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motor skills. touch. Introduction: Hydrocephalus is the most common congenital abnormality of the central nervous system in infants.I. and every process that regulates our body. Treatment includes surgery with placement of a shunt to reduce ICP. memory. infection. can lead to brain damage and died. It is characterized by excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. which if not relieved. The brain can be divided into the cerebrum. emotion. Hydrocephalus. increased intracranial pressure and dilatation of the ventricular walls. protrusion of the forehead and brain atrophy. or bleeding. brain atrophy. temperature. Anatomy and Physiology The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. Many cases of hydrocephalic children are described since ancient times. bulge in the forehead. Its symptomatology during infanthood or early childhood is characterized by swelling of the head. respirations. Obstruction or disruption resulting in increased cerebrospinal fluid absorption and an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). II. Possible complications include infection. All these symptoms appear due to increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. the brainstem. The brain is an important organ that controls thought. vision.caused by the failure of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which flows from the ventricles of the brain. hunger. and mental disorders . or subdural hematoma. and the cerebellum: . blockage. Hydrocephalus can occur because of congenital or due to a tumor. characterized by enlargement of the head.

CSF flows through the subarachnoid space to the arachnoid granulations (masses of arachnoid tissues. a dural venous sinus in the longitudinal fissure) in the superior sagittal sinus. The CSF flows from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle and then through the cerebral aqueduct into the fourth ventricle. specialized structures made of ependymal cells. which are located in the ventricles. where it enters the venous circulation FLOW OF CSF IN THE BRAIN . penetrate into the superior sagittal sinus. A small amount of CSF enters the central canal of the spinal cord. 2. FLOW OF CSF 1. 3. It is produced by the choroid plexuses. providing a protective cushion around the CNS.CEREBROSPINAL FLUID CSF bathes the brain and spinal cord.

VS q1 c. 2014 . 2014 .III. Nails  With good capillary refill approximately 2-3 seconds E. with good skin turgor C. DX EXAM Course in the Ward a. 2014 . Na.Tepid Sponge Bath q30 minutes . Hair  With white hair evenly distributed D.Continue IVF . Skin  Moist.VS: BP: 120/80 T: 36.7 RR: 24 PR: 115 .VS q1 b. Musculoskeletal  Edema on both upper and lower extremeties IV. Mental Status  Comatose B.Request for CBC with platelet. V. January 8. K. January 6. January 7.Continue oral feeding . Physical Assessment A. Cl .Continue Paracetamol .

Nursing Care Plan IX. Drug Study a. VIII. headache followed by vomiting. INDICATION • Moderate to moderately severe pain NURSING CONSIDERATIONS • Assess type.VI. Patient’s Profile Name: EA Age: 47 yrs old Address: Brgy. Pharmacologic Mechanism • Binds to mu-opioid receptors. There was also noted slurring of speech. VII. patient experienced dizziness. • Inhibits reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in the CNS. . and intensity of pain before and 2-3 hr (peak) after administration. Tramadol Brand Name: TRAMADOL CLASSIFICATIONS Therapeutic: Analgesics (centrally acting) ACTIONS Physiologic Mechanism • Decreased pain. location. Quezon Birthday: 02/12/66 Date of Admission: 12/23/2013 Admitting Diagnosis: Hydrocephalus Past and Present History 3 weeks prior to admission. 1 week prior to admission. Gayagayaan Gumaca. patient was referred from a local hospital for further evaluation and management.

2.promoting diuresis (treating the oliguric phase of renal failure) and excretes toxic materials(management for toxic overdose). Intraocular pressure (IOP) Action 1. Resectisol Classification: Osmotic Diuretic Action Summary Half-life 100 minutes Indications 1. Dehydration Anuria Intracranial bleeding Headache Dosage . Mannitol increases osmotic pressure (pressure needed to stop the absorption of something or osmosis) of the glumerular filtrate. Susceptibility 2. Acute oliguric renal failure Toxic overdose Edema Onset 30-60 minutes Peak 1 hour Duration 6-8 hours 4. 4. Respiratorydepression has not occurred with recommended doses.• Assess BP & RR before and periodically during administration. 3. 2. In the oliguric phase of acute renal failure. 3. b. Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) 5. Dehydration Adverse reactions 1. thereby. Mannitol Brand Name: Osmitrol. Contraindications 1.

Adult Oliguria: 50-100 g as a 5-25% solution. .