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TRAINING REPORT

BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP)

Submitted to Mr. Farhan Javed (Team Leader BOP)

Jawad Aslam | December 31, 2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I thank Almighty Allah for giving me the strength to complete this Report and for showering His blessings upon me throughout my training period at the BOP Area. I would like to thank my Parents for their eternal love and support and for having faith in me throughout my life. I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my seniors and My Team Leader Mr. Farhan Javed who continually and convincingly guided me throughout the process. Without their guidance and help this report would not have been possible.

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Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT................................................................................................................ i Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Pre-treatment of Intake Water ......................................................................................................... 2 Raw Water Intake ........................................................................................................................ 2 Settling Basins ............................................................................................................................. 3 Clarifier ........................................................................................................................................ 3 Choice of Coagulant ................................................................................................................ 5 Polymers................................................................................................................................... 6 Dual Media Filters ....................................................................................................................... 8 DMF Cleaning / Backwash ...................................................................................................... 8 Demineralization System............................................................................................................... 10 Multimedia Filters...................................................................................................................... 10 Backwashing of Filters ........................................................................................................... 11 Reverse Osmosis System ........................................................................................................... 12 Reverse Osmosis..................................................................................................................... 12 Chemical Dosing in R.O. System ........................................................................................... 15 Demineralizer Train ................................................................................................................... 15 Regeneration of Demineralizer Train .................................................................................... 17 Cooling Towers ............................................................................................................................. 18 Components of Cooling Tower.................................................................................................. 19 Cooling Tower Specifications ................................................................................................... 21 Cooling Tower Performance ...................................................................................................... 21 Chemical Treatment of Cooling Tower ..................................................................................... 23 Hydrogen Generation System........................................................................................................ 25 Electrolytic Cell ......................................................................................................................... 26 Cell Temperature ................................................................................................................... 26 Electrolyte .................................................................................................................................. 27 Electrolyte Strength................................................................................................................ 28 Hydrogen Mist Eliminator ......................................................................................................... 28 Hydrogen Gas Holder ................................................................................................................ 28

....................................................................... 28 Catalytic Purifier ................. 30 ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 29 After Cooler .............................................................................................................................................................. 29 Table of Figures.........................BOP Area Report Hydrogen Purification System .........

canal water. amongst the other water consumers at Lalpir. Figure 1 Over-view of BOP Area 1 . which is taken into service when canal water is not available Raw water from here on is treated to suit the requirement of systems that need water. well water. is the most sensitive user that requires demineralized water of conductivity less than 0. such as      Firefighting system Service water system Portable water system Condenser Boiler Boiler. which is a seasonal source taken into service from April till October 2.1 μs/cm and silica content less than 0. There are mainly two sources of raw water at Lalpir.01 ppm. safe disposal of waste water and hydrogen generation. 1.BOP Area Report Introduction BOP (Balance of Plant) section at Lalpir Thermal Power Plant is responsible for providing water according to desired specifications of different areas and equipment at plant.

one pump is in service and the other is on standby. The debris free water is then pumped to the plant by canal water pumps. will allow water to circulate back to the bar screen. Each pump has discharge rate of 240 m3/hr and 6 pumps remain in service at a time. The total number of canal water pumps is four. continuous demand of water is met by 18 well water pumps. Figure 2 Raw Water Intake system When canal goes dry. The raw water intake from canal constitutes of the following subsystems:    Travelling band screens Canal water pumps Settling basins 2 . it is passed through a travelling band screen that removes any debris that may cause damage to the canal water pumps. All four pumps’ lubricating oil and rubber bearings at shaft are cooled by cooling water. each. Any debris that may have made its way through the intake is taken up by these baskets and later sprayed into a waste collecting pit which dumps this debris back into the canal. These pumps supply water at a rate of 1200 m3/hr. There is a recirculation valve provided with each pump which when operational. 9 for each unit. When functional.BOP Area Report CHAPTER 1 Pre-treatment of Intake Water Raw Water Intake Once raw water from the canal is taken. There are 22 baskets that are in a continuous revolution such that the water passes through their center. Two separate storage tanks are used for this purpose. The baskets scoop the raw water out one by one. two for each unit. located on the north bank on canal. These baskets are made of strong mesh having a size of 1mm.

) having common header with the provision of filling any settling basin. sand and silt in canal water. and suspended solids. In order from smallest to largest. Canal water from settling basins is fed to distribution box located on clarifiers for further treatment by clarifier supply pumps of 1050 m3/hr discharge rate. Clarifiers are used to reduce the number of total dissolved solids present in raw water by coagulation and flocculation. 3 . each zone has its own unique purpose. These basins reduce the coagulation cost in clarifier. and the outlet zone. the sludge zone. these objects are chemicals in solution. Each zone should provide a smooth transition between the zone before and the zone after. Figure 3 Settling Basin Water from canal pumps through their respective line (PakGen or Lalpir) comes to 3 settling basins (each of 1000 m3 vol. Clarifier In clarifiers. and by pass line to cooling tower.BOP Area Report      Clarifier supply pumps Distribution box Clarifiers Clear well Dual media filters (DMF) Settling Basins There are three types of objects which can be found in water. rather than being pumped at one end and being retrieved from the other. debris and uncharged particles. All sedimentation basins have four zones . Settling basins provide primary settling zone for large suspended particles. the rake and turbine area in the center. the settling zone. water is pumped to the mixing zone. colloidal solids.the inlet zone. load on filters and provide proper suction for clarifier supply pumps. In addition. The settling basins are designed to provide ample retention time for settling of heavy suspended particles.

The negatively charged particles in water settle in with the positively charged particles of the coagulant. on the other hand. Coagulation neutralizes these charged particles and flocculation ensures the removal of these suspended particles. The small particles are stabilized (kept in suspension) by the action of physical forces on the particles themselves. often enhanced by the addition of long-chain polymeric compounds. Therefore. This is because raw water contains small suspended negatively charged particles that are not removed by travelling band screens or settling basins. since they have the same type of surface charge. particle size. These particles need to be removed in order to reduce the total suspended solids in the water. while clarifier B is kept at standby. thus reduction in water turbidity. Ferric Sulfate. One of the forces playing a dominant role in stabilization results from the surface charge present on the particles. is defined as the physical process of the formation of larger masses. more formally. they repel each other. composition charge. Clarifier A & C are for Lalpir and PakGen unit respectively. Coagulant. thus neutralizing and increasing in size and weight as well. As water is pumped into the clarifier. Ferric Sulfate is dosed as the coagulant. they will remain in suspension rather than clumping together and settle out of the water. The suspended particles in water vary considerably in source. Flocculation. shape and density. it is dosed with a coagulant. whereas a polymer solution is injected into the clarifier reaction and mixing zone to initiate flocculation.BOP Area Report Clarifiers normally consist of the following zones:   Reaction and mixing zone Settling zone Figure 4 Over-view of a typical Clarifier At Lalpir we have three clarifiers (A. Most solids suspended in water possess a negative charge and. is defined as an electrochemical process of neutralization of surface charges to allow small colloidal particles to collide and form larger masses capable of settling or withstanding pressure. 4 . B & C).

facility design. Final selection of the coagulant should be made following thorough jar testing and plant scale evaluation. thus ensuring that the sludge bed does not get solidified. and net overall cost at the dose required for effective treatment. cost. method and cost of sludge handling and disposal. This level of sludge needs to be maintained at certain conditions in order to facilitate the filtration process. and the cost of the amount of chemical necessary to produce the desired result. At the clarifier outlet the turbidity is thus reduced to a minimum level as the majority of suspended solids have are removed. 5 . Considerations must be given to required effluent quality. de-sludging is carried out by two de-sludge pumps at different intervals. effect upon downstream treatment process performance. thus forming a layer of sludge at the bottom. A rake keeps operating in the sludge area. raw water conditions. In order to maintain the level of the sludge bed.BOP Area Report Figure 5 Illustration of Coagulation Process The suspended particles settle down on the base of the clarifier after coagulation and flocculation. Figure 6 Water Quality at different turbidities Choice of Coagulant The choice of coagulant chemical depends upon the nature of the suspended solid to be removed.

Selection of the proper polymer for the application requires considerable jar testing under simulated plant conditions. temperature. At Lalpir we use ferric sulfate as a coagulant and its equation is as follows: Fe2(SO4)3 + 3 Ca(HCO3)2 2 Fe(OH)3 + 3 CaSO4 + 6 CO2 Polymers Polymers are becoming more widely used. The inorganic hydroxides formed produce short polymer chains which enhance microfloc formation. they furnish highly charged ions to neutralize the suspended particles. They produce large volume of flocs which can entrap bacteria as they settle. 6 . and they do not consume alkalinity. ferrous sulfate. and sodium aluminate. are widely available. When added to the water. alkalinity. The first four will lower the alkalinity and pH of the solution while the sodium aluminate will add alkalinity and raise the pH. followed by pilot or plant-scale trials. These adjustments are a reaction to changes in the raw water entering the plant. Polymers are generally several times more expensive in their price per pound than inorganic coagulants. Inorganic coagulants usually offer the lowest price per pound. ferric chloride. Coagulation will be affected by changes in the water's pH. they may alter the pH of the water since they consume alkalinity. when properly applied. Factors Affecting Coagulation In a well-run water treatment plant. When applied in a lime soda ash softening process. rapidly settling floc. Inorganic Coagulant Chemical Equations Common coagulant chemicals used are alum. However. alum and iron salts generate demand for lime and soda ash. They produce smaller volumes of more concentrated. The floc formed from use of a properly selected polymer will be more resistant to shear. The manufacturer can produce a wide range of products that meet a variety of source-water conditions by controlling the amount and type of charge and relative molecular weight of the polymer. velocity and zeta potential. time. Low-to-medium weight positively charged (cationic) polymers may be used alone or in combination with the aluminum and iron type coagulants to attract the suspended solids and neutralize their surface charge. especially as coagulant aids together with the regular inorganic coagulants. ferric sulfate. Anionic (negatively charged) polymers are often used with metal coagulants. They are also capable of removing a portion of the organic precursors which may combine with chlorine to form disinfection byproducts. Polymers are effective over a wider pH range than inorganic coagulants. The large volumes of settled flocs must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. They can be applied at lower doses. and.BOP Area Report Inorganic Coagulants Inorganic coagulants such as aluminum and iron salts are the most commonly used. are quite effective in removing most suspended solids. adjustments are often necessary in order to maximize the coagulation/flocculation process. They require corrosion-resistant storage and feed equipment. resulting in less carryover and a cleaner effluent.

and the more effective is the coagulation. less the coagulation. Zeta potential is the charge at the boundary of the colloidal turbidity particle and the surrounding water. The higher the charge the more is the repulsion between the turbidity particles. and vice versa. Winter temperature will slow down the reaction rate. Generally 1 part alum uses 0.5 parts alkalinity for proper coagulation. Alkalinity is needed to provide anions. TECHNICAL DATA Canal Water Pump Capacity Well Water Pump Capacity Travelling screen baskets Travelling screen wash pump Canal water pumps flow Clarifier supply pump Inlet distribution box flow Clarifier Capacity Clear well Capacity Coagulant Tank Capacity Polymer Tank Capacity 1200 m3/hr 240 m3/hr 22 10 m3/hr 1200 m3/hr 1100 m3/hr 1023 m3/hr 2400 m3 165 m3 15 m3 12 m3 7 . it is naturally provided due to lower water demand in winter. Higher zeta potential requires the higher coagulant dose.4-6) with alum.BOP Area Report       The effectiveness of a coagulant is generally pH dependent. The higher velocity causes the shearing or breaking of floc particles and lower velocity will let them settle in the flocculation basins. or bicarbonates. which can be helped by an extended detention time. Time is an important factor as well. the faster the reaction. It could be naturally present in the water or needed to be added as hydroxides. Mostly. carbonates. such as (OH) for forming insoluble compounds to precipitate them out. An effective coagulation is aimed at reducing zeta potential charge to almost 0. Velocity around 1 ft/sec in the flocculation basins should be maintained. Water with a color will coagulate better at low pH (4. The higher the temperature. Proper mixing and detention times are very important to coagulation.

DMF Cleaning / Backwash After 2 hours of running DMF Filters are cleaned/backwashed to remove the carryover suspended particles. usually in combination with sand.  Drain Down (5 Min) Here the air outlet valve and drain down valves are opened so that any previous reserve is drained because standing water in DMF is rich in silica. The gravel at the bottom of the filter is not part of the filter media. the layers (starting at the bottom of the filter and advancing upward) are sand and anthracite coal. merely providing a support between the under drains and the media and allowing an even flow of water during filtering and backwashing. Flow rate is 90 m3 /hr 8 . Coarse sand also costs less and is more readily available than the finer sand used in slow sand filtration. Figure 7 Media Layers in DMF The media in a dual or multi-media filter are arranged so that the water moves through media with progressively smaller pores.BOP Area Report Dual Media Filters The filter media is the part of the filter which actually removes the particles from the water being treated. Since the particles in the water are filtered out at various depths in a dual or multimedia filter. In many cases. though other types of media can be used. the filter does not clog as quickly as if all of the particles were all caught by the top layer. Typically. Clear well Level should be above 70%. and anthracite coal. sand. This larger sand has larger pores which do not fill as quickly with particles out of the water. multiple types of media are layered within the filter. or garnet. Filter media is most commonly sand. The largest particles are strained out by the anthracite. Then the sand and garnet trap the rest of the particulate matter though a combination of adhesion and straining. The sand used in rapid sand filters is coarser (larger) than the sand used in slow sand filters. The picture below shows a cross-section through a dual media filter.

If PG Unit is operating then clarifier pump C discharge bypass valve to cooling tower would be opened.BOP Area Report  Air Mix (5 min) In this step air mix inlet valve (air from the DMF air blowers) and air outlet valve are opened this steps evens the DMF surface same as air scouring. Open the clarifier bypass valve.e. settling basin. DMF Backwash and clear well overflow goes to settling basin A&B. By-Passing the Pre-treatment System All pre-treatment steps (i. After these steps DMF is ready for service. DMF pumps should be OFF and DMF bypass valve must be open. Following steps are used for by-pass     Close the inlet FCV of clarifier manually from PLC. Flow rate is 170 m3 /hr. 9 . Flow rate is 225 m3 /hr  Backwash (5 min) Here back wash inlet and outlet valves opens and the water goes to Settling Basin. DMF) are bypassed when well water is taken into service. Flow rate is 680 m3 /hr  Rinse (5 min) Service inlet and rinse outlet valves open and the waste water goes to distribution chamber. Flow rate is 1380 m3 /hr  Fill (5 min) In this step service inlet of water and air outlet valve opens in this step DMF fills itself with water. clarifier.

and heavier particles. Multi-media filters typically have three layers. with the largest particle size. Multimedia Filters Multimedia filtration refers to a pressure filter vessel which utilizes three or more different media as opposed to a "sand filter" that typically uses one grade of sand alone as the filtration media. sand and garnet.1 µ/cm and silica content of less than 0. These are often the media of choice because of the differences in mass between the materials. Garnet is by far the heaviest per unit volume. This results in very limited use of the media depth since virtually all filterable particles are trapped at the very top of the filter bed or within 1-2 inches of the top where the filter media particles have the least space between them. during the "settling" cycle. sand is intermediate while anthracite is the lightest. In a single media filter. The filter run times are thus very short before the filter “blinds” or develop much differential pressure that it must be backwashed to avoid seriously impeding or stopping the flow. consisting of anthracite. The idea behind using these three media of differing densities is that anthracite media. the heaviest but having the smallest particle diameter.01 ppm.BOP Area Report CHAPTER 2 Demineralization System The demineralization system is designed to produce demineralized treated water with a conductivity of less than 0. stratify proportional to their mass lower in the filter. will stratify on top following backwash while the intermediate size media (sand) will settle in the middle and garnet. the finest or smallest media particles remain on top of the media bed while the larger. will settle to the bottom. Figure 8 Media Layers in MMF 10 .

Pre-treated water from the filtered water basin is directed to two Multi-Media Filters which remove residual turbidity and suspended solids from the water.50 1.30 .90 Quantity (m3) Average size (mm) 0.06 1. The arrangement of media from top to bottom is as follows: Material Garnet Anthracite Filter Sand Fine Gravel Medium Gravel Coarse Gravel 1.55 3.Media filter backwash and rinse water is directed to the inlet distribution box.70 . If the raw water source is canal water.BOP Area Report This filter media arrangement allows the largest dirt particles to be removed near the top of the media bed with the smaller and smaller dirt particles being retained deeper and deeper in the media. the water is injected with sodium bi-sulfate to remove trace quantities of free chlorine. the multi-media filtered water effluent is directed to the permeate tank .00 0. the multimedia filtered water is directed to the reverse osmosis system. Each multi-media filter is designed to treat 97 m3 / hr of pre-treated water. Multi.70 6. With one (I) filter in service and the other in backwash. Under normal 11 . Treated water is fed to the reverse osmosis system when a high total dissolved solids raw water is utilized. This allows much longer filter run times between backwash and much more efficient dirt or turbidity removal. Like DMF gravel layer is also used here for supporting the media.12.45 . Sand filters typically remove particles down to 25-50 microns while a welloperated multi-media filter may remove particles from 10-25 microns.1.35 .45 0.90 .1.If the raw water source is well water.0.70 12. Following multi-media filtration.50 1.35 0.50 0.19 Backwashing of Filters Backwash and rinse waste water is returned to the distribution box. A portion of the multi-media filtered Figure 9 Multi Media Filter water is directed to the potable water tank and chlorinator. a second filter feed pump will be activated.

permeate tank. Pure water in contact with both sides of an ideal semi-permeable membrane at equal pressure and temperature has no net flow across the membrane because the chemical potential is equal on both sides. Sodium bi-sulfate is injected into the multimedia filter effluent at a constant.BOP Area Report circumstances. Reverse Osmosis 12 . the R. Osmotic flow from the pure water side across the membrane to the salt solution side will occur until the equilibrium of chemical potential is restored. Equilibrium occurs when the hydrostatic pressure differential resulting from the volume changes on both sides is equal to the osmotic pressure. If a soluble salt is added on one side. In scientific terms. The osmotic pressure is a solution property proportional to the salt concentration and independent of the membrane. A flow switch will control the start/stop operation of the bi-sulfate pumps. because it now has a lower chemical potential. system is bypassed and the multimedia filter effluent is directed to the R. by osmosis. manually set rate. Additional pressure will raise the chemical potential of the water in the salt solution and cause a solvent flow to the pure water side. Reverse Osmosis Application of an external pressure to the salt solution side equal to the osmotic pressure will also cause equilibrium.O. Consider a tank of pure water with a semi-permeable membrane dividing it into two sides. its chemical potential throughout the system.O. This phenomenon is called reverse osmosis. the chemical potential of this salt solution is reduced. Figure 10 Osmosis vs. Reverse Osmosis System Osmosis is a natural process involving the fluid flow of across a semi-permeable membrane barrier. the two sides of the tank have a difference in their chemical potentials and the solution equalizes.

operating pressure 15.7 kg/ cm2 R. Operating temp Feed water pH range Hydranautics 72 (36 per R.5 kg/cm2 Pump speed 2900 rpm Motor power rating 56 KW Electrical Ratings 380V/ 3ph / 50 Hz R.BOP Area Report Technical Data for RO system 5 micron Filters Quantity/unit Diameter Height Material Design pressure 2 406 mm 2108 mm 316 stainless steel 10.O membrane element Manufacturer Number of elements Model no Membrane type Diameter Length Surface area / element Max.O Booster pumps Quantity 3 Manufacturer Tonkaflo Material 316 stainless steel Design flow rate/pump 44 m3/ hr Operating pressure 24.9 mm 1016 mm 30.5 kg/ cm2 Cartridges for 5 micron filters Manufacturer Quantity Size Material Design flow rate / filter Maximum DP Filterite 22 per filter 5 micron Polypropylene 88 m3/ hr 0.O bank) 8040-LSY-CPA2 Spiral wound thin film composite 201.5 kg/cm2 Min.2 m2 45 ºC 3-10 13 .

5 kg/ cm2 Minimum pressure 15. of elements/housing 6 R.7 kg/ cm2 Maximum 3.5 kg/cm2 Design feed flow rate per bank 44 m3/ hr Design permeate flow rate/bank 32.42 m3/ hr Nominal salt rejection 99% Membrane Pressure Vessels Manufacturer Advance structure Material of construction FRP Design pressure 28 kg/cm2 Size 289 mm dia × 6594 mm long No. 2 6 (series staged 4:2) 36 22 ºC 20 ºC 38 ºC Feed pressure (design) 24.O. bank) No.5 m3/ hr Permeate recovery 74% 14 . Maximum temp.BOP Area Report Nominal permeate flow 1. of housings 12(6 per R.5 kg/ cm2 Maximum pressure 31.6 kg/ cm2 Product back pressure (design) 0.O System design data No of R.5 m3/ hr Design reject flow rate/bank 11. Of elements/bank Inlet feed temperature (design) Minimum temp.O banks No of housing/bank No.

acid tank refill sequence is interlocked with the cation and mixed bed regeneration sequences to prevent refilling the tank during regeneration of either primary or mixed bed trains. produce treated water that is stored in the demineralized water storage tanks. In the automatic mode. ions 15 .BOP Area Report Figure 11 Reverse Osmosis (R. System Sulfuric Acid (4%) It is injected into the reverse osmosis feed water to lower the pH. Refill is accomplished with the activation of a dilution water pump. the acid and anti-sealant feed pumps are started and stopped automatically with the reverse osmosis booster pumps. As the water flows through the resin bed. The R. acid tank inlet valve. Return to service is operator initiated. On high level.O. Manual initiation for R. an acid pump and the opening of the mixed bed dilution water valve and the R. anion unit and mixed bed unit. Control of the feed water pH is affected by pH measurement and modulation of the sulfuric acid pumps stroke positioned.O.Scalant The solution is also injected into the reverse osmosis feed water at a constant rate. The diffuser spreads the water over the resin bed. the “In Service” primary and mixed bed units will be placed in standby. A level transmitter installed in the de-carbonator clear well controls the operation of the decarbonator inlet modulating control valve.O.) banks Chemical Dosing in R. Anti . The acid tank refill is automatically initiated based on the level in the acid tank. Level controls in the demineralized water storage tank controls the operation of the Demineralizer trains. acid tank refill is also available. Demineralizer Train Two Demineralizer trains each comprised of a cation unit. Water flows through the ion exchanger’s water inlet and into the diffuser.O. A de-carbonator tower/clear well and de-carbonator water forwarding pumps are common to both trains.O. Refill of the anti-scalant tank is a manually controlled sequence.

So in the anion exchange step these ions are removed and the reactions taking place are H2+SO4H+Cl- + + R .SO4R . HCl).2 + Mg + Ca+ R . The effluent of a cation exchanger is generally acidic. Carbonic acid produced is a weak acid and is dissociated very easily giving carbon dioxide and water as H2CO3 H2O + CO2 Strong Base Anion Resin From the above equations it is clear that during cation exchange process.BOP Area Report are removed from the water and exchanged with the hydrogen ions (Cation unit) or hydroxyl ions (Anion unit) occupying the sites on the resin beads. produced during cation removal as: Ca+(HCO3)2+ R – H2 R – Ca+ + 2 H2CO3 De-carbonator is used to reduce load on anionic bed.Cl- + + H2O H2O 16 . acids are produced (H2SO4. after the effluent from a cation exchanger flows through anion exchanger and mixed bed.H2 RMg + + 2 H2CO3 (HCO3)-2 Ca+SO4+ Mg SO4 Ca+Cl+ Mg Cl + + - Ca+ R – H2 RMg + + H2SO4 Ca+ R – H2 RMg - + 2 HCl (Where R = resin) De – carbonator De-carbonator is a device which is used to remove CO2 from the water. it is almost pure demineralized water. because the hydrogen ions present in the water form acids. The model reactions that are carried out in demineralizers are described as follows: Strong Acid Cation Exchange The following reactions take place in the Cation bed during service. Secondly.OHR . However. Ca+ (HCO3). anions entered into the bed along with water are still present.OH- R .

Interlocks are provided to ensure that only one train or a mixed bed unit can be regenerated at any given time. Silica & Conductivity monitoring. under normal operating conditions the regeneration cycles should be allowed to time out and sequence through to completion. the unit will be given a backwash and double chemical injection during its next regeneration cycle and the appropriate regeneration tantalizers will be reset to zero after this upset regeneration. Dilution water for the acid and caustic regenerate solutions is demineralized water delivered by the diluents water pumps. The standby regenerated train may be placed in service during the regeneration procedure when in the semi-auto mode. There are two parameters to monitor resin exhaustion.BOP Area Report After all the minerals have are removed. Interlocks are provided to ensure that the minimum anion dilution water temperature is at 35oC and the mixed bed dilution water is at 49oC. To initiate regeneration. During the regeneration of a demineralizer train. anion caustic dilution and mixed bed caustic dilution. A heat exchanger is provided to heat the dilution water during preheat caustic injection and displacement steps of the anion and mixed bed regeneration procedure. once the hydrogen or hydroxyl ions have been depleted. Initiation of a primary train regeneration sequence will automatically regenerate a cation unit and its corresponding anion unit concurrently. ultra-pure water is produced that is stored in demineralized water storage tank from where it is supplied to boiler. Following regeneration of a primary train and/or a mixed bed unit. both trains must first be placed into “Standby” and then press the appropriate regeneration key(s). The cation and anion units are regenerated in a split flow counter current manner and therefore will not be given a full backwash every regeneration. When the preset value is reached. Provisions have been made to override the regeneration if necessary. Regeneration controls are programmed for each cation and anion unit to totalize the number of regenerations without a full backwash. mixed bed acid dilution. During normal operation. one train will be in service and one train in standby. They are regenerated with injecting fresh hydrogen & hydroxyl ions. When these units are backwashed (approximately every 20 regenerations). 17 . Regeneration of the Demineralizer system is normally performed on a “train” basis by regenerating the cation and anion units of the same train concurrently or a mixed bed unit. the resin bed cannot remove ions from the incoming water. Interlocks are provided to ensure that the acid and caustic regenerate solutions are delivered at the correct flow rates and chemical strength. Regeneration of Demineralizer Train The resin beads used for ion exchanger have thousands of sites available for exchanging ions. the units are placed in standby and return to service is pushbutton initiated. Both trains may be placed in service together only in the semi-auto mode. Regeneration is pushbutton initiated. a double chemical injection will be automatically provided to recondition the resin at the bottom of the bed. However. Demineralized trains are exhausted after cleaning particular amount of water. one train remains on standby mode. the beads are no longer useful for ion exchange. Dilution water flow is controlled by rate set valves provided for cation acid dilution. however. In the exhausted state.

Cooling Towers Natural Draft Mechanical Draft Forced Draft Induced Draft Counter Flow Cross Flow Counter Flow Cross Flow Cooling towers at Lalpir are Induced Draft counter flow open recirculating type. Cooling towers fall into two main categories: Natural draft and Mechanical draft.BOP Area Report CHAPTER 3 Cooling Towers “A Cooling Tower is an equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere. The make-up water source is used to replenish water lost to evaporation. The water exiting the cooling tower is sent back to the exchangers or to other units for further cooling. Hot water from heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower. 18 .” Cooling towers are a very important part of many industrial plants. They represent a relatively inexpensive and dependable means of removing low-grade heat from cooling water.

drift eliminators. forming a thin film in contact with the air. or other 19 . nozzles and fans. With some smaller designs. Fill Most towers employ fills (made of plastic or wood) to facilitate heat transfer by maximizing water and air contact. such as some glass fiber units. motors. continuously breaking into smaller droplets. cold water basin. With splash fill. corrugated. fill. Components of Cooling Tower The basic components of an evaporative tower are: Frame and casing. Fill can either be splash or film type. closely spaced plastic surfaces over which the water spreads. fans.BOP Area Report Figure 12 Typical Induced Draft Counter flow Cooling Tower In the counter flow induced draft design. louvers. the casing may essentially be the frame. air inlet. Film fill consists of thin. and other components. while also wetting the fill surface. Frame and Casing Most towers have structural frames that support the exterior enclosures (casings). honeycombed. These surfaces may be flat. hot water enters at the top. Plastic splash fill promotes better heat transfer than the wood splash fill. water falls over successive layers of horizontal splash bars. while the air is introduced at the bottom and exits at the top.

located at or near the bottom of the tower. 20 . Cold Water Basin The cold water basin. Propeller fans are mounted beneath the fill to blow the air up through the tower. Air In-let This is the point of entry for the air entering a tower. propeller fans are used in induced draft towers and both propeller and centrifugal fans are found in forced draft towers. cross-flow towers have inlet louvers. the tower is mounted on legs. Nozzles These spray water to wet the fill. With this design.BOP Area Report patterns. providing easy access to the fans and their motors. Drift Eliminators These capture water droplets entrapped in the air stream that otherwise would be lost to the atmosphere. Generally. Louvers Generally. Uniform water distribution at the top of the fill is essential to achieve proper wetting of the entire fill surface. A fan with non-automatic adjustable pitch blades can be used over a wide kW range because the fan can be adjusted to deliver the desired air flow at the lowest power consumption. Many counter flow tower designs do not require louvers. the type of propeller fans used is either fixed or variable pitch. receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill. the cold water basin is beneath the entire fill. The purpose of louvers is to equalize air flow into the fill and retain the water within the tower. The film type of fill is the more efficient and provides same heat transfer in a smaller volume than the splash fill. the water at the bottom of the fill is channeled to a perimeter trough that functions as the cold water basin. In many tower designs. The basin usually has a sump or low point for the cold water discharge connection. Depending upon their size. however. Nozzles can either be fixed and spray in a round or square patterns. Some forced draft counter flow design. Automatic variable pitch blades can vary air flow in response to changing load conditions. The inlet may take up an entire side of a tower (cross flow design) or be located low on the side or the bottom of (counter flow designs). Fans Both axial (propeller type) and centrifugal fans are used in towers. or they can be part of a rotating assembly as found in some circular cross-section towers.

Range is the difference between the cooling tower water inlet and outlet temperature. Water flow rate Nominal Cell dimension Fan stack height Overall tower height Number of Cells Total number of fans Hot water (inlet) temperature L/G ratio Drift losses Mechanical Induced Draft-Counter flow 35.2 m 3.15 degree Fan static efficiency 64 % Cooling Tower Performance Following are the factors that affect cooling tower performance and their calculated values under different conditions that are observed at Lalpir cooling towers 1.2 m/sec 754 m3 /sec 13 . high range would mean better cooling tower performance.8 m 14.33 0.1 % Cold water (outlet) temperature 30 Summer 49 36 1.8 m x 19.76 m 10 per fan 114 RPM 58. In other words.1 % Winter 41 27 1. 21 .000m3 / hour for 2 pumps 15.50 0.26 0.1 % FANS Type & Model Manufacturer Diameter Number of Blades Fan speed Tip speed Air delivery(fan) Pitch angle Axial Flow Propeller Fan (Pitch adjustable) Hudson Products Corporation 9.8 m 8 (per unit) 8 (per unit) Design 41 1.BOP Area Report Cooling Tower Specifications TECHNICAL DATA Type Circ.

22 .e. one percent of the cooling water evaporates. i. 5.BOP Area Report Range (summer) Range (winter) = 49 – 36 = 13 oC = 41 – 27 = 14 oC 2.00153 x 33600 x (49 – 36) = 668 m3 / hr Evaporation loss (winter) = 0. Cooling Capacity is the heat rejected in kCal/hr or TR. Evaporation loss is the water quantity (m3/hr) evaporated for cooling duty..00153 x Circulation Rate (m3/hr) x (T1-T2) Evaporation loss (summer) = 0. given as product of mass flow rate of water. Lower approach means better cooling tower performance. or in other words it is = Range / (Range + Approach).00153 x 33600 x (41 – 27) = 720 m3 / hr 6. Mathematically. Mathematically. Approach (summer) Approach (winter) = 36 – 28 = 8 oC = 27 – 8 = 19 oC 3. Approach is the difference between the cooling tower outlet cold water temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature. to the ideal range. Effectiveness (in percentage) is the ratio of range. Effectiveness (summer) = [13 / (13+8)] x 100 = 62 % Effectiveness (winter) = [14 / (14+19)] x 100 = 42 % Figure 13 Temperature profiles 4. Evaporation Loss (m3/hr) = 0. difference between cooling water inlet temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature. for every 10°F cooling. specific heat and temperature difference. Ideally. Cycles of concentration (C.C) is the ratio of dissolved solids in circulating water to the dissolved solids in make-up water.O.

Mathematically. The pH of the circulating water is kept in range (8. Blow down rate = Evaporation Volume ÷ (CoC – 1) Blow down (canal) Blow down (well) = 668 / (7 – 1) = 111 m3 / hr = 720 / (5 – 1) = 180 m3 / hr 8. 23 .00 = 4.28 Chemical Treatment of Cooling Tower Chemicals are injected in circulating water system to stop microbiological growth and corrosion formation.5 – 10) so there are less chances of scale formation in the system. Thermodynamic rules also dictate that the heat removed from the water must be equal to the heat absorbed by the surrounding air.33 L/G (winter) = 1.66 7. Blow down loss is generally defined as the water lost from the system for all the reasons except evaporation. Acid Dosage Sulfuric acid is added to reduce the pH of the circulating water & to reduce M-alkalinity.2 ppm.2 so as to avoid any scale formation in the system. Scale Inhibitor Nalco 23212 is used as a scale inhibitor in the Cooling Tower.5-2. but seasonal variations require adjustment and tuning of water and air flow rates to get the best cooling tower effectiveness. Liquid-to-gas ration (L/G) of a cooling tower is the ratio between the water and the air mass flow rates. Dispersant is added to keep microbial scale in system suspended so it can be treated with biocides and removed from the cooling tower basin. Cooling towers have certain design values. Dispersant The scale formed tends to stay suspended long enough to be removed by either the blow-down or a filtration system. It is commonly known as phosphate treatment. The pH of the cooling tower is maintained at about 8.BOP Area Report CoC = Cooling water concentration / Makeup water concentration CoC (canal) = 560 ppm / 80 ppm CoC (well) = 560 ppm / 120 ppm = 7. L/G (summer) = 1. Chemical treatments that are practiced at Lalpir cooling towers are. The value of phosphate in circulating water is maintained at 1. Adjustments can be made by water box loading changes or blade angle adjustments.

It can be added as Cl2 or as hypochlorite depending upon the size of the system. b. Chemical Sodium hypo-chloride Dispersant Scale Inhibitor Acid Quantity 0.5 ppm 5 ppm 35 ppm 1.5 – 2. Biocide The tendency for biological activity and fouling can be effectively controlled by adding biocides.5 TPD (well season) 0. chlorine is replaced by sodium hypo-chloride as a biocide for cooling towers at Lalpir.BOP Area Report Two approaches can be taken to ensure adequate control a. Unfortunately this approach also increases the quantities of water and treatment products used and tends not to be cost effective. Increase blow-down rate to remove solids and prevent their concentrations from going too high. to prevent microbial growth.9 TPD (canal season) Remarks Periodic dosing Periodic dosing.3 – 0. Chlorine is added as a shock dose.6 – 0. The hypochlorite should be sodium as opposed to calcium (HTH) as the calcium would add to the system's scaling potential. usually at night. This approach can be very costly and is counter to good environmental practice. Since 2009. Utilize heavy dosage of treatment products to prevent deposition possibly with the incorporation of an acid-feed system to keep the carbonate equilibrium system in the more soluble bicarbonate form. done 30mins before sodium hypo-chloride dosage Batch dosing Batch dosing 24 .

It can compress and purify 5 normal cubic meters of hydrogen to a pressure of 175 kg/cm2. Figure 14 Over-view of Hydrogen Generation system 25 .BOP Area Report CHAPTER 4 Hydrogen Generation System Hydrogen generation system is designed to produce 5 normal cubic meters of hydrogen (when measured at o degree centigrade and 760 mm of Hg).

The anodes are surrounded by cloth diaphragms which prevent mixing of the hydrogen and oxygen gases formed in the cell.10 Volts 58 Amps 50 +/. Electrolytic Cell The Stuart electrolytic cells are of the uni-polar tank type. The electrolyte is a 25% solution of potassium hydroxide (also referred to as “caustic potash” or KOH in water) Cell Temperature Voltage tends to decrease as cell temperature increases. In rectifier. The cell is known as a 3-plate cell. 3 phase. and 50 hertz is supplied from the power feeder panel through circuit breaker to rectifier and transformer. Circuit breaker is provided for short circuit protection. The recommended cell temperature is between 65 to 70 °C above which the rate of corrosion of cell component increases significantly. DC power from rectifier is supplied to electrolytic cells through copper bus bar. voltage is reduced by a rectifier transformer and converted to a DC at Voltage up to 14 volts. transformer and six Stuart electrolytic cells connected in series.5% Hz 3 15 Volts 0 – 2000 A 5% 1% 50 oC AC power at 380 volts.BOP Area Report Hydrogen gas generating system consists of air cooled silicon rectifier. Rectifier Specifications Rated Power Rated AC Voltage Rated AC Current Rated Frequency Number of Phases Rated DC Voltage Rated DC Current Percent Ripple Percent Regulation Ambient Temperature 30 KW 380 +/. 26 . having one nickel-plated iron anode plates and two iron cathode plate.

DC current from the positive terminal of the rectifier enters the first cell in the bank at the terminals of the anodes. If for some reason the electrolyte level should drop to the point where the diaphragms were no longer submerged. Hydrogen forms on the cathode plates while oxygen forms on the anode plates. hydrogen could pass through the diaphragms into the oxygen. Passage of direct current through the cell causes the water in the cell to be converted into hydrogen and oxygen gases. This process is known as “electrolysis” and the cell is called an electrolytic cell. and then on to the anode terminals of the next cell in the bank. 27 . allowing the gases to escape into the cell room.5 °C). they are less efficient at keeping the actual gases separated. and vice-versa. The diaphragms surrounding the anodes are very effective at keeping bubbles of oxygen separated from bubbles of hydrogen. However. This reduces the risk of compressing impure gases.BOP Area Report Figure 15 Electrolytic Cell Electrolyte The optimum concentration of KOH is 25% by weight (Specific Gravity of 1. For this reason the cell is normally operated so that the diaphragms are submerged in the electrolyte. the end of the vent pipe would be exposed. The amount of hydrogen vented into the room is not a hazard provided the room is adequately ventilated. up the cathodes to the cathode terminals (two per cathode).24 measured at 15. Before this could happen however. The current flows down the anodes into the cell. through the electrolyte to the cathodes. From the last cell in the bank the current flows back to the negative terminal of the rectifier.

35 cubic meters of oxygen per hour. 760 mm of mercury). Hydrogen Gas Holder The hydrogen gasholder is a wet-seal type gasholder with a nominal volume of 30 m3. Concentration above 25% also tends to increase the rate of corrosion of cell components. The remainder is removed in the mist eliminator. Hydrogen Purification System The hydrogen at the discharge of the oil lubricated compressors contain the following impurities     Oxygen gas. The entrained mist collects in the fibers of the element and flows downward to the closed bottom end of the element and rains throughput the dip pipe to the bottom of the tank. Some is removed at water seal. At 2000 amperes (maximum cell current each cell will produce 0. The mist eliminator element consists of a hollow cylindrical fiber packed unit with a mounting flange at the top end. As current flow through electrolyte to produce hydrogen and oxygen some heat is also evolved. Cooling water enters from the water header flows through the hydrogen and oxygen gas coolers for each cell in series and then flows to waste. concentrations above or below this tend to increase cell voltage. Gasholder is fitted with four level switches for control of the hydrogen compressors. The oxygen gas formed on the anodes bubbles up through the electrolyte. and flows into the oxygen compartment above the electrolyte level. Most of this entrainment is removed in the cell gas cooler and is returned to the cells. The gases leaving the cell are cooled in water-cooled gas coolers.BOP Area Report The amounts of hydrogen and oxygen formed are directly proportional to the amount of DC current flow through the cell. Similarly. Entrained mist then flows out through the overflow pipe to waste. Mist laden gas flows through the walls of the hollow cylinder. The operating pressure is approximately 125mm water column. Clean gas leaves at the center at the top. inside the diaphragms which surrounds the anodes. Electrolyte Strength The recommended electrolyte concentration is 25% by weight. approximately 0. Hydrogen Mist Eliminator The hydrogen gas leaving the cells carries off some of the Potassium Hydroxide electrolyte in the form of an entrained mist. the hydrogen formed on the cathodes bubbles up through the electrolyte.2% by volume Water vapor. outside the diaphragms.7 cubic meters of hydrogen and 0. and flows into the hydrogen compartment above the electrolyte level. 100 percent relative humidity at operating conditions Oil Vapor and oil droplets picked up in the oil lubricated compressors Moisture condensed out of the hydrogen gas as a result of the increase in pressure 28 . (When measured dry at 0 °C.

The hydrogen dryer is a molecular sieve – dual column – heatless – pressure swing type. If too much oxygen is present (more than 4 %) the gas mixture could explode.BOP Area Report The moisture. A special “wettable” type catalyst is used. When operating properly the purifier should remove oxygen to a residual impurity of less than ten parts per million. From after cooler the hydrogen gas goes to hydrogen storage bottles through coalescing filters. which does not require the use of preheaters. The After cooler is a shell and tube type heat exchanger. A temperature rise of 16 °C can be expected for each tenth of one percent oxygen reacted. Two banks of these filters are supplied so that one bank can be in service while the other bank is being standby Catalytic purifier for removal of oxygen impurity in the hydrogen gas. Temperature gauge at the after cooler outlet indicates hydrogen temperature. Water cooled heat exchanger for cooling the hot hydrogen leaving the catalytic purifier. The purifier is fitted with inlet and outlet temperature gauges. The hydrogen then flows through the dust filter where any dirt particles carried over from the dryer are filtered out. thereby ensuring that the dryer operates at its maximum efficiency. When oxygen is catalytically combined with hydrogen. For this reason extreme caution must be taken to exclude excessive oxygen from hydrogen in the catalytic purifier. 29 . There are 6 horizontally placed storage bottles with the storage capacity of 1200 m3 of hydrogen gas at 175 kg/cm2. The hydrogen then flows to the hydrogen dryer. this valve serves to impose a minimum back pressure on the hydrogen dryer of approximately 175kg/cm2 regardless of the pressure in the downstream cylinder storage. After Cooler The after cooler is supplied to cool the hot hydrogen leaving catalytic purifier. oil droplets and oil vapor are removed in a series of filter. If the hydrogen is not sufficiently cooled the desiccant dryer could be overloaded with harmful effects on the exit dew point. Condensed water is collected in filter. The heat exchanger is fitted with outlet temperature gauge. where it is dried to a dew point of -50 °C. heat is given off and the temperature of the gas increases. as well as coalescing filter and high temperature switches. with hydrogen flowing on the tube side and cooling water flowing on the shell side. Catalytic Purifier The catalytic purifier is used to remove oxygen impurity from the hydrogen gas by causing the oxygen to catalytically combine with hydrogen to form water vapor. temperature controllers. etc. From the dust filter the hydrogen flows through back pressure maintaining valve. before it enters the desiccant dryer.

.....................Table of Figures Figure 1 Over-view of BOP Area.................................. 5 Figure 6 Water Quality at different turbidities ...............................O................................................................................ 5 Figure 7 Media Layers in DMF ........................................................................ 10 Figure 9 Multi Media Filter ...................................................... 8 Figure 8 Media Layers in MMF .............................................................................................. 19 Figure 13 Temperature profiles ............................................................. 11 Figure 10 Osmosis vs........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 Figure 12 Typical Induced Draft Counter flow Cooling Tower .......... 25 Figure 15 Electrolytic Cell .. 3 Figure 4 Over-view of a typical Clarifier ..................................... 2 Figure 3 Settling Basin ............... 22 Figure 14 Over-view of Hydrogen Generation system ............................................................................. 1 Figure 2 Raw Water Intake system ............................................................... 4 Figure 5 Illustration of Coagulation Process .......................................................................................... 12 Figure 11 Reverse Osmosis (R.......................................................... 27 30 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................) banks ............................................................................................ Reverse Osmosis ..............................