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G.V.

Plekhanov

Belinski and Rational Reality
(1897)

Originally published in 1897. Translated by John G. Wright. This translation first published in Fourth International, Vol.16, os.!, " # $, %pring, %u&&er # 'all 19((, pp.!9)"", 87)9! # 1"$)1"9, # Vol.17, o.!, %pring 19(6, pp.(9)6$.

*ditor+s ote ,hapter ,hapter -,hapter --,hapter -V ,hapter V ,hapter V,hapter V-,hapter V---

Editor s !ote

The .ussian intelle/tuals, the only re0olutionary intelligentsia in &odern Western history, ha0e left us a great heritage of theory. Their literary and artisti/ produ/tions are relati0ely 1ell 2no1n abroad 34ush2in, Gogol, 5ussorgs2y, et/.6, but the .ussian pioneers in the field of thought are 0irtually un2no1n, espe/ially in our /ountry. This is true in parti/ular of V.G. 7elins2i 31811)18$86 and .G. ,hernishe0s2i 318!8)18896. These t1o great .ussian s/holars, /riti/s and thin2ers 1ere, li2e 'ran8ois 'ourier in 'ran/e 3177!) 18"76, true dis/iples of 9egel 3177:)18"16. They headed the gala;y of intelle/tuals 1ho pa0ed the 1ay for 5ar;ist thought in .ussia. G.V. 4le2hano0, founder of .ussian 5ar;is&, a profound student of philosophy and best trained 5ar;ist of his day, dealt syste&ati/ally 1ith ,hernishe0s2i, 1riting a boo2 as 1ell as essays about his life and 1or2. 4le2hano0 held 7elins2i in e<ually great estee&, /onsidering hi& =the &ost re&ar2able philosophi/ organis& e0er to appear in .ussian literature.> 7elins2i+s /hief &erit in 4le2hano0+s opinion 1as that he 1as the first =by the genius flight of thought to pose before us those proble&s of theory 1hose /orre/t solution led dire/tly to s/ientifi/ so/ialis&.> 4le2hano0 intended to present 7elins2i to the 5ar;ist &o0e&ent in a syste&ati/ 1ay, but ne0er got around to 1riting his pro?e/ted boo2, lea0ing only arti/les 1hi/h ne0ertheless /onstitute a si@able 0olu&e. The finest of these essays, Belinski and Rational Reality, he 1rote in 1897 at the pinna/le of his brilliant 5ar;ist /areer, years before he deserted the /ause to 1hi/h he o1es his fa&e. *0en for 4le2hano0+s leisurely epo/h and his leisurely 1ay of 1riting, this 1as a lengthy arti/le. -t had to be published in t1o install&ents in the re0olutionary periodi/al !ovoye "lovo 3!e# $ord, 1897, os.7 # 86. 4le2hano0 begins his treat&ent of 7elins2i 1ith the fourth /hapter of the eight he 1rote. 9e thought this lengthy beginning ne/essary, be/ause he de/ided first to e;pound the real &eaning of 9egel, &ore a//urately, the &eaning of 9egel+s general state&ent of the diale/ti/A Bll that is real is rationalC all that is rational is real. -t 1as little understood in .ussia at the ti&e. The study of 7elins2i that follo1s further de0elops the basi/ ideas of 9egel+s s/hool of thought. This essay on 7elins2i and 9egel thus supple&ents 4le2hano0+s earlier arti/le in 1891, The Meaning of Hegel, 1ritten on the si;tieth anni0ersary of 9egel+s death and published in our &aga@ine, Bpril and 5ay 19$9. V.-. Denin said =it is i&possible to be/o&e a real /o&&unist 1ithout studying, really studying, e0erything that 4le2hano0 has 1ritten on philosophy, as this is the best of the 1hole 1orld literature of 5ar;is&.> -n 19!! Deon Trots2y 1roteA =The great 4le2hano0, the true one, belongs 1holly and e;/lusi0ely to us. -t is our duty to restore to the young generations his spiritual figure in all its stature.> This translation 1as &ade fro& the original .ussian te;t by John G. Wright.

(Part 1)

%u&i'er( Was not thy <uest for 2no1ledgeE )ain( Fes, as being the road to happiness. G 7yron, Cain, a Mystery.

)ha*ter I
=T9* .OOT <uestion of 9egel+s influen/e upon 7elins2i+s 1orld outloo2 has been posed by &ost .ussian /riti/s, but it has been analy@ed by none 1ith the ne/essary thoroughness Hthrough a /o&parison of 7elins2i+s 1ell)2no1n 0ie1s 1ith their original sour/es,> says 5r. Volyns2iA = o one has analy@ed attenti0ely enough 7elins2i+s estheti/ ideas in their original /ontent, nor sub?e/ted the& to i&partial ?udg&ent on the basis of a definite theoreti/al /riterion.> 3B. Volyns2i, Russian )riti&s, p."8.6 Bll of this is by no &eans surprising be/ause prior to 5r. Volyns2i+s appearan/e a&ong us, there e;isted no =real> philosophy, nor 1as there any =real /riti/is&.> -f so&e of us did happen to 2no1 so&ething, 1e 2ne1 it &erely in a /onfused, disorderly 1ay. 7y 1ay of /o&pensation, as of no1, than2s to 5r. Volyns2i, 1e shall all rapidly set oursel0es in order and enri/h our &eager %to/2 of learning. Bs a guide 5r. Volyns2i is <uite reliable. Obser0e, for instan/e, ho1 neatly he sol0es =the root <uestion of 9egel+s influen/e upon 7elins2i+s 1orld outloo2.> =5aturing and de0eloping, in part under the influen/e of %tan2e0i/h+s /ir/le, in part independently by digesting his i&pressions of ade@hdin+s arti/les, 7elins2i+s thought s1iftly attained its pea2, and its highest pit/h of enthusias&, 'or 7elins2i, the %/helling period had already /on/luded by 18"7C and 9egel+s philosophy, as it rea/hed hi& through tal2s 1ith friends, through &aga@ine arti/les and translations, o//upied a /entral pla/e in his literary and intelle/tual pursuits. Bnd so it is pre/isely here, and &ost stri2ingly, that there e&erges 7elins2i+s inability to dra1 independent logi/al /on/lusions /on/erning politi/al and /i0il <uestions in 1hi/h philosophi/ theore&s are in0ol0edC syste&ati/ thought 1as beyond 7elins2i+s po1ers. 9e 1as astounded by 9egel+s do/trine, but he la/2ed the strength to thin2 this do/trine through, in all its se0eral parts and se0eral /on/lusions. =9egel /har&ed his i&agination, but pro0ided no i&petus to 7elins2i+s &ental /reati0eness. 'or the /o&plete analysis of the basi/ propositions of idealis&, one had to ar& oneself 1ith patien/e. -t 1as ne/essary to /all a halt for a 1hile to flights of fan/y and of e&otion, so as to gi0e the& ne1 1ings later on. 7ut 7elins2i 1as in/apable of /al&ly po2ing and prying into the truth G and his 1hole 9egelianis&, together 1ith his infatuation 1ith %/helling, as e;pounded by ade@hdin, 1as bound in the end to degenerate into thought that 1as inhar&onious, shot through 1ith logi/al &ista2es, ad&i;ed 1ith <ueer drea&s of a /on/iliationist)/onser0ati0e bent.> 3i+id., p.9:.6 5r. Volyns2i 1as thus greatly sho/2ed by 7elins2i+s te&porary /on/iliation 1ith realityC and he is able to e;plain it in one 1ay only, na&ely, 7elins2i grasped 9egel poorly. To tell the truth, this e;planation is not e;a/tly ne1. -t &ay be found in the &e&oirs 3,y Past and -hou.hts6 of B.-. 9er@en, as 1ell as in the re/olle/tions of -.%. Turgene0 and e0en in a letter by .V. %tan2e0i/h to e0ero0, 1ritten al&ost i&&ediately after the publi/ation of 7elins2i+s fa&ous arti/les on the 7attle of 7orodino and on Menzel, Critic of Goethe. What is 5r. Volyns2i+s o1n is /o&posed of snide /o&&ents /on/erning the ignoran/e of 7elins2i /oupled 1ith subtle hints anent the un<uestionable and in/o&parable superiority of his own 35r. Volyns2i+s6 Pro/etheus o' 0ur -i/es. Bt first glan/e the abo0e e;planation reprodu/ed by 5r. Volyns2i G and it /ir/ulates in se0eral 0ersions G appears <uite plausible. 9egel pro/lai&edA Was wirklich ist, das ist vernünftig 31hat is real

is rational6C and on this basis 7elins2i rushed to pro/lai& as rational, and by this to2en, sa/red and untou/hable, the 1hole rather unpretty .ussian reality of his ti&esC and he started passionately to atta/2 e0erybody 1ho 1as not satisfied 1ith it. The arti/les in 1hi/h 7elins2i e;pressed these /on/iliationist 0ie1s 1ere =nasty> arti/les, as the liberal Grano0s2i said &oderately and a//urately at the ti&e. 7ut 9egel bears no responsibility for the&C he put a spe/ial &eaning into his do/trine of rational reality and this spe/ial &eaning es/aped 7elins2i 1ho neither 2ne1 the Ger&an language nor had the /apa/ity for =pure thought.> Dater on, and espe/ially under the influen/e of his &o0ing to 4etersburg, he sa1 ho1 /ruelly 1rong he had beenC he per/ei0ed the true attributes of our reality and /ursed his fatal straying into error. What /an be &ore si&ple than all of thisE %ad to say, ho1e0er, this e;planation si&ply e;plains nothing. Without entering into an e;a&ination of all the different 0ariants of the foregoing e;planation, let us ta2e note here that our present)day =ad0an/ed> patriae patres 3honor)laden so/iologists in/luded6 loo2 upon 7elins2i+s arti/les on 7orodino and on 5en@el through the sa&e eyes as the bibli/al patriar/h &ust ha0e regarded the =youthful errors> of his prodigal son. 5agnani&ously forgi0ing the /riti/) genius his =&etaphysi/al> strayings, these =ad0an/ed> persons are loath to refer to the&, in a//ordan/e 1ith the fol2)saying, =Whosoe0er re/alls the past, stands to lose an eye.> 7ut this does not deter the& fro& hinting, rele0antly or irrele0antly, that they, the =ad0an/ed> persons, 1ho 1hile still 0irtually in diapers grasped all the philosophi/ and so/iologi/al truthsC they hint, - say, that they understand perfe/tly the 1hole profundity of those strayings into error and the 1hole horror of that =fall> into 1hi/h 7elins2i 1as led by his &ispla/ed and i&prudent G but happily, only te&porary G passion for =&etaphysi/s.> 7eti&es young 1riters are also re&inded of this =fall,> parti/ularly those 1ho tend to be disrespe/tful to1ard the ,ro1ned Ones of literature, those 1ho dare doubt the /orre/tness of our =ad0an/ed> /ate/his&, and 1ho turn to sour/es abroad in order better to /larify for the&sel0es the proble&s 1hi/h are agitating &odern /i0ili@ed hu&anity. These young 1riters are toldA =Wat/h outI 9ere+s an e;a&ple for you ...> Bnd in so&e instan/es, young 1riters do ta2e fright at this e;a&ple, and fro& being disrespe/tful turn into being respe/tfulC and they &o/2ingly pay their respe/ts to =foreign philosopher /aps> and prudently =&a2e progress> in a//ordan/e 1ith our ho&e)de0eloped =re/ipes of progress.> -n this 1ay, 7elins2i+s e;a&ple ser0es to shore up the authority of our =honor)laden so/iologists.> B//ording to one su/h so/iologist, na&ely 5r. 5i2hailo0s2i, 7elins2i 1as nothing all his life but a &artyr to the truth. Bs an art /riti/ he 1as re&ar2ably gifted. =5any years shall pass, &any /riti/s shall be repla/ed, and e0en &ethods of /riti/is&, but /ertain estheti/ 0erdi/ts of 7elins2i shall re&ain in full for/e. 7ut in return only in the field of estheti/s 1as 7elins2i able to find for hi&self a 0irtually uninterrupted se<uen/e of delights. o sooner did an estheti/ pheno&enon be/o&e /o&pli/ated by philosophi/ and politi/o)&oral prin/iples than his flair for truth betrayed hi& to a greater or lesser e;tent, 1hile his thirst 3for truth6 re&ained unsla2ed as before, and it is ?ust this 1hi/h &ade of hi& a &artyr to the truth, the &artyr that e&erges in his /orresponden/e.> 3%ee the arti/le ro!dhon and Belinski, 1ith 1hi/h 5r. 4a0len2o0 sa1 fit to adorn his edition of 7elins2i+s 1or2s.6 %in/e the flair for truth generally betrayed 7elins2i ea/h ti&e an estheti/ pheno&enon be/a&e /o&pli/ated by philosophi/ and politi/o)&oral prin/iples, it goes 1ithout saying that the period of 7elins2i+s infatuation 1ith 9egel+s philosophy falls under this sa&e general la1. This entire period in 7elins2i+s life ob0iously rouses nothing in 5r. 5i2hailo0s2i+s breast e;/ept a feeling of /o&passionate sy&pathy to1ard the =&artyr to the truth,> /oupled, perhaps, 1ith a feeling of

it 1as pri&arily the =&ob> that staged the =tapage> and /arried it through. in a letter to 5ar<uis de . This sage ne0er spared the =&ob>C yet. .> %ubstantially this 0ie1 on 7elins2i+s period of te&porary /on/iliation is identi/al 1ith the 0ie1 of 5r.indignation to1ard =&etaphysi/s. 7elins2i e.e. 9egel had nothing 1hate0er to do 1ith it.pe/ted and fearso&e triu&ph of the =&ob. i&pertinent and full of 0igor that =respe/table people> fell into despair. 7ut little by little the &ob fle1 into su/h a te&per.entury. they sin/erely started to doubt the po1ers of reason. =The youth are lu/2yC good things are in store for the&.onsulate and the Lire/tory. To pro0e this theoreti/al approa/h. Volyns2i+s opinion. Volyns2i and 5r. 5i2hailo0s2i sees nothing in the& e.> i. liberal bourgeoisie.o&passionate sy&pathy 1al2s here ar& in ar& 1ith great respe/t. 1herein na2ed &ilitary for/e triu&phed . The differen/e is this. This /ould only feed the disillusion&ent that had set in. to e. 7ut it &ay be said 1ith assuran/e that it did not turn out to the li2ing of those 1ho li0ed to see it and 1ho belonged to the sa&e tenden/y as did the sage of 'erney. borro1ed by hi& fro& %tan2e0i/h. that faith in reason falls a1ay /o&pletelyC and although in the days of the . 9o1e0er authoritati0e are the opinions of these t1o stout fello1s G of 1ho& the one is as potent in so/iology as the other is in philosophy G . 7ut both 5r.> ./ept =rubbish. the enlightened. to1ard the /lose of the *ighteenth . Bnd per/ei0ing the&sel0es /on<uered by the 1ret/hed.pressed &any ideas 1hi/h are not only fully 1orthy of a thin2ing being 3as 7yron on/e so&e1here said6.thin2 that pre/isely during this /on/iliationist period of his de0elop&ent. it see&ed.tol reason and truth 3la raison and la verit#6. -t 1as as if the e0ents 1ere &o/2ing the de&ands of reason.> he added. Volyns2i /ited pre0iously.> 1hereas in 5r.e. they no longer do so 1ith the . to1ard the end of the *ighteenth .pressed by hi& at the ti&eC 5r. Grano0s2i. . that in 5r. Turgene0 and others. 9er@en.&ust begin fro& so&e1hat afar. be/a&e so disrespe/tful. Bnd so 1e obser0e. )ha*ter II -n 176$.hau0elin. Voltaire predi/ted the i&pending do1nfall of the old so/ial order in 'ran/e.. 7ut this respe/t pertains e"cl!sively to 7elins2i+s truthfulness 1ith regard to the philosophi/ and =politi/o)&oral> ideas e. for a 1hile the /ondu/t of the &ob /orresponded fully to the 0ie1s of =respe/table people.entury. i. =-t 1ill be a beautiful tapage Ja 'ren/h 1ord &eaning both a sho1 and an uproarK.&ore than on/e o0er 1hat all enlightened people had held the &ost indisputable of rights. unenlightened &ob. 5i2hailo0s2i+s opinion the /on/iliation =/a&e fro& under the spell of 9egel. True enough. but 1hi/h &erit to this day the ut&ost attention of all 1ho see2 a /orre/t standpoint in order to e0aluate the reality around us..ta2e the liberty of not agreeing 1ith the&.> The ensuing e0ents brought a train of inter&inable 1ars and o0erturns. ought to ha0e pla/ed at the head of e0ents none but its o1n tor/h)bearers and representati0es. in 1hose na&e Voltaire and the *n/y/lopedists had 1or2edC that sa&e reason 1hi/h. the so)/alled ideologists /ontinue. 7eginning 1ith 179" faith in the po1ers of reason de/lined noti/eably a&ong all those 1ho felt the&sel0es dri0en fro& their positions and o0er1hel&ed by the une. 5i2hailo0s2i are fir&ly /on0in/ed that 7elins2i+s /on/iliationist 0ie1s are erroneous fro& top to botto&. out of habit.> Voltaire+s predi/tion 1as fulfilled in the sense that the =tapage> really turned out a thing of beauty. the self)sa&e enlightened bourgeoisie.

> and =the s/hool of hard 2no/2s. so &any /ri&es are absol0ed by su//ess. so &any 0irtues stig&ati@ed 1ith oblo<uy. or &ore a//urately the bourgeoisie+s le0el of understanding G a bourgeoisie that 1as stri0ing to free itself fro&.> 31e la %itterature &onsider2e dans ses ra**orts ave& les institutions so&iales. The pathos of 5anfred. 7y their s1iftness. the age)long tug of 1ar bet1een the bourgeoisie and the aristo/ra/y 3lay and /leri/al6 1as resu&ed 1ith ne1 0igor and under ne1 so/io)politi/al /onditions. 7yron regards /onte&porary so/io)politi/al e0ents as the senseless and /ruel 1hi&s of = e&esis. for instan/e.> a goddess ini&i/al to hu&ans. =fre<uently lose all interest in the sear/h for truth. during the period of the .. s&iling s2epti/ally. by the large)s/ale and /apri/ious /hanges they 1rought.0iii. 1ere bound to gi0e a ne1 i&pulse to the gro1th of so/ial thought. =Bnd 1hat is truthE> 5ada&e de %tael. no1 1ants to know. The Third *state+s reason. -n this struggle ea/h side found itself in need of at least so&e ability to foresee e0ents. on their =good horse sense. These sa&e e0ents. a&ong the bourgeoisie. = e&esis> is ?ust another na&e for a//ident. in the histori/al situation at the ti&e. 5anfred sol0es this tas2 in part by &eans of &agi/. so &any s1inish a/ts of selfishness philosophi/ally glossed o0er. states that the &a?ority 3la pl!part des ho$$es6. The publi/ refuses to listen to the&. and so is their influen/e. -ntro.> of his urge to bring under his /ontrol the blind for/es of nature and history.sa&e 0er0e as beforeC the for&er enthusias& is gone. lost all in/lination to1ard self) perfe/tion and =o0er1hel&ed by the &ight of the a//idental. The publi/. /ould rest /ontent 1ith su/h disillusion&ent and e0en flaunt it. far fro& /onfining itself 1ithin 'ran/e+s borders. /eased to belie0e altogether in 3the po1er of hu&an /apabilities. /onsists pre/isely of the &utiny of a proud hu&an spirit against blind =fate. p. %o &any e0ents are de/ided by for/e.> ne0ertheless. for the entire ci%devant Third *state.6 3On page i0 of the sa&e introdu/tion she e. the politi/al e0ents i&pelled the so/ial a/ti0ists at the /lose of the *ighteenth and the start of the ineteenth /enturies to doubt the po1ers of reason. -n 7yron. bound to e0o2e ne1 atte&pts by thin2ing people to dis/o0er the hidden fountainheads of so/ial pheno&ena. as 7elins2i 1ould ha0e phrased it.pression else1here as 1ell. 7yron+s Manfred thus de/lares philosophyA To be of all our 0anities the &otliest. -t pro0ed ban2rupt.presses herself e0en &ore /ategori/allyA =The /onte&poraries of a re0olution. Ob0iously su/h a solution is attainable only in the real& of poeti/ fan/y. found its e. the yo2e of the old order G failed to pass the harsh histori/al test that fell to its lot. then still full of . e0en though in /onsiderable nu&bers.. ta2ing fright at the terrible &ar/h of e0ents.>6 This disillusion 1ith the po1ers of reason. in their subse<uent &o0e&ent. li2e 4ontius 4ilate. Bnd although the huge &a?ority of the /o&batants pinned their trust. 7ut at the sa&e ti&e 7yron+s pride is roused against the s1ay of this blind for/e. 1ho 2ne1 inti&ately the 'ren/h intelligentsia of that era. 7ut 1hile indi0iduals. 18::. The bourgeoisie itself be/a&e disillusioned in reason.. -n 'ran/e. su/h a state of &ind 1as absolutely ruled out for the /lass as a 1hole. that all of this drains a1ay the hopes and /onfiden/e of people 1ho re&ained &ost loyal to the /ult of reason. so &any unfortunates abused by those in po1er. The &erest 1ord that e0er fool+d the ear 'ro& out the s/hool&an+s ?argon .estoration. as is the /usto&. so &any generous senti&ents sub?e/ted to &o/2ery.> she says.

entury. *a/h epo/h possesses. Bs is 1ell)2no1n. Mnder the heading of error e0erything 1as in/luded that /ontradi/ted the ne1 ideas. ?ust as e0erything that /orresponded to the ne1 ideas 1as a/2no1ledged to be the truth. The urgent need at the ti&e 1as to separate as <ui/2ly as possible the sheep fro& the goats. These atte&pts e0o2ed debates o0er the need to /reate so/ial s/ien/es. the irresistible a/tion of so&e sort of hidden for/es 1hi/h ruthlessly /rush the po1ers of =reason> 3i.> There1ith it Was i&&aterial to learn 1hen/e a gi0en =error> /a&e. independent of any =a//idental> histori/al /onditions 1hatsoe0er. to assi&ilate in tran<uility all of the a/<uisitions of s/ientifi/ thought. The *ighteenth .> The histori/al tas2s of the *nlighteners /onsisted in e0aluating the gi0en. but they all ha0e one fa&ily trait in /o&&on.entury. the po1ers of abstra/t understanding6 ea/h ti&e =reason> runs /ounter to these hidden for/es. . the e0olutionary 0ie1point produ/ed espe/ially ri/h fruits in Ger&an philosophy.i0ili@ed &an2ind has already tra0ersed &ore than one epo/h of enlighten&ent.e/oire sur la s&ien&e de l ho//e6. eternal. of /ourse. to the present day.youthful 0igor. and /on/epts.> he says. na&elyA Bn intensified struggle against old /on/epts in the na&e of ne1 ideas. not a fe1 gifted indi0iduals 1ho sought by &eans of scientific foresight to triu&ph o0er the blind for/es of a//ident. Di2e1ise these atte&pts ga0e rise to &any re&ar2able figures in the field of histori/al s/ien/e. free fro& the distra/tions of pra/ti/al struggle.pression. e0en if it did pose ne1 tas2s before reason. -t 1as ?ust this abstra/t !nderstanding that suffered ship1re/2 than2s to the =tapage> at the /lose of the *ighteenth . This e0aluation had to be &ade fro& the standpoint of those ne1 ideas to 1hi/h the ne1 so/ial needs and so/ial relations had gi0en birth. or at any rate. That /entury+s reason 1as the reason of the =*nlighteners.entury. then e. institutions. The standpoint of evol!tion be/o&es gradually do&inant in philosophy and in the so/ial s/ien/es of the ineteenth . already at the beginning of the 18!:+s. and 1ho pro/lai&s his o1n nature to be hu&an nature generallyC and his o1n philosophy G the one and only true philosophy for all ti&es and all peoples.isting. . =The ai& . 1ithout /o&prehending. 1hi/h are held to be eternal truths. the 0ery /ourse of so/ial e0olution a/ted to resurre/t the faith in reason. or ho1 it originated and gre1 in history.> and nothing &ore.ha0e set &yself in this &e&oir is to affi. The i&portant thing 1as to pro0e it 1as an =error. =truth> fro& =error. Ger&any 1as therefore then able.> 3. i&&utable truth. 7ut to study a pheno&enon historically &eans to study it in its evol!tion. in the philosophy of a /ountry 1hi/h 1as a /onte&porary of the ad0an/ed *uropean states only in point of theory 3in the person of its thin2ers6. little 2no1n to the =philosophers> of the *ighteenth . The reason of the *nlighteners is nothing else but the level of !nderstanding of an innovator 1ho shuts his eyes to the histori/al /ourse of &an2ind+s e0olution. This =tapage> dis/losed that in its histori/al &o0e&ent &an2ind obeys. its o1n spe/ifi/ pe/uliarities. The study of these hidden for/es G 1hi/h first appear in the guise of blind for/es of =a//ident> G hen/eforth be/a&e a &ore or less /ons/ious ai& of e0ery s/holar and thin2er 1ho 1as o//upied 1ith the so)/alled &oral and politi/al s/ien/es.entury ignored history. -n this 1ay. to this s/ien/e the seal of the s/ien/e of obser0ation. tas2s un2no1n. 9en/eforth e0erybody is sei@ed 1ith history. =The s/ien/e of &an. has ne0er been &ore than a /on?e/tural s/ien/e. 7ut a s/ientifi/ in0estigation of pheno&ena is the pro0in/e of nothing else but G reason. there appeared.. histori/ally inherited set of so/ial relations. %aint)%i&on ga0e this the /learest e. that is.e.

-t no1 be/a&e the tas2 of thought to follo1 the gradual stages of this pro/ess through all its de0ious 1ays and to tra/e out the inner regularities running through all its apparent a//idents. %/helling+s boo2 1as published e.6 To dis/o0er the la1s go0erning &an2ind+s histori/al de0elop&ent &eans to assure oneself the possibility of /ons/iously inter0ening in this pro/ess of de0elop&entC and fro& being a po1erless plaything of =a//ident.entury is ri/h in all sorts of dis/o0eries. all e<ually /onde&nable before the ?udg&ent seat of the no1 &atured philosophi/ reason. yes.> be/o&ing its &aster. B&ong the greatest is this 0ie1 on freedo& as the produ/t of ne/essity. but as the pro/ess of de0elop&ent of hu&anity itself. To those 1ho held this point of 0ie1 =the history of &an2ind no longer appeared as a /onfused 1hirl of senseless deeds of 0iolen/e. 3&n den Westlichen '(ndern. %/helling+s for&ula &eans that freedo& /an &anifest itself only. but a progress that $!st )e !nderstood in all of its necessity. as Ger&ans often used to say in those days. necessary. -t is not hard to i&agine ho1 enthusiasti/ally these pleasant hori@ons 1ere greeted by all those laden do1n by sterile disillusion.a/tly at the beginning of the ineteenth . as the produ/t of a /ertain. 'or 9egel 1orld history 1as the progress of the /ons/iousness of freedo&. The po1er of a//ident 1as bound to be supplanted by the triu&ph of reasonC ne/essity 1as bound to be/o&e the fir&est foundation of freedo&.> 3*ngels.e. doing it in his syste& 1herein Ger&an idealist philosophy found its &ost brilliant /onsu&&ation. 7ut Ger&an philosophy.uriantly. 1as <ui/2 to see the 1ays in 1hi/h it 1as possible to gain 0i/tory o0er the blind for/es of a//ident. then flo1ering lu. histori/al de0elop&entC and it therefore follo1s that the study of the /ourse of this la1ful de0elop&ent &ust be/o&e the first duty of all true friends of freedo&. not in Ger&any alone.. all 1ho 1ere thin2ing in the Ger&any of that dayC and.> 1rote %/helling in his "yste/ des -rans&endetalen Idealis/us. .and painsta2ingly to in0estigate the /auses and /onse<uen/es of so/ial &o0e&ents ta2ing pla/e in the West.6 The e0ents that o//urred in 4ran/e to1ard the end of the *ighteenth . The ineteenth .entury 3in the year 18::6.entury &et 1ith strong sy&pathy on the part of ad0an/ed Ger&ans right up to the year 179"./eptionally broad. . i.arried a1ay by this philosophy 1as e0erything youthful and fresh. and inaugurate a ne1 era of /ons/ious life for hu&anity. What %/helling started. 9egel finished. and in the highest degree pleasant. la1ful. -n this 1ay Ger&an idealis& opened up for thin2ing people e. and best forgotten as <ui/2ly as possible. That year s/ared out of their 1its the o0er1hel&ing &a?ority of these people and dro0e the& into doubts about the po1ers of reason.> 9egel+s philosophy re0i0ed the& to ne1 &ental a/ti0ity and in the transports of initial infatuation it see&ed to the& that this philosophy 1ould s1iftly supply ans1ers to e0ery single great <uestion of 2no1ledge and of lifeC 1ould pro0ide solutions to all /ontradi/tions. and 1ho do1n deep in their tor&ented hearts pro)ser0ed an interest in both so/ial life and in =the stri0ing to1ard self)perfe/tion. =-n freedo& there &ust be ne/essity. hori@ons. ?ust as 1as the /ase 1ith the enlightened 'ren/h bourgeoisie. as is generally 2no1n.

they no longer do so 1ith the sa&e 0er0e as beforeC the for&er enthusias& is gone. far fro& /onfining itself 1ithin 'ran/e+s borders. states that the &a?ority 3la pl!part des ho$$es6. ought to ha0e pla/ed at the head of e0ents none but its o1n tor/h)bearers and representati0es. =-t 1ill be a beautiful tapage Ja 'ren/h 1ord &eaning both a sho1 and an uproarK. This sage ne0er spared the =&ob>C yet. the so)/alled ideologists /ontinue. it see&ed.> i. Bnd so 1e obser0e. -t 1as as if the e0ents 1ere &o/2ing the de&ands of reason.. liberal bourgeoisie. 7ut little by little the &ob fle1 into su/h a te&per. -ntro. lost all in/lination to1ard self) perfe/tion and =o0er1hel&ed by the &ight of the a//idental.6 3On page i0 of the sa&e introdu/tion she e.tol reason and truth 3la raison and la verit#6. it 1as pri&arily the =&ob> that staged the =tapage> and /arried it through. s&iling s2epti/ally. ta2ing fright at the terrible &ar/h of e0ents. This /ould only feed the disillusion&ent that had set in. so &any unfortunates abused by those in po1er. 1herein na2ed &ilitary for/e triu&phed . The publi/. i&pertinent and full of 0igor that =respe/table people> fell into despair. for instan/e. so &any generous senti&ents sub?e/ted to &o/2ery. to e.onsulate and the Lire/tory. p.pe/ted and fearso&e triu&ph of the =&ob.> The ensuing e0ents brought a train of inter&inable 1ars and o0erturns.e. i.entury. 1ho 2ne1 inti&ately the 'ren/h intelligentsia of that era.> 31e la %itterature &onsider2e dans ses ra**orts ave& les institutions so&iales.. 7yron+s Manfred thus de/lares philosophyA To be of all our 0anities the &otliest. that all of this drains a1ay the hopes and /onfiden/e of people 1ho re&ained &ost loyal to the /ult of reason. 7eginning 1ith 179" faith in the po1ers of reason de/lined noti/eably a&ong all those 1ho felt the&sel0es dri0en fro& their positions and o0er1hel&ed by the une. =Bnd 1hat is truthE> 5ada&e de %tael. %o &any e0ents are de/ided by for/e.hau0elin. to1ard the end of the *ighteenth . unenlightened &ob. that faith in reason falls a1ay /o&pletelyC and although in the days of the .)ha*ter II -n 176$. no1 1ants to know. The publi/ refuses to listen to the&.e. li2e 4ontius 4ilate. so &any s1inish a/ts of selfishness philosophi/ally glossed o0er. the self)sa&e enlightened bourgeoisie. they sin/erely started to doubt the po1ers of reason. Bnd per/ei0ing the&sel0es /on<uered by the 1ret/hed.entury. =fre<uently lose all interest in the sear/h for truth. found its e. -n 7yron. the enlightened.> she says.> Voltaire+s predi/tion 1as fulfilled in the sense that the =tapage> really turned out a thing of beauty.pression else1here as 1ell.>6 This disillusion 1ith the po1ers of reason.0iii. and so is their influen/e. Voltaire predi/ted the i&pending do1nfall of the old so/ial order in 'ran/e.. The &erest 1ord that e0er fool+d the ear . to1ard the /lose of the *ighteenth . 18::. in a letter to 5ar<uis de . in 1hose na&e Voltaire and the *n/y/lopedists had 1or2edC that sa&e reason 1hi/h. be/a&e so disrespe/tful. so &any 0irtues stig&ati@ed 1ith oblo<uy. True enough. =The youth are lu/2yC good things are in store for the&.> he added. for a 1hile the /ondu/t of the &ob /orresponded fully to the 0ie1s of =respe/table people. /eased to belie0e altogether in 3the po1er of hu&an /apabilities.presses herself e0en &ore /ategori/allyA =The /onte&poraries of a re0olution.&ore than on/e o0er 1hat all enlightened people had held the &ost indisputable of rights. out of habit. so &any /ri&es are absol0ed by su//ess. 7ut it &ay be said 1ith assuran/e that it did not turn out to the li2ing of those 1ho li0ed to see it and 1ho belonged to the sa&e tenden/y as did the sage of 'erney.

-t pro0ed ban2rupt.> ne0ertheless. tas2s un2no1n. /onsists pre/isely of the &utiny of a proud hu&an spirit against blind =fate.> The histori/al tas2s of the *nlighteners /onsisted in e0aluating the gi0en.entury. The pathos of 5anfred. Di2e1ise these atte&pts ga0e rise to &any re&ar2able figures in the field of histori/al s/ien/e.> of his urge to bring under his /ontrol the blind for/es of nature and history. the age)long tug of 1ar bet1een the bourgeoisie and the aristo/ra/y 3lay and /leri/al6 1as resu&ed 1ith ne1 0igor and under ne1 so/io)politi/al /onditions. as is the /usto&. The i&portant thing 1as to pro0e it 1as an =error. -n this 1ay. or at any rate. . histori/ally inherited set of so/ial relations. then e. /ould rest /ontent 1ith su/h disillusion&ent and e0en flaunt it. The Third *state+s reason. The bourgeoisie itself be/a&e disillusioned in reason. i&&utable truth. 1ere bound to gi0e a ne1 i&pulse to the gro1th of so/ial thought. These sa&e e0ents. during the period of the . Bnd although the huge &a?ority of the /o&batants pinned their trust. eternal. The urgent need at the ti&e 1as to separate as <ui/2ly as possible the sheep fro& the goats. or ho1 it originated and gre1 in history. -n this struggle ea/h side found itself in need of at least so&e ability to foresee e0ents. for the entire ci%devant Third *state. 7ut at the sa&e ti&e 7yron+s pride is roused against the s1ay of this blind for/e. = e&esis> is ?ust another na&e for a//ident. on their =good horse sense.. as 7elins2i 1ould ha0e phrased it. These atte&pts e0o2ed debates o0er the need to /reate so/ial s/ien/es. -n 'ran/e. the 0ery /ourse of so/ial e0olution a/ted to resurre/t the faith in reason. in their subse<uent &o0e&ent. the politi/al e0ents i&pelled the so/ial a/ti0ists at the /lose of the *ighteenth and the start of the ineteenth /enturies to doubt the po1ers of reason. This e0aluation had to be &ade fro& the standpoint of those ne1 ideas to 1hi/h the ne1 so/ial needs and so/ial relations had gi0en birth. e0en though in /onsiderable nu&bers. by the large)s/ale and /apri/ious /hanges they 1rought. Mnder the heading of error e0erything 1as in/luded that /ontradi/ted the ne1 ideas. =truth> fro& =error.'ro& out the s/hool&an+s ?argon . then still full of youthful 0igor. 7ut 1hile indi0iduals. and /on/epts. in the histori/al situation at the ti&e.> and =the s/hool of hard 2no/2s. little 2no1n to the =philosophers> of the *ighteenth . 5anfred sol0es this tas2 in part by &eans of &agi/.isting.estoration. e0en if it did pose ne1 tas2s before reason.> There1ith it Was i&&aterial to learn 1hen/e a gi0en =error> /a&e. institutions. That /entury+s reason 1as the reason of the =*nlighteners.> a goddess ini&i/al to hu&ans. or &ore a//urately the bourgeoisie+s le0el of understanding G a bourgeoisie that 1as stri0ing to free itself fro&. already at the beginning of the 18!:+s. 7yron regards /onte&porary so/io)politi/al e0ents as the senseless and /ruel 1hi&s of = e&esis. the yo2e of the old order G failed to pass the harsh histori/al test that fell to its lot.. 7ut a s/ientifi/ in0estigation of pheno&ena is the pro0in/e of nothing else but G reason.> and nothing &ore. Ob0iously su/h a solution is attainable only in the real& of poeti/ fan/y. ?ust as e0erything that /orresponded to the ne1 ideas 1as a/2no1ledged to be the truth. there appeared. a&ong the bourgeoisie. su/h a state of &ind 1as absolutely ruled out for the /lass as a 1hole. not a fe1 gifted indi0iduals 1ho sought by &eans of scientific foresight to triu&ph o0er the blind for/es of a//ident. 7y their s1iftness. bound to e0o2e ne1 atte&pts by thin2ing people to dis/o0er the hidden fountainheads of so/ial pheno&ena.

1ithout /o&prehending. necessary.> 1rote %/helling in his "yste/ des -rans&endetalen Idealis/us. doing it in his syste& 1herein Ger&an idealist philosophy found its &ost brilliant /onsu&&ation. and 1ho pro/lai&s his o1n nature to be hu&an nature generallyC and his o1n philosophy G the one and only true philosophy for all ti&es and all peoples. free fro& the distra/tions of pra/ti/al struggle.pression. in the philosophy of a /ountry 1hi/h 1as a /onte&porary of the ad0an/ed *uropean states only in point of theory 3in the person of its thin2ers6.. This =tapage> dis/losed that in its histori/al &o0e&ent &an2ind obeys. the e0olutionary 0ie1point produ/ed espe/ially ri/h fruits in Ger&an philosophy. %aint)%i&on ga0e this the /learest e. 7ut Ger&an philosophy. -t 1as ?ust this abstra/t !nderstanding that suffered ship1re/2 than2s to the =tapage> at the /lose of the *ighteenth . =The s/ien/e of &an. *a/h epo/h possesses.ha0e set &yself in this &e&oir is to affi.uriantly.entury ignored history.> 3.6 The e0ents that o//urred in 4ran/e to1ard the end of the *ighteenth . na&elyA Bn intensified struggle against old /on/epts in the na&e of ne1 ideas. The reason of the *nlighteners is nothing else but the level of !nderstanding of an innovator 1ho shuts his eyes to the histori/al /ourse of &an2ind+s e0olution. The ineteenth . Bs is 1ell)2no1n. i.e. has ne0er been &ore than a /on?e/tural s/ien/e.> he says. the po1ers of abstra/t understanding6 ea/h ti&e =reason> runs /ounter to these hidden for/es. the irresistible a/tion of so&e sort of hidden for/es 1hi/h ruthlessly /rush the po1ers of =reason> 3i. %/helling+s for&ula &eans that freedo& /an &anifest itself only. =-n freedo& there &ust be ne/essity. 1as <ui/2 to see the 1ays in 1hi/h it 1as possible to gain 0i/tory o0er the blind for/es of a//ident. but they all ha0e one fa&ily trait in /o&&on. then flo1ering lu.entury &et 1ith strong sy&pathy on the part of ad0an/ed Ger&ans right up to the year 179".entury is ri/h in all sorts of dis/o0eries. to this s/ien/e the seal of the s/ien/e of obser0ation. its o1n spe/ifi/ pe/uliarities. 9en/eforth e0erybody is sei@ed 1ith history. la1ful. That year s/ared out of their 1its the o0er1hel&ing &a?ority of these people and dro0e the& into doubts about the po1ers of reason. %/helling+s boo2 1as published e. Ger&any 1as therefore then able. to assi&ilate in tran<uility all of the a/<uisitions of s/ientifi/ thought. as Ger&ans often used to say in those days. 3&n den Westlichen '(ndern. independent of any =a//idental> histori/al /onditions 1hatsoe0er.entury.e/oire sur la s&ien&e de l ho//e6.a/tly at the beginning of the ineteenth . and painsta2ingly to in0estigate the /auses and /onse<uen/es of so/ial &o0e&ents ta2ing pla/e in the West.entury. 'or 9egel 1orld history 1as the progress of the /ons/iousness . 9egel finished.i0ili@ed &an2ind has already tra0ersed &ore than one epo/h of enlighten&ent. histori/al de0elop&entC and it therefore follo1s that the study of the /ourse of this la1ful de0elop&ent &ust be/o&e the first duty of all true friends of freedo&. The *ighteenth .. What %/helling started. The study of these hidden for/es G 1hi/h first appear in the guise of blind for/es of =a//ident> G hen/eforth be/a&e a &ore or less /ons/ious ai& of e0ery s/holar and thin2er 1ho 1as o//upied 1ith the so)/alled &oral and politi/al s/ien/es. 1hi/h are held to be eternal truths. =The ai& . of /ourse.entury 3in the year 18::6. B&ong the greatest is this 0ie1 on freedo& as the produ/t of ne/essity. The standpoint of evol!tion be/o&es gradually do&inant in philosophy and in the so/ial s/ien/es of the ineteenth .. 7ut to study a pheno&enon historically &eans to study it in its evol!tion. that is. ?ust as 1as the /ase 1ith the enlightened 'ren/h bourgeoisie.e. as the produ/t of a /ertain. to the present day.

and in the highest degree pleasant. -t no1 be/a&e the tas2 of thought to follo1 the gradual stages of this pro/ess through all its de0ious 1ays and to tra/e out the inner regularities running through all its apparent a//idents.arried a1ay by this philosophy 1as e0erything youthful and fresh.> 9egel+s philosophy re0i0ed the& to ne1 &ental a/ti0ity and in the transports of initial infatuation it see&ed to the& that this philosophy 1ould s1iftly supply ans1ers to e0ery single great <uestion of 2no1ledge and of lifeC 1ould pro0ide solutions to all /ontradi/tions. and 1ho do1n deep in their tor&ented hearts pro)ser0ed an interest in both so/ial life and in =the stri0ing to1ard self)perfe/tion. all e<ually /onde&nable before the ?udg&ent seat of the no1 &atured philosophi/ reason. all 1ho 1ere thin2ing in the Ger&any of that dayC and. hori@ons.of freedo&. The po1er of a//ident 1as bound to be supplanted by the triu&ph of reasonC ne/essity 1as bound to be/o&e the fir&est foundation of freedo&. but as the pro/ess of de0elop&ent of hu&anity itself. -n this 1ay Ger&an idealis& opened up for thin2ing people e.> be/o&ing its &aster. not in Ger&any alone. .6 To dis/o0er the la1s go0erning &an2ind+s histori/al de0elop&ent &eans to assure oneself the possibility of /ons/iously inter0ening in this pro/ess of de0elop&entC and fro& being a po1erless plaything of =a//ident. as is generally 2no1n. To those 1ho held this point of 0ie1 =the history of &an2ind no longer appeared as a /onfused 1hirl of senseless deeds of 0iolen/e. but a progress that $!st )e !nderstood in all of its necessity.> 3*ngels./eptionally broad. . and best forgotten as <ui/2ly as possible. -t is not hard to i&agine ho1 enthusiasti/ally these pleasant hori@ons 1ere greeted by all those laden do1n by sterile disillusion. yes. and inaugurate a ne1 era of /ons/ious life for hu&anity.

Thus spa2e 9egel. 1hi/h is annihilated in punish&ent . Det us /ite that se/tion of his le/tures on the history of philosophy 1here he dis/usses the trial of %o/rates. . if in another for&. The prin/iple itself 1ill triu&ph toiler. H-t digs 1ell+. 'or this reason one /annot bla&e the Bthenians for /onde&ning to death the thin2er 1ho& they pla/ed on trial and in 1ho& they sensed a &ortal ene&y of their /herished so/ial order. The /orre/tness of this appre/iation is a&ply /onfir&ed by the abo0e)/ited 0ie1s of the great thin2er.hts /alled 9egel+s philosophy the algebra of progress. it is ne/essary to say flatly that they 1ere o)liged to defend their so/ial order. of s/ien/e.> The author of ./lai&ed. HWell dug.> said 9egel in /on/luding his le/tures on the history of philosophy. The one po1er is the di0ine right of the e. and not the prin/iple. turning to the ghost of his father. 9a&let.pressed hi&self e0en &ore /ategori/ally.y Past and -hou. /ould not be a philosophy of stagnation. 1hi/h sole&nly pro/lai&ed eternal for1ard &o0e&ent as the nature of the 1orld) spirit. The idealist philosophy.. ay &ore. and 1hose prin/iple stands in /ontradi/tion to 1hat has gone before and disintegrates the old orderA they appear to be 0iolently destroying the old la1s. 9en/e indi0idually they perish. too2 pla/e a/tually at a slo1 pa/e . 7ut the 1orld)spirit does not stand stillC it /onstantly strides for1ard pre/isely be/ause this for1ard &o0e&ent /onstitutes its nature.isting so/ial order and of the established relationsC the other is the e<ually di0ine right of /ons/iousness 3self)/ognition6. 9e 1as the /ons/ious representati0e of a new and higher prin/ipleC he 1as a hero 1ho possessed for hi&self the absolute right of the spirit.. %o&eti&es it see&s as if it is halted.> 9istori/al &o0e&ent offers not infre<uently the dra&a of t1o opposed rights /o&ing into /ollision. not to be noti/ed until the results /o&e to the surfa/e until the shell of old outli0ed 0ie1s falls apart into dust and the 1orld)spirit strides ahead in se0en) league boots. On o//asion 9egel e. old &oleI+ The sa&e /an also be said of the 1orld)spirit.. =-n 1orld history 1e find that this is the position of the heroes through 1ho& a ne1 1orld /o&&en/es. -n 9egel+s opinion the spread of %o/rates+ 0ie1s threatened to destroy the old Bthenian 1ay of life /o&pletely. e.. B/tually. there is deep internal 1or2 ta2ing pla/e.. as if it has lost its eternal urge to self)/ognition. What 1e are able <ui/2ly to sur0ey in our re/olle/tion.(Part 3) )ha*ter III =The latest philosophy is the produ/t of all the pre/eding philosophiesC nothing has been lostC all the prin/iples ha0e been preser0ed.. but it is only the indi0idual. of sub?e/ti0e freedo&. &u/h ti&e had to pass . =7efore /onte&porary philosophy /ould arise. 7ut it is li2e1ise ne/essary to affir& that there 1as right on the side of %o/rates. all the 1hile. The /ollision bet1een the t1o is a tragedy in the full sense of the ter& G a tragedy in 1hi/h there are those 1ho perish but in 1hi/h there are no guilty onesC ea/h side being right in its o1n 1ay.

B profound thin2er. 7y its uninterrupted &ole+s 1or2. so that the July 18": re0olution depressed 9egel 0ery &u/h. an i&pertinent uprising against the 1orld)spirit. his lo0e for freedo& 1aned. These short/o&ings G 1hi/h.e. Ger&any+s so/ial position 1as fa0orable for a /al&.ists is ne/essary.isting order. Bs tou/hes pra/ti/e. 1as not -!st a dialectical syste&C it also pro/lai&ed itself to be the syste$ of a)sol!te tr!th. The fa&ous propositionA What is real is rational* what is rational is real. e0ery philosophy is ideally the e. ho1e0er. so&e partial i&pro0e&ents to be &ade. his philosophy 1as truly in its nature an algebra of progress. 1ere e. %o&e 1ere /onfused by his ter&inology. beyond lay&en+s /o&prehension. later /riti/i@ed the philosophy of his tea/her for al1ays li&iting itself to a /onte&plation of pheno&ena and ne0er stri0ing to pass o0er to actionC for /ohabiting pea/efully 1ith sla0ery in pra/ti/e. although this 1as not al1ays understood by those progressi0es 1ho 1ere /onte&poraries of 9egel. 1hat is ne/essary and rational. a//ording to 9egel.isten/e is real e. then it follo1s that the goal of the 1orld)spirit G self)/ognition G has already )een attained. too. The nature of the 1orld)spirit is to stride for1ard eternally.eit in Gedanken erfasst>6. e0erything outli0ed. 7ut if absolute truth has already )een fo!nd. 1hile the urge 1a.isten/eC reality is necessaryA =reality un1inds as ne/essity. There 1as not a little philistinis& in e0en su/h great &en as Goethe and 9egel. this 1as a &ista2e. 5ore than this. and &a2es ne/essary the appearan/e of the ne1. it is therefore e0ident that e0ery in/lination to /hange a so/ial order that e. the greatest genius)intelle/t of the first half of the 19th /entury. One of the =left> 9egelians. 'or. B//idental e. 1hile pro/lai&ing freedo& as the great goal of histori/al de0elop&ent. are ?ustifiedC 9egel+s philosophy did suffer fro& the indi/ated short/o&ings. the bold Ger&an theoreti/ians re&ained not infre<uently the &ee2est of philistines. 7y his do/trine.. i&&utable truth of 1hi/h it 1as the ob?e/ti0e e. of e0erything old. 9egel 1as still a /hild of his ti&es and /ountry."istent>6.Bs the reader /an see. the 1ell)2no1n Brnold . 9egel+s philosophy. not only 1hat already e. 7ut on the 1hole this order &ust re&ain as eternal and i&&utable as the eternal. and its for1ard &o0e&ent loses all &eaning. %in/e 9egel had found the absolute truth.pression of its ti&es 3=ihre . theoreti/al study of the &ar/h of 1orld e0entsC but it 1as <uite unfa0orable for the practical appli/ation of results gained by theory.pression. -n this =absolute> order there are. it therefore follo1s that he li0ed at a ti&e 1hi/h /orresponded to the =absolute> so/ial order. tragi/ally destined to /ollide 1ith the old. Bnd inas&u/h as absolute truth doesn+t age and thereby turn into error. 1as ta2en by so&e as a philosophi/ e.pressed the absolute truth 1ould be a rude sa/rilege. re&o0ing partial i&perfe/tions inherited fro& the past. is only uninterrupted progressi0e &o0e&ent. far fro& e0erything that e. The real stands higher than &ere e.ists. This /lai& of possessing the absolute truth 1as thus bound to bring 9egel into /ontradi/tion 1ith his o1n diale/ti/C and put hi& in a posture hostile to further su//esses of philosophy.ed to li0e in pea/e 1ith the e.isten/e 3=die Wirklichkeit steht h+her als die . Generally spea2ing.pressing the absolute truth.e0olutionC but 1ith the passage of years.uge.> 7ut as 1e ha0e already seen.pression of the /rassest 2ind of /onser0atis&.ists is real. the 1orld)spirit under&ines 1hat e. one &ust ad&it. -n his youth 9egel sy&pathi@ed 1ar&ly 1ith the 'ren/h . in the final analysis. by the 1ay. 9en/e in so/ial life. /on0erts it into a &ere for&. These /riti/is&+s. dis/o0ered by theory. only the /onstant foundering &ore or less rapidly. it 1as bound to &a2e hi& a /onser0ati0e in relation to so/ial life as 1ell. 0oid of any real &eaning. to be sure. i. a//ording to 9egel+s logi/. a so/ial order e.pressed in the /lai& to absolute truth G are to be noted in the le/tures on the history of philosophy 1hi/h 1e ha0e already /ited and 1hi/h are filled . This /on/lusion is ines/apably suggested by the entire /hara/ter and &eaning of 9egelian philosophy as a diale/ti/al syste&.

in /ontrast to the an/ient. dis/ord 1ith 1hat e. Whoe0er understands reality. The /onser0ati0e side of 9egel+s 0ie1s 1as e. -n la1 1hi/h sub?e/ts &an to /ertain o)ligation they per/ei0e only the dead. and fre<uently /hanging under the influen/e of /apri/e or 0anity.> 3-ravail sur la .istC &ore a//urately.ut there are persons 1ho regard as free only that thought 1hi/h di0erges fro& e0erything /o&&only a//epted. and personal opinion is a =soft ele&ent.ists. re/ogni@es its o1n reason. -n these sa&e le/tures 9egel tries to pro0e that in &odern so/iety. only fetters pla/ed upon sub?e/ti0e /on0i/tion. Whatsoe0er e. dis/repan/ies bet1een /ogniti0e reason and the reason that is e&bodied in reality are e0o2ed only by an in/o&plete /o&prehension of this reality. 4hilosophy &ust grasp 1hat is. of thought is /on0erted into rightlessness. These people are ready to sa/rifi/e e0erything to the 1hi& of their personal ?udg&ent.ists. philosophi/ a/ti0ity /an and should be li&ited to the =inner 1orld.isting state.> easily gi0ing 1ay to personal 1hi&.tapose this 0ie1 of the greatest Ger&an idealist 1ith the 0ie1s of a /onte&porary.> .pressed &ost graphi/ally in his Philoso*hy o' Ri. To 2no1 the ne/essity of a gi0en pheno&enon is to dis/o0er its rationality. the foundation of all his &orality are lodged in his thought.ravitation universelle6 -t is perfe/tly /orre/t that the s/ien/e of right need not at all o//upy itself 1ith =the state as it ought to be>C its tas2 is to /o&prehend 1hat is and 1hat 1as. 7ut at the sa&e ti&e it is readily to be noted that 9egel here. . the 'ren/h genius %aint)%i&on. -n general. 4arti/ularly instru/ti0e in this /onne/tion is the fa&ous introdu/tion in 1hi/h the do/trine of rational reality is gi0en a &eaning not at all the sa&e as in the %o.> 1rote the 'ren/h&an.ists only as a parti/ular. &ore than anything else. strengthens it. does so by reason of ne/essity. 3We as2 the reader to note that the e. that the spirit stri0ing to1ard self)/ognition re/ogni@es itself in 1hat e. -t 1as long ago said that 1hile half)2no1ledge 1ea2ens belief in God. The sa&e &ay also be said /on/erning people+s attitude to the reality about the&A 9alf)2no1ledge rouses the& against realityC true 2no1ledge re/on/iles the& 1ith it.1ith /ourageous and 0igorous stri0ing for1ard. 1hoe0er has dis/o0ered the reason hidden in it 1ill not rise up against it.> the 1orld of ideas. tries to re/on/ile his philosophy 1ith 4russian /onser0atis&. Whoe0er reads this 1or2 attenti0ely 1ill be stru/2 by the genial profundity of &any thoughts 9egel e. his right. and to elu/idate the histori/al de0elop&ent of . =re/on/iliation 1ith reality> G =die /ers+hn!ng $it der Wirklichkeit> G is used by 9egel hi&self. That+s ho1 9egel reasons here. by lapses of abstra/t thought. =The philosopher. =is not only an obser0erC he is an a/ti0ist of the first order in the 1orld of &orals be/ause 1hat go0ern hu&an so/iety are his 0ie1s on 1hat the 1orld should be/o&e. B&ong su/h people the highest and &ost di0ine right.ists.i&.6 %u/h a person doesn+t renoun/e his sub?e/ti0e freedo&C but this freedo& &anifests itself not in discord but har$ony 1ith the e. 5an is a thin2ing beingC his freedo&. =has /o&posed itself> and =has be/o&e re/on/iled 1ith itself> 3=ist so $it sich vers+hnt worden>6.onstru/tions of this sort are sillyC a 1orld =as it ought to be> does not e. The pro/ess of s/ientifi/ 2no1ledge /onsists in this. but 1ill re/on/ile hi&self 1ith it and ta2e ?oy in it. true 2no1ledge. 'ar fro& 9egel 1as any intention =to /onstru/t a state su/h as it ought to be.pression. -n parti/ular the s/ien/e of right &ust grasp the rationality of the state. cold letter. personal opinion.ht. it e.presses. They pride the&sel0es on their negati0e attitude to realityC but their attitude testifies only to a 1ea2ness of thought and to an utter inability to sa/rifi/e the /apri/e of personal ?udg&ent for the sa2e of so/ial interests. be/ause the =outer 1orld> 3so/ial relations had arri0ed no1adays at a /ertain rational order. on the /ontrary. -t is interesting to ?u.

'ro& a thin2er 1ho attenti0ely probes into the so/ial de0elop&ent of &an2ind and 1ho arri0es at the /on/lusion that &o0e&ent for1ard /onstitutes the reason of the 1orld)spirit. for he in0ested his do/trine 1ith a 0ery pe/uliar and not at all dialectical interpretation of the 4russian so/ial order of his day and pro/lai&ed it as the e&bodi&ent of reason. na&elyA The scientific st!dy of reality. -t follo1s fro& this that if 9egel+s do/trine that e0erything real is rational 1as understood by &any in a /o&pletely 1rong 1ay..e. despite his self)/ontradi/tions. 9ad it been possible for 9egel to ha0e appeared at the ti&e. opposed to 9egel 1ere only a fe1 superfi/ial liberals. pri&arily on the interpretation of history as a la1ful pro/essC and on 3the understanding of freedo& as the produ/t of ne/essity. in social. 1ould ha0e follo1ed hi&.isten/e is already re/ogni@ed by hi& here as ne/essary. 9e rises up against e0ery progressi0e tenden/y 1hi/h does not ste& fro& offi/ial sour/es. i. all the &ore /o&plete should ha0e been.tent that it based itself on 9egel+s diale/ti/.ertion of the &ighty and eternal =&ole> 1ho under&ines the stru/ture of old /on/epts and institutions. Foung &inds e0ery1here. ready to shout. the&sel0es eagerly into the study of 9egelian philosophy. 1ere bound to thro1. The e.> and be/ause only the 19th /entury posed before thin2ingC &an2ind the great tas2 to 1hi/h 9egel+s philosophy pro&ised to pro0ide the ans1er. 1here0er the underground 1or2 of the =1orld)spirit> 1as being a//o&plished e0en onI a tiny s/ale and 1here0er the =&ole> 1as preparing the soil for ne1 so/ial &o0e&ents. and yet the then do&inant philosophi/ /on/epts bore no rese&blan/e 1hate0er to those of 9egel. 9egel be/o&es /on0erted into an irritable and suspi/ious /ustodian.ists> by the &ere fa/t of its e. only su/h an interpretation of history /ould eli&inate the pessi&isti/ outloo2 on history as the 2ingdo& of blind a//ident. . and the stronger the urge 1as in the young hearts to sa/rifi/e personally for the sa2e of /o&&on interests. in Dessing+s epo/h. 5oreo0er. assuredly. to be found in the i&&ature de0elop&ent of so/ial life in Ger&any of that day. and hen/e =rational. and 1ithout e0en noti/ing the&. =1hat e. Bnd the &ore serious the de&ands of theoreti/al thought 1ere in the young &inds. 7ut in the pre0ious /entury. as it a/tually 1as. -n the epo/h of the publi/ation of the Philoso*hy o' Ri. =9elpI 4oli/eI> at e0ery ne1 e. political and intellect!al relations as a necessary and therefore lawf!l process1 Bs 1e ha0e already stated. 7ut strange as it &ay see&. the infatuation 1ith 9egelianis&.ists is pro/lai&ed to be an uprising against reason.state institutions. Why is thisE 7e/ause =suffi/ient unto the day is the e0il thereof. no one. the fa/t is that the uprising against the /onser0ati0e /on/lusions dra1n by 9egel fro& his essentially 1holly progressi0e philosophy did not /o&e until &u/h later. The uprising that /a&e later against the /onser0ati0e /on/lusions 9egel dre1 1as absolutely ?ustified.ht. 7ut 9egel doesn+t atta/2 only liberalis& of this sort. re&ain per&anently in the real& of i&potent and unreali@able sub?e/ti0e drea&s. 1hile e0erybody 1ho 1as serious. Bnd all of this is bolstered by argu&ents as far re&o0ed as hea0en is fro& earth fro& the abo0e)addu/ed argu&ents /on/erning the fate of %o/rates and the right of self)/ognition and of sub?e/ti0e freedo&. e0erything young and energeti/ follo1ed hi& 1ith enthusias&. then he 1as hi&self pri&arily to bla&e for this. this life 1as e0en less de0eloped. the scientific el!cidation of $ankind0s historical develop$ent.> Bn uprising against 1hat e. 9egel is fully ?ustified in atta/2ing those superfi/ial liberals 3today 1e 1ould /all the& sub?e/ti0ists6 1ho. 7ut it ought not to be forgotten that in the theoreti/al sense it 1as ?ustified only to the e.planation for this is. -t &ay therefore see& strange that 9egel+s philosophy did not lose its influen/e o0er the thin2ing people of those days. in/apable of lin2ing HHideals> 1ith the reality about the&. of /ourse.

The Ro))ers. on the one side.. in the na&e of an abstra/t ideal of so/iety. 5ental life started in our /ountry only 1ith 4eter the GreatC up till then e0erything *uropean /a&e to our /ountry =by 1ay of ri/o/hets. other beings ?ust li2e the& and to ta2e a1ay fro& the& the sa/red treasure of freedo&E .tre&ely painful. to Narl 5oor hi&self. =Who ga0e this fatal right to so&e people to ensla0e to their 1ill the 1ill of others. This tor&enting /ognition of oneself as a =/ipher> 1as not pe/uliar at the ti&e to 7elins2i alone.ussian reality of those days.ussian life appeared to hi& as a =sleeping forest of fa/eless na&es /olliding in a 0oid of lifeless /haos. fa/eless. in/identally.ussia+s thousand years of e. the sa&e as the&sel0esI> e. Ca)al and 'ove. -n approa/hing the history of his intelle/tual de0elop&ent.1as <uite /ons/ious of &yself as a /ipher. protest against serfdo&s. 7ut 1as there &u/h sola/e in the 0ie1s of ade@hdin hi&selfE *arly . e&pty. these dra&as &ade hi& =1ildly hostile to the so/ial order. through thousands of leaps and tangents and therefore rea/hed us in 1ea2.)ha*ter IV Det us no1 return to 7elins2i. -t &ust ha0e e0o2ed.isten/e. in its passion. Mp to no1 the attention it &erits has not been paid to it. torn out of geographi/ and histori/al /onditions of de0elop&ent. into the sa&e so/ial and general abstra/tion. 5er/iful God. =thre1 &e into an abstra/t herois&. and ere/ted in &id)air.> This influen/e. despite &y unnatural and intense e/stasy. the tragedy 1hi/h he 1rote during his stay in the Mni0ersity and 1hi/h /aused hi& so &u/h unpleasantness 1as a passionate.. atte&pts to find a concrete soil for his so/ial in/linations. at all e0ents in the first period of 7elins2i+s de0elop&ent. 1as not e. Bnd a/tually 7dins2i 1as under the strongest influen/e of %/hiller+s early 1or2s. =. of the substan/e but 1ith nothing indi0idual about it. 9is youthful infatuation 1ith =an abstra/t ideal of so/iety> is a &ost i&portant page in the history of his intelle/tual de0elop&ent. Bs is 1ell 2no1n. tell &e.> %u/h /ons/iousness is e. and sorro1 and despair reigned a&ong the thin2ers.erted on hi& only by the 1or2s of %/hiller 1e listed abo0e.> . dying out re0erberations. 1e &ust note first of all that in his early youth he rose up indignantly against the . /ro/odiles and tigers 1ho feed on &arro1 and &eat of their 2in and 1ho drin2 li2e 1ater their blood and tearsE> This tirade 1ould ha0e done /redit. e<ually painful doubts o0er the 1or2ability of the abstra/t idealC and. Bs he put it. on the other. 7elins2i 1as 1holly on the side of the serfs. 2iasco. 1as it Four all)1ise hand that /reated on earth these serpents. 1hi/h &ade &e s/orn e0erything elseC and in this /ondition. . The Maid of 4rleans plunged &e into the sa&e abstra/t herois&.> We as2 the reader to note this interesting testi&ony of the fa&ous /riti/ about hi&self.> 9e e0en doubted that there 1as any real li0ing in the /ourse of . no one has stressed this /ir/u&stan/e that a gifted and passionate youth filled 1ith =abstra/t herois&> 1as at the sa&e ti&e =conscio!s of hi$self as a cipher. if s/ar/ely artisti/. %o far as 1e 2no1.an it be that these hu&ans 1ere born into this 1orld only to ser0e the 1hi&s of other hu&ans. -t is /usto&ary in our /ountry to repeat that ade@hdin had a strong influen/e on the de0elop&ent of 7elins2i+s 0ie1s. The aspirations of the ad0an/ed intelligentsia of the 18!:+s had shortly before suffered a /ruel ship1re/2./lai&s one of his heroes. =3on Carlos> said 7elins2i. 'ather of 5en.

pression. he /ould not fail to see that the foundations on 1hi/h his faith rested in a s1ift gro1th of enlighten&ent in . Bnd this is understandable. The .> 5. our nobility has finally be/o&e /on0in/ed about gi0ing their /hildren a solid edu/ation. -t 1as sol0ed by redu/ing to @ero one of the sides of the antino&y.ussian 1ayC it e.@ar)'ather points out the goal to the&. and per&eated 1ith =abstra/t herois&>E %u/h perspe/ti0es 1ere not needed by su/h a &an. a 1ell)2no1n =dilettante of philosophy> or =friend of philosophy. 7esides. 1hile our &er/antile estate =is rapidly ta2ing shape and in this /onne/tion is not far behind the highest estates. 1hi/h 1ill &a2e its appearan/e in its o1n due ti&e.> he says.> -n a 1ord.9(.ussian people are /le0er and a&enable. his eyes al1ays sa1 doubleA there 1as life ideal and there 1as life real.=Mp to no1 our literature has been. eedless to add 1e ha0e borro1ed fro& the sa&e 1or2 &ost of the fa/ts relating to 7elins2i+s intelle/tual de0elop&ent. he /ries outA =Bnd this enlighten&ent 1ill not be/o&e ossified. positi0e and /on/rete. Bs 7elins2i put it. -n this ='i/htean> period.&ay use the e. but 1e ha0e grouped these fa/ts differently.> says 5r. /ould e0en the su//esses of enlight&ent G ho1e0er =s1ift> they &ight be G satisfy a &an =hostile to the so/ial order> in the na&e of an ideal.ussia 1ere so&e1hat sha2y.ussian hands but not in a .pressed a rather rosy outloo2 about our future. the /ause of enlighten&ent prospers a&ong usA =The seeds of the future are ripening today. 4ointing out that 1hat 1e need is not literature. but enlighten&ent. 7ut in /al&er &o&ents. he e. =We 2no1 of an episode in 7elins2i+s life at the ti&e.haustible ?ui/es of the young .-.ussian reality on the other. and fro& the unresol0ed /ontradi/tion bet1een the abstra/t ideal. in tal2ing about the 'ren/h e0ents of the 18th /entury. and /arried a1ay by enthusias& 1hile 1riting. 4ypin+s boo2.> Bll this 1as. 1ritten in perfe/t sin/erity.> -n this 1ay the 0e. -n July 18"6 7elins2i ?ourneyed to the 0illage of 7O2h in T0ers2 pro0in/e. he did belie0e that enlighten&ent 1ould s1iftly engulf Old 5other .pressed an opinion 1hi/h e&barrassed his . as he put it. /o&pletely unfa&iliar to hi&. and the /on/rete . ine.ussia. than2s to the sleepless soli/itude of the 1ise go0ern&ent. a 0oid. 7elins2i ob0iously e. =. -n brief. 1hereas the so) /alled real life is a negation. a phanto&./lude a depressed &ood on the author+s part. on/e his so0ereign 0oi/e su&&ons the people to this goalI> The single institution of do&esti/ tutors 1as bound. 'i/hte /on0in/ed hi& that =life ideal 1as nothing else but life real. a &ood resulting fro& the tou/hy re/ognition of hi&self as a /ipher. and there 1ith the aid of a hospitable host.hausted the fresh. 1hen the fla&e of enthusias& had /ooled. for the first ti&e if 1e are not &ista2en. 3 ot ha0ing ade@hdin+s arti/les at hand.ussian spirit in order to edu/ate foreigners and not oursel0es.7. to perfor& genuine &ira/les in the sense of enlighten&ent. Bt the ti&e 7elins2i 1rote this arti/le he 1anted to belie0e.ing /ontradi/tion bet1een the abstra/t ideal and /on/rete reality found the sought)for philosophi/ solution. 7elins2i 1as able to 1age 1ar against it all the &ore 0igorously in the na&e of the ideal 1hi/h no1 turned out to be the only reality 1orthy of the na&e. 4ypin.> The notes to be heard here are al&ost those of . p. 7esides. on the one side. diligent and @ealous about e0erything that is good and beautiful. 37a2unin6 be/a&e a/<uainted 1ith the philosophy of 'i/hte. =Bt a big gathering. 'iterary 3rea$s. a nullity. of /ourse.haadaye0. Belinski4 5is %i'e and )orres*onden&eC 0ol. a corv#e of the *uropeanC it has been 1or2ed o0er by . on/e the hand of .sei@ed hold of the 'i/htean outloo2 1ith 0igor and fanati/is&. if . Having proclai$ed reality a phanto$. if not our past or present. the rapturous tone of 'iterary 3rea$s 1as the produ/t of a &o&entary flash)fire and did not at all e. 1e are /o&pelled to <uote fro& 5r. 7elins2i sy&pathi@ed strongly 1ith the 'ren/h.6 -n his fa&ous first arti/le.

ot to personal happiness. Bnd yet it 1as a si&ple 0ariant of the old 0e.> turned its ba/2 upon life. 9e hated. but . =Bt that ti&e 1e sought in philosophy e0erything in the uni0erse. not philosophi/ thought in generail. =the road to happiness. This is absolutely /orre/t. 0ol..> and it be/a&e /usto&ary to loo2 do1n upon hi& 1ith a /ertain patroni@ing air by people 1ho. %in/erely and in good /ons/ien/e .tre&e bluntness. but only pre)per/eptions.eal life 1as pro/lai&ed a phanto&. a nullity and a 0oid. as 1e 2no1. the state of &y &ind at the ti&e. as is e0ident. /a&e to 2no1 paradise only to be/o&e /on0in/ed that the only possible life for &e 1as an approa/h to its gates. so far as ability for philosophi/ thought is /on/erned. but only su/h thought as.17(6. .ussian.-. 7ut there are phanto&s and phanto&s. p. in/luding the .pressed a /on0i/tion that he =hated thought./ept pure thought. Fet there 1ere &anifestations in 'ren/h so/ial life 1ith 1hi/h he 1ar&ly sy&pathi@ed.host by its e.ussia there 1as nothing of the sort. in its turn. re/alling this episode in a letter to an inti&ate friend. of /ourse.pressed in this phrase the tense /ondition of &y spirit through 1hi/h of necessity . =Bnd . B/tually he no1 suffered al&ost &ore than before. to fa&iliari@e &yself 1ith it. e.ain put it.learned about the e. That is 1hy philosophy then had su/h enor&ous so/ial signifi/an/e. the denial of reality. the ne1 philosophi/ outloo2 pro0ed dubious. the 1eal of his nati0e land. in one of his letters 3June !:. &it. -n the first pla/e he /a&e to doubt his o1n /apa/ity for philosophi/ thought. 'ren/h reality 1as no less a phanto& than any either.hate it as an abstra/tion.> %e/ondly. did not long rid hi& of old theoretical do!)ts. Dater. These s&ug fello1s forgot or ne0er 2ne1 that in 7elins2i+s day the road to so/ial happiness 1as sought in philosophy by 0irtually all of the intelle/tuals in *urope. and the rest of the ti&e thin2 nothing at allE . in good /ons/ien/e and 1ith the fullness of &y 0iolent nature.e. Fes. 7e/ause of this &any ha0e i&agined that 7elins2i did indeed la/2 =philosophi/ talent.isten/e of this /on/rete life only to /o&e to 2no1 &y i&poten/e.> he 1rote. if not altogether a =phanto&. 1hile in . 7elins2i had /herished it pre/isely to the e. . not the delights of its har&ony and s/ents.tent to 1hi/h it apparently pro&ised to supply si&ple and /on0in/ing ans1ers to the <uestions that beleaguered hi&. are not fit to untie his shoela/es..pressed. 18"86 7elins2i e.> 9e /ould be satisfied only 1ith a syste&. 9is supposed hatred of thought /onsisted pre/isely of this. as a /onse<uen/e.> =Fes. Dater on. 9e sought in philosophy the 1ay to happiness. e. .ing <uestionA Why did /on/rete reality /ontradi/t the abstra/t idealE and ho1 to re&o0e this /ontradi/tionE -t turned out that pro/lai&ing reality a phanto& a0ailed in essen/e e.understand ho1 silly su/h a proposition is. =7ut /an thought then be a/<uired 1ithout being an abstra/tionE %hould one al1ays thin2 only in &o&ents of /andor. Why then 1ere the 'ren/h =phanto&s> so unli2e our nati0e onesE ='i/hteanis&> had no ans1er to this <uestion.> Bfter all.had to pass.> 3lo&.a& by nature an ene&y of thought.plainable by this life.plain life and offer the possibility for broad and fruitful a/tion upon life.a& not at all e&barrassed by it. either. 7elins2i addedA =. understandably enough. but the happiness of his near and dear ones.> These si&ple)hearted and tou/hing lines /hara/teri@e best of all 7elins2i+s attitude to philosophy.> as 7yron+s . 1ould.> says Turgene0. espe/ially in relation to 7elins2i. that is how &y thoughts ran then .a/tly nothingC and. /ontented 1ith philosophi/ =/onte&plation. 9e /ould not rest /ontent 1ith =abstra/tions. and .do not at all repent of this phrase. 1hi/h itself ste&&ing fro& so/ial life and e..> -t 1ould see& that 7elins2i /ould no1 rest fro& the doubts that tor&ented hi&. -t e. 'ro& 7elins2i+s ne1 standpoint.

We 1ish the& su//ess 1ith all our heart. =7elins2i 1as one of the highest philosophi/ organis&s .> i. 4rin/e Odoye0s2i. espe/ially the relations bet1een /lasses. 7elins2i 1as neither a Wagner nor a de/adent. but this does not pre0ent us fro& ha0ing our o1n opinion /on/erning 7elins2i+s =philosophi/ talent.ussians of that era.> and it e. Bs is 1ell 2no1n. you are not gifted 1ith Wagner+s =philosophi/ talent. 7ut in that /ase by 1hat is the triu&ph of for/e ?ustifiedE Bnd 1hat &eaning /an =ideals> ha0e. falling under the rule of harsh /on<uerorsE -s it be/ause the /on<uerors are al1ays better than and superior to the /on<ueredE 9ardly so. Bnd this. but an instin/t 1hi/h. left unfortunately unde0eloped by syste&ati/ philosophi/ edu/ation.e.Today 1hen the road to happiness is no longer pointed out )y philosophy. -t re/ogni@ed that =not e0erything as yet is attainable to the po1er of truth. The ='i/htean period> he after1ards /alled the period of =disintegration. Our /on/lusion is that 7elins2i 1as one of the highest =philosophi/ organis&s> e0er to appear on our literary s/ene. the noblest aspirations of hu&an beingsE Why do so&e nations flourish. 1hile others perish. 1hi/h ne0er lea0e their supra)gala/ti/ pro0in/e 1hile lea0ing our poor. 'or better or for 1orse. Why /an /rude physi/al for/e &o/2 1ith i&punity the finest.all these ideals a)stract. and ideals the reality G you 1ill in either /ase be /o&pelled to grapple 1ith these <uestions. and reality concrete.a/tly the ones to 1hi/h the Ger&an poet de&ands an ans1er in his beautiful poe& 1here he as2sA =Why is the ?ust &an fore0er doo&ed to bear the /rossE Bnd 1hy is the ri/h &an e0ery1here &et 1ith honor and a//lai&E Who is responsibleE Or is it that the po1er of truth /annot attain e0erything on earthE Or are 1e ?ust its playthingsE> 5odern so/ial s/ien/e has definitely sol0ed these <uestions. pra/ti/al life a prey to all sorts of horrorsE . does hi& great honorC but for this honor he paid dearly. indi/ated to hi& <uite /orre/tly the &ost i&portant tas2s of so/ial s/ien/e of his day. the history of this brea2 unfortunately re&ains little 2no1n. 7ut it is 2no1n that by the &iddle of 18"8 7elins2i 1as already strongly under the influen/e of 9egel. or 0i/e 0ersa. 'or la/2 of data. of /ourse. 'ro& the standpoint of &odern so/ial s/ien/e the <uestions that e. Bnd it is not hard to understand that 7elins2i /ould be satisfied only 1ith a philosophy that 1ould gi0e hi& plain and fir& ans1ers to pre/isely these <uestions.. pro/lai& reality an abstra/tion. Often this happens for the sole reason that the /on<uerors possess &ore troops than the /on<uered.> and pro0ided you do not belong to a /oterie of decadents /apable of a&using the&sel0es 1ith 1ret/hed =for&ulas of progress> 1hi/h sol0e nothing and disturb nobody.> We thin2 that he had an e"traordinary instinct for theoretical tr!th.ing <uestions ga0e 7elins2i no rest throughout the ='i/hte period. 7ut for his ti&es they 1ere not at all nai0eC the best &inds of his day 1ere o//upied 1ith the&. 1hi/h he had 1arred so resolutely before.> Mnderstandably.> These <uestions 1ere e. 9is ./ited and tor&ented 7elins2i &ay see& <uite nai0e. he had to stri0e to free hi&self fro& this onerous /onditionC and it is e<ually understandable that this struggle had to lead to a brea2 1ith 'i/hte+s philosophy. nonetheless.plained 1hy =truth> still 1eighs so little 1hen it /o&es to so/ial relations. of /ourse.> said one of the best edu/ated . pro0ided. its progressi0e &eaning has been redu/ed to @eroC and no1adays the lo0ers of =pure thought> /an tran<uilly o//upy the&sel0es 1ith it. although he had as yet be/o&e a/<uainted only 1ith /ertain parts of 9egel+s syste&.e0er &et in &y life. are not bathed in =pure thought. -t is also 2no1n that during this period he 1as already /on/iliating 1ith that reality against. These <uestions flo1 logi/ally fro& the root <uestion of 1hy a//ident pro0es so often stronger than reason. the 0e.

> Det us agree that su/h tal2 1ould sound strange on the lips of a /ustodian of the old order. those e0ents to1ard the end of the 18th /entury 1hi/h 7elins2i <uite re/ently had regarded 1ith su/h passionate sy&pathy.ussia be/ause =. then . e0en if he did so in/orre/tly. Bt that ti&e. urging the thin2ing .> This &ade 7elins2i so indignant that he sent the 'ren/h to =the de0il.ternal life /an neither gi0e you nor depri0e you of.e.ussia loose fro& the past. =. su/h an ans1er &ade possible /on/iliation not only 1ith . =-f ea/h of the indi0iduals 1ho &a2e up . Bnd as 1e sa1.ussian reality. he 1as far re&o0ed fro& /onser0atis&. either 1as 7elins2i at all in/lined to ideali@e /onte&porary . Bt the sa&e ti&e.ussia is destined to a fate entirely different fro& that of 'ran/e.ussian youth to turn their eyes to Ger&any 1ith hope and trust. What is i&portant to us is this. Bnd yet these parallels. destroying her tradition. 1ithout any re0olutions. 7ut it 1ould be a gross &ista2e to present as a c!stodian the 7elins2i 1ho had =/on/iliated> 1ith . our nobility HHis dying out by itself.> 4oliti/s has no &eaning in . The 'ren/h possess =no eternal truths. 1ithout do&esti/ /on0ulsions.ussian lifeC he finds &any i&perfe/tions in it. but. 7elins2i+s a/<uaintan/e 1ith 9egel 1as <uite in/o&plete at the ti&e. in general. of /ourse. Bnd this 1ould be entirely /orre/t fro& the . =the go0ern&ent is e&an/ipating little by little.ussia and 'ran/e.ussia is still an infant. Why does our so/ial life bear no rese&blan/e to that of 'ran/eE 7e/ause .> 'ren/h influen/e. and.> Genuine /ustodians of the old order 0ie1ed &atters through entirely different eyesC and had one of the& read the foregoing letter of 7elins2i.ussia+s entire hope lies in the spread of enlighten&ent and in the &oral self)perfe/tion of her /iti@ens. 1ithout any politi/s. perfe/tly non)9egelian. only a short 1hile before.isted in his day.> .ussia 1ould. too. =Only in it 1ill you find ans1ers to the <uestions of your soulC only philosophy 1ill bring pea/e and har&ony to your soul and &a2e you a gift of happiness beyond anything the &ob suspe/tsC a happiness 1hi/h e. his infatuation 1ith the =absolute> truth of Ger&an philosophy /auses hi& no longer to respe/t this bent. as 1e ha0e already said. a//ording to hi&. 1ere bound to bring 7elins2i to depressing and al&ost hopeless /on/lusions. he 1ould ha0e found it full of the &ost =nonsensi/al ideas.> 7elins2i+s negati0e attitude to politi/s not1ithstanding. that 7elins2i /a&e to conciliate with R!ssian reality by 1ay of el!cidating her historical develop$ent. but he e. Bs he 1rote. for instan/e. be/o&e the happiest /ountry in the 1orld. 0ery superfi/ially. 18"7 to one of his young friends. but fro& e. 1here the politi/al bent of the s/ien/es and of the arts. 9e hotly urges his friend to ta2e up philosophy. *0erything is good in its pla/e.ussian people not &ature enough as yet for freedo&.peri&ent. ne1 truths for ea/h day. but daily truths. They 1ant to deri0e e0erything not fro& the eternal la1s of hu&an reason.plains these i&perfe/tions by the youth of . he ?ustified the =politi/al bent> of the 'ren/h. =The e&perors of all nations de0eloped their people by resting on the past. its la1fulness and its good side.> Bnd this /ir/u&stan/e gladdens hi& as &u/h as the fa/t that o1ing to the absen/e of pri&ogeniture in our /ountry. -n/identally.ussia..> 9e no1 /on/iliates e0en 1ith serfdo&C but does so only up to a gi0en point.ussia 1ere to attain perfe/tion by 1ay of lo0e. ne0er brought anything but har&C and he pro/lai&ed Ger&any as the e1 Jerusale& of /onte&porary &an2ind.ussia+s histori/al destiny bears no rese&blan/e to 'ran/e+s histori/al destiny. 9e li2es 4ester the Great pre/isely be/ause of his resolute brea2 1ith the state of affairs that e. %u/h an ans1er &ade i&possible any parallels 1hate0er bet1een . fro& history. 9e /on/iliates only be/ause he /onsiders the .&ood at the ti&e is illu&inated <uite /learly by a letter fro& 4iatigors2 he 1rote on Bugust 7. on traditionC 4eter tore . i. as 1ell as the /hara/ter of the /iti@ens has its &eaning.ussia+s so/ial life but also that of 'ran/e. ready to punish pran2s.> This 0ie1 is. 1ho still needs a nurse 1hose heart is filled 1ith lo0e for her foster)/hild and 1hose hands hold a rod.

/ept =abstra/t herois&. 7elins2i &ade pea/e not 1ith reality but 1ith the sorry destiny of his abstra/t ideal. To hell 1ith politi/s.> a barren hostility to1ard reality./lai&s. ot at all.. 7ut they refused to renoun/e 9i& before /@ars and ?udgesC and feared neither fire nor the s1ord. 7ut this doesn+t &ean that 7elins2i turned his ba/2 on progress. /on0in/ed that it /an lead to nothing e. -t si&ply &eans that he 1as no1 prepared to ser0e progress in a different 1ay fro& that in 1hi/h he had prepared to ser0e before. long li0e s/ien/eI> . but re&ain true to your /auseC and your /ause is G the lo0e of truth . 5eddle not in things that do not /on/ern you. =They entered into no /onspira/ies.=/ustodial> point of 0ie1. o1 he renoun/es it.> he e. and founded no open or /landestine politi/al so/ieties in spreading the tea/hings of their Li0ine Tea/her..hrist. =Det us e&ulate the apostles of . Only a short 1hile before he 1as tor&ented by the reali@ation that this ideal /ould find no appli/ation to life.

The Maid of 4rleans plunged &e into the sa&e abstra/t herois&. protest against serfdo&s. in its passion. other beings ?ust li2e the& and to ta2e a1ay fro& the& the sa/red treasure of freedo&E . tell &e. the tragedy 1hi/h he 1rote during his stay in the Mni0ersity and 1hi/h /aused hi& so &u/h unpleasantness 1as a passionate. into the sa&e so/ial and general abstra/tion.. and ere/ted in &id)air. fa/eless.)ha*ter IV Det us no1 return to 7elins2i. This tor&enting /ognition of oneself as a =/ipher> 1as not pe/uliar at the ti&e to 7elins2i alone. 5ental life started in our /ountry only 1ith 4eter the GreatC up till then e0erything *uropean /a&e to our /ountry =by 1ay of ri/o/hets.erted on hi& only by the 1or2s of %/hiller 1e listed abo0e.ussian reality of those days. in/identally.ussian life appeared to hi& as a =sleeping forest of fa/eless na&es /olliding in a 0oid of lifeless /haos. to Narl 5oor hi&self.> %u/h /ons/iousness is e. 7ut 1as there &u/h sola/e in the 0ie1s of ade@hdin hi&selfE *arly . e&pty.> . Bs is 1ell 2no1n. Mp to no1 the attention it &erits has not been paid to it. the sa&e as the&sel0esI> e. no one has stressed this /ir/u&stan/e that a gifted and passionate youth filled 1ith =abstra/t herois&> 1as at the sa&e ti&e =conscio!s of hi$self as a cipher. at all e0ents in the first period of 7elins2i+s de0elop&ent. through thousands of leaps and tangents and therefore rea/hed us in 1ea2. 7elins2i 1as 1holly on the side of the serfs.> We as2 the reader to note this interesting testi&ony of the fa&ous /riti/ about hi&self. 1hi/h &ade &e s/orn e0erything elseC and in this /ondition.an it be that these hu&ans 1ere born into this 1orld only to ser0e the 1hi&s of other hu&ans. =3on Carlos> said 7elins2i. atte&pts to find a concrete soil for his so/ial in/linations. %o far as 1e 2no1. if s/ar/ely artisti/.ussia+s thousand years of e. /ro/odiles and tigers 1ho feed on &arro1 and &eat of their 2in and 1ho drin2 li2e 1ater their blood and tearsE> This tirade 1ould ha0e done /redit.tre&ely painful./lai&s one of his heroes. The aspirations of the ad0an/ed intelligentsia of the 18!:+s had shortly before suffered a /ruel ship1re/2. 9is youthful infatuation 1ith =an abstra/t ideal of so/iety> is a &ost i&portant page in the history of his intelle/tual de0elop&ent. on the one side. -t &ust ha0e e0o2ed. Ca)al and 'ove.isten/e. on the other. torn out of geographi/ and histori/al /onditions of de0elop&ent. 1as it Four all)1ise hand that /reated on earth these serpents. Bnd a/tually 7dins2i 1as under the strongest influen/e of %/hiller+s early 1or2s. . of the substan/e but 1ith nothing indi0idual about it. 2iasco. in the na&e of an abstra/t ideal of so/iety. Bs he put it. dying out re0erberations. The Ro))ers. 1as not e. 'ather of 5en. =thre1 &e into an abstra/t herois&. =Who ga0e this fatal right to so&e people to ensla0e to their 1ill the 1ill of others.. =. 1e &ust note first of all that in his early youth he rose up indignantly against the . -t is /usto&ary in our /ountry to repeat that ade@hdin had a strong influen/e on the de0elop&ent of 7elins2i+s 0ie1s. these dra&as &ade hi& =1ildly hostile to the so/ial order.1as <uite /ons/ious of &yself as a /ipher.> 9e e0en doubted that there 1as any real li0ing in the /ourse of . -n approa/hing the history of his intelle/tual de0elop&ent. 5er/iful God. e<ually painful doubts o0er the 1or2ability of the abstra/t idealC and. and sorro1 and despair reigned a&ong the thin2ers.> This influen/e. despite &y unnatural and intense e/stasy.

eedless to add 1e ha0e borro1ed fro& the sa&e 1or2 &ost of the fa/ts relating to 7elins2i+s intelle/tual de0elop&ent. 4ointing out that 1hat 1e need is not literature. a corv#e of the *uropeanC it has been 1or2ed o0er by . p.> Bll this 1as. he e. 7elins2i sy&pathi@ed strongly 1ith the 'ren/h. and there 1ith the aid of a hospitable host.9(.ussian spirit in order to edu/ate foreigners and not oursel0es.7. on/e the hand of . if . 4ypin.ussia. Bt the ti&e 7elins2i 1rote this arti/le he 1anted to belie0e.ussian reality on the other.> says 5r. and the /on/rete . 4ypin+s boo2.@ar)'ather points out the goal to the&. a nullity.> -n this 1ay the 0e. 1hen the fla&e of enthusias& had /ooled. =. he /ries outA =Bnd this enlighten&ent 1ill not be/o&e ossified. -n brief. but 1e ha0e grouped these fa/ts differently. in tal2ing about the 'ren/h e0ents of the 18th /entury. his eyes al1ays sa1 doubleA there 1as life ideal and there 1as life real. he /ould not fail to see that the foundations on 1hi/h his faith rested in a s1ift gro1th of enlighten&ent in . ine. 7elins2i ob0iously e. he did belie0e that enlighten&ent 1ould s1iftly engulf Old 5other .> -n a 1ord. =We 2no1 of an episode in 7elins2i+s life at the ti&e.> The notes to be heard here are al&ost those of . 'i/hte /on0in/ed hi& that =life ideal 1as nothing else but life real. of /ourse.haustible ?ui/es of the young . Bnd this is understandable. but enlighten&ent. if not our past or present.hausted the fresh. 1e are /o&pelled to <uote fro& 5r. the rapturous tone of 'iterary 3rea$s 1as the produ/t of a &o&entary flash)fire and did not at all e. 1ritten in perfe/t sin/erity.&ay use the e.ussian 1ayC it e. 3 ot ha0ing ade@hdin+s arti/les at hand. a &ood resulting fro& the tou/hy re/ognition of hi&self as a /ipher. a phanto&.pressed a rather rosy outloo2 about our future. 7ut in /al&er &o&ents. 7elins2i 1as able to 1age 1ar against it all the &ore 0igorously in the na&e of the ideal 1hi/h no1 turned out to be the only reality 1orthy of the na&e.ussian hands but not in a . 1hi/h 1ill &a2e its appearan/e in its o1n due ti&e.> 5. on/e his so0ereign 0oi/e su&&ons the people to this goalI> The single institution of do&esti/ tutors 1as bound. the /ause of enlighten&ent prospers a&ong usA =The seeds of the future are ripening today. than2s to the sleepless soli/itude of the 1ise go0ern&ent.-.> he says.sei@ed hold of the 'i/htean outloo2 1ith 0igor and fanati/is&. 7esides. Belinski4 5is %i'e and )orres*onden&eC 0ol.pressed an opinion 1hi/h e&barrassed his .=Mp to no1 our literature has been. and fro& the unresol0ed /ontradi/tion bet1een the abstra/t ideal. /ould e0en the su//esses of enlight&ent G ho1e0er =s1ift> they &ight be G satisfy a &an =hostile to the so/ial order> in the na&e of an ideal. 1hile our &er/antile estate =is rapidly ta2ing shape and in this /onne/tion is not far behind the highest estates. Having proclai$ed reality a phanto$.6 -n his fa&ous first arti/le. -t 1as sol0ed by redu/ing to @ero one of the sides of the antino&y.haadaye0. and /arried a1ay by enthusias& 1hile 1riting.pression. diligent and @ealous about e0erything that is good and beautiful. /o&pletely unfa&iliar to hi&. positi0e and /on/rete.ing /ontradi/tion bet1een the abstra/t ideal and /on/rete reality found the sought)for philosophi/ solution. on the one side. and per&eated 1ith =abstra/t herois&>E %u/h perspe/ti0es 1ere not needed by su/h a &an. -n this ='i/htean> period. as he put it. 37a2unin6 be/a&e a/<uainted 1ith the philosophy of 'i/hte. 1hereas the so) /alled real life is a negation. a 1ell)2no1n =dilettante of philosophy> or =friend of philosophy. 7esides. a 0oid. to perfor& genuine &ira/les in the sense of enlighten&ent. =Bt a big gathering. -n July 18"6 7elins2i ?ourneyed to the 0illage of 7O2h in T0ers2 pro0in/e. our nobility has finally be/o&e /on0in/ed about gi0ing their /hildren a solid edu/ation. The .ussia 1ere so&e1hat sha2y. for the first ti&e if 1e are not &ista2en. Bs 7elins2i put it. 'iterary 3rea$s.ussian people are /le0er and a&enable./lude a depressed &ood on the author+s part.

=Bnd . -n the first pla/e he /a&e to doubt his o1n /apa/ity for philosophi/ thought.ussian. e. if not altogether a =phanto&. =Bt that ti&e 1e sought in philosophy e0erything in the uni0erse. either. as a /onse<uen/e.> as 7yron+s . but only pre)per/eptions.ussia there 1as nothing of the sort.> and it be/a&e /usto&ary to loo2 do1n upon hi& 1ith a /ertain patroni@ing air by people 1ho. Bnd yet it 1as a si&ple 0ariant of the old 0e. 'ro& 7elins2i+s ne1 standpoint. Fes. 9e hated. not philosophi/ thought in generail. so far as ability for philosophi/ thought is /on/erned. 1ould. and . 'ren/h reality 1as no less a phanto& than any either. did not long rid hi& of old theoretical do!)ts. in its turn. but the happiness of his near and dear ones.had to pass. re/alling this episode in a letter to an inti&ate friend.plainable by this life. as is e0ident.pressed in this phrase the tense /ondition of &y spirit through 1hi/h of necessity .pressed.> says Turgene0. not the delights of its har&ony and s/ents. but .> turned its ba/2 upon life. /a&e to 2no1 paradise only to be/o&e /on0in/ed that the only possible life for &e 1as an approa/h to its gates.a& by nature an ene&y of thought. 7e/ause of this &any ha0e i&agined that 7elins2i did indeed la/2 =philosophi/ talent. to fa&iliari@e &yself 1ith it.> 9e /ould be satisfied only 1ith a syste&.hate it as an abstra/tion.tre&e bluntness. B/tually he no1 suffered al&ost &ore than before.a& not at all e&barrassed by it. ot to personal happiness. &it.e.. 9e /ould not rest /ontent 1ith =abstra/tions.> =Fes. and the rest of the ti&e thin2 nothing at allE . a nullity and a 0oid. 9e sought in philosophy the 1ay to happiness. p.17(6.> These si&ple)hearted and tou/hing lines /hara/teri@e best of all 7elins2i+s attitude to philosophy.pressed a /on0i/tion that he =hated thought. understandably enough.eal life 1as pro/lai&ed a phanto&. as 1e 2no1. Dater. in good /ons/ien/e and 1ith the fullness of &y 0iolent nature.ain put it. the denial of reality. =7ut /an thought then be a/<uired 1ithout being an abstra/tionE %hould one al1ays thin2 only in &o&ents of /andor. =the road to happiness. in/luding the . /ontented 1ith philosophi/ =/onte&plation. 18"86 7elins2i e.> %e/ondly. 9is supposed hatred of thought /onsisted pre/isely of this. that is how &y thoughts ran then . This is absolutely /orre/t. %in/erely and in good /ons/ien/e .> -t 1ould see& that 7elins2i /ould no1 rest fro& the doubts that tor&ented hi&. Fet there 1ere &anifestations in 'ren/h so/ial life 1ith 1hi/h he 1ar&ly sy&pathi@ed. in one of his letters 3June !:. Dater on. .plain life and offer the possibility for broad and fruitful a/tion upon life.a/tly nothingC and. 0ol. 1hile in . but only su/h thought as. 1hi/h itself ste&&ing fro& so/ial life and e. That is 1hy philosophy then had su/h enor&ous so/ial signifi/an/e. the 1eal of his nati0e land. These s&ug fello1s forgot or ne0er 2ne1 that in 7elins2i+s day the road to so/ial happiness 1as sought in philosophy by 0irtually all of the intelle/tuals in *urope. are not fit to untie his shoela/es. -t e.> Bfter all. 7elins2i had /herished it pre/isely to the e. the ne1 philosophi/ outloo2 pro0ed dubious. e.learned about the e./ept pure thought.> 3lo&. espe/ially in relation to 7elins2i. the state of &y &ind at the ti&e.-.host by its e. 7elins2i addedA =. ..isten/e of this /on/rete life only to /o&e to 2no1 &y i&poten/e.tent to 1hi/h it apparently pro&ised to supply si&ple and /on0in/ing ans1ers to the <uestions that beleaguered hi&. Why then 1ere the 'ren/h =phanto&s> so unli2e our nati0e onesE ='i/hteanis&> had no ans1er to this <uestion..> he 1rote.ing <uestionA Why did /on/rete reality /ontradi/t the abstra/t idealE and ho1 to re&o0e this /ontradi/tionE -t turned out that pro/lai&ing reality a phanto& a0ailed in essen/e e.do not at all repent of this phrase. .understand ho1 silly su/h a proposition is. of /ourse. 7ut there are phanto&s and phanto&s.

-t re/ogni@ed that =not e0erything as yet is attainable to the po1er of truth. left unfortunately unde0eloped by syste&ati/ philosophi/ edu/ation.> said one of the best edu/ated . Why /an /rude physi/al for/e &o/2 1ith i&punity the finest.> i. We 1ish the& su//ess 1ith all our heart.plained 1hy =truth> still 1eighs so little 1hen it /o&es to so/ial relations. the 0e. you are not gifted 1ith Wagner+s =philosophi/ talent.all these ideals a)stract.> These <uestions 1ere e. falling under the rule of harsh /on<uerorsE -s it be/ause the /on<uerors are al1ays better than and superior to the /on<ueredE 9ardly so. 7ut for his ti&es they 1ere not at all nai0eC the best &inds of his day 1ere o//upied 1ith the&. does hi& great honorC but for this honor he paid dearly. and reality concrete. of /ourse. 'or better or for 1orse.e. espe/ially the relations bet1een /lasses. Bnd it is not hard to understand that 7elins2i /ould be satisfied only 1ith a philosophy that 1ould gi0e hi& plain and fir& ans1ers to pre/isely these <uestions. 'ro& the standpoint of &odern so/ial s/ien/e the <uestions that e. 1hi/h ne0er lea0e their supra)gala/ti/ pro0in/e 1hile lea0ing our poor. 4rin/e Odoye0s2i.> and pro0ided you do not belong to a /oterie of decadents /apable of a&using the&sel0es 1ith 1ret/hed =for&ulas of progress> 1hi/h sol0e nothing and disturb nobody. indi/ated to hi& <uite /orre/tly the &ost i&portant tas2s of so/ial s/ien/e of his day. Our /on/lusion is that 7elins2i 1as one of the highest =philosophi/ organis&s> e0er to appear on our literary s/ene. he had to stri0e to free hi&self fro& this onerous /onditionC and it is e<ually understandable that this struggle had to lead to a brea2 1ith 'i/hte+s philosophy. of /ourse.> and it e. Bnd this. pra/ti/al life a prey to all sorts of horrorsE . Bs is 1ell 2no1n. the noblest aspirations of hu&an beingsE Why do so&e nations flourish./ited and tor&ented 7elins2i &ay see& <uite nai0e. =7elins2i 1as one of the highest philosophi/ organis&s . its progressi0e &eaning has been redu/ed to @eroC and no1adays the lo0ers of =pure thought> /an tran<uilly o//upy the&sel0es 1ith it. 7ut in that /ase by 1hat is the triu&ph of for/e ?ustifiedE Bnd 1hat &eaning /an =ideals> ha0e. but an instin/t 1hi/h. the history of this brea2 unfortunately re&ains little 2no1n.> Mnderstandably. -t is also 2no1n that during this period he 1as already /on/iliating 1ith that reality against. 'or la/2 of data. 1hi/h he had 1arred so resolutely before. and ideals the reality G you 1ill in either /ase be /o&pelled to grapple 1ith these <uestions.> We thin2 that he had an e"traordinary instinct for theoretical tr!th. 7elins2i 1as neither a Wagner nor a de/adent..ing <uestions ga0e 7elins2i no rest throughout the ='i/hte period. These <uestions flo1 logi/ally fro& the root <uestion of 1hy a//ident pro0es so often stronger than reason.Today 1hen the road to happiness is no longer pointed out )y philosophy.a/tly the ones to 1hi/h the Ger&an poet de&ands an ans1er in his beautiful poe& 1here he as2sA =Why is the ?ust &an fore0er doo&ed to bear the /rossE Bnd 1hy is the ri/h &an e0ery1here &et 1ith honor and a//lai&E Who is responsibleE Or is it that the po1er of truth /annot attain e0erything on earthE Or are 1e ?ust its playthingsE> 5odern so/ial s/ien/e has definitely sol0ed these <uestions. are not bathed in =pure thought. 7ut it is 2no1n that by the &iddle of 18"8 7elins2i 1as already strongly under the influen/e of 9egel. pro0ided.ussians of that era. Often this happens for the sole reason that the /on<uerors possess &ore troops than the /on<uered. The ='i/htean period> he after1ards /alled the period of =disintegration. although he had as yet be/o&e a/<uainted only 1ith /ertain parts of 9egel+s syste&. 9is . but this does not pre0ent us fro& ha0ing our o1n opinion /on/erning 7elins2i+s =philosophi/ talent. pro/lai& reality an abstra/tion. 1hile others perish. nonetheless.e0er &et in &y life. or 0i/e 0ersa.

Bnd as 1e sa1. Why does our so/ial life bear no rese&blan/e to that of 'ran/eE 7e/ause . 1ithout do&esti/ /on0ulsions. 1ithout any politi/s.> Genuine /ustodians of the old order 0ie1ed &atters through entirely different eyesC and had one of the& read the foregoing letter of 7elins2i. 18"7 to one of his young friends.peri&ent. Bt that ti&e. that 7elins2i /a&e to conciliate with R!ssian reality by 1ay of el!cidating her historical develop$ent. *0erything is good in its pla/e. be/o&e the happiest /ountry in the 1orld. 0ery superfi/ially. Bnd yet these parallels.ussia+s histori/al destiny bears no rese&blan/e to 'ran/e+s histori/al destiny. i.ternal life /an neither gi0e you nor depri0e you of. he 1as far re&o0ed fro& /onser0atis&.> Bnd this /ir/u&stan/e gladdens hi& as &u/h as the fa/t that o1ing to the absen/e of pri&ogeniture in our /ountry. in general. 1ho still needs a nurse 1hose heart is filled 1ith lo0e for her foster)/hild and 1hose hands hold a rod. 7elins2i+s a/<uaintan/e 1ith 9egel 1as <uite in/o&plete at the ti&e.e. The 'ren/h possess =no eternal truths.ussia+s entire hope lies in the spread of enlighten&ent and in the &oral self)perfe/tion of her /iti@ens. a//ording to hi&. fro& history. =the go0ern&ent is e&an/ipating little by little. as 1e ha0e already said. 9e hotly urges his friend to ta2e up philosophy. he ?ustified the =politi/al bent> of the 'ren/h. 7ut it 1ould be a gross &ista2e to present as a c!stodian the 7elins2i 1ho had =/on/iliated> 1ith .plains these i&perfe/tions by the youth of . as 1ell as the /hara/ter of the /iti@ens has its &eaning. only a short 1hile before. 1ere bound to bring 7elins2i to depressing and al&ost hopeless /on/lusions.> Det us agree that su/h tal2 1ould sound strange on the lips of a /ustodian of the old order. destroying her tradition.ussia+s so/ial life but also that of 'ran/e.> This 0ie1 is.> . su/h an ans1er &ade possible /on/iliation not only 1ith . of /ourse. =The e&perors of all nations de0eloped their people by resting on the past. ne0er brought anything but har&C and he pro/lai&ed Ger&any as the e1 Jerusale& of /onte&porary &an2ind.ussian youth to turn their eyes to Ger&any 1ith hope and trust.&ood at the ti&e is illu&inated <uite /learly by a letter fro& 4iatigors2 he 1rote on Bugust 7. he 1ould ha0e found it full of the &ost =nonsensi/al ideas. Bnd this 1ould be entirely /orre/t fro& the . then . 1ithout any re0olutions.> This &ade 7elins2i so indignant that he sent the 'ren/h to =the de0il.> 'ren/h influen/e. either 1as 7elins2i at all in/lined to ideali@e /onte&porary . =Only in it 1ill you find ans1ers to the <uestions of your soulC only philosophy 1ill bring pea/e and har&ony to your soul and &a2e you a gift of happiness beyond anything the &ob suspe/tsC a happiness 1hi/h e. Bs he 1rote.. ne1 truths for ea/h day. for instan/e.ussia and 'ran/e.ussian lifeC he finds &any i&perfe/tions in it. They 1ant to deri0e e0erything not fro& the eternal la1s of hu&an reason.ussian reality.> 9e no1 /on/iliates e0en 1ith serfdo&C but does so only up to a gi0en point. What is i&portant to us is this. on traditionC 4eter tore . 9e /on/iliates only be/ause he /onsiders the .> 7elins2i+s negati0e attitude to politi/s not1ithstanding. too. 1here the politi/al bent of the s/ien/es and of the arts.ussia be/ause =. but daily truths.ussia. those e0ents to1ard the end of the 18th /entury 1hi/h 7elins2i <uite re/ently had regarded 1ith su/h passionate sy&pathy. its la1fulness and its good side.isted in his day. =. =-f ea/h of the indi0iduals 1ho &a2e up . Bt the sa&e ti&e. urging the thin2ing .ussia loose fro& the past. and.> 4oliti/s has no &eaning in . but he e.ussian people not &ature enough as yet for freedo&. his infatuation 1ith the =absolute> truth of Ger&an philosophy /auses hi& no longer to respe/t this bent. %u/h an ans1er &ade i&possible any parallels 1hate0er bet1een . perfe/tly non)9egelian. -n/identally.ussia 1ould. but fro& e.ussia is destined to a fate entirely different fro& that of 'ran/e. our nobility HHis dying out by itself. 9e li2es 4ester the Great pre/isely be/ause of his resolute brea2 1ith the state of affairs that e. ready to punish pran2s.ussia 1ere to attain perfe/tion by 1ay of lo0e. e0en if he did so in/orre/tly.ussia is still an infant. but.

ot at all.> a barren hostility to1ard reality. =They entered into no /onspira/ies. -t si&ply &eans that he 1as no1 prepared to ser0e progress in a different 1ay fro& that in 1hi/h he had prepared to ser0e before.> he e. /on0in/ed that it /an lead to nothing e. Only a short 1hile before he 1as tor&ented by the reali@ation that this ideal /ould find no appli/ation to life. 7ut they refused to renoun/e 9i& before /@ars and ?udgesC and feared neither fire nor the s1ord. =Det us e&ulate the apostles of . long li0e s/ien/eI> . 7ut this doesn+t &ean that 7elins2i turned his ba/2 on progress. but re&ain true to your /auseC and your /ause is G the lo0e of truth . 5eddle not in things that do not /on/ern you.hrist.=/ustodial> point of 0ie1. To hell 1ith politi/s./lai&s.. o1 he renoun/es it. 7elins2i &ade pea/e not 1ith reality but 1ith the sorry destiny of his abstra/t ideal./ept =abstra/t herois&. and founded no open or /landestine politi/al so/ieties in spreading the tea/hings of their Li0ine Tea/her..

N O0 JNat2o0K..a/tly 1hi/h of his 1ants it filled. e0en in &yself. and the &eaning of &y nati0e land rose before &e in a ne1 /ast .. night and dayC in this ne1 &utation 1hi/h be/o&es &ore and &ore noti/eable 1ith e0ery passing day. no a//ident.understood that there is no reign of sa0age &aterial for/eC that there is no s1ay of bayonet and the s1ordC there is no /lub)la1./ould./a&e to 5os/o1 fro& Georgia. . The 1ord. the s2y is fre<uently /ast o0er by greyish /louds. 4re0iously.> There no1 follo1ed a genuine /on/iliation by 7elins2i 1ith reality. 7elins2i re&ained. but. o. no arbitrariness. 1ill not bother. the la1fulness of /on<uerors. 9is further a/<uaintan/e 1ith this syste& 1as aided by the sa&e =dilettante of philosophy> 1ho had e. Good GodI What a ne1. .loo2 on reality so s/orned by &e before. Mnderstandably.+ Bnd you needlessly ad0ise &e to loo2 &ore often up into the blue s2y. all the &ore is he bound to be irritated by any /riti/is& of reality. lu&inous. the &oral gains fro& =/on/iliation> 1ere not substantial.a//epted. 9o1 po1erfully 9egelianis& rea/ted upon 7elins2i and e..sei@ed the idea of the do1nfall of e&pires. it be/o&es saturated 1ith the& do1n to its &ost se/ret.. into the sta&p of infinity. -t is hard e0en to belie0e today that he used to en?oy the /onte&plation of reality about hi& in the sa&e 1ay an artist en?oys loo2ing at a great 1or2 of art.. nothing sullied or re?e/ted . 3Hdilettante of philosophy+6C 1e are li0ing together. Bnd so long as this proble& re&ained unsol0ed./an+t des/ribe &y feelings 1hen . =%u/h is &y nature. 'or/e is rightC right is for/e. so as not to stu&ble into s/ullery reality. and e0ery idea and feeling. seeing that nothing /an be /ast out of it. reality .pounded 'i/hte+s do/trine to hi&. blessed is he 1ho sees infinity sy&boli@ed in the sta&p of s2y.feel it e0ery1here and in e0erything. B ne1 1orld opened before us. and 2no1ledge. =under stress. 5y friend. Hreality+ has be/o&e for &e the synony& for the 1ord. 7elins2i+s passionate nature 1as bound to lead hi& far in this dire/tion. too. for/e o0er right.(Part 6) )ha*ter V B negati0e attitude to1ard politi/s.. had passed on to &e and . as before. -n the su&&er he 1ent through 9egel+s philosophy of religion and the philosophy of right.. /o&prehending its rationality. a fe1 results of J9egel+sK estheti/s. reality en0elops &e and . Bnd &y guardianship o0er &an2ind ter&inated. This 1as e&an/ipation. &y spirit a//epts both lo0e and hate.heard these 1ords. beset by doubts. . naturally.ealityI+ . inner&ost bends and 1indings. . to re/onstru/t anything in the life about hi&. ho1e0er.> he said. therefore &ore blessed is he 1ho is able to illu&inate a s/ullery. B &an 1ho tries to illu&inate e0en a 2it/hen 1ith the thought of infinity. HGod. boundless uni0erseI . H. 9e 1ill en?oy the /ons/iousness and /onte&plation of life+s rationality and the &ore he 0enerates reason. 7ut he 1as no1 /onfident that 9egel+s syste& 1ould help hi& get rid of doubt fore0er.> . there /a&e 7. 1ith the idea of the infinite. and tre&ble 1ith a &ysterious ?oy. but on/e ha0ing a//epted.. after all. 1as no solution to the proble& of 1hy e0il so often triu&phs o0er good. lie o0er truth. Thus in &y spirit+s forge has 1or2ed out independently the &eaning of the great 1ord. is sho1n by the follo1ing lines fro& his letter to %tan2e0i/hA =. sorro1fully and 1ith diffi/ulty. too. as best .arise or go to sleep.repeat as .

> he e.a& beginning to gain the ability to enter into real relations 1ith hi&. si&ultaneously philosophi/ and poeti/. he pro/lai&s as a phanto$. %o long as &y strength endures . as in the first. . those 1ho are able si&ultaneously to en?oy nature+s beauty and the /ons/iousness of being indi0isible fro& nature. so tedious and prosai/ on the surfa/e. so /rude. i&per/eptible unless one follo1s its de0elop&ent in ti&e.> ot a tra/e is left of =abstra/t herois&. is doubly able to possess realityC but the &ain thing is to 2no1 reality. -n the se/ond instan/e.a& deter&ined at all /ost to bring &y offering to the altar of so/ial 1elfare. he 1ho through his thought adds the /ons/ious to this penetrati0e &ental fa/ulty. =With insatiable /uriosity . 7elins2i see&s to ha0e lost e0en theoreti/al interest in great so/ial <uestions. B &an 1ho lo0es nature 1ith su/h a lo0e. e0ery ideal that /ontradi/ts reality.loo2 into the &eans.a& satisfied 1ith e0erybody. /on/erning 1hi/h 1e 2no1 only fro& history do1n to the present. the /ontradi/tion bet1een abstra/t ideal and /on/rete reality. no &atter ho1. o1 he does ?ust the opposite.perien/e 1hen /o&&uning 1ith nature. onetheless. The rationalisti/ 0ie1 1ith 1hi/h 7elins2i li0ed in ob0ious har&ony during the 'i/htean period. fro& a superfi/ial standpoint. Of /hief interest in this arti/le is 7elins2i+s atta/2 on the rationalisti/ interpretation of so/ial life and its elu/idation of relations bet1een indi0iduals and so/iety as a 1hole. reality ushers one into reality. o1 he e<uates to @ero the opposite side of the antino&y. /ons/ious /o&pa/t of a /ertain nu&ber of indi0iduals. to sol0e the /ontradi/tion that tor&ented hi&. all relations 1ith people irreproa/hable. desirous of be/o&ing a /o&ponent part of this . . unstrained. not high)sounding but useful. ='ro& the days of old.> he said. there is no suffi/ient ground for redu/ing either side of the antino&y to @ero. by 1hi/h this la/2lustre and i&per/eptible usefulness is /reated. and . but in a//ordan/e 1ith the fa/ts ea/h indi0idual hi&self supplies./lai&s. =Vie1ing e0eryone not fro& a pre/on/ei0ed theory. no1 see&s to hi& the a/&e of absurdity. =Fes. naturally.a& beginning to find interests in /o&&on in dis/ussions 1ith people 1ith 1ho& ne0er drea&ed .> B//epting a post in a sur0eyors+ institute. there has not been and there is not a single people 1hi/h 1as /onsolidated and shaped through a &utual. by e<uating to @ero one side of this antino&y. ea/h proposition rings true.This =&ysterious> ?oy fa/e to fa/e 1ith rational reality rese&bles the ?oy so&e of us e. 1ill obser0e all of life+s &anifestations 1ith e<ual satisfa/tion. Just so 7elins2i no1 follo1ed e0erything about hi& 1ith the sa&e lo0ing interest. that is. the ne1 phase of 7elins2i+s philosophi/ de0elop&ent represents a giant step for1ard fro& the prior phase. 9e is ready to be /ontent 1ith an instin/ti0e /onte&plation of ho1 rational is life about hi&. To /larify fully the &eaning of this ne1 phase it is ne/essary to pause a 1hile on his arti/le on the battle of 7orodino. in0isible.> -n the pre0ious period of his de0elop&ent 7elins2i tried. as 1e ha0e seen. or ta/t by reason of 1hi/h ea/h step a &an ta2es is a sure step. -n point of theory this ne1 solution is. but great and bountiful in its /onse<uen/es for so/iety. =Nno1ledge of reality /onsists. as an illusion. =of a 2ind of instin/t. 9e pro/lai&ed as a phanto$ all reality that /ontradi/ted the ideal. he 1as inordinately satisfied by his a/ti0ities as tea/her. and for this reason e0erybody is satisfied 1ith &e. fit only for 'ren/h babblers and liberal abbots. aturally.had anything in /o&&on.> Worn out by pre0ious &ental effort. ?ust as 1rong as the first one.

in order ane1 to be/o&e a sub?e/ti0e indi0iduality but. but 1ith regard to the spirit. 'or e.pressing not so&e a//idental parti/ular. das ist dra!ssen1 3There is nothing inner. by be/o&ing fa/ts. &erge 1ith it. already e. they obtained their diale/ti/ de0elop&ent through the histori/al &o0e&ent. before their ti&e and are si&ply e. so to spea2. a hu&an being is parti/tular and a//idental. he is general and ne/essary. 1hat is the role of an indi0idual in the diale/ti/ pro/ess of so/ial de0elop&entE =With regard to indi0iduality. in 7elins2i+s opinion. a hu&an being &ust stri0e to be/o&e a parti/ular e. 9e &ust therefore renoun/e his sub?e/ti0e indi0iduality. re/ogni@ing it as truth and reality.. already real.pression of the general. to the general. 7ut sin/e the 1orld.+ so&ething Houter+ and not Hinner+ to it. nothing outer. is lo/ated not 1ithin hi& but in the ob?e/ti0e 1orld outside. upon be/o&ing /on0in/ed of their in/apa/ity for self)rule. Det us instead re/all the general /hara/ter of 7elins2i+s 0ie1s at the ti&e. Whate0er is fro& 1ithin. or a finite &anifestation of the infinite.> says 7elins2i. Det us ta2e. the origin of &onar/hi/al po1er. When %o/rates atta/2ed the out&oded /on/eptions of the Bthenians. the inner essence of things &ay lie open to a philosopher. and in0ested by the& 1ith unli&ited po1er.planationC but to those to 1ho& the profundity and inner essen/e of things lies open by 0irtue of the spiritual /larity of their 0ision there /annot be anything &ore foolish. 7ut 1hat is this inner essen/eE Bs 1e see it. Goethe 1as absolutely /orre/t 1hen he saidA 5ichts ist innen. he &ust gro1 a2in to it. 'or superfi/ial attitudes and abstra/t &inds in 1hose eyes ideas and e0ents do not /ontain 1ithin the&sel0es their o1n /ausality and their o1n ne/essity. a hu&an being &ust be a parti/ular e.> *0ident here is a /ertain inde. so&ething alien to it. not e0en the idea of a genius. is also fro& 1ithout. nichts ist a!ssen Was ist drinnen. 'ro& his ne1 standpoint. the uni0ersal>C his philosophi/ do/trine 1as ideally the e. say. to 1hi/h this indi0idual gi0es e.> To a0oid re&aining ?ust an illusion.pressed and /ogni@ed by &an. this ti&e.peopleC nor did it ta2e pla/e in a//ordan/e 1ith anyone+s idea. Bnd for this reason the basi/ de/rees are not la1s pro&ulgated by &an but appear. but sprout li2e &ushroo&s after a rain. he 1as ser0ing nothing else but =the general.. re/ogni@ing it as a lie and a phanto&C he &ust sub&it to the 1orld. *0erything that la/2s /ause 1ithin its o1n self and appears only than2s to so&e Hother. found the&sel0es in bitter need of sub&itting to the 1ill of a single indi0idual.pression of the general. To be real and not illusory. laughable or senseless. be/o&e spirit in the flesh. by passing o0er into pheno&enal. but the general.6 7ut let us not d1ell on details. 7asi/ state de/rees are san/tified be/ause they are the basi/ ideas not &erely of a /ertain people.and 1hate0er lies beyond the -. and /onstitutes the not). =9en/e flo1s the duality of his position and of his stri0ingsC the duality of the struggle bet1een the . in a 1ord. B liberal babbler 1ould say that it arose as a produ/t of the depra0ity of the people 1ho..pression of a ne1 step for1ard by the Bthenians in their histori/al de0elop&ent.pression. not only 1ithout soil and roots but suspended in &id)air G for su/h &inds there is nothing si&pler or &ore satisfa/tory than su/h an e. That+s 1hy %o/rates 1as a hero as 9egel /alled hi&. /hosen by the&. or the general. -n . The &ost progressi0e 1orld outloo2 is /o&patible 1ith this 0ie1 of indi0iduality..a&ple. fro& the foregoing lines it 1ould see& that. all su/h things are bereft of rationality and therefore also of san/tity. but of e0ery peopleC and also be/ause. the uni0ersal.terity in the use of philosophi/ ter&s. %o that the 0ery /hanges they ha0e undergone /onstitute &o&ents of their o1n idea.

=illusion is its negati0e. dis/ord bet1een an indi0idual and the reality about hi& is 1holly 0alid 1hene0er the indi0idual..> -f 1e grant this. full of a//idental and /ontradi/tory /ollisions of /ir/u&stan/es. =O&ar burned do1n the Ble.ursed be O&ar. la1ful and rational. there 1ould still re&ain beneath the earth an unseen and se/ret spring of li0ing 1ater that 1ould not long tarry before brea2ing out in /lear fountains and be/o&e /on0erted into an o/ean . e0en if these sides see&ingly /ontradi/t one another.ht. then his atta/2s on the =little. 7elins2i falls 1ith indignation upon the =little. it by no &eans follo1s that their a/ti0ities are har&less and that 1e should pause =before /ursing the&. 4ersonalities 1ho deny reality are sheer phanto&s. the reality of to&orro1. 'ro& the fa/t that the =O&ars> /annot su//eed in drying up all the sour/es of enlighten&ent. true to the spirit of 9egel+s a)sol!te philosophy. freed by the 9ighest Will fro& ada&antine /hains by 1hi/h he had been held in the+fiery habitation in eternal dar2ness and 1ho used his brief span of freedo& to the ruination of &an2ind. that =furious Vissarion> be/a&e &u/h &ore heated than the /al& Ger&an thin2er and therefore 1ent to e. prepares by his negation the histori/al soil for the ne1 reality.a&ples /ould be addu/ed.> On his opti&is& 7elins2i rea/hes the e. Brid this ne1 outloo2 o1ed its origin not to the fa/t that 7elins2i had understood 9egel poorly.> aturally. -t is instru/ti0e to follo1 7elins2i+s atte&pts to pro0e by histori/al e. 9e prea/hes =sub&ission> to the e. Bnd on this a//ount. su/h an interpretation of history is the sorry produ/t of the hu&an understanding.> for 1ho& history is an in/oherent fairy tale.> says 7elins2i in another arti/le. a spirit 1hi/h found its e. great &en. Det the reader /o&pare the& 1ith 7elins2i+s =/on/iliationist 0ie1s.eality /onstitutes the positi0e in life. great &en> 1ho deny reality be/o&e perfe/tly /o&prehensible. -n the arti/le on 7orodino and espe/ially in the arti/le on 5en@el. but all of these are details 1hi/h do not alter the gist of the &atter 1hi/h is this. is ne/essary.pression in the introdu/tion to the Philoso*hy o' Ri. The 0ie1s 9egel set do1n in this introdu/tion ha0e already been dealt 1ith in detail.. ot a fe1 si&ilar e. as a partic!lar e"pression of the general. the spirit of 9egelian philosophy.tre&e of nai0ete.pressing his 0ie1s 7elins2i re&ained 1holly. 7ut that is not ho1 7elins2i reasons.tre&es 9egel a0oided. that he had fully assi&ilated. ta2ing in ad0an/e as its di/tu& that =1hate0er is. 9u&an understanding in0ariably grasps only one side of an ob?e/t. -f e0ery denial of reality is illusory then reality is faultless. . before you /urse O&arI *nlighten&ent is a 1onder)1or2ing thing. gentle&en. -t is li2e1ise /o&prehensible 1hy 7elins2i should fall into an e. 7elins2i said that Voltaire =rese&bles a %atan. 1hereas reason sur0eys the ob?e/t fro& all sides. for he 1re/2ed enlighten&ent in the an/ient 1orld for ages to /o&eI 4ause. Were it an o/ean and so&e O&ar dried it up.this 1ay. but rather to this. that in e.andria library.> and he 1ill be stru/2 by the 0irtually /o&plete identity.> =.> 9egel said nothing of the 2ind and 1ould ha0e ne0er said it.a&ples that the =destinies of the earthborn> are not left to blind a//ident.tre&e opti&is&. . The sole differen/e is this. B//ording to 7elins2i. 7ut 1e ha0e seen that this opti&is& ste&s inelu/tably fro& his ne1 outloo2 on reality. reason does not /reate reality but /ogni@es it.isting order of things. this argu&ent is <uite strange.

but 9egel.5. anti)s/ientifi/ /hara/ter. say. )ha*ter VI Det us no1 approa/h 7elins2i+s /on/iliationist 0ie1s fro& another side.7. so/ial life and de0elop&ent are regulated by =i&&utable la1s. One has to be 0ery &u/h an honor)laden . a phanto&..planation of so/ial e0ents.> i. =liberal babblers> 1as only a sad in/onsisten/y. 1as to arri0e &u/h later. 5r. in 0ie1 of 7elins2i+s foregoing outloo2 on life and the e0olution of hu&an so/iety. 1hi/h lea0es no roo& for a s/ientifi/ e. Grano0s2i says that 7a2unin 1as the first to rise up against 7elins2i+s arti/les on 7orodino.7. et/. in 9egel+s footsteps. 9egel 1ould ha0e pronoun/ed .ussian reality. it /ould not ha0e been based on an understanding of the progressi0e side of 9egel+s philosophy to 1hi/h 5. Whate0er bears no /ause 1ithin itself but appears on a//ount of so&ething alien to it. Bfter all. %i&ilarly.> Why then did 5r. 5. the herald of =absolute truth> G 1ould ha0e s/ar/ely appro0ed of an uprising against reality tin the part of finite reason of indi0iduals. Bnyho1. -t is unfortunately un/lear fro& Grano0s2i+s letter ?ust 1hat 7a2unin+s uprising /onsisted of. That is so. 3-n a letter to D. ad0o/ating. 7ut Bsian reality is li2e1ise =reason e&bodied> and 9egel G not 9egel. The li2elihood is that he felt this hi&self be/ause friendly ad&onitions designed to /ool his =/on/iliationist> ardor did not sit 1ell 1ith hi& at all. %tan2e0i/h. True enough. by 9er@en. %o/ial theories of =liberal babblers> 2indled his ire by their superfi/ial.> is de0oid of rationality. only a 0ery honor)laden . 7elins2i had assi&ilated the /onser0ati0e spirit of the 9egelian philosophy 1hi/h /lai&ed to be a)sol!te. then it sho1s ho1 poorly a/<uainted he is 1ith the 1or2s of =a &an 1ho thought eternity. =7abblers> i&agine that so/ial relations /an be /hanged by popular 1hi&s. lodged in the essen/e of so/iety. Volyns2i happens to be repeating on this o//asion only 1hat had been pre0iously said by . and 1hate0er is irrational is nothing &ore than an illusion.6 Of /ourse. 9egel.Bnd if these /on/iliationist 0ie1s appear =strange> to 5r. or ./ept philosophi/ =rubbish> in 7elins2i+s /on/iliationist 0ie1s.> 7abblers see arbitrariness and a//ident there 1here in reality an inelu/table pro/ess of de0elop&ent is ta2ing pla/e. 7ut he had pro&ised to re0ie1 the <uestion of 9egel+s influen/e on 7elins2i+s 1orld outloo2 =1ith the ne/essary thoroughness> and =through a /o&parison of 7elins2i+s 1ell)2no1n 0ie1s 1ith their original sour/es.> -f by flair for truth is . 1hereas. %o/ial pheno&ena un1ind diale/ti/ally. the diale/ti/ian. Volyns2i.ht did &a2e his pea/e 1ith 4russian reality. %tan2e0i/h. by inner ne/essity. these friends held the sa&e standpoint of alleged absolute truth 1hi/h 7elins2i 1as no1.ussian reality to be se&i)Bsiati/C he generally held that the %la0 1orld /onstituted an entity &id1ay bet1een *urope and Bsia.e.ussian so/iologist to be able to dis/ern nothing e. tr!th.ussian so/iologist /ould.ould it beC perhaps. fro& 1ithin the&sel0es. and fro& this standpoint any /on/ession to. Turgene0 and others. Volyns2i /onfine hi&self to repeating the errors of othersE . &a2e the re&ar2able dis/o0ery that his =flair for truth> &ore or less betrayed our genius)/riti/ ea/h ti&e an =estheti/ pheno&enon be/a&e /o&pli/ated by philosophi/ and politi/o)&oral prin/iples. %u/h are the 0ie1s 7elins2i /ounterposes to the rationalist outloo2 on so/ial life. 7ut there are negations and negations. Bnd his 0ie1s are in/o&parably &ore profound and &ore serious than the rationalisti/ outloo2. inherited fro& the 18th /entury. e0ero0. a/tually. it &ay be argued that 1hile 9egel in the days of the publi/ation of the Philoso*hy o' Ri. so&ething fro& =1ithout. that the =original sour/e> is rather poorly 2no1n by hi&E 5ore fully than any of his friends. it doesn+t therefore follo1 that 9egel 1ould ha0e /on/iliated 1ith .

Bnd it therefore follo1s that as far ba/2 as the end of the 18":+s 7elins2i+s instin/t for theoreti/al truth 1as &ore highly de0eloped than it is today in 5r. 7elins2i 1ould ha0e dis&issed su/h hopes 1ith s/orn. on the /ontraryC to the triu&ph of indi0idualis&. 7ut let us grant that they didn+t &a2e a single &ista2e and pose a si&ple <uestionA Weren+t they 1rong to /la&or that it 1as ne/essary to =strengthen> the o)shchina at all /ostE What 1ere they guided byE They 1ere guided by a /on0i/tion that the present day o)shchina is /apable of gro1ing o0er into the highest e/ono&i/ for&. eedless to add. that the e. but the truth &ust be ser0ed abo0e e0erything else and so 1e shan+t suppress it.> he 1rote.&eant an instin/t for theoreti/al truth G and in <uestions of this sort there /annot be tal2 of anything else G then it is ne/essary to ad&it that 7elins2i dis/losed a highly de0eloped instin/t for truth 1hen he hastened 1ith enthusias& to a/<uire and 1ith heat to propagate the interpretation of history as a ne/essary and therefore a la1ful pro/ess. to the highest for& of /o&&unal lifeE o.a&ple. 7elins2i 1ould be perfe/tly right.ussian progress. -n this instan/e. fro& the standpoint. the o)shchina. present)day o)shchina. -t /annot be said that this is a /onsoling /on/lusion for all the friends of .ternal influen/e e.an their e0olution lead to the transition of a &odified. Bnd again it is ne/essary to dra1 the /on/lusion. that only a fe1 4opulists /ontinue no1adays to drea& about the transition of the o)shchina into the highest for& of /o&&unal life. Why is the position of the 1or2ing /lass so badE 7e/ause the &odern e/ono&i/ order in *urope began to ta2e shape at a ti&e 1hen the s/ien/e =in /harge of> this /y/le of e0ents =didn+t as yet e. =. 7ut in that /ase 1hat did they /ount onE They /ounted on this. this 1ould be perfe/tly /orre/t. or its present)day /onditions. as 1e ha0e seen. The 4opulists ha0e 1ritten a lot in . . the &ore sensible a&ong the& did. sin/e e0erything is illusory 1hi/h bears no /ause 1ithin its o1n self and appears be/ause of so&ething else alien to it. ho1e0er. 5i2hailoys2y philosophi@es. unflattering for . that to1ard the /lose of the 18":+s 7elins2i had already dra1n /loser to a s/ientifi/ understanding of so/ial pheno&ena than ha0e bur present)day /ha&pions of old prin/iples and institutions. The &a?ority of these 1orthy . be/ause it is ne/essary to ha0e the ob?e/t for /ognition. so&ething fro& =1ithout> and not fro& =1ithin. a s/ien/e =in /harge of> a gi0en e/ono&i/ order /ould &a2e its appearan/e only after su/h an order had ta2en shapeC but to elu/idate by its later appearan/e one or another positi0e or negati0e <uality of this e/ono&y is as full of 1isdo& as it 1ould be to as/ribe the e. 7elins2i 1ould ha0e re/ogni@ed in this ratio/ination the rationalisti/ outloo2 he despised so &u/h and he 1ould ha0e li2ened it G by its inner 1orth G to the light)&inded pronoun/e&ents of li)eral a))ots.er/ised on the o)shchina by the intelligentsia and the go0ern&ent 1ould o0er/o&e the inner logic of its de0elop&ent. =al1ays /o&es prior to /ognition. of &odern ob?e/ti0e s/ien/e. that is. 5i2hailo0s2y and other honor)laden so/iologists li2e hi&. The 4opulists the&sel0es agreed &ore than on/e on thisC anyho1. 9e 1ould ha0e /orre/tly noted in the& a residue of the rationalisti/ outloo2 on so/ial life. before the a/t of /ognition /an ta2e pla/e.ist. 7e/ause their e0olution leads. for the first ti&e and 1ith the boldness of genius.> Bgain.isten/e of /ontagious diseases to the /ir/u&stan/e that 1hen the 1orld 1as /reated there 1ere no physi/ians fro& 1ho& nature /ould ha0e a/<uired the /on/ept of hygiene.isting e/ono&i/ relations 1ithin the o)shchinaE . They 1ere often 1rong G erring &ore or less sin/erely G in tal2ing about its history.ussian so/ial thought in the person of 7elins2i grappled. 9e 1ould ha0e re?e/ted the& as illusory and abstra/t. 1ith the solution of the 0ery sa&e great proble& 1hi/h absorbed.> That is ho1 5r. Ta2e another e.> 'or this reason.ussian progress.eality as the &anifestation of e&bodied reason. 3-t is 1orth noting. 7ut 1hat are the e.ussia about the agrarian /o&&une. the best &inds of the 19th /entury.

although they 1anted happiness for their near and dear ones. too. 2ne1 its utter pra/ti/al 1orthlessnessC 1hen he still re&e&bered that grie0ous /ognition of self as a HH/ipher> 1hi/h /onstantly a//o&panied the intense ?oy this ideal had arousedE 9o1 not despise those 1ho. out of &yopia. soil beneath his feetC and. on the soil of Bsian lando1nership.isted. fro& his o1n e. . ne0ertheless. =5y inner sufferings ha0e burned into a sort of dry e&bitter&ent. for the first ti&e and auda/iously. let us repeat. anti/ipating the bliss of philosophi/ /ognition.ploiting the rural proletariat. it is not hard to find a perfe/tly healthy 2ernel.> True enough. sur0eyed for a 1hile the reality about hi& through the eyes of an *pi/urean. departing for 4etersburg and /arrying 1ith hi& the still unpublished arti/le on The 6ketches of the Battle of Borodino.> ho1 not heap ridi/ule upon the& 1hen 7elins2i.> Bnd to the e.o&prehending the /olossal i&portan/e of this tas2 7elins2i suddenly felt fir&. be/ause .people. so to spea2. .pressed hi&self 1ith foggy po&posity. on the other.pression of a/tual relations into 1hi/h people enter.> -s this so. /onsidered har&ful the only philosophy 1hi/h 7elins2i 1as /on0in/ed /ould &a2e &an2ind happyE 7ut this &ood did not last longC /on/iliation 1ith reality pro0ed sha2y. 7y O/tober 18"9. not arbitrarily but by dint of ne/essity -n this sense all legal institutions in general are only =e. or notE 7elins2i+s reasoning on this sub?e/t is /onsiderably obs/ured by his /ustodial ardor at the ti&e. enthused by the boundless hori@ons opened before hi&. that .pe/tedly dis/o0ered treasure)tro0e of truthE 9o1 not atta/2 the bearers of the =abstra/t ideal. this ne1 oppressi0e &ood 1as /onditioned to a /onsiderable degree by la/2 of personal happiness.ussian so/ial thought. 1hi/h /a&e upon hi& in the first period of his infatuation 1ith 9egelian philosophy. before their ti&e and are only e. on the one side.tent that 7elins2i+s 1ords /arry this &eaning they &ust be re/ogni@ed as absolutely /orre/t. undertoo2 the solution of that great tas2 1hi/h the 19th /entury had posed before all the thin2ing &inds of *urope.pressed by &an.ussia /ould 1ith /o&fort =strengthen the o)shchina> and. 'ro& the standpoint of &odern so/ial s/ien/e J5ar. in these reasonings. /ertain institutions of West *uropean so/ial la1. o1ing to 1hi/h he so&eti&es e.perien/e. after all. hindered the tran<uil and happy en?oy&ent of the une.6 . 3Thus. -t is undeniable that =/on/erns> of this sort ha0e nothing =illusory> about the& nor ha0e anything in /o&&on 1ith the =abstra/t ideal>6 7asi/ state de/rees =are not la1s pro&ulgated by &an but they appear. are =/on/erned> only about the prosperity of the business)li2e little &ou@hi2 in 1hose hands the o)shchina has be/o&e a fearso&e 1eapon for e. he. transplant on this =strengthened> soil. turning their ba/2s on all =nonsensi/al> ideas.is&K there is no doubt 1hate0er that not only basi/ state de/rees but ?uridi/al institutions generally are an e. Bnd. that is. as 1e sa1.a&ple.&yself 1as dead. great people> 1ho 1ith their idle tal2 G and it is ti$e to recognise this G their absolutely groundless tal2 in point of theory. for e. ='or &e no one e. there are &any a&ong us 1ho belie0e. but 2no1ing 7elins2i+s /hara/ter it /an be said 1ith /ertainty that he 1ould not e0en ha0e noti/ed this la/2 had 9egel+s philosophy gi0en hi& so &u/h as a fra/tion of 1hat it had pro&ised.pressed by &an. ho1 /ould one not get angry at the =s&all. 7elins2i 1as already far re&o0ed fro& the radiant and /heerful 0ie1 of e0erything about hi&. in the person of our genius)/riti/. 9o1e0er. -t 1ouild not hurt to re/all the& repeatedly e0en no1 to those bearers of the =abstra/t ideal> a&ong us 1ho i&agine that ?uridi/al nor&s are /reated by popular /rot/hets and that a people /an &a2e of their legal institutions any e/le/ti/ hash they please.> he said.

> Dea0ing aside the so&e1hat parado.i/al &anner of this ans1er 3the for&ulation is not 9egel+s but 7elins2i+s6. What is Hlife if not de0elop&entE Bnd in the pro/ess of de0elop&ent the ele&ent of negation is indispensable. 9e e. but outside of boo2s there 1as to be no life./lusi0ely the rule of &aterial for/eC its for/e 1as li2e1ise its right. 18"9 to early 'ebruary 18$:. has behind it no right 1hate0erC but.a&ple. -t /orre/tly taught that an indi0idual ought not pla/e his personal /rot/hets and e0en his 0ital personal interests abo0e the interests of the =general. for that indi0idual life does a/tually turn into =nothingness./ept =life in boo2s. sooner or later. that there isC but in life itself there is nothing. Whoe0er in his outloo2 fails to assign ade<uate roo& for this ne/essary ele&ent. the interests 1ere the interests of stagnation.> its rule 1as not e. *0erything that does not /orrespond to the needs of so/iety.> 1hi/h signifies a /essation of all &o0e&ent.> 7ut to this philosophy of the general. They sho1 that 7elins2i 1as already /ohabiting poorly 1ith 9egel+s =absolute> /on/lusions.=9o1 laughable it is and ho1 e. That li0es 1hi/h is in the pro/ess Of be/o&ing 3wird6. -t is strange. but had /eased li0ing in the interi&.asperating.pressed the /ognition that the Third *state had already &atured for rulership. 7elins2i sensed this instin/ti0ely &u/h earlier than he 1as able to be/o&e /ogni@ant of it through reason. if the tas2 of a thin2ing &an is li&ited to /ognition of reality about hi&C if e0ery atte&pt on his part to1ard a =/reati0e> attitude to reality is =illusory. but it is so.> Whate0er is.> he e. provided it is correctly !nderstood. /ontrari1ise. 9egel+s absolute philosophy. thereby also pro/lai&ed that life /an e. -n fa/t. Dife in boo2s. and its right 1as 0alidated by the histori/al needs of 'ran/e+s de0elop&ent. What /an be &ore gratifying than su/h assuran/e to all the true friends of progressE Bnd su/h assuran/e is inelu/tably instilled by 9egel+s attitude on the interrelation of right and for/e.> shouted the defenders of the old order in 'ran/e to %ieyes. 7ut in order to understand it /orre/tly. The general <uestion of the triu&ph of a//ident o0er hu&an reason often appeared to hi& in the shape of a parti/ular <uestion of why does force tri!$ph over rightE What 1as 9egel+s ans1erE We sa1 1hat it 1asA =There is no reign of sa0age &aterial for/eC there is no s1ay of bayonet and the s1ordC right is for/e and for/e is right. a thin2ing &an is under obligation to re/on/ile hi&self 1ith 1hate0er is. 9ere is a graphi/ e.o&eo and Juliet is lo0e in generalC but the need of lo0e. 1hate0er has behind it /orresponding right 1ill. it is ne/essary to ad&it that it en/loses a profound truth.> and /onde&ned to failure in ad0an/e.> 'urther&ore./lai&s in a long letter to 7ot2in.> -n this proud ans1er 1as e. the sole prop for the hopes of the partisans of gradual progress. 1hi/h is being 1or2ed out by the pro/ess of de0elop&ent. Bnd 1hen it be/a&e truly a =/on<ueror. then for hi& nothing really re&ains e.pe/ted philosophy to point out the road to hu&an happiness. . a parti/ular lo0e. =Very 1ell.> be/ause in his /on/iliation 1ith =1hate0er is> he engages in transa/tions not 1ith life but 1ith 1hat used to be life. ha0e for/e behind it as 1ell. it 1as ne/essary to regard both history and present)day reality fro& the standpoint of dialectic develop$ent and not that of =absolute truth.ist only in boo2s. =-s that allE> he replied. it+s no1 our turn to be/o&e /on<uerors. =The lo0e of . or the reader+s lo0e is an illusion. has already ossified. 1ritten fro& Le/e&ber 16. by pro/lai&ing /onte&porary reality to be i&&une fro& negation. =Our feudal rights are based on /on<uests. 7ut li0ing is not =1hate0er is. the breath of life has already sped fro& it.> ote these 1ords.

9egel 1ould ha0e said e. . and blood . a &ighty grie0ing o0er the 1elfare of the people. =. This is <uite ad0antageous and delightful for &usi/ lo0ers. . pe/uliar to the philosophi/ talent of 5r.ities.a/tly nothing.ploit of self)renun/iation. superstition.. et/E -n the opinion of 5r.ist and that it flo1ed fro& the root /ontradi/tion./an rest tran<uil about e0ery one of &y brothers in flesh. 1hi/h leads people out of the /a0es of in<uisitorial /ase&ates. as the 'ren/h say. unless . 9egel..> on &a2ing its appearan/e in the real& of /ognition. =1hi/h 7elinis2i set do1n.'ro& the standpoint of absolute truth.ploit the peasantry dependent on the&C and all of the oppressed 1ere /onde&ned to eternal ser0itude solely be/ause =absolute truth. .. and should you stu&ble.)press the idea of dis/ord ..e. That+s for sure..> What does it &ean to get an a//ounting for the 0i/ti&s of a//ident. and the Le0il ta2e you .+> 3Russian )riti&s. Or else . as soon as he started to ta2e sto/2 of his ne1 1orld outloo2.ha0e the honor to infor& you that e0en if . but. C0etait !n pe! fort. page 1:!. 'ro& his /orresponden/e it is e0ident that his so)/alled brea2 1ith 9egel. 1ith -n<uisition. in the for& of a depart&ental report. don+t 1ant happiness e0en for free. out into the free air. as usual. Bnd 7elins2i 1as bound to noti/e it. B//ident is an ano&aly and that alone is rational 1hi/h beans the sta&p of di0ine ?usti/e and 1isdo& . too. the onerous e. 5aybe so. a la&entable lu&ping of undigested /on/epts. To begin 1ith. inherent in 9egel+s philosophy generally. this truly =&ighty 1eapon. Volyns2i it &eans e. the . -t is said that dis/ord is the pre&ise for har&ony. To be sure.a& toldA Mnfold all the treasures of your spirit for the freest en?oy&ent thereofC 1eep so that you &ay be /onsoledC grie0e so that you &ay be ?oyfulC stri0e to1ard perfe/tion. 9egel 1ould ha0e understood that 7elins2i is not tal2ing about sa/rifi/es of this sort at all./ited opponent short and 1ould ha0e saidA HLe0elop&ent de&ands sa/rifi/es of &an. Volyns2i but by 1ay of /o&pensation he 1ould ha0e /o&e sooner to the point. found the peasants 1ea2 and hen/e 1ithout any rights as 1ell. 1ould ha0e /ut his e. fro& there.a/tly nothing to 7elins2i anent the sa/rifi/es and self)renun/iation that are de&anded of an indi0idual by his o1n intelle/tual and &oral de0elop&ent.> redu/ed to @ero by the =absolute> /on/lusions 1hi/h 9egel dre1 and by the /on/iliation 1ith reality 1hi/h he prea/hed in the introdu/tion to his Philoso*hy o' Ri. failing 1hi/h there /an be no indi0idual 1elfare.1ould as2 you to gi0e an a//ounting for all the 0i/ti&s of life and history.htE We ha0e already seen that the ans1er is G yesC that su/h a /ontradi/tion did a/tually e. i. Fegor 'edoro0i/h. the right of histori/al &o0e&ent be/a&e /on0erted into the san/tified and i&&utable right of the 4russian Jun2erdo& to e. into freedo&. -n<uisition. after all. nor does it re/on/ile itself 1ith superstition.bo1 to your philosophi/al /oni/al hatC but 1ith all due respe/t to your philosophi/ philistinis&. Bnd the point here tou/hes pre/isely the follo1ing <uestionA Wasn+t the ele&ent of negation. -n<uisition. Than2 you obediently. s/ra&ble up to the top rung of the ladder of de0elop&ent. &entioned so often in our literature. superstition. 4hillip --. =To these perple.. 1ith a /ondes/ending s&ile.. for 1it+s sa2e. it is not so for those 1hose li0es are destined to e. 1ith a &ali/ious <uestionnaire of a /o&pro&ising nature atta/hed. Volyns2i. and so on. The diale/ti/ pro/ess of de0elop&ent /ontains a &ighty 1eapon G negation.1ould ?u&p head first fro& the ladder+s top&ost rung.did su//eed to /li&b the top&ost rung of the ladder of de0elop&ent.6 -n these elo<uent lines there is.> he says.. the Ger&an idealist 1ould ha0e thereby let slip a pre/ious opportunity to /oin elo<uent phrases in the rhetori/al style of 5r. too. then do1n you go. 1as pro0o2ed by the inability of 9egel+s =absolute> philosophy to ans1er so/ial and politi/al <uestions 1hi/h tor&ented 7elins2i.. but the philosophy of idealis& does not hallo1 a//idental 0i/ti&s. for all the 0i/ti&s of a//ident.

.> he says in the abo0e)/ited letter.> that 9egel+s philosophy is only a &o&ent. /annot of /ourse be held responsible for 1hat has happened.ising up against 9egel+s =absolute> philosophy.pression used in the te.ussia of his day.ha0e long suspe/ted. naturally. . When he as2s 9egel for an a//ounting of all the 0i/ti&s of &an2ind+s histori/al &o0e&ent.isten/e of this /ontradi/tion. as oppressed hu&an indi0iduals. This &ost perfe/t state rested on the e. 7elins2i hi&self /larifies his state of &ind at the ti&e <uite e.a& beginning to lo0e hu&anity . This 1as tanta&ount to pro/lai&ing oneself a philosophi/ ban2rupt. 9e 1as 0e. 7elins2i. Volyns2i apparently doesn+t e0en suspe/t the e./lai&s. and this. already sensed as early as the end of the 18":+s that this /ontradi/tion e. . and so on.>6 B .tre&ely anti<uated &ethods6 of the &a?ority for the benefit of a pri0ileged &inority. Bnd this /harge is as 0alid as any /harge /ould be.> he e. independently of its 1ill and influen/e.> Bnd feeble indeed are =philosophi/ organis&s> 1ho to this day fail to understand 7elins2i./ellently. 7ut one &ay ?ustifiably de&and fro& it that it point out the &eans 1here1ith reason shall triu&ph o0er blind a//ident.ed that he. 7ut these oppressed did not appear in his eyes as produ/ers./ontradi/tion bet1een the diale/ti/ nature of this philosophy and its pretensions to the title of =absolute truth. unfortunate enough as it is. li0ing under gi0en histori/al /onditions.isted. 4ypin a//o&panies this phraseC it readsA =B sharp e. Bnd these &eans /an be supplied only by the pro/ess of de0elop&ent. 7elins2i. &oreo0er. fro& the opinions of the &ob and fro& traditions be<ueathed by barbarous ti&es.isting /onditions. =for hu&an indi0iduality. 1hi/h is attainable only in a so/iety based on truth and /ourage . for the /ruelty of 4hillip --. but that the absoluteness of his results isn+t 1orth anythingPC that it is better to die than re/on/ile oneself 1ith it. to free itself fro& the ignoble sha/2les of irrational reality. to1ard the end of the 18":+s had truly to possess a high =philosophi/ organis&.t of the letter has been altered by us.a& fearful of losing &y sanity. follo1ing in 9egel+s footsteps. 9e 1ent o0er 1holly to the side of the oppressed. 7ut this is absolutely groundless.a/tly this a/t of ban2rupt/y that aroused 7elins2i. 1hi/h interprets history fro& this ele0ated standpoint. B philosophy. B//ording to 9egel freedo$ is the goal of histori/al de0elop&ent and necessity is the &eans leading to1ard this goal.> 3P B footnote of 5r. 9e regarded the& as people in general. What they deser0e is not a =/ondes/ending> but the &ost s/athing s&ile that /an be s&iled. Bnd it is e. he /harges 9egel 1ith not re&aining true to his o1n philosophy. doesn+t hold 9egel responsible for the e. 7elins2i understood this perfe/tly. =-t is high ti&e.. =Within &e has gro1n a sort of fantasti/ lo0e for freedo& and independen/e of the hu&an indi0iduality.> On this a//ount there are so&e 1ho 1ould not be a0erse to pi/ture 7elins2i as so&ething a2in to a liberal indi0idualist.ploitation 3through e. 9u&an indi0iduality has be/o&e a fo/al point on 1hi/h .> 5r. e0en though a great one. 9egel turned his ba/2 on all de0elop&ent and re/ogni@ed as reason that necessity fro& 1hi/h &an2ind of his day suffered. 7y pro/lai&ing hi&self as the possessor of absolute truth and by re/on/iling hi&self 1ith the e. 'or this reason he protested in the na&e of indi0iduality. This does his =philosophi/ talent> no honor.ploits of the -n<uisition. had been able to per/ei0e =a &ost perfe/t state> in the .ussian 1ho =suspe/ted> su/h things. =. in /ontrast.

ha0e no1 fallen into a ne1 e. 18$:6. 4ypin hastens to assure us that 7elins2i+s so/ialis& 1as at botto& perfe/tly har&less..no1 e. in this /ase. or has the follo1ing /ategori/al de/laration anything in /o&&on 1ith itA =. The honor) laden s/holar. . . Who doesn+t 2no1 that the so/ialis& of 7elins2i+s day generally /ontained nothing dangerous to the so/ial order of the ti&eE 7ut 7elins2i+s infatuation 1ith so/ialis&. 5r.tre&e G it is the idea of so/ialis& 1hi/h has be/a&e for &e the idea of ideas . it see&s. destroy the rest 1ith fire and the s1ord. Bnd for this reason it ought not be left in the shado1s but &ust be brought out into the /learest possible light. happens to ha0e been a 0ery i&portant e0ent in his &ental life. your life and the li0es of all those 1ho& .. 'or &e. Bnd therefore . %epte&ber 8.. it has s1allo1ed up history and religion and philosophy..> Diberal indi0idualis& this does not represent in any /ase.ha0e &et on life+s highroad> 3letter to 7ot2in.in 5arat+s 1ayA to &a2e a tiniest fra/tion of it happy. 1hile /ontaining nothing dangerous. the alpha and o&ega of faith and 2no1ledge .plain by it &y life.1ould. labors in 0ain.

at any rate. Bnother arti/le on 7orodino he /onsidered foolish only be/ause of its /on/lusions and not at all be/ause of its basi/ propositions.tent that 9egel re&ained true to his diale/ti/. 7elins2i still re&ained a pure 9egelian. of these true essentials. he /ontinued to /onsider the period of his return fro&. the &ost re&ar2able period> of his life. *0en after 7elins2i /onde&ned his o1n arti/le on 7orodino as foolish and un1orthy of an honest 1riter. 7ut his rather unsu//essful reasoning does not in the least /hange the general /hara/ter of his 1orld outloo2 at the ti&eC it re&ained thoroughly idealist. as he should ha0e.> 3Belinski by 4ypin. Volu&e 1. 7elins2i thought that by ha0ing re?e/ted 9egel+s =absolute> /on/lusions. 4ypin 1as e0idently &isled by the /ategori/al state&ent of the author of the 'etters to the effe/t that =9egel had raised thin2ing to so high a le0el as to &a2e it i&possible. 6ketches of the Battle of Borodino. the period of his co$plete infat!ation with Hegelian philosophy. 4ypin de/lares that in 9er@en+s 'etters on the 6t!dy of 5at!re G published in 0t&hestvennye 8a*iski. as the beginning of his spiritual life. Bll of his /o)thin2ers li2e1ise re&ained idealists at the ti&e. i.> . Georgia.> to 9egel. after 9egel. B/tually. 5r.> The reader has perhaps not forgotten the passage 1hi/h 1e ha0e already /ited fro& 9egel+s le/tures on the 5istory o' Philoso*hy. 9is first arti/le on 4eter the Great is saturated 1ith the spirit of 9egelian philosophy.. 9is biographer has apparently failed to grasp this a//urately.(Part 7) )ha*ter VII Why did 7elins2i pass so s1iftly and resolutely fro& =absolute> idealist philosophy to Mtopian so/ialis&E -n order to /larify this transition it is ne/essary on/e again to return to our great /riti/+s attitude to1ard 9egel. although here 7elins2i tried to ta2e a different standpoint in his ?udg&ents /on/erning the influen/e of geographi/ en0iron&ent on the spiritual <ualities of 0arious nations.e. page !!8.tried to de0elop in the arti/le about Glin2a+s boo2. he had /o&pletely re?e/ted 9egel+s entire philosophy.6 This is a &a?or blunder. The sa&e spirit per0ades the se/ond arti/le. stin2ing s1a&p. This passage sho1s that to the e. he fully re/ogni@ed the histori/ right of negation.> 9e had only failed to ta2e full ad0antage. Lespite his ?ibes at 9egel+s philosopher /ap. 18$" G =the tas2s of philosophy and s/ien/e 1ere posed in the sa&e 1ay that the best &inds pose the& today. =-t 1as li2e1ise ne/essary to de0elop the idea of negation as a histori/ right no less san/tified than the other histori/ right and failing 1hi/h. he 1as only passing o0er fro& 9egel. 9e 1roteA =The idea . the diale/ti/ian. to ta2e a single for1ard step 1ithout absolutely lea0ing idealis& behind. 5r. &an2ind 1ould be /on0erted into a stagnant. is true in its essentials. the herald of =Bbsolute Truth. To hi& this period see&s to ha0e been =the best.

9er@en spo2e throughout as an idealist in his 1iary. -t is also possible that the so/ial fer&ent 1hi/h began in the se/ond half of the 18(:+s 1ould ha0e &ade of hi& the leader of our enlighteners of those days. 4ypin hi&self /on/edes. 7elins2i felt the need of de0eloping the idea of negation.and s 9uarterly. then 1e shall ta2e the liberty to spe/ulate that 7elins2i 1ould ha0e be/o&e ulti&ately a @ealous partisan of diale/ti/ &aterialis& 1hi/h. 4ypin. Therefore it is possible that 7elins2i &ight not ha0e been able to the end of his days to rea/h a full. there 1ere not a fe1 ele&ents in his 0ie1s that /ould ha0e &ade /o&parati0ely easy su/h a transition to the 1holly ?ustifiable 0ie1s of the .ussian enlighteners at the ti&e. by the 1ay.7ut this state&ent in no 1ay hindered 9er@en fro& re&aining an idealist of purest 1ater both in his 0ie1s on nature 31herein he is 1holly 9egelian6 as 1ell as in his 0ie1s on the philosophy of history. -f spe/ulations are in order. after these 0ie1s had been de0eloped and gi0en a fir& foundationE Det us note here.> 9e said that the &aterialists in history 1ere those to 1ho& =the entire 1orld history see&ed to be a &atter of personal in0entions and a strange /onfluen/e of a//idents. 4ypin thin2s that 7elins2i 1as greatly aided by 9er@en in this parti/ular de0elop&ent. 5r.<sis&he =ahr+>&her in 1hi/h the future founders of diale/ti/ &aterialis& 1ere then 1riting. 7ut this /o&&ent. 5r. the /enters of West *uropean intelle/tual life and loaded perpetually 1ith pressing 1or2.o&te is a re&ar2able &an. in the last years of his life. 9istori/al de0elop&ent. and in . 9e is of /ourse /orre/t in the sense that dis/ussions and debates 1ith so dyna&i/. if death had not /arried hi& off so pre&aturely. then 1hy should he ha0e risen up against the& later on.o&te 1as not o0erly fa0orable.o&te there is not a sign of it. 4ypin has unfortunately failed to print in full the letter in 1hi/h 7elins2i. fro& all sides. offered hi& little in the 1ay of .> This leads us to /on/lude that 7elins2i 1ould not ha0e in/lined to1ard positi0is&.> says 7elins2i. that the logi/al affinity of philosophi/ ideas spea2s in fa0or of our spe/ulation. Only in July 18$$ did he refer /o&&endingly to an arti/le by Jordan in $i.olian Period o' Russian %iterature. re&o0ed as he 1as so terribly far fro&. Bs 1e shall presently see. -f 7elins2i found nothing ob?e/tionable in their 0ie1s in 18$(.> 5r. one &ay say that 7elins2i.> 3-t is an interesting sidelight to /o&pare this 0ie1 1ith the /harges le0elled no1adays. 7ut enough of spe/ulationC let us return to the fa/ts. =. d1ells at length on positi0is&. 4ypin. as 5r. led pre/isely in this dire/tionC and it 1as not for nothing that he read 1ith so &u/h satisfa/tion the 1euts&h:Fran. 7ut 1e thin2 that the &eetings 1ith 9er@en 1hile they ga0e a strong i&pulsion to 7elins2i+s intelle/tual a/ti0ity. The greatest of geniuses re<uires for his de0elop&ent. 1ould ha0e found it hard not to lag behind the best &inds of *urope. 'ollo1ing in the footsteps of the author of "ket&hes o' the Go.i&ilien Dittre =as the /ategori/al re?e/tion of &etaphysi/s. against the e/ono&i/ &aterialists. the fa0orable influen/e of the surrounding &ilieu upon hi&C in .o&te and 5a. 4ypin also re&ar2s that 7elins2i+s =last philosophi/ interest> 1as the positi0is& of Buguste . 'or this genius is re<uired. Judging solely by the passage /ited fro& this letter by 5r. our great /riti/+s opinion of .ussia this &ilieu 1as fearso&ely unde0eloped in e0ery respe/t. /le0er and &any)sidedly edu/ated a &an as 9er@en 1ere not and /ould not ha0e been 1ithout so&e influen/e on 7elins2i+s 0ie1s. that he shall pro0e to be the founder of a ne1 philosophy. a//ording to 5r. definiti0e and har&onious 1orld outloo2 to1ard 1hi/h he stri0ed passionately and /onstantly. Bnd against it. 9e thought that =in &aterialis& there is no1here to go beyond 9obbes. too. /a&e to repla/e outli0ed idealist philosophy. =but the /han/es are rather sli&. in the se/ond half of the 19th /entury.6 Mp to the &iddle of 18$$. did not at all signify any de/isi0e turn in 9er@en+s 0ie1s. 1hi/h absorbed 7elins2i+s philosophi/ thought.

planation for at least two necessary pro/esses. to understand a gi0en a//ident. 7y saying that he needed =to de0elop the idea of negation> 7elins2i 1anted thereby to say that he needed to negate the histori/al ne/essity of the indi/ated ele&ents in e0ery gi0en so/ial order. the phrase to the effe/t that H1hate0er is real is rational. ne/essity is si&ply the other side of a//ident. The 1hole point is thisA Where and ho1 does a gi0en theory of so/iety see2 the suffi/ient reason for so/ial e0entsE Why did the old order in 'ran/e fallE Was it be/ause 5irabeau 1as so elo<uentE Or 1as it be/ause the 'ren/h /ustodians 3of the old order6 1ere so untalentedE Or 1as it be/ause the flight of the royal fa&ily failedE The =prin/iple> singled out by 9er@en 0ou/hes only for this.!f(lligen G but by the 1hole &eaning of his philosophy it is only at the point 1here se0eral ne/essary pro/esses interse/t that 1e &eet 1ith accident. 3To be sure. 9er@en sa1 that. When he says that a gi0en so/ial e0ent 1as ne/essary. Bs is 1ell 2no1n.6 Bnd necessity.assistan/e to1ard de0eloping diale/ti/ 0ie1s on so/ial e0ents. -n o0erloo2ing this i&portant side of the &atter.a&ple. that there 1as so&e reason behind the do1nfall of the old order. -n . na&ely. one &ust be able to find a satisfa/tory e. you li2e1ise understand the pro/ess that 1ill bring the old order to its death. That is 1hy the /on/ept of a//ident a//epted. by 9egel does not at all obstru/t a s/ientifi/ e. Bpplying this to so/ial life it &eans that e0ery gi0en so/ial order itself generates those negati0e ele&ents 1hi/h 1ill destroy it and 1ill repla/e it 1ith a ne1 order. he had /o&&itted a serious blunder at the ti&e. On/e you understand the pro/ess 1hereby these negati0e ele&ents are generated. too. but it offers no indi/ations 1hate0er as to the &ethod of in0estigating this reason. 7ut e0en this is not all. 7y the &eaning of his philosophy ea/h e0ent /reates in the pro/ess of its de0elop&ent.ndlichen ist ein .y Past and -hou. 5oreo0er. This is the 1oeful /ondition that 9egel+s philosophy sought to re&edy. those for/es 1hi/h negate it later on.hts he saysA =The philosophi/ phrase 1hi/h has done the greatest har& and on the basis of 1hi/h Ger&an /onser0ati0es ha0e sought to re/on/ile philosophy 1ith Ger&any+s politi/al life. 7ut if there 1as any one in . 7ut the . With 9egel ne/essity has a different &eaning. fro& 1ithin itself. 1as not at all understood by 9egel in the /o&&onpla/e &eaning of the 1ord. /orre/tly understood.le$ent des . 9er@en and the diale/ti/ got along poorly. 9egel+s philosophy /ould not be a philosophy of stagnation 39egel to the /ontrary not1ithstanding6. 9egel said that there is an ele&ent of a//ident in e0erything that is finite G in alle$ . that the old order in 'ran/e fell be/ause of an a//idental failure of the royal flight.+ 1as &erely another 1ay of stating the prin/iple of s!fficient reason and of the /orresponden/e bet1een logi/ and fa/ts. the do1nfall of the old order be/a&e necessary. -f 1e say. Mnderstood in this /rude and superfi/ial &anner. then it 1as surely none other than the brilliant but superfi/ial 9er@en.> 7ut su/h a /o&&onpla/e as =the prin/iple of suffi/ient reason> 1ould ha0e ne0er satisfied 9egel.ussia 1ho understood poorly the 9egelian affir&ation of the rationality of 1hate0er e. then 1e i&&ediately re/ogni@e that the &o&ent this flight failed.ists. and <uite /orre/tly so. to the end of his days he sa1 in 4roudhon+s )ontradi&tions e&ono/i?ues a &ost su//essful appli/ation of the diale/ti/ &ethod to e/ono&i/ life.a&ination and e. The 18th /entury philosophers li2e1ise re/ogni@ed this prin/iple but they re&ained 0ery far re&o0ed fro& the 9egelian 0ie1 of history as a la1ful pro/ess. he &eans that this so/ial e0ent had been prepared by the internal de0elop&ent of the /ountry 1here it had ta2en pla/e. for e. -nterpreting &an+s histori/al de0elop&ent as a la1ful pro/ess this philosophy eli&inated there1ith the standpoint of accident.planation of e0ents.

plained perfe/tly /on/rete e0ents by &eans of abstra/tions. la1ful fro& 7elins2i+s ne1 standpoint. 7ut generally his idealis& pushed hi& a1ay fro& the /orre/t path of in0estigation. 7ot2in on the role of e/ono&i/ interests in the histori/al de0elop&ent of &an2ind. -t as/ribes to abstra/tion a /reati0e. he indi/ated 0ery a//urately in isolated instan/es the &otor for/es of histori/al de0elop&ent. they are unable to influen/e /ons/iously either their o1n de0elop&ent or that of so/iety and therefore re&ain playthings of a//ident. That is 1hy. Bnd it is concrete to the sa&e e. Thus spa2e 9egel. 7ut in order to pose oneself this tas2.tent as the unfolding de0elop&ent is itself /on/rete. true enough. To de0elop the idea of negation &eant. -n his philosophy of history. as so often happens 1ith idealists.. This 1as no1 7elins2i+s tas2. Whene0er a dispute arose o0er so&e diffi/ult <uestion. then history is to be e. after tussling 1ith it. a&ong the yung people 1ho belonged to the %tan2e0i/h)7elins2i /ir/le.ussian histori/al de0elop&ent.plain the de0elop&ent of this ob?e/t by all of the for/es it itself generates. to understand and feel thoroughly its utter i&poten/e. &oti0e for/e. 7ut to set oneself a gi0en tas2 is one thingC to sol0e it. it 1as ne/essary to brea2 1ith the a)stract ideal. -f the logi/al de0elop&ent of the =idea> supplies the basis of all other de0elop&ent. B /orre/t. %o long as &en re&ain unable to sol0e su/h tas2s. so&ething else again. to re/ogni@e the right of the =ideal> 1hi/h in the heat of his infatuation 1ith 9egel he had sa/rifi/ed to reality.prin/iple of =suffi/ient reason> suggested by 9er@en 1as not at all suffi/ient to /orre/t 7elins2i+s logi/al error. 4re/isely herein lies the error of idealis&.> -t only e. 7elins2i had to li0e through the phase of re/on/iliation 1ith reality. a&ong other things. it did prepare this solution to a /onsiderable degree. -t 1as a great tas2. 6!ch an ideal 1ill not be =torn out of geographi/ and histori/al /onditions of de0elop&ent> and it /annot be said to ha0e been =ere/ted in &id)air. To study an ob?e/t &eans to e. The Bpril 1897 issue of the &aga@ine !ovoye "lovo published /ertain 0ie1s of V. To put it differently. 7elins2i did not li0e to see this ne1 era. /ould not be an =abstra/t ideal.> %in/e the histori/al negation of reality /o&es as the result of its o1n de0elop&ent it therefore follo1s that only that ideal can )e recognised as lawf!l which itself rests on this develop$ent. but it did not sol0e it. either. There is . Bnd this &eant that he e. although. -n this respe/t 7elins2i 1as left /o&pletely on his o1n resour/es. 7ut 9egel 1ould not ha0e ?ustified his /onfiden/e. arbitrary logi/al /onstru/tions ta2e the pla/e of the study of a/tual /ausal /onne/tions of e0ents. Bnd 9egel a/tually appealed to these logi/al properties ea/h ti&e he ran up against this or another great histori/al <uestion.4. in/luding histori/al de0elop&ent.presses in i&age and thought the results of the pro/ess of de0elop&ent already taking place in reality. That is 1hy this phase does hi& the greatest honor. True. -n the first phase of his de0elop&ent 7elins2i sa/rifi/ed reality for the sa2e of the idealC in the se/ond. it fro& the =abstra/t> into the /on/rete.> This is ?ust 1hat 7elins2i &ight ha0e said to hi&self no1 1hen it fell upon hi& to apply the diale/ti/al &ethod to the interpretation of . he sa/rifi/ed the ideal for the sa2e of reality and finally in the third phase he sought to re/on/ile the ideal 1ith reality by &eans of the idea of develop$ent 1hi/h 1ould gi0e the ideal a fir& foundation and transfor&. a genuinely s/ientifi/ theory of histori/ de0elop&ent /ould &a2e its appearan/e only after diale/ti/ idealis& had been repla/ed by diale/ti/ &aterialis&. Bnd that is 1hy he hi&self /onsidered it later on as the start of his spiritual life.plained in the final analysis by the logi/al properties of the =idea> and not by the diale/ti/ de0elop&ent of so/ial relations. they so&eti&es /a&e to the /on/lusion that =only 9egel /ould sol0e it. Liale/ti/ idealis& posed /orre/tly the great tas2 of so/ial s/ien/e in the 19th /entury. 7ut the ideal. not a little 0ariegated &aterial had been /olle/ted in his day for the elaboration of a /orre/t interpretation of history.

too. in 7elins2i+s 0ie1s on the histori/al signifi/an/e of 4ush2in+s poetry.onsiderant and e0en Douis 7lan/ 3espe/ially 7lan/+s 5istoire de di@ ans6.a&ple.. on property relations. fro& the 'ren/h historians. 5ay 1!.isting property relations in the Mnited %tates influen/e the intelle/tual and estheti/ habits and needs of the B&eri/ans.tre&e right. 1818 1here %aint)%i&on says that =The &ost i&portant of la1s is the la1 1hi/h organi@es property. That is 1hy all of the& appealed /hiefly to hu&an nature in support of so/ial institutions or plans they /herished. /on<uest. had to ta2e the Mtopian standpoint. 'inally there is a good deal he &ight ha0e obtained. 7efore being attra/ted to 9egel+s philosophy. -t is the la1 1hi/h ser0es as the foundation of the so/ial order. 3%ee. for e. -t 1as e. Gui@ot. along 1ith the historians 1ho dis/erned in property relations the &ost i&portant basis of the so/ial stru/ture. -t is diffi/ult to assu&e that 7ot2in re&ained ignorant of To/<ue0ille+s fa&ous boo2. The dependen/e of so/ial de0elop&ent on e/ono&i/ relations.pressed. This stri0ing /ould lea0e its sta&p only on a fe1 of his isolated 0ie1s. 3for e. 4re/isely therein lies the essen/e of the 7topian o!tlook on so/iety. )ha*ter VIII =-n 5os/o1. 7ot2in 1as a follo1er of %aint)%i&on. during a /on0ersation 1ith Grano0s2i . 7ut it /ould not ser0e hi& as a reliable guiding line in the elaboration of a concrete ideal. /usto&s and ideas 1hi/h deter&ine the a/ti0ities of the people. all so/ially &inded publi/ figures 1ho 1ere not /o&pletely /arefree about theory.tre&e left to the e. &ore a//urately. 3%ee in parti/ular his )ate&his/e *oliti?ue des industriels. that %aint)%i&on as 1ell as . -t is therefore understandable 1hy 7elins2i. on/e property relations are gi0en they =&ay be regarded as the first /ause for la1s. Bs a /onse<uen/e of all this 7ot2in /ould ha0e arri0ed 1ithout too &u/h diffi/ulty at the /on0i/tion that spiritual de0elop&ent is deter&ined by the /ourse of so/ial de0elop&ent. 1ith regard to the &ain /ause of so/ial &o0e&ent. the %la0ophile idea that .nothing surprising in 7ot2in+s ha0ing held su/h 0ie1s.. B//ording to To/<ue0ille. study of ho1 the e. 4rior to the appearan/e of the histori/al theory of the author of )a*ital. 1ere Mtopians to one degree or another.> Na0elin notes in his &e&oirs. 1e la de/o&ratie en A/eri?ue. 5ignet. fortunate or unfortunate. and not on the 0antage point of the diale/ti/ de0elop&ent of so/ial relations. at any rate /hanges /orrespondingly 1ith the&. The point is this. To/<ue0ille+s 1estin2e so&iale. and %aint)%i&on e. Vi/tor . 7ut to appeal to hu&an nature &eans to ta2e your stand on the side of the a)stract ideal. on /on/luding his tru/e 1ith reality. the first 0olu&e of 1hi/h 1as already out by 18"6. /ontrary to his o1n stri0ing to1ard the concrete ideal. 1here this 0ie1 is e. re&ained ne0ertheless idealists 1ith regard to the e0olution of these relations. -n their eyes the /ause 1as in part a//ident.6 The last t1o 0olu&es of To/<ue0ille+s first 1or2 are 1holly de0oted to the.pounded 1ith spe/ial /larity in /onne/tion 1ith 'ren/h historyC see also his letter to the editor of =ournal General de Fran&e. and so forth6 and in part hu&an nature. de To/<ue0ille. =7elins2i put for1ard. in parti/ular.>6 There 1as not a little in this /onne/tion that 7ot2in /ould ha0e borro1ed fro& other Mtopian so/ialists. fro& the e.. i.ussia 1ould perhaps be better able than *urope to sol0e the . for instan/e.onsiderant and other Mtopian so/ialists. -n order to understand the la1s and &orals of a gi0en people it is therefore ne/essary to study the property relations do&inant a&ong the&. They understood the so/ial signifi/an/e of e/ono&i/sC 1hat they failed to see 1as the root /ause upon the a/tion of 1hi/h depends the e/ono&i/ order of e0ery gi0en so/iety. /onsiderations and ?udg&ents.> *0en that 1hi/h these relations do not engender. is a//epted as an in/ontestable truth in this boo2. ad0antageous geographi/ position.plained the entire &odern history of *urope by the struggle of e/ono&i/ interests.e.a&ple. This /on0i/tion of 7ot2in+s 1as assuredly 2no1n to 7elins2i.

-n/identally. on the personal traits of a people. our 0illage o)shchina /ould ne0er e0ol0e along the lines of the 5ontenegrin. =for fear &ost of all of /on/lusions that are arbitrary and &erely sub?e/ti0e in their i&port.ussian has a re&ar2able /apa/ity for assi&ilating and adapting e0erything foreign to hi&self. oppressed in one 1ay or another by these relations. /ould ha0e entertained. 7elins2i. su/h an idea only by dint of his attra/tion to Mtopian so/ialis&.ussian 0illage o)shchina 1hi/h has been /reated by the . to utter our thought.that it is a lie .ussian populists and sub?e/ti0ists.6 7ut ?ust the sa&e it see&s to hi& that the &any)sidedness 1ith 1hi/h . property and labor.ussian =personality.> 7ut the 5ontenegrin o)shchina is a /onsanguine /o&&unity /o&pletely unli2e the . The dialectic 1as bound to /ede pla/e to !topia. the &ore .ussia+s future /ultural &ission. 'ro& this abstra/t 0ie1point the future de0elop&ent of so/ial negations 1as bound to appear not so &u/h dependent on an inner logi/ of their o1n as.> 9e e.<.press through their nationality the ri/hest and &ost &any)sided /ontentC and that this is 1hy a ./a&e to sol0e it 3for &yself6 along the hard road of doubts and negation. the irre/on/ilable ene&y of the %la0ophiles.so/ial <uestion and put an end to the hostility bet1een /apital. 1ithout boastfulness and fanati/is&.ussian people are destined to e. through us there pulses national lifeC 1e are /alled upon to spea2 our 1ord to the 1orld. . long after the /onsanguine tribal /o&&unity disintegrated a&ong us. Lon+t thin2 .> says 7elins2i.> What is this 1ordE 7elins2i refuses to engage in spe/ulations and guesses on this s/ore. he saysA =Fes.> -n the arti/le.> 39is attitude to1ard sub?e/ti0is&.a& an enthusiast on this <uestion. 7eti&es 7elins2i also approa/hed the future destiny of .thin2 of it all the &ore /on0in/ed a& .ussians are all) e&bra/ing be/ause there is a/tually nothing 1e /an do G is a lie.ussia fro& the standpoint of the traits of the .> B si&ilar =solution> opened 1ide the doors for the %la0ophile 0ie1 on the so/ial <uestion in . per&its of /ertain ?udg&ents /on/erning . on the /ontrary.ussian o)shchina.> This is indeed a pure %la0ophile point of 0ie1. We ha0e already obser0ed that in his sy&pathy for the oppressed.pressed as a supposition.. -n any /ase. 7elins2i regarded the& not as beings li0ing and 1or2ing under spe/ifi/ histori/al /onditions but as a su& total of =personalities> un?ustly depri0ed of rights 1hi/h are the natural rights of hu&an indi0iduals.ussian personality is still only an e&bryoC but 1hat breadth and strength there is in the nature of this e&bryoI 9o1 stifling and repulsi0e to it are all li&itations and narro1nessI -t fears the& and &ost of all it is intolerant of the&C and in &y opinion it does 1ell to be &ean1hile satisfied 1ith nothing rather than be/o&e ensla0ed by so&e shabby one)sidedness. 8 Glance at R!ssian 'iterat!re of 9:.pressed hi&self <uite sharply in the sa&e 0ein in his 5ar/h 8. 1ould not be found la/2ing in ?ustifi/ation. =We do not affir& it as inelu/table that the . the sort of /on/eption held by the &ost ad0an/ed thin2ers at the ti&e is graphi/ally sho1n by the follo1ing /o&&ent 9er@en &ade in his 1iaryA =The &odel of the highest de0elop&ent of the %la0 o)shchina is the 5ontenegrin. The /ontention that 1e . as 1e see..@arist go0ern&ent for the better se/ure&ent of its fis/al interests. re&ained un/hanged fro& the ti&e he 1rote the arti/le on the anni0ersary of 7orodino. 7ut at the ti&e our Westerners . o.ussians understand other foreign nationalities. =7ut 1e are so bold as to thin2 that a 2indred idea e. later adopted by . 18$7 letter to 7ot2inA =.ussia. -t is /o&&only 2no1n that this 0ie1 1as based on a /o&pletely false /on/eption of the histori/al de0elop&ent of the .

1as the result of the inner de0elop&ent of a people+s life. 9e 1ould not ha0e then felt hi&self outside of the needs of the people. in /ontrast to 9er@en. in the hopes of finding in the e0il itself the &eans for a 1ay out of this e0il. fro& the onerous i&pressions of surrounding reality. 1e are 1orse off than &en 1ithout a /ountryC 1e are &en 1hose /ountry is a phanto& and is it surprising that 1e oursel0es are phanto&sE that our friendships.> /o&plained 9er@en. re/ogni@ing the e. our a/ti0ities are phanto&s. tooE> O1ing to su/h &oods. he refutes the atta/2s of %la0ophiles on the refor&s of 4eter the Great and notesA =%u/h e0ents in the life of a people are far too great to be a//idental and the life of a people is not a fli&sy little boat to 1hi/h anyone &ay i&part an arbitrary dire/tion by a slight &o0e&ent of an oar.> he had allegedly &ade his o1n. to a/t upon the foundations of this reality. i. the produ/t of a pressing &oral need for an es/ape. itself. he adds the follo1ing i&portant <ualifi/ationA =7ut it is i&per&issible to stop 1ith the re/ognition of the 0alidity of any fa/t 1hatsoe0erC it is ne/essary in addition to in0estigate its /auses. Bnd if a&ong the& a /on0i/tion o//asionally arose that there 1as a brilliant future for the o)shchina. it 1as not only te&porary but brief. e0en if through fi/tion. nay.> What the Ger&ans /all -enseits 3the beyond6 e. our lo0e. =We fall outside the needs of the people. -nstead of pondering the i&possible and &a2ing oneself a laughing sto/2 by inter0ening 1ith so &u/h /on/eit in histori/al destiny. an ideal indi/ated by the histori/al de0elop&ent of a reality they found so unpleasantC and failing to attain su/h an ideal they under1ent the sa&e &oods of oppression through 1hi/h 7elins2i had passed in the days of his youthful infatuation 1ith the a)stract ideal. 9e 1ould not ha0e said this had he seen that the =idea of negation. Just li2e 9er@en./lai&sA =We are the unhappy an/horites of a ne1 %/ythiaC 1e are &en 1ithout a /ountry. 1ithin the ne1 ele&ents it introdu/ed into . a te&porary in/lination to1ard %la0ophile fantasies is <uite understandable e0en in a thin2er so strong in logi/ as 7elins2i. 'ro& all indi/ations 1ith 7elins2i.> Why did &en li2e 9er@en feel the&sel0es in a hopeless situationE 7e/ause they 1ere unable to 1or2 out for the&sel0es any 2ind of concrete ideal. This is a . guiding oneself 1ith reason and ordinary sense.e.regarded the o)shchina as abstra/tly as did the %la0ophiles. 9er@en says flatly in his 1iaryA =. it is &u/h preferable.pe/tations of the life of a future age. of fir& faith in an apparently hopeless situation &ust be reali@ed pri&arily by us. 1e ?ust said.isten/e of irresistible and unalterable reality.ussian national /hara/ter.ussian life. our stri0ings..erted little attra/tion on 7elins2i.agree /o&pletely 1ith hi&.erted so&e unfa0orable influen/e on the . . This side of putting trust in sorro1.> -n another passage. then this /a&e about as a &ere a/t of faith.<. and not 1ith 5anilo0ist fantasies. -t 1as a te&porary in/lination.> The &eans of struggle against the unfa0orable /onse<uen/es of 4eter the Great+s refor& &ust be sought 1ithin the refor&.tra/ted so&e dubious hypotheses about the future of . -n the arti/le. ot in 0ain did 9er@en say of 7elins2i that he =/annot li0e in e. 7elins2i e. 8 Glance at R!ssian 'iterat!re of 9:. They felt the&sel0es /o&pletely i&potent.hristianity+s greatest traits is to raise the hope in 0irtue and pla/e it alongside of faith and lo0e. re/ogni@ing that a /ertain refor& had e. 9e needed the fir& soil of reality.haadaye0 on/e &ade the splendid re&ar2 that one of . fro& 1hi/h 1e ha0e e.ussian /i0ili@ation.

-n 4aris there then li0ed not a fe1 . -n 4aris so/ial life and thought 1ere 0ery 0igorous at the ti&e and the so/ialists of 0arious s/hools had a/<uired a /onsiderable.> Whoe0er assi&ilates this 0ie1point 1ill not 0enture.ussia fro& the bourgeoisie 1hile today it is /learly e0ident that the inner pro/ess of /i0il de0elop&ent in . li2e 5r. it is the &ost unreliableC today it is /alled abstra/t thin2ing. to gain fro& diale/ti/ the e.ussia+s future destiny dependent on its e/ono&i/ de0elop&entC .ussia 1ill not begin before the . 18$8. -t /ontains &any interesting ideas 1hi/h ha0e only re/ently begun to attra/t the attention of thin2ing ./alled you a /onser0ati0e during our debates o0er the bourgeoisie. Bnd so he &ade . There1ith the .shy a1ay. The old 9egelian &ust ha0e felt again the long fa&iliar and long 0e.ussia+s internal pro/ess of /i0il de0elop&ent 1ould not start until the .> This 1as one of the results of 7elins2i+s trip abroad. he 1ill ne0er re/on/ile hi&self 1ith an =abstra/t ideal. =Whene0er . than2s to his po1erful instin/t for theoreti/al truth.pounded to &e 1hy God 1as obliged to sa0e . pietists and s/re1balls 1ho ha0e gone &ad on the sa&e idea G and then .tent that 7elins2i upholds it in the dispute 1ith the %la0ophiles.ussia+s future role in the solution of the so/ial <uestion.lashing 1ith e. /o&plete absen/e of any rational.tre&e 0ie1s of this sort. then /ruelly ra0aged by illness.a&I *a/h ti&e a &ysti/al absurdity falls into &y head. . to try to i&pose on =so/iety> a re&ar2able tas2 1hi/h so/iety is not only in/apable of /arrying out but is not e0en in a /ondition to understandC nor 1ill he thin2. -n their opinion this is not easy but it /an be done. Lo not be surprised by the ?u.ussians.ussians be/a&e apparently bent on spe/ulating e0en &ore eagerly and 0ehe&ently than they did at ho&e on the the&e of .> These lines /ontain so profound and serious a 0ie1 of so/ial life that 1e 1ar&ly re/o&&end it to the study of our present)day %la0ophiles.ussian nobility be/o&es transfor&ed into a bourgeoisie . as is e0ident fro& Bnnen2o0+s &e&oirs.tent his thoughts are concrete. that to follo1 in =4eter the Great+s footsteps> is to nurse MtopiasC in brief. When . &y Hbelie0ing friend+ e.. What a nai0e.1as foolish and you 1ere 1ise. 9e /lai&ed that the people ought to do e0erything for itself. they pronoun/e the fruit to be rottenC and they propose to transplant a great and 0ast forest to a different lo/ation and to ta2e /are of it in a different 1ay. =.ing need to tieA up the ideal 1ith life.. /ons/ious /onne/tion 1ith the histori/al /ourse of .re&ar2ed in the presen/e of &y Hbelie0ing friend+ that . Oon.ussians 1ho 1ere passionately interested in so/ial <uestions.planation of today+s reality. 7elins2i.ussian nobility had turned into a bourgeoisie. 5y Hbelie0ing friend+ and the %la0ophiles ha0e done &e a great ser0i/e. Oon and other =ene&ies of /apitalis&. di/tated a letter to Bnnen2o0 in 4aris. those 1ho are /apable of rational thought rarely su//eed in 2no/2ing it out by argu&entsC for this to happen . The 1hole future of 'ran/e is in the hands of the bourgeoisieC all progress depends e. au. lie feels this hi&self and deals in passing se0eral blo1s to his old..ussia no1 needed another 4eter the Great he atta/2ed &y idea as a heresy. e0er)present ene&y G the a)stract ideal. and finding the lea0es tasteless. influen/e on the 1orld outloo2 of the 'ren/h intelligentsia.> -n his opinion the &ain sour/e of %la0ophile errors is =that they arbitrarily anti/ipate ti&eC they ta2e the results independently of the pro/ess of de0elop&entC they de&and to see the fruit before the blosso&s. What a strange fello1 .> Three &onths before his death on 'ebruary 1(.ussia+s de0elop&ent. in return. 5r. %trongly sti&ulated by the so/ial &ilieu.1holly diale/ti/al 0ie1 on the <uestionC and to the e. =The un/onditional or absolute &ethod of thin2ing is the easiest one. 7elins2i instantly too2 note of their 1ea2 sideA /o&plete abstra/tion. to that e. although unstable.tapositionC the best of the %la0ophiles ta2e the sa&e attitude to1ard the people as &y Hbelie0ing friend+ doesC they ha0e i&bibed these /on/epts fro& the so/ialists .e. li2e 5r.> he said. =7ut... Br/adian notionI 'urther&ore. 5i2hailo0s2i. populists. sub?e/ti0ists. i.&ust /ongregate 1ith &ysti/s. our fello1 .tent his thoughts are alien to all utopianis&C to that e.> he says./lusi0ely upon it and the people here /an only play a passi0e.iliary role fro& ti&e to ti&e.

9is ire 1as aroused against the =little. and therefore to others as 1ell. -n his eyes /apitalis& no1 represented the idea of de0elop&ent 1hi/h had failed to find a suffi/ient pla/e in the tea/hings of the so/ialists.tolling the signifi/an/e of the bourgeoisie.isten/e of the inner diale/ti/ pe/uliar to this so/ial life. ?ust as in the /ase of the %la0ophiles. and nothing &ore. 7elins2i 1as /onte&ptuous of the so/ialists and 1as e0idently ready to denoun/e the&.> This is. great people. Turgene0 designated 7elins2i as a central fig!re.ussian so/ial thought. 37elins2i. that is. 1as G as 7elins2i noted G that they sa1 nothing but e0il in e0il and failed to note the other side of this e0il. by the 1ay. 7ut his dissatisfa/tion 1ith the Mtopians ste&&ed fro& the 0ery sa&e reasons that had pre0iously led hi& to s/orn the =little.%. 9e failed to see that the e/ono&i/ /onse<uen/es of 4eter the Great+s refor&s are <uite ade<uate for the de0elop&ent of /apitalis& in . 18$7. essentially the offspring of the self)sa&e bourgeoisie. the great proble&. 7ut all of the so/ialist Mtopias assigned to the people a perfe/tly passi0e roleC 1ith this differen/e that the people. 7elins2i+s attitude to1ard the Mtopians 1as &u/h &ilder. passi0e role. 1hereas the =little. the do&ain of the ideal =torn out of geographi/ and histori/al /onditions of de0elop&ent and ere/ted in &id)air. 9e appro0ed of the 'ren/h philosopher Dittre. inesti&able &erit of 7elins2i. 7ut his /orre/t understanding of the error is pro0ed pre/isely by his e. This is the great. of /apitalis&.a&ple.6 7elins2i unsu//essfully tried to /orre/t the error of the Mtopian so/ialists by /onde&ning the =people> to an eternal. too.> 1ho& he had so sa0agely lashed in the days of his /on/iliationist &oods. a tribe 1andering in the desert and not destined to see the pro&ised land. 1ho.> 7elins2i 1as pre/isely our 5oses.histori/al /onditions for su/h a transfor&ation re&ained un/lear to hi&. Bnd their /hief error. au. e0en though he failed to rid hi&self of the *gyptian yo2e of the a)stract ideal. 9ere the initiati0e and the leading role belonged of ne/essity to the 1ell)&eaning and honorable intelligentsia. 9e posed to hi&self. be/ause Dittre did not adhere to the Mtopian so/ialists.iliary role.. ne0ertheless tried 1ith all his &ight to free hi&self and those near hi& fro& it. an error. great people> 1ho approa/hed so/ial life fro& a rationalist standpoint. but in respe/t to so/ial refor&. great people. failing 1hose solution 1e /an ne0er 2no1 1hat the 1ays are /i0ili@ed &an2ind &ust tra0el to attain happiness and the triu&ph of reason o0er the blind. in a//ordan/e 1ith Mtopian 0ie1s.ussia. i.> na&elyA the a)stract character of their ideal. great people> see&ed to hi& 0ainglorious phrase&ongers.pressed a negati0e attitude to1ard the so/ialists e0en before his trip abroad. -n our 0ie1 7elins2i is the /entral figure in the 1hole /ourse of de0elop&ent of . Of his /o)thin2ers 7elins2i saidA =Our generation are -sraelites. Our designation is the sa&e.isting so/ial order. ele&ental for/e of ne/essityC failing 1hose solution 1e 1ould ha0e fore0er re&ained in the sterile do&ain of =5anilo0ist> fantasies. -. 9e understood that their enthusias&s 1ere not guided by /apri/e or 0anity but by a stri0ing to1ard the so/ial good.e. 1ere bound to play a =passi0e.> B &ore or less /orre/t solution of this proble& &ust ser0e as the /riterion for e0aluating the entire future de0elop&ent of our so/ial /on/epts. This attitude to1ard the Mtopians in0oluntarily re/alls 7elins2i+s /onte&ptuous attitude to1ard the =little.iliary role> not in the pro/ess of the further de0elop&ent of the already e. January !9. 1ithout e0en suspe/ting the e. Bnd all of the leaders are 5oseses and not Joshuas. of /ourse. %ee his letter to 7ot2in. The people appear to hi& to be /onde&ned to a =passi0e. au. na&ely the drasti/ alteration effe/ted by it in so/iety+s foundations. for e. Bnd this is 1hy the history of his intelle/tual de0elop&ent should ha0e been long ago analy@ed fro& the standpoint of the concrete 0ie1s of our . as pietists and &ysti/s. Di2e1ise un/lear to hi& is the histori/ relation bet1een the bourgeoisie and the people of Western *urope. although he did /all the& &ysti/s. e. but in a different sense. 9e 1as by and large /orre/tC in their 0ie1s there a/tually 1as a lot that 1as /o&pletely fantasti/ and uns/ientifi/.

.ti&e. all the &ore deeply are 1e /on0in/ed that 7elins2i 1as the &ost re&ar2able philosophi/ organis& that e0er /a&e forth in . The &ore attenti0ely 1e study this history.ussian literature.