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Math: Algebra

Active component (content knowledge) Learner outcomes

Comprehend Demonstrate by solving:
• When it is possible (or not possible) to simplify, solve, • Linear equations and absolute value equations
substituted or evaluate equations and expression • Linear inequalities and absolute value inequalities
• The properties of rational exponents, integer exponents
and roots and apply these properties to simplify algebraic • Equations involving several variables for one variable in terms
expressions of the others
• How the concept of a function has a specific definition • Systems linear equations (two or three variables) and
beyond being a type of algebraic expression inequalities using algebraic and graphical methods (e.g.,
• Algebraic language, notation, and properties for a variety substitution, elimination, addition and graphing)
of functions (e.g., polynomial, rational, exponential,
logarithmic, and trigonometric) • Quadratic equations using various appropriate methods while
• Basic forms of the equation of a straight line without the recognizing real solutions by: factoring, completing the square,
aid of a calculator the quadratic formula
• Basic shape of a quadratic function and the relationships • Polynomial equations
between the roots of the quadratic and zeros of the
function ○ Add, subtract, multiply polynomials
• Basic shape of the graph of exponential and log ○ Divide low degree polynomials (e.g., long division)
functions, including exponential decay ○ Factor polynomials (e.g., difference of squares, perfect
• Formal notations (e.g., sigma and factorial notation) square trinomials, difference of two cube and
• Arithmetic and geometric progressions and series trinomials)
• Basic algebraic concepts such as: ○ Add, subtract, multiply, divide and simplify rational
○ Exponents, roots and their properties ○ Evaluate polynomial and rational expressions and
○ Basic theorems of exponents and roots expressions containing radicals and absolute values at
specified values of their variables
○ Properties and theorems of logarithms
• Properties and representation of functions by: Develop ability to:
○ Recognizing whether relationship given in
symbolic or graphical form is a function • Represent functions, patterns and relationships in different
○ Determining the domain of a function represented
ways (e.g., statements, formulas, and graphs)
in either symbolic or graphical form
○ Understanding functional notation and evaluating • Recognize which type of expression best fits the context of a
a function at a specified point in its domain basic application
○ Combining functions by composition as well as by • Use distributive property to multiply polynomials
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
○ Identifying whether a function has an inverse and • Compose and decompose functions and how to find inverses of
when functions are inverses of each other basic functions
College Readiness Standards 22082231
○ Knowing that the inverse of an exponential • Simplify and perform operations on rational expressions,
function is a logarithm, prove basic properties of a including finding common denominators
logarithm using properties of its inverse and apply
those properties to solve problems • Derive and use the formula for general term and summation of
finite arithmetic and geometric series
• The relationship between the coefficients of a linear • Graph a variety of equations and inequalities
equation and the slope and x- and y- intercepts of a
graph ○ Graph a linear equation and demonstrate that it has a
• The relationship between a solution of a system of two constant rate of change
linear equations in two variables and the graphs of the ○ Graph the solution set of a linear inequality and identify
corresponding lines whether the solution set is an open or a closed half-
○ Graph the solution set of a system of two or three linear
○ Graph a quadratic function and understand the
relationship between its real zeros and the x-intercepts
of its graph
○ Ellipses and hyperbolas whose axes are parallel to the x
and y axes and demonstrate understanding of the
relationship between their standard algebraic form and
their graphical characteristics
○ Exponential functions and identify their key

• Read information and draw conclusions from graphs

• Identify properties of a graph that provide useful information
about the original problem
• Recognize and solve problems algebraically that can be
modeled using:

○ A linear equation in one variable

○ A system of two equations in two variables
○ A quadratic equation
○ An exponential function
○ An exponential function whose solution requires facility
with logarithms
○ Finite geometric series

(Conley, 2003; 2005; 2007) (The American Diploma Project, 2004)

College Readiness Standards 22082231

Standards for Success (S4S)
Math: Algebra
Successful students:
A. Know and apply basic algebraic concepts
B. Use various appropriate techniques to solve basic equations and inequalities
C. Distinguish between and among expression, formulas, equations and functions
D. Understand the relationship between equations and graphs
E. Understand algebra well enough to apply it procedurally and conceptually to a range of
common problems
F. Demonstrate the ability to work with formulas and symbols albebraically
G. Demonstrate active participation in the process of learning mathematics

Cognitive Strategies Emphasized

• Habits of the mind such as:
○ Time management – budgeting time to complete reading tasks
○ Understanding expectations of readings
○ Academic persistence
• Critical thinking skills such as:
○ Ability to discuss materials in-depth by asking engaging questions
○ Problem solving
• Understanding the connection between reading comprehension skills and disciplines:
writing, speaking and research
• Self-analysis – learning from constructive criticism and feedback
• Developing comfort with ambiguity of readings and assignments

Conley, D. T. (2005). College Knowledge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Conley, D. T. (2003). Understanding University Success: A Project of the Association of American

Universities and The Pew Charitable Trusts. Eugene: Center for Educational Policy Research.

Conley, D. (2007). Towards a More Comprehensive Comprehension of College Readiness.

Eugene, OR: Educational Policy Improvement Center.

The American Diploma Project. (2004). Ready or Not: Creating a High School Diploma that
Counts. Achieve, Inc.

College Readiness Standards 22082231