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TOPIC PAGE No.No. 6 8 Measures before Transporting Coal 7 9 Problems in coal handling plant 7 10 Dust management in thermal power plant 8 1 . 2 2 Introduction 2 3 Working of Coal Handling Plant 2 4 Availability of Coal in India 4 5 Transportation of Coal 5 6 CHP Auxiliary And Equipments 5 7 Operational Cycle. 1 Abstract .CONTENT SL.

coal is further crushed to required 25 mm size. then available coal is stored in stock yard with the help of stacking belts /automatic stacker cum reclaimer. Stones are picked up manually. By Arial ropeways General Working of a Coal Handling Plant :As mentioned above. This cycle is called stacking. This sized coal is finally fed to coal bunkers. dust etc. weighing of coal. This coal is again conveyed to secondary/final crusher on belt system. crushing it to required size and transferring the quanta of coal to various coal mill bunkers. This sized coal is then send to bunkering belt and with the help of coal trippers.. While working in the coal handling plant the major factor which reduces staff efficiency is the working environment i. In emergency when coal is not available in plant by railways/ropeways. In primary crusher. Conveyor belt before the crusher is provided with hanging magnets to separate ferrous materials. Generally all systems used in power station coal handling plants are wet dust suppression systems.. belts. 1. and handled which should be done effectively and efficiently.To handle the coal. The coal has to be sized. each power station is equipped with a coal handling plant. In case bunkers are full. This cycle is called coal bunkering.In brief we can say that receipt of coal from coal mines. Coal Handling Plant (CHP):Extent of work: . 2 . By Road ( if required 5-10% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way ) 3. In final crushers.ABSTRACT Many thermal power plants use coal as their fuel. This is the responsibility and duty of the CHP and its staff. which bypasses coal of size more than 25 mm. coal is brought to power station by either of three means of coal transportation. By Railway (80-90% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way) 2. INTRODUCTION Coal Handling Plant (CHP) is a plant which handles the coal from its receipt to transporting it to Boiler and store in Bunkers. then this stacked coal is diverted to the coal bunkers by reclaimimg conv. Here vibrating screens are used to feed crushers. This cycle is called reclaiming. The coal stored in bunkers is further send to coal mill for pulverization and combustion in boiler furnace. Receipt of Coal :Normally Thermal Power Station receives the coal by three modes of transportation. coal is first crushed to 100 mm size. It also processes the raw coal to make it suitable for Boiler Opeartion. processed.e. This coal is first conveyed to primary crusher with the help of different combination of conveyor belts and its rate of feeding is controlled by Electro-magnetic vibrating feeders.

GENARAL LAYOUT OF COAL HANDLING PLANT(CHP) Availability of Coal In India :- 3 .

06 .69 4201-5940 28.14 2401-3360 40. C. this mode is not in much use for large thermal power stations. These wagons are then 4 . ( K Cal / Kg. Roadways : Coal is carried in trucks and a truck can carry about 8-10 tons of coal.Roadways 2.69 . Each wagon contains 58 MT of coal.Railways 3.28.10 TRANSPORTATION OF COAL:Coal is brought to the power station by three modes of transportation : 1.14 .97 4941-5600 23.57 5601-6200 19.34.  Mostly E and F grade coal used in India.V. But due to low capacity. low unloading rate and time consuming. ) % Ash + Moisture e > 6200 19.40. Railways : coal is brought by railway wagons. Blending Is Done To get Average D Grade.57 . Locos bring the wagons from the marshalling yard and place them on wagon tippler. One rack consists of 58 wagons.47.92 . 2.05 3361-4200 34.Ropeways 1.23.

or more). being the MSEB property.g. demurrage charges are lavied by railway department. 20 wagons/hr. The only disadvantage of this system is long time for maintenance works.  Trippers:These are the motorized or manually operated machines and are used for feeding the coal to different coal bunkers as per their requirement. Ropeways : This mode of coal transportation is used where coal mines are located near the power stations. 3. Dust extraction systems 8. Conveyor Belts 4. Coal Crushers 5. Coal Hanndling Plant Auxilaries:Major auxiliaries of CHP:1. Automatic loading and unloading mechanisms are provided at loading and unloading stations. which are pulled by a haulage rope with a driving mechanism.unloaded with the help of wagon tippler. Gas Extractor  Wagon Tipplers:These are the giant machines having gear boxes and motor assembly and are used to unload the coal wagons into coal hoppers in very less time (e. This type of coal transportation is very economical compared to road or rail transportation and gives assured supply of coal. Wagon Tipplers 2. This equipment is used for controlled removal of coal from coal hoppers.  Conveyor Belts:These are the synthetic rubber belts which move on metallic rollers called idlers and are used for shifting of coal from one place to other places. Trippers 6. Rate of unloading varies from 75 to 275 MT/Hr depending on the type of ropeways used.  Vibrating Feeders:These are electromagnetic vibrating feeders or sometimes in the form of dragging chains which are provided below the coal hoppers. 5 . Electromagnetic Separators 7.  Coal Crushers:We receive the coal in the form of odd shaped lumps. Vibrating Feeders 3. If these wagons are not unloaded in stipulated time period (generally 7 hrs. Coal is brought by hanging buckets/trolleys travelling on track ropes. The payload of each bucket varies from 1 to 3 tons. These lumps are to be crushed to required size. These lumps are crushed by coal crushers.).

Normal Bunkering cycle. Stacking cycle.  Gas Extractors:Gas extractors are provided at the bunker level to remove all types of poisonous and non poisonous gases from the working area.  Stacking Cycle:When there is no coal requirement at coal bunkers even then CHP has to unload the received coal which is stacked at open ground called yard. This is stacking cycle. However. if any dispute arises regarding weighing of coal same is to be settled by the committee of both the parties. Weight of loaded wagon is taken. after unloading the coal.  Payment of Coal:Payment of coal is made to the coalmines as per the weighing of coal carried out at their premises.  Dust Extraction System:This system is provided in CHP for suppression of coal dust in coal handling plant.  Stone shells:Sometimes stone shells are received along with coal same has to be removed from the coal before bunkering and is done sometimes manually or by different type of machines. Reclaiming Cycle.  Reclaiming Cycle:when coal wagons are not available the requirement of coal bunkers is fulfilled from the stacked coal this is reclaiming cycle. 2. Precautionary Measures before Transporting Coal  Weighing of Coal:Weighing of coal is carried out at wagon tippler.  Normal Bunkering Cycle:Shifting of coal received from coal wagons directly to coal bunkers is normal bunkering cycle. Operational Cycles:1. Electromagnetic Separators:Electromagnets are used for removing of Iron and magnetic impurities from the coal. 3. If quantum of stone shells is beyond minimum limit the cost of the coal is recovered from the coal mines 6 . weight of empty wagon is taken the difference of the two will give the weight of the coal (normally 55-60 metric ton of coal come in each wagon).

CHP require very large area for coal storage and processing. Value much less and ash percentage more than the rated values recommended by manufacturer. 2. belts and ropeway ropes get damaged or broken because of jerks and overloading problems due to various reasons. People working here become victim of Pneumoconiosis which is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust. Thus ergonomic design of CHP is necessary for betterment of workers and authority concern. so they are equipped with a large coal handling plant (CHP) where coal transported from coal mines are stored and processed before sending to boiler and steam generation section. Since many thermal power plant in India facing acute shortage of water. major ergonomic concern is of dust particles which become airborne while coal storage and processing. therefore large scale dust generation occurs at such plant. Slurry formed in coal yard may cause problems with electro-magnetic feeders at input points. Problems: • Snapping of belts /ropes : Conv. frequent choke-ups of transfer chutes and damages to the crusher rings. 3. frequent choke-ups at transfer chutes etc. They play vital role in power generation and distribution. therefore efficient method of dust suppression and prevention is highly recommended which uses least amount of 7 . Design Problems :-Coal received in power station is having cal. At this plant. A CHP may also be called a "coal handling and preparation plant" (CHPP). • Oversized coal/Muddy Coal : Oversized / muddy coal may cause damage to the belt system. Coal yard -Slurry Formation Transfer chutes gets choked up due to wet or muddy coal. and constitute 64. Rainy Season Problems : Chute choke ups. Hence the systems in coal handling plant get overloaded resulting in low bunkering. DUST MANAGEMENT AT COAL HANDLING PLANT OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT :INTRODUCTION :Coal fire thermal power plants are keys to power production in the country. General Problems faced in Coal Handling Plant : 1. Since CHP require large amount of water for dust suppression. This results in lower bunkering and may attract demurrage charges from railway department. Other Misc.  Chemical Analysis of Coal:Sample of coal is randomly collected from each rake by concerned MSEB (Maharashtra State Electricity Board) staff and detailed chemical analysis.75% of total power production in India.against the quantity of stone shells received from them. therefore innovative methods have to be design in order to minimize use of water. Since coal is the basic raw material used in such power plant. • Derailment of coal wagons : De-railment of wagons result in obstacle in unloading of balance wagons in line. calculation of calorific value is carried out and is confirmed whether it is as per agreement with the coal mines or not. Repairing and replacement of these belts and ropes require more time for maint.

The above figure clearly depicts the design proposal for preventing and suppressing dust at CHP using efficient 8 . Dust suppression plays vital role in improving performance of workers and their health.4 cubic meters per megawatt per hour. We clearly define the region for which ergonomic design should be proposed. The following paper discusses design of a dust collector which discharges dust in concentrated form in order to reduce water consumption. typical nozzle design is also proposed which utilizes elegant diverging water spray for dust prevention minimizing water wastage. Layout of a Typical Coal Fired Thermal Power Plant The above diagram typically outline a coal fire thermal power plant where coal transported from coal mines through coal vessels called wagon Tripler is unloaded and coal silo is formed. As clearly outline the major region of dust generation while performing above operations results in large scale airborne particles which must be suppressed. especially at Thermal Power Plant. The dust particles emanating from coal are typically is of size 1 to 100 microns. Apart from Dust Collector. DESIGN PROPOSALS FOR DUST CONTROL AT FIVE DIFFERENT STAGES OF A TYPICAL CHP OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT :- Design proposals for preventing and suppressing dust at CHP using efficient methods. A typical NTPC plant requires 4. hence ergonomic design of CHP is very important issue discussed at industry level.water.

innovative and efficient technique of dust suppression. Large amount of dust is generated and in order to prevent dust. At this stage surface compaction method is used to suppress dust using 612% water solution of very good binding substance which binds the coal dust and prevent it from becoming airborne. Also coal stacker is a constant source of airborne dust particles. While doing this. Also wind play devastating role in increasing dust. Here processed coal is transferred from coal stack through conveyor to relay section. hence large amount of dust is generated which can be suppressed using dust collector. we require large amount of water. on the other hand. suppresses large amount of dust.  STAGE 4 This stage is major area of concern because dust particle size is as low as 1-10 microns. Thus wind is the major factor. The area where reclaiming is done is quite large and hence water addition will be futile.methods and implementing cutting edge technology. Moisture addition is done at this stage using well designed spray which allows controlled flow of solution over coal pile in order to properly suppress dust without affecting the quality of coal.  STAGE 1 At this stage.So wind speed i s c o n t r o l l e d in order to prevent dust to become airborne. Therefore this stage requires a suitable. coal transported from coal mines is brought at CHP using Wagon Tripler and unloaded to reclaimer.  STAGE 2 Here (reclaimer stage) coal is unloaded from wagon Tripler to be reclaimed. Therefore it is necessary to suppress dust generation. large amount of dust is generated. The given design proposal targets five different stages where dust generation is quite large. Here diverging nozzles are used for moisture addition. windshield net or windbreak forest is provided in order to reduce dust generation. too little water will be ineffective in dust control. Directly adding moisture to coal prevents dust from becoming airborne. Since it is necessary to know exactly what amount of water to be added as too much water will cause mud and make coal heavier. The following section discusses design of wet centrifugal dust collector with automatic discharg for suppressing dust at this stage. moisture addition is most efficient technique as water is very powerful binding solvent. but dust collector with minimum use of water. Since moisture addition is futile exercise. therefore we develop wet dust collector which can reduce dust concentration as low as 1% in the concerned area.  STAGE 5 9 .  STAGE 3 Reclaimer piles up the coal at a large storage area and forms a stacker or coal pile. Dust collector is very elegant device which discharges dust in concentrated form reducing water consumption. Even for suppressing 1mm thick dust layer. Diverging nozzle will allow optimum proportionate of water to be added with coal.

The most common types of centrifugal or inertial collectors in use today are: 1) Single-cyclone separators 2) Cyclone Multiple-separators 3) Secondary Air Flow Separators A typical wet centrifugal dust collector uses scrubbing effect of water to suppress dust. diverging nozzles of optimum diameter are used for proper water spray. it opens inlet valve to allow fresh water to fill up. The power rating of motor varies as per requirement. This device uses the principle of dynamic precipitation technique in which very high suction pressure suck the dusty air and allow to centrifuge through it. these particles fall into a hopper located underneath. At this stage. These sensors sense the concentration level of dust in the container and when it goes beyond 90%. These two springs loaded valves are operated to allow passage of concentrated dust and automatic filling of fresh water using sensors. This remains open until total discharge of concentrated dust occurs from the tank. The centrifugal force created by the circular flow throws the dust particles toward the wall of the cyclone. After striking the wall. assuming power 10 . At this stage also. The dust collector has a small tank full of water which has two valves. This centrifugal dust collector is very efficient and requires minimum amount of water since it discharges dust in concentrated form. Also discharge is recycled in order to have minimum water wastage.4 cubic meter per megawatt per hour. Centrifugal action separates dust from fresh air and fresh air is allowed to escape from other end of dust collector. usual method of moisture addition is sufficient since small amount of dust generates which can easily be suppress using proper amount of moisture addition. Water is very good binding substance for dust and therefore it is used as scrubbing element. In a typical cyclone.Last stage is unloading of coal from relay section and transfer to the boiler section. At the same time. DESIGN OF A WET CENTRIFUGAL DUST COLLECTOR :- Centrifugal collectors use cyclonic action to separate dust particles from the gas stream. This device applies the principle of film formation over the dust layer and confines dust particles leaving fresh air to escape.. the dust gas stream enters at an angle and is spun rapidly. it opens the discharge valve. Taking a typical case of a NTPC plant which uses 4. The dust collector uses automatic discharge technique and hence save time for manual operations for discharging and refilling.

This is huge amount of water which is utilized at such plant.production of 1000MW. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION :A wet centrifugal dust collector with automatic discharge can reduce airborne dust particles and minimize water wastage. Since current situation demands eco. above mentioned ergonomic designs are noteworthy. Proper implementation of dust suppression and prevention methods reduces health hazards of workers. Also other methods of dust collection reduce dust and water wastage as discussed earlier. total water consumption will be 4400 million cubic meter water. 11 . But with the above mentioned techniques. if implemented properly can save large amount of water and hence reduce chances of acute water shortage. This has great impact not only at workplace but also in environment. employees and people residing nearby.friendly methods of dust suppression without much water wastage.