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SMAW

Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Student: Study program: Subject: Professor

Jos Antonio Ariza Martn 1st Level Mechanical Engineering Engineering Design Joining of Materials Dr. Tomaz Vuherer

Maribor, December, 2013

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................3 OPERATION..................................................................................................................4 ELEMENTS ....................................................................................................................5 EQUIPMENT .................................................................................................................6 POSITIONS ...................................................................................................................8 MOVEMENTS ...............................................................................................................8 APPLICATIONS AND UTILITIES SMAW............................................................................9

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

SMAW

1. INTRODUCTION
SMAW and MIG are specialized electrical arc welding techniques which contribute to give a great versatility to joint metals process. Along this article, author shows how those equipments work, their components, their applications, the minimum security requirements to take into account when using. This type of welding processes is one of the oldest binding metals exists, its beginning dating from 1890. In a carbon electrode was used to produce the electric arc, but it was not until 1907, when the founder of ESAB. Oscar Kjellber develops the method of coated electrode welding, also known as method SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding). It was the first method used to great effect, not only technical, but also economic, as this process allowed the development process more efficient manufacturing, and until today only been surpassed by modern applications, but still based on the basic concept of arc welding electrode self protected. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric current, in the form of either alternating current or direct current from a welding power supply, is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined. As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination. Because of the versatility of the process and the simplicity of its equipment and operation, shielded metal arc welding is one of the world's most popular welding processes. It dominates other welding processes in the maintenance and repair industry, and though flux-cored arc welding is growing in popularity, SMAW continues to be used extensively in the construction of steel structures and in industrial fabrication. The process is used primarily to weld iron and steels (including stainless steel) but aluminium, nickel and copper alloys can also be welded with this method.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

SMAW

2. OPERATION
To strike the electric arc, the electrode is brought into contact with the workpiece by a very light touch with the electrode to the base metal then is pulled back slightly. This initiates the arc and thus the melting of the workpiece and the consumable electrode, and causes droplets of the electrode to be passed from the electrode to the weld pool. As the electrode melts, the flux covering disintegrates, giving off shielding gases that protect the weld area from oxygen and other atmospheric gases. In addition, the flux provides molten slag which covers the filler metal as it travels from the electrode to the weld pool. Once part of the weld pool, the slag floats to the surface and protects the weld from contamination as it solidifies. Once hardened, it must be chipped away to reveal the finished weld. As welding progresses and the electrode melts, the welder must periodically stop welding to remove the remaining electrode stub and insert a new electrode into the electrode holder. This activity, combined with chipping away the slag, reduces the amount of time that the welder can spend laying the weld, making SMAW one of the least efficient welding processes. In general, the operator factor, or the percentage of operator's time spent laying weld, is approximately 25%. The actual welding technique utilized depends on the electrode, the composition of the workpiece, and the position of the joint being welded. The choice of electrode and welding position also determine the welding speed. Flat welds require the least operator skill, and can be done with electrodes that melt quickly but solidify slowly. This permits higher welding speeds. Sloped, vertical or upside-down welding requires more operator skill, and often necessitates the use of an electrode that solidifies quickly to prevent the molten metal from flowing out of the weld pool. However, this generally means that the electrode melts less quickly, thus increasing the time required to lay the weld.

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SMAW

The system of electric welding with coated electrode is characterized by the creation and maintenance of an electric arc between a metal rod called electrode and the workpiece. The coated electrode is constituted by a metal rod which is given the name of the core or nucleu, generally cylindrical in shape, coated with a coating of nonmetallic material; the chemical composition can be varied depending on the characteristics that are required use. The coating may be basic, rutile and cellulosic. To perform arc welding induces a potential difference between the electrode and the workpiece, whereby the air between them is ionized and becomes conductive, so that the circuit is closed. The heat of the arc partially melts the base material and the filler metal melts, which is deposited and make the weld. The arc welding is commonly used because of the ease of transportation and the economy of the process.

3. ELEMENTS
Plasma: It is composed of electrons that carry current and ranging from negative to positive metal ions ranging from positive to negative, gaseous atoms will ionize and stabilized as they lose or gain electrons, and products fusion such as vapor that will help the formation of a protective atmosphere. This same reaches a high temperature process. Flame: The area that surrounds the plasma and has a lower temperature than this, made of atoms which dissociate and recombine releasing heat by the combustion of the electrode coating. Gives the arc its conical shape. Melting bath: The action of the arc causes heat melting the material, where part of it is mixed with the filler material of the electrode, causing the welding of the pieces after solidification . Crater: Groove produced by heating the metal. Its shape and depth are given by the penetrating power of the electrode. Weld: It consists of the base metal and filler metal electrode and can distinguish two parts: the slag, consisting of impurities are segregated during solidification and are subsequently removed, and the thick, formed by the useful part of the filler material of the base metal and the weld itself. Electrode: Metal rods are prepared to serve as a pole of the circuit, at its end the arc is generated. In some cases, also serve as flux material. The metal rod often is coated by a combination of materials varying from one electrode to another. The coated electrodes have different functions, they can be summarized as follows:

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- Switching function of the coating - Physical Function slag - Role of metal coating

4. EQUIPMENT
Shielded metal arc welding equipment typically consists of a constant current welding power supply and an electrode, with an electrode holder, a ground clamp, and welding cables (also known as welding leads) connecting the two. Power supply: depending on the type of electrode and the type and position of the workpiece, the source can be AC or DC. If DC, and again depending on the type of electrode and the nature of the weld to be obtained, the connection connection to the source electrode can be done in two ways: Connect the negative terminal: in this case we speak of a negative electrode or straight polarity (DCEN, for its acronym in English). It is used when you want to achieve high deposition rates and low l penetration. Connect to the positive terminal: in this case speaks of a positive electrode or reverse polarity (DCEP, for its acronym in English). It is used when you want to achieve deep penetration.

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SMAW

Electrode Holder: cable is connected to the welding and the welding current leads to the electrode. The insulated handle is used to guide the electrode to the weld joint and feed electrode in the pool as they consume. The electrode holders are available in various sizes and are classified according to their ability to carry the current. Electrode cable and ground cable: both are an important part of the welding circuit. Must be very flexible and have a heat resistant insulation. Connections to the electrode holder, work clamp terminals and the power supply must be welded or perfectly placed to ensure a low electrical resistance. The area of the cross section of these wires should be sufficient to carry the weld current with a minimum voltage drop size. The greater the length of the cable, its diameter must be greater, in order to reduce the resistance and voltage drop. Ground Clamp: used to connect the ground wire to the workpiece. It can be connected directly to the workpiece to the table or fixture. As part of the welding circuit, the ground clamp should be able to carry the welding current without overheating due to electrical resistance. Electrode: The choice of electrode for SMAW depends on a number of factors, including the weld material, welding position and the desired weld properties. The electrode is coated in a metal mixture called flux, which gives off gases as it decomposes to prevent weld contamination, introduces deoxidizers to purify the weld, causes weld-protecting slag to form, improves the arc stability, and provides alloying elements to improve the weld quality. Electrodes can be divided into three groups those designed to melt quickly are called "fast-fill" electrodes, those designed to solidify quickly are called "fast-freeze" electrodes, and intermediate electrodes go by the name "fill-freeze" or "fast-follow" electrodes. Fast-fill electrodes are designed to melt quickly so that the welding speed can be maximized, while fast-freeze electrodes supply filler metal that solidifies quickly, making welding in a variety of positions possible by preventing the weld pool from shifting significantly before solidifying.

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SMAW

5. POSITIONS
Flat Position: Is that the part that receives the weld placed on flat level position. Additional material comes from the electrode that is the tip down, depositing the material in this regard. Horizontal Position: This is one in which the edges or face of the workpiece is placed horizontally on a vertical plane. The weld axis extends horizontally. Vertical Position: is one in which the edge or axis of weld area receives vertical welding, the electrode is positioned approximately horizontal and perpendicular to the axis of the weld. Overhead position: The part positioned higher than the head height of the welder, welding receives the bottom. The electrode is located with the end pointing up vertically. This position is reverse to the flat or level position.

6. MOVEMENTS
This designation covers the movements made with the electrode as it advances in welding, these movements are called oscillation are different and are determined mainly by the type of electrode and the position of the union. Move Zig-Zag (Longitudinal): The zigzag motion in a straight line made with the electrode in the direction of the cord. This movement is used in flat position to keep the hot crater and get good penetration. When welding

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SMAW

vertical up position on head and thin together, this movement is used to prevent heat buildup and thus prevent the material provided dripping. Circular Motion: Cords are essentially used where bit penetration required deposit, its application is common in inner corners, but not to fill upper layers. As it progresses, the electrode describes a circular path. Semicircular Movement: Ensures total fusion of the joints to be welded. The electrode was moved across the board, an arc or crescent, which ensures good melting at the edges. It is recommended, chamfered joints and rebuilding of parts. Move Zig-Zag (Cross): The electrode is moved from side to side while moving. This movement is mainly used to effect bead widths. A good finish is obtained at its edges, enabling the slag rises to the surface, allowing gases to escape more easily and avoid porosity in the deposited material. This movement is used for welding in all positions. Movement Interleaving: This movement is generally used in completion strings, in which case the electrode applies a lateral oscillation, which completely covers the filler strands. It is very important that the movement is uniform, as you run the risk of poor fusion at edges of binding.

7. APPLICATIONS AND UTILITIES SMAW


For reasons of increased productivity, quality and profitability, the SMAW process has gradually been replaced. However, the ability of the process to achieve SMAW welding in restricted areas means that still finds considerable use in certain situations and applications. Heavy construction, such as in the shipbuilding industry, and welding "field" are based largely on the SMAW process. And although the process finds wide application for welding virtually all steels and many nonferrous alloys are mainly used for joining steels, mild steels such as low carbon, low alloy steels, high strength steels, hardened steels and tempered, high alloy steels, stainless steels and various foundries. The SMAW process is also used to join nickel and its alloys and, to a lesser extent, copper and its alloys, although rarely used for welding aluminum.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

SMAW

Advantages: Simple equipment, portable and low cost Applicable to a wide variety of metals, welding positions and electrodes Has metal deposition rates relatively high Suitable for outdoor applications

Disadvantages: The process is discontinuous due to the limited length of the electrodes Being a manual welding, requires great skill on the part of the welder The solder may contain slag inclusions Smokes difficult process control

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