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# Math: Geometry

## Active component (content knowledge) Learner outcomes

Comprehend Demonstrate by solving:
• Properties of similarity congruence and parallel lines cut • Problems involving proofs through the use of geometric
by a transversal constructions
• Basic theorems about congruent and similar triangles • Mathematical and real world problems that involve the
• Definitions and basic properties of a circle properties of special right triangles with the Pythagorean
• Concepts behind simple geometric proofs theorem and its converse
• Basic formulas for volume and surface area for three-
dimensional objects Develop ability to:
• Geometric properties of lines (e.g., slope and midpoint of
• Figure area and perimeter of basic figures
a line segment)
• Develop and write simple geometric proofs
• The formula for the distance between two points
• Use similar triangles to find unknown angle measurements and
• Through recognition of geometric translations and
lengths of sides
transformations algebraically
• Visualize solids and surfaces in three-dimensional space
• That geometric objects and figures can also be described
algebraically • State and prove key basic theorems in geometry
• The algebra and geometry of circles • Use trigonometry for examples of algebraic/geometric
• The algebra and geometry of parabolas and ellipses as a relationships, including Law of Sines/Cosines
prerequisite to the study of calculus • Identify and apply properties of theorems about:
• That there are geometries other than Euclidean
○ Parallel lines – use to prove theorems such as two lines
geometry
parallel to a third are parallel to each other and perform
• Similarities of figures and use scale factor to solve constructions such as a line parallel to a given line
problems through a point not on a line
• That numerical values associated with measurements of ○ Perpendicular lines – use to prove theorems such as the
physical quantities must be assigned units of perpendicular bisectors of line segments are the set of
measurement or dimension all points equidistant from the two end points and to
• That the effect of a scale factor k on length are and perform constructions such as the perpendicular
volume is to multiply each by k, k2 and k3, respectively bisector of a line segment
○ Angles – use to prove theorems such as two lines are
parallel exactly when the alternate interior angles they
make with a transversal are equal and to perform
constructions such as the bisector of an angle

## • Describe a line by a linear equation

• Find the distance between two points using their coordinates
and the Pythagorean theorem
• Find an equations of a circle given its center and radius and,
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given an equations of a circle, find its center and radius
• Use rigid motions to determine whether tow geometric figures
are congruent and to create and analyze geometric designs
• Determine the perimeter of

## ○ A polygon and the circumference of a circle

○ The area of a rectangle, a circle, a triangle and polygon
with more than four sides by decomposing it into
triangles
○ The surface area of a prism, a pyramid, a cone and a
sphere
○ The volume of a rectangle box, a prism, a pyramid, a
cone and a sphere

## • Represent geometric objects and figures algebraically using

coordinates
• Express the intuitive concept of “slant” of a line in terms of the
precise concept of slope, us the coordinates of two points on a
line to define its slope, and use slope to express the
parallelism and perpendicularity of lines

## (Conley, 2003; 2005; 2007) (The American Diploma Project, 2004)

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Standards for Success (S4S)
Math: Algebra
Successful students:
A. Understand and use both basic plane and solid geometry’
B. Know analytic (i.e., coordinate geometry)
C. Understand basic relationship between geometry and algebra

## Cognitive Strategies Emphasized

• Habits of the mind such as:
• Critical thinking skills such as:
○ Ability to discuss materials in-depth by asking engaging questions
○ Problem solving
• Understanding the connection between reading comprehension skills and disciplines:
writing, speaking and research
• Self-analysis – learning from constructive criticism and feedback
• Developing comfort with ambiguity of readings and assignments

Bibliography
Conley, D. T. (2005). College Knowledge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

## Conley, D. T. (2003). Understanding University Success: A Project of the Association of American

Universities and The Pew Charitable Trusts. Eugene: Center for Educational Policy Research.

## Conley, D. (2007). Towards a More Comprehensive Comprehension of College Readiness.

Eugene, OR: Educational Policy Improvement Center.

The American Diploma Project. (2004). Ready or Not: Creating a High School Diploma that
Counts. Achieve, Inc.