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Why xDSL?

Siemens

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TI2322EU02TI_001

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Siemens

Why xDSL?

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Evolution from Analog to Digital Telephony

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TI2322EU02TI_001

Why xDSL?

Siemens

Telephone technology involves the tr ns!er o! in!orm tion !rom one comm"nic tion #evice to one or more other comm"nic tion #evices$ The evol"tion o! comm"nic tions technology in the l te 1%%0&s h s llo'e# the term (in!orm tion) to incl"#e voice* # t n# vi#eo services$ Since the 1+,0&s* telephone technology h s prim rily -een !oc"se# on tr ns!erring "#io . n log/ sign ls -et'een t'o points$ In the 1%%0&s* the Internet n# # t
TI2322EU02TI_001

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Siemens

Why xDSL?

comm"nic tion systems -eg n to re0"ire ne' type o! comm"nic tion system$ These systems re0"ire# the tr ns!er o! high1spee# # t sign ls to v riety o! # t net'or2s$ The s'itching systems th t re "se# !or voice s'itching re not ppropri te !or high1spee# # t comm"nic tions$

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TI2322EU02TI_001

Why xDSL? Siemens 3ig$ 1 TI2322EU02TI_001 5 .

40 million n log telephone lines thro"gho"t the 'orl#$ 5 m 6ority o! telephone lines "se p irs o! copper 'ire to c rry "#io sign ls$ 5ltho"gh these copper 'ires 'ere #esigne# to c rry voice sign ls* they re c p -le o! c rrying lo' spee# # t sign ls thro"gh the "se o! "#io mo#ems$ 5"#io mo#ems convert #igit l sign ls to "#io tones so they c n -e tr ns!erre# thro"gh the existing telephone net'or2$ The m xim"m llo' -le spee# over "#io mo#ems is 47 2-ps$ I! 'e re going to o!!er 'i#er .Siemens Why xDSL? 1.1 Analog Transmission There re over .n# connectivity 'e 'ill h ve to loo2 else'here th n t the tr #ition l telephone circ"it$ 6 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

Why xDSL? Siemens TI2322EU02TI_001 7 .

Siemens Why xDSL? 3ig$ 2 8 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

2.=emote Termin l/ is th t it re#"ces the e!!ective length o! the copper line* th"s improving the reli -ility o! the service$ TI2322EU02TI_001 9 . systems re inst lle#* the high cost o! implement tion n# v il -ility o! ltern tive sol"tions #el ye# its 'i#e implement tion$ 1.loc l loop/ to c rry "p to 42 9-ps$ 1.et'or2/$ ISD.Why xDSL? Siemens 1.1 SD! :ne o! the !irst #v nces in the loc l loop #igit l tr nsmission ' s the ISD.2 Digital Transmission Digit l telephone tr nsmission technology h s evolve# over the p st 80 ye rs to incre se the e!!iciency o! copper 'ire to c rry more comm"nic tions ch nnels$ Th"s llo's st n# r# copper telephone 'ires . ' s s"ppose# to repl ce n log systems 'ith high1spee# #igit l ch nnels$ 5ltho"gh m ny ISD.2 Digital Loop Carrier "DLC# DL< is #igit l tr nsmission technology th t -"n#les n"m-er o! phone line sign ls into single m"ltiplexe# #igit l sign l$ :ne #v nt ge o! termin ting the loops t DL<1=T .2. .Integr te# Services Digit l .

Siemens Why xDSL? 3ig$ 3 3ig$ 8 10 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

$ Share% Analog an% Digital Transmission >ec "se o! the l rge n"m-er o! inst lle# n log telephones* it is very #esir -le to provi#e -oth n log n# #igit l service 'itho"t re0"iring the repl cement o! existing telephone e0"ipment$ E rly #igit l tr nsmission systems .n# . n# T1/ #igiti?e# the entire .Why xDSL? Siemens 1.e$g$ ISD.8 2@? n# -elo'/$ The #igit l sign l mo#"l tes n =3 c rrier sign l th t h s !re0"ency r nge -ove the "#io sign l$ 5n# then this ' s the ' y to xDSL technology$ TI2322EU02TI_001 11 .n#s$ The n log sign l occ"pies the lo'er portion o! the !re0"ency .n#'i#th o! copper 'ire tr nsmission lines$ This re0"ire# either the repl cement o! ll existing n log phones or the inst ll tion o! n ctive line # pter to convert into #igit l$ The sh ring o! -oth n log n# #igit l sign ls on the s me copper 'ire llo's selective "pgr #ing !or existing c"stomers* 'itho"t ch nging the inst lle# e0"ipment n# 'ith minim l ch nges o! lines$ 3ig$4 sho's th t n log n# #igit l sign ls c n sh re the s me tr nsmission line -y "sing 2 #i!!erent !re0"ency .

Siemens Why xDSL? 3ig$ 4 12 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

Why xDSL? Siemens TI2322EU02TI_001 13 .

Siemens Why xDSL? 2 The Way to xDSL 14 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

n#'i#th to' r#s the c"stomer getting "se o! the in!r str"ct"re o! lre #y existing net'or2s$ Need for Speed The (.Why xDSL? Siemens 5s the Internet contin"es its m ?ing gro'th* A< m r2et contin"es its ro-"st gro'th n# telecomm"ting incre ses in pop"l rity .n#'i#th) to the c"stomer 'itho"t the nee# the existing in!r str"ct"re repl cement$ Th t is to s y the DSL is l st mile very ! st ccess technology$ TI2322EU02TI_001 15 .i$e$ gro'ing h"nger !or high1spee# # t / there sho"l# -e ' y to -ring this high .ee# 3or Spee#) ' s the 2ey to #evelop the xDSL technology$ DSL then* is technology th t -rings high1spee# or (l rge .

Siemens Why xDSL? 3ig$ 7 16 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

Why xDSL? Siemens 3ig$ . TI2322EU02TI_001 17 .

Siemens Why xDSL? $ &enefits of xDSL 18 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

40 million telephone copper lines re inst lle# 'orl#'i#e DSL c n provi#e voice n# # t over the s me phone line Users #on&t nee# secon# phone line $.Why xDSL? Siemens Intro#"cing DSL into the existing net'or2 in!r str"ct"re h s the !ollo'ing !e t"res n# #v nt gesB • • • • DSL "ses existing telephone lines S"pports v riety o! pplic tions Arovi#es sol"tions to to# y&s ccess pro-lems DSL m 2es economic sense $.symmetric n# 5symmetric/ to s tis!y pplic tions li2eB TI2322EU02TI_001 19 .1 • • • DSL uses existing telephone lines :ver .2 • • 'any DSL flavors v riety o! Internet ccess Telecomm"ting There re sever l !l vors o! DSL .

the ct" l connection spee#s re m"ch less/$ Even i! 'e "se ISD. 5ccess Ci#eo <on!erencing :nline D ming $.sic r te* spee#s re limite# to 12+ 2-ps$ The ns'er to this pro-lemB DSL c n re ch "p to 42 9-ps 3ig$ + 20 TI2322EU02TI_001 .1.Siemens Why xDSL? • • • • Dist nt Le rning =emote L5.$.1 +ro*lem .&an%.$ DSL provi%es solutions to to%ay(s a))ess pro*lems Aro-lems li2e . .i%th shortage =esi#enti l "sers re #em n#ing ccess spee#s s those they c n get in 'or2 environments$ >y "sing n log mo#ems 'e c n re ch "p to 47 2-ps m xim"m .n#'i#th short ge* -"sy sign ls n# s'itch congestions re ll tre te# e!!iciently -y DSL $.

it)h Congestion Coice s'itches 'ere si?e# to h n#le voice c lls$ Coice c lls re "s" lly short .&usy signals 3or Internet ccess* 'hen connecting to the ISA thro"gh #i l1"p 'e m y he r -"sy sign ls$ The re son !or -"sy tones is th t m"ltiple s"-scri-ers sh re the .4 min"tes on the ver ge/* 'here s # t c lls re "s" lly long .S.Why xDSL? Siemens $.$.2.$ +ro*lem .et'or2$ The ns'er to this pro-lemB D t tr !!ic is not ro"te# thro"gh the voice s'itch$ TI2322EU02TI_001 21 .sever l ho"rs/$ So # t c lls m 2e congestion to the voice .n#'i#th$ The ns'er to this pro-lemB • • 5 DSL mo#em is #e#ic te# to e ch s"-scri-er* not sh re# -y m"ltiple s"-scri-ers$ DSL services re l' ys on$ $.$.2 +ro*lem .$.

Siemens Why xDSL? $./ DSL ma0es e)onomi) sense The re"se o! existing telephone 'ire pl nt gre tly re#"ces #eployment costs$ < n -e #eploye# 'itho"t l rge initi l investments$ 3ig$ % 22 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

Why xDSL? Siemens 3ig$ 10 TI2322EU02TI_001 23 .

Siemens Why xDSL? / Transmission 'e%ium Limitations 24 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

1 1re2uen)y 3esponse The t'isting o! copper 'ire p irs provi#es goo# !re0"ency response !or lo' !re0"ency "#io sign ls$ Un!ort"n tely* t'iste# copper 'ire p irs re not speci!ic lly #esigne# !or high !re0"ency tr nsmission$ 5n log sign ls h ve !re0"ency r nge "p to 3$8 2@? n# most xDSL technologies "se !re0"encies "p to 1$1 9@?$ TI2322EU02TI_001 25 .sign l Ingress/ .oise !rom extern l so"rces th t c "se #istortion .Why xDSL? Siemens There re m ny limit tions o! copper lines th t re#"ce the -ility to tr ns!er DSL$ 3rom these limit tionsB • • • • • • Limite# !re0"ency response o! the copper lines <rosst l2 .on1termin te# t p lines 5"#io coils Sign l tten" tion th t res"lts !rom line splices n# line resist nce /.EET n# 3EET/ ..

emission !rom the line/$ 5ny crosst l2 h s m 6or imp ct on the #eployment o! DSL services vi the loc l loop$ <rosst l2 on DSL systems c n -e #ivi#e# into t'o c tegoriesB .e r En# <rosst l2 .2 Crosstal0 <rosst l2 is the "n#esire# co"pling o! sign l !rom one comm"nic tions ch nnel to nother$ <rosst l2 occ"rs 'hen some o! the tr nsmission sign l energy le 2s !rom the c -le$ This le 2 ge is c lle# sign l egress .Siemens Why xDSL? 5s the !re0"ency pplie# to the copper 'ire p ir incre ses* the tten" tion o! the line incre ses$ The !re0"ency response #epen#s on m ny ! ctors incl"#ing the #imensions o! the copper 'ire ..3EET/$ 3ig$ 11 26 TI2322EU02TI_001 .EET/ n# 3 r En# <rosst l2 .g "ge/* ins"l tion type n# inst ll tion environment$ /.

. . . .re . noise . . . . . . . . !re0"ency . . . . . . . . . . "sing . . . . . . . . . the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !or . . DSLF . . . . . . . . . . . . . .s/ t other en# o! the line$ 3EET is # ngero"s !or DSLs "sing sep r te !re0"ency . . . . . . . . . . -y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'here . . . . . . . .me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . en# . . . . . . . . . . . . . . receive . . . . . . . . . . . . .#i!!erent$ . . . . . . . . DSL t the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .EET . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .s/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . receiver . . .me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o! . . . . . . . . . .ngero"s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .n#s !or e ch #irection o! tr nsmission$ TI2322EU02TI_001 27 . . . . . . . . . . nsmit . . . . . . . . .s . . . . . . . . . . . c . the . . . . . . . . . . .# . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr nsmission in -oth #irections$ Th t is to s y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .n#s . . . . !rom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DSLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1ar En% 45Tal0 "1E4T# =eceiver is !!ecte# -y co"ple# noise !rom tr nsmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nsmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n# . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .1 !ear En% 45Tal0 "!E4T# /. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n#s . . 5symmetric . . !or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Why xDSL? Siemens . .EET is not pro-lem in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr . . . . . . . !!ecte# . . . . . . . .co"ple# . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -le$ s . . .

2 vi crosst l2 -et'een c -le p irs 1 n# 2 .EET/$ NOTES Dener lly* .EET is more serio"s th n 3EET s the sign l inter!erence levels !rom ..1* n# rrives t the receiving mo#em U1 in tten" te# !orm #"e to the c -le loss$ 9o#em U1 lso receives some sign l !rom the #o'nstre m tr nsmission .3EET/$ 9o#em U1 lso receives some "n' nte# sign l !rom the "pstre m tr nsmission o! mo#em U2 .EET re higher$ In 3 ct 9o#em U1 receives some crosst l2 !rom e ch o! the other p irs c rrying DSL tr nsmissions$ 28 TI2322EU02TI_001 .Siemens Why xDSL? NEXT plus FEXT T 2e the c se o! the sign ls rriving t the "ser mo#em U1$ The ' nte# sign l is tr nsmitte# #o'nstre m -y the net'or2 mo#em .

Why xDSL? Siemens 3ig$ 12 3ig$ 13 TI2322EU02TI_001 29 .

$ Signal ngress Sign l ingress occ"rs 'hen electric l sign ls !rom other so"rces ."ser ccess lines/ to centr l o!!ice$ >ri#ge# t ps provi#e connection options to the telephone comp ny on connecting #i!!erent comm"nic tion lines to centr l o!!ice 'itho"t h ving to inst ll ne' p irs o! 'ires e ch time c"stomer re0"ests ne' telephone line$ The connection o! one or more -ri#ge# t ps on comm"nic tion line th t is "se# !or A:TS services #oes not "s" lly c "se sign l #istortion$ @o'ever* "n#etermine# -ri#ge# t ps th t re inst lle# on comm"nic tion lines th t tr ns!er xDSL sign ls c n res"lt in sign l #istortion$ The sign l #istortion comes !rom the re!lections o! sign l energy re!lection o!! the -ri#ge# t ps$ When n electric l sign l is pplie# to the en# o! copper 'ire* electric l energy -egins to tr vel #o'n the copper 'ire$ I#e lly* 'hen the energy re ches the en# o! the copper 'ire* the sign l is -sor-e# t the other en# .some xDSL technologies llo' only "p to 2 -ri#ge t ps 'ithin the line 'ith m x$ length o! 400 m e ch/$ 30 TI2322EU02TI_001 .c2 to the -eginning o! the line$ 3ig$14 sho's ho' re!lections !rom -ri#ge# line t p c n c "se #istortion$ This re!lecte# sign l is #el ye# version o! the origin l sign l$ Typic lly* -ri#ge# t ps m"st -e remove# !rom comm"nic tions lines th t "se DSL technology ./ &ri%ge% Tap 3efle)tions 5 -ri#ge# t p is n extension to comm"nic tion line th t is "se# to tt ch t'o or more en# points .c lle# m tche# line/$ I! the en# o! the 'ire is not connecte#* some .s"ch s r #io or lightning spi2es/ enter into the tr nsmission line$ 3ig$18 sho's sever l so"rces o! r #io sign l ingress th t m y occ"r in DSL system$ 5 high po'er 59 r #io tr nsmission to'er loc te# ne r telephone line c n co"ple some o! its energy onto the telephone line$ This inter!erence "s" lly re#"ces the # t tr nsmission c p city o! the DSL line$ /.or ll/ o! the energy is re!lecte# .Siemens Why xDSL? /.

Why xDSL? Siemens 3ig$ 18 3ig$ 14 TI2322EU02TI_001 31 .

impe# nce/ th t is #epen#ent o! the si?e .7 Line Spli)e Attenuation Telephone c -les "s" lly come in 400 !eet roles$ >ec "se most telephone lines re sever l tho"s n# !eet !rom the centr l o!!ice* sever l c -le splices re re0"ire#$ E ch line splice tten" tes the sign l n# the mo"nt o! sign l tten" tion v ries #epen#ing on the type o! splice n# the mo"nt o! corrosion insi#e the splice$ Example 3or loc l ccess line #ist nce over 10*000 !eet* there re more th t 20 splices in the ver ge loc l ccess loop$ E ch o! these splices o!!ers the potenti l !or corrosion n# incre se# resist nce$ We !"# $urre" :ne metho# to #ecre se the e!!ects o! corrosion .#i meter/ o! the c -le n# the length o! the c -le$ The resist nce o! the copper 'ire incre ses s the #i meter #ecre ses .c lle# (se ling c"rrent) or ('etting c"rrent)/* 'hich is sm ll mo"nt o! #irect c"rrent th t is p sse# thro"gh the copper 'ire p ir$ The #irect c"rrent e!!ectively p"nches holes in the corrosive oxi#e !ilm th t !orms on the mech nic l splices$ /.Siemens Why xDSL? /.g "ge n"m-er incre ses/ n# o! co"rse s the length o! the line incre ses$ The higher the line resist nce* the more o! the sign l energy is #issip te# -y the line n# less energy is tr ns!erre# to the receiving #evice$ This le #s to the #ecre se in the # t r te o! the xDSL line$ 32 TI2322EU02TI_001 .6 Au%io Loa%ing Coils 5"#io coils re "se# to #6"st the !re0"ency response o! comm"nic tion line to -etter tr ns!er "#io sign ls$ While these lo #ing coils 'or2 'ell !or "#io sign ls* they completely #is -le the -ility o! the line to -e "se# !or high !re0"ency xDSL sign ls$ 3ig$ 17 sho's th t there m y -e sever l inst lle# "#io lo #ing coils on single loc l loop line$ These lo #ing coils 9UST -e remove# !or xDSL tr nsmission$ /.8 Line 3esistan)e Attenuation The copper c -le lso h s resist nce . n# re#"ce tten" tion/ is to contin"o"sly r"n electric c"rrent thro"gh the copper 'ire p ir .

Why xDSL? Siemens 3ig$ 17 3ig$ 1. TI2322EU02TI_001 33 .

Siemens Why xDSL? 34 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

Why xDSL? Siemens 6 Exer)ise TI2322EU02TI_001 35 .

Siemens Why xDSL? 36 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

Why xDSL? Siemens Exer)ise Title9*:e)tives+re5re2uisiteThe ' y to xDSL technology =es"me the concepts #isc"sse# on this section <ompletion o! the (Why xDSL?( register Tas0 5ns'er the !ollo'ing 0"estionsG .$ 9ention the limit tions o! copper lines th t re#"ce the c p -ilities o! DSL technology$ TI2322EU02TI_001 37 .uery 1$ Wh t re the #i!!erences -et'een the telephone technology in the p st n# no' # ys? 2$ Wh t is the !"nction o! "#io mo#ems? Wh t&s the m xim"m llo' -le spee# over s"ch mo#ems? 3$ Wh t re the #i!!erent types o! #igit l tr nsmission systems? Which o! them s"pports the integr tion -et'een n log n# #igit l sign ls? 8$ Wh t ' s the 2ey to #evelop xDSL technology? 4$ 9ention the #v nt ges o! intro#"cing xDSL in the ccess net'or2$ 7$ (DSL provi#es sol"tions to to# y&s ccess pro-lems)$ Disc"ss the previo"s st tement$ .

Siemens Why xDSL? 38 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

Why xDSL? Siemens 7 Solution TI2322EU02TI_001 39 .

Siemens Why xDSL? 40 TI2322EU02TI_001 .

Why xDSL? Siemens Solution Title9*:e)tives+re5re2uisiteTas0 5ns'er the !ollo'ing 0"estions$ The ' y to xDSL technology =es"me the concepts #isc"sse# on this section <ompletion o! the (Why xDSL?( register .$ Limite# !re0"ency response o! the copper lines* crosst l2* noise !rom extern l so"rces* non1termin te# t p lines* "#io coils n# sign l tten" tion res"lting !rom splices n# line resist nce$ TI2322EU02TI_001 41 .uery 1$ Since the 1+.* DL< n# xDSL$ EDSL s"pports integr tion o! n log n# #igit l sign ls over the s me copper p ir$ 8$ (. n log/ sign ls -et'een t'o points$ In the 1%%0&s* the Internet n# # t comm"nic tion systems re0"ire #igit l comm"nic tion system$ 2$ 5"#io mo#ems convert #igit l sign ls to "#io tones$ The m xim"m llo' -le spee# over "#io mo#ems is 47 2-ps$ 3$ ISD.n#'i#th short ge* -"sy sign ls n# s'itch congestions re ll tre te# e!!iciently -y DSL$ .0&s* telephone technology h s prim rily -een !oc"se# on tr ns!erring "#io .ee# !or Spee#)$ 4$ DSL "ses existing telephone lines* s"pports v riety o! pplic tions* provi#es sol"tions to to# y&s ccess pro-lems n# m 2es economic sense$ 7$ Aro-lems li2e .

Siemens Why xDSL? 42 TI2322EU02TI_001 .