s a g e s "Traffic %est a r t :llowed( to all ad1ac e n t points /ia the direct signaling link set, This me s s a g e indicat e s that the rest a r t is compl e t e d and the res u m p ti o n of sign aling traffic will begin,

TW2101EU01E ! 0001

55

22 *ignaling Point %estart in A 56 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part S$gnal$ng +o$n# /F 2 S $gnal$ng #ran'&er +o$n# /F 2 /3A B S$gnal$ng +o$n# /3A A C /F 2 /3A /F 2 /3A D 4ig.

The proce d u r e does not caus e a chan g e in the . TW2101EU01E ! 0001 5 . *hould a fault occur in the sign aling netw ork and the inhibite d link is the last one leading to the des tin a tio n2 the s)st e m o/errid e s the inhibiting stat u s auto m a tic all) and the link is restor e d to ser/ice.e/el 2 stat u s .Message Transfer Part Siemens Man a g e # e n t /nhibiti n g The purpo s e of this proce d u r e is to allow the maint e n a n c e and testin g of a sign aling link. This me a n s the sign aling link is a/ailable for test me s s a g e s but not for user me s s a g e s .

L a s t a c t iv e l in k t o ) d e f e c t iv e LIN LIA LL/ L3/ LFU LUA L$n Inh$4$# S$gnal L$n Inh$4$# Ac no!le"g(en# L$n Local Inh$4$# /e'# S$gnal L$n 3e(o#e Inh$4$# /e'# S$gnal L$n Force" Un$nh$4$# S$gnal L$n Un$nh$4$# Ac no!le"g(en# S$gnal 4ig. o i n t ) / c k n o w le d g e * m ent 2 Test m essage LLT L9 T L 2 L2 / . 20 -nhibiting 5! TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part S ig n a lin g . o in t / L #' $ #n h i7 it L #/ S ig n a l i n g .

Cen tr al ov e rl o a . To identif) the load originat o r s e/er) =th M*U is exa mi n e d for its sourc e addr e s s during a load situa tio n. -f the origina t or is locat e d in the own exch a n g e a centr al o/erlo a d me s s a g e " +PB e n e r al +ong e s tio n Primiti/e( is sent to the call proc e s sin g control. The mes s a g e is rep e a t e d at regular inter/ als for the duration of the o/erlo a d situa tio n. This task is han dl e d b) the flow control. -f the sign aling load is caus e d b) a remo t e exch a n g e 2 an o/erloa d me s s a g e "T4+( is sent to the rele/ a n t exch a n g e with the aim of reducing the signaling traffic. : distinction is ma d e betw e e n the following o/erloa d situa tion s 8    centr al o/erlo a d local o/erloa d remo t e o/erlo a d The following MTP primiti/es are use d to report the o/erloa d situa tion8   ener al +ong e s tio n Primiti/es " +P( for centr al o/erloa d +ong e s tio n -ndication Primiti/e s "+-P( for des tin a tio n! relat e d o/erloa d The users causin g the load in the remo t e exch a n g e are notified b) me a n s of Transfer +ontrolled "T4+( me s s a g e s .Message Transfer Part Siemens 5652 $ignaling Traffic Flo+ Control -n the cas e of cong e s tio n in the signaling network or the failure of des tin a tio n points or rout e s it is nec e s s a r ) to reduc e or stop sign aling traffic at its sourc e "us ers(. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 5" .

?/erload 6& TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . r o c e s s in g c o n tr o l 9 e d u c e lo a d S t o . 2. t i o n o v e r lo a d ) G) u s <G LSS 2 Load L o a d f ro m > f o r e ig n 2 S 0 9 S L o a d fro m > o w n 2 S 0 9 S L o a d f r o m > fo r e ig n 2 S 0 9 S L o a d fro m > o w n 2 S 0 9 S 'M + e s t in a t io n a v a ila 7 le ? u n a v a ila 7 le M T P *P / 2 S 0 M T P *9 0 S 2 M 0 F !P ! #P P r i m i t iv e s ( M e s s a g e s ) / c t io n > ! a ll . s ig n a lin g t ra ffic ! le a r d o w n c o n n e c tio n s 9 e s u m e s ig n a lin g t ra ffic 4ig.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part & v e rlo a d d e t e c t io n ! e n tr a l & v e r l o a d d e t e c t io n & v e r lo a d d e te c t io n T ! T ! L o c a l ( t r a n s m i s s i o n o v e r lo a d ) L o c a l ( r e c e .

The sign aling netw ork ma n a g e m e n t function res po n d s to a recei/ e d T4+ mes s a g e b) sen din g a +-P mes s a g e to the call proce s sin g control to reduc e the load at the rele/ a n t des tin a tio n point. . %emot e o/erlo a d is recog ni>e d b) the rece p tio n of T4+ me s s a g e s . 6e# o t e ov e rl o a . 6e. The reduction is imple m e n t e d in pha s e s dep e n di n g on the incomin g o/erloa d mes s a g e s .ocal o/erloa d ma) signif) the cong e s tio n of one or mor e signaling links2 and relat e s to trans mi s sio n o/erlo a d. u c t i o n of th e sig n a li n g loa . The rece p tion of des tin a tio n! point! relat e d o/erloa d mes s a g e s "+ong e s tio n -ndication Primiti/e +-P( affects all users re3u e s ti n g conn e c tio n to the specified des tin a tio n points. .( in the trans mi t buffer of the origina t or. TW2101EU01E ! 0001 61 . sec. Cestin a tio n! point! relat e d o/erlo a d me s s a g e s are gen e r a t e d in the cas e of local or remo t e o/erloa d. -n the cas e of centr al o/erloa d mes s a g e s " en e r al +onge s tion Primiti/e s " +P((2 all users and des tin a tio n s are affect e d . *imilarl)2 a load restriction is canc el e d in pha s e s . +all proc e s sin g control reduc e s the sign aling load b) reducing the nu mb e r of call re3u e s t s to be proc e s s e d . Each me s s a g e cont ain s inform a tio n reg ar din g a des tin a tio n point for which sign aling o/erlo a d has be e n det e c t e d . The own U*E% is notified with +-P me s s a g e s "+ong e s tio n -ndication Primiti/e s(2 remo t e U*E%* are notified with T4+ "Transfer +ontrol( me s s a g e s .Message Transfer Part Siemens Local ov e rl o a . -n the cas e of recei/ e o/erlo a d2 DAU*KD!.ike in the cas e of centr al o/erlo a d2 e/er) =th M*U is exa mi n e d for its sourc e addr e s s and a corre s p o n di n g flow control me s s a g e is gen e r a t e d .**U "*-A( mes s a g e s are sent auto m a t ic all) to the dista n t exch a n g e 2 wher e mes s a g e s can be held back "for up to .

2 countr)! specific( and the n blocke d likewis e. 62 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . *ignaling traffic to the s e des tin a tio n s can be res u m e d onl) once the signaling relation s hip is restor e d and the user has bee n inform e d with DMTP!%E*UMED.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 8vaila b ilit < of . e s t i n a t i o n s '. -dle chan n els are blocke d2 while est a blis h e d conn e c tio n s are clear e d down after a suita bl e holding time "0! 2 min.PC( When e / e r a des tin a tio n in the signaling network fails or is restor e d to ser/ice the rele/ a n t user parts mus t be notified to stop or2 as applicable2 resu m e sign aling traffic to the particular des tin a tio n. :/ailabilit) and failure of des tin a tio n s are report e d with MTP stat u s mes s a g e s "MTP Primiti/es "P:U*E<%E*UME((. -f sign aling traffic to a des tin a tio n is interru p t e d "DMTP!P:U*ED( the circuits leading to the des tin a tio n are det e r mi n e d .

Thus2 it can be said that the sign aling rout e ma n a g e m e n t function controls sign aling traffic in oth er exch a n g e s .e. Thes e stat u s notifications are handle d with the Transf er Prohibite d and Transfer :llowed proc e d u r e s . The proce d u r e res po n sible for interro g a tio n is called the *ignaling %out e Test. notif)ing the ad1ac e n t signaling points that a sign aling rout e to a particular signaling point is una/ aila bl e or has bee n restor e d to ser/ice. 4irst the signaling link mus t be aligne d2 the n its beh a /ior check e d b) a test function. There are two differe n t wa)s of upd a tin g thes e stat e s 8  A) sen ding stat u s me s s a g e s 2 i. The o/er all rout e is split up into the section :!A2 whos e stat u s is describ e d as the Dlocal stat u s D2 and the section A!C2 whos e stat u s is ter m e d the Dre mo t e stat u s D. Cisacti/a tio n of a signaling link  565 4 $ig n a l i n g 6out e Man a g e # e n t Func ti o n The sign aling rout e ma n a g e m e n t function is res po n sibl e for sendin g sign aling netw ork stat u s me s s a g e s to ad1ac e n t signaling points in order to block or rele a s e specific rout e s when faults occur in the network. The sign aling traffic ma n a g e m e n t carries out the following basic proc e d u r e s 8  :cti/ation and restor a tio n of a sign aling link This me a s u r e re3uire s two step s . . TW2101EU01E ! 0001  63 .et us ass u m e the configur a tion show n8 To send a me s s a g e from : to C the sign aling rout e :!A2 followed b) A!C or A!+2 +!C is use d. A) acti/el) interro g a tin g the a/ailabilit) of a signaling rout e to a specific sign aling point.Message Transfer Part Siemens 565 3 $ig n a l i n g Lin* Man a g e # e n t *ignaling links are controlled and monitor e d b) the sign aling link ma n a g e m e n t 2 which notifies the sign aling traffic ma n a g e m e n t of a link failure so that appro pria t e action can be take n. This me a n s : can det er mi n e whet h e r or not C is acce s sible onl) if the o/er all rout e is monitor e d .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part 64 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

Message Transfer Part Siemens S ig n a l i n g . 2@ *ignaling route management function TW2101EU01E ! 0001 65 . o in t / + ! S ig n a l i n g t r a n s f e r . o i n t S ig n a l i n g t r a n s f e r . o in t ) S ig n a lin g . o in t 4ig.

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part The Transfer Prohibite. +hangeo/er "1( is carried out if A determines that the direct route to C is una/ailable. b( 66 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . -n this case A also sends a T4P message to + in order to pre/ent message oscillation "0(. The message is sent b) a signaling transfer point in the following cases8 a( When a signaling transfer point determines that C is no longer obtainable. :ll ad1acent signaling transfer points ":1 to :>( are notified with T4P "Aroadcast T4P(. C is now accessible onl) /ia the route A→+→C "2(. 'TFP( message indicates that a signaling transfer point can no longer be used to maintain the traffic to a specific destination.

o in t / ) $ S ig n a lin g t r a n s f e r . o in t ! S i g n a lin g . o in t + / H 4ig. o in t 4ig.Message Transfer Part Siemens / $ T P S ig n a lin g tra n s fe r . o in t T / n T P P ) S ig n a lin g . 26 Example of T4P messages b( TW2101EU01E ! 0001 6 . 27 Example of T4P message a( S ig n a lin g tr a n s f e r . o in t . T P 2 M S 2 + S ig n a lin g .

When C is a/ailable once more its database is updated ) means of T4P messages.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part c( -f A recei/e s a me s s a g e for C but is una ble to reach C due to a failure2 A send s a T4P mes s a g e to the ad1ac e n t signaling point : "res p o n s e met h o d (. -n the example below A notifies signaling point C that + is not accessible /ia A. d( 6! TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

o in t + 2 T P 0 S ig n a lin g . o in t 4ig. o in t T T 9 P / S ig n a lin g t r a n s f e r + .Message Transfer Part Siemens S ig n a lin g . o in t S ig n a lin g t r a n s f e r ) . o in t / $ M S 2 S ig n a lin g t r a n s f e r . 2= Example of T4P message d( TW2101EU01E ! 0001 6" . o in t 4ig. 26 Example of T4P message c( S ig n a l i n g / . o in t ) S ig n a lin g .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part e( ?n exec u tin g a rest a r t A send s to all ad1ac e n t signaling points a T4P me s s a g e reg ar din g C if the latter is inacc e s sible. & TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

Message Transfer Part Siemens / $ S ig n a lin g tr a n s fe r . o in t T / n P ) + S ig n a lin g . o in t T 9 / / x 4ig. 2F Example of T4P message e( TW2101EU01E ! 0001 1 .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part : Transfer 8llo+e. -f A stops sending messages to C /ia +2 A sends a T4: to +. b( 2 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . :n *ignaling transfer point sends a T4: message in the following two cases8 a( ?n determining that C is accessible once more A sends a T4: message "Aroadcast T4:( to all ad1acent signaling points. 'TF8( message is used to indicate to ad1acent signaling points the a/ailabilit) of specific routes to destinations.

00 Example of T4: message a( S ig n a lin g t r a n s f e r . o in t T / n / 4ig. o in t ! S i g n a l in g T S ig n a lin g / S ig n a lin g . o in t ) S ig n a lin g + . o in t 4ig. o in t / + . o in t ) tr a n s f e r .Message Transfer Part Siemens / $ T / S ig n a l in g t r a n s f e r . 01 Example of T4: message b( TW2101EU01E ! 0001 3 .

whether a destination is a/ailable /ia the transfer point.( in order to find out whether a signaling route is a/ailable once more. The re! a/ailabilit) of the signaling route is indicated when a %*T message is acknowledged with T4:.Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part : signaling point tran s mi t s the 6oute $et Test '6$T( message in order to ascertain whether messages can be sent /ia a specific transfer point to a destination2 i.e. :fter recei/ing a T4P the signaling point sends %*T messages at regular inter/als "e/er) 00 ! 70 sec. 4 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .

o in t ) S ig n a lin g + . o in t 2 T / 4ig.Message Transfer Part Siemens S ig n a lin g / . o in t $ 9 S T S ig n a lin g t r a n s f e r . 02 %oute *et Test message TW2101EU01E ! 0001 5 .

A informs the ad1acent signaling points with T4P messages regarding C. 6 TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part ?n recei/ing a T4P or T4: me s s a g e 2 a sign aling point mus t perfor m one of the following specific functions8 TFP8 4orced %erouting TF88 +ontrolled %erouting Example8 + disco/ers that C is no longer accessible and sends a T4P to signaling point A2 which in turn establishes that C is not accessible b) an alternati/e route.

o in t T / 2 P ) T P S i g n a li n g tra n s fe r . 4ig. 00 Procedure on reception of T4P TW2101EU01E ! 0001 . o in t + T P / . o in t / $ T P S ig n a lin g tra n s fe r .Message Transfer Part Siemens S i g n a l in g . o in t ! S ig n a lin g .

! TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part : signaling tran sf e r point send s the Transfer 6estricte. 'TF6( message in order to notif) ad1acent points that if possible the transfer point should not be used for message transfer to a specific signaling point.

o in t ) S ig n a lin g . o in t / $ T 9 S ig n a lin g t r a n s f e r . o in t ! 4ig. o in t + / n T 9 S i g n a lin g .Message Transfer Part Siemens S ig n a lin g . 0. Transfer %estricted TW2101EU01E ! 0001 " .

Siemens Mess a g e Transf er Part !& TW2101EU01E ! 0001 .