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Natural Science: Chemistry

Content Knowledge
• Nature of the physical and chemical properties of matter such as:
o How atoms, molecules and ions have a set of physical and chemical properties that control their behaviors in a range of states
o How states of matter depend on molecular arrangements and freedom of motion. For example:
 In a solid state, molecules are packed tightly together with their motion restricted to vibrations
 In a liquid state, molecules have higher energy and are more loosely packed, sliding freely past each other
 In a gaseous state, molecules are less restricted and move freely
o The structure of the Periodic Table. For example:
 Elements are arranged in sequence by increasing atomic number
 The similar properties that arise periodically in this arrangement motivate the grouping of elements into columns that share common
 This arrangement is useful for predicting the properties of elements and compounds
o The acid and base chemistry
o The principles of ideal gas behavior
• Principles of atomic structure and bonding such as:
o The structure of the atom. For example:
 How negative electrons occupy most of the space in the atom
 How neutrons and positive protons make up the nucleus of the atom
 How protons and neutrons are almost two thousand times heavier than an electron
 How the electric force between the nucleus and electrons holds the atom together
o How molecules are composed of atoms in unique and consistent arrangements, and that atoms or molecules may form solid by building up
repeating patterns
o How the electronic configuration of atoms governs the chemical properties of an element. For example that:
 Elements with similar electronic configurations have similar properties
 Elements interact with one another on the atomic level by transferring or sharing the outermost electrons to form covalent, ionic or
metallic bonds
• Principles that explain chemical reactions such as:
o How substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances with different characteristics and
o The meaning and uses of chemical equations, and how to employ such equations to quantify relationships between products and reactants
o The mole concept and its applications. For example:
 Moles in chemical equations and formulas
 Molar mass, relative mass, molar volume and Avogadro’s numbers
Standards for Success (S4S)
Natural Science: Chemistry
Successful students:
A. Understand the nature of the physical and chemical properties of matter (e.g.,
classifications of matter such as compounds, mixtures and solutions, as well as
compositions of matter such as atoms and molecules)
B. Know principles of atomic structures and bonding
C. Understand and apply principles that explain chemical reactions