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Wind turbines cannot convert whole wind kinetic energy into mechanical energy.

Therefore if difference between input and output wind kinetic energy is calculated, the mechanical energy is found which is converted by blades.

1 2 vi2 vo Pk m 2

vi vi

Rzgar kanal k

Input Wind Speed : Output Wind Speed : Wind speed in the blades plane ( ) =

+ 2 1 2

vk

vo vo

vk

Rotor Alan, A

Cp, Efficiency of Turbine

0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 Cp 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1

Blade efficiency decreases, because of turbulence effect when rotor spins so fast, or else because of missing wind increase when rotor spins so slow. Top Speed Ratio (TSR) is used as a function when blade efficiency is computed. =

=o/

RRotor

As it can be seen from here maximum efficiency of turbine is %59,26. This is known as Betz limit. German physicist Albert Betz is inventor of this limit.

= 2 Mechanical (Blade) Angular Speed [rad/s] Wind Speed[m/s] Linear Speed of Blades [m/s] Spinning Frequency[1/s, Hz]

cp

30

EXAMPLE: When wind speed is 15 m/s , rotor radius is 10m and duration of full turn is 1 second for a blade, compute the TSR.

KHO

Curves can be so different for several rotor and blade types.

maximum power is, max = Herein is the number of blades.

4

NOTE: , mechanical angular velocity can be written as a function of rotor speed: 2 = 60 Note: = , = min() = 60 [ ] Herein, rpm

EXAMPLE: A wind turbine with 3 blades, has a rotor diameter as 30m and produces 250kW at 12m/s wind speed ;

a) When TSR=4.0 , compute the n . (rpm) b) What is the tip speed of rotor blades ? (m/s).

c) If generator needs 1500 rpm, compute the gear box ratio to synchronize rotor speed to generator speed.

d) Compute the efficiency for wind turbine.

SOLUTION:

EXAMPLE: A horizontal-axis wind turbine's rotor diameter is 30m, reaches its highest efficiency. According to this, calculate the turbine speed at related wind speed ?

SOLUTION:

EXAMPLE :Nominal gc 1.5 MW olan 2 kanatl ve yatay eksenli bir rzgr enerji santralnn genel sistem verimi %30 olarak llmtr. Rzgr trbini nominal gcne standart hava artlar altnda ve 12 m/s rzgr hznda ulamaktadr. Buna gre trbinin rotor ap ka metredir?

SOLUTION :

Kanatlar YK/EBEKE TARAFI

Some of wind turbines are connected to grid directly and some of them are connected via gear box. = [ ]

= / =

Pg

Pt=Pm

Pw

Tt=Tm

r

Kanatlar

Pg

Pm Pt

YK/EBEKE TARAFI

Pw

Tt

Dili Kutusu

Tm

= 3 /2 This formula gives torsional stress when T torque is implemented to a cylindrical mass of which radius is r .

EXAMPLE: A wind turbine of which nominal power is 0.9 MW and efficiency is %34, reaches his nominal power at 11 m/s (wind speed) when its rpm is 20. Horizontal-axis wind turbine shaft is designed to withstand a torsional stress as 35000 kN/m2, so; a.) Compute TSR values under standard atmospheric conditions. b.) When generator efficiency is %95 and gear box efficiency is %80, calculate the torque which occurs at turbine shaft. In this case, compute the cross-section of shaft. SOLUTION:

Pw TRBN Cp Pt MEKANK LETM Pm GENERATR Pg

ELEKTRKSEL LETM

Pe

= = = = = = =

EFFICIENCY Small Scale System Big Scale System 20%-40% 70%-80% 65%-85% 90%-98% 40%-50% 80%-95% 85%-95% 90%-98%

Average Wind Power : o Wind turbines are exposed to different wind speeds so wind power is generated, thats why average wind power is needed. o Average wind power can not be computed writing = in , because of there is a cubic relationship between wind speed and power. 1 1 3 = = 3 2 2 o As it can be seen, average of (v3) is needed, instead of speed.

( ) ( 3 )

3

Montly Wind Histogram: Mean Value : When mean value of blowing wind in a region, total covered distance by wind is divided by total time. = For example, assume measurements of a region are like that ;

Time(s) 20 30 30 20 Wind Speed(m/s) No Wind 6 12 15

20 100

30 100

12

30 100 20 100

6 15

= 8.4 /

In the perspective of probability; Probability of No wind case is 0,2 Probability of Wind Speed being 6 m/s is 0,3 Probability of Wind Speed being 12 m/s is 0,3 Probability of Wind Speed being 15 m/s is 0,2 In this case, mean value can be written in terms of probability. =

[

P( = )]

3

3 = = [ 3 [ P( = )] [ 3

EXAMPLE: Compute the mean wind speed and power (w/m2) using data table which is given below . Calculate wind power for and 3 , when standard air density is 1.225 kg/m3 and compare the results.

V (m/s) Hour/year V (m/s) Hour/year 0 24 13 240 1 276 14 170 2 527 15 114 3 729 16 76 4 869 17 46 5 941 18 28 6 946 19 16 7 896 20 9 8 805 21 5 9 690 22 3 10 565 23 1 11 444 24 1 12 335 25 0

SOLUTION:

Wind Speed (m/s), vi 0 1 2 3 . 25 TOTAL Time Ratio in a (h/year) Year 24 276 527 729 . 0 8760 0,0027 0,0315 0,0602 0,0832 . 0 Vi x (Ratio (vi)3 X (Ratio in a Year) in a Year) 0 0,0315 0,120 0,250 . 0 =7 0 0,0315 0,48 2,25 . 0 3 =653.2 4

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