This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
, complete skeleton of adult female hominid “Lucy” from 3.5 million yrs ago • Early hominids had opposable thumbs and walking upright helped travel distances and carry things • Invention of tools, mastery over fire, development of languages all occurred during the Stone Age • Earlier and longer part of Stone Age called Paleolithic Age (2,500,0008000BCE) o Oldest stone chopping tools date back to this era; during the Ice Age o Religious beliefs centered around nature; believed in afterlive • Neolithic Age (80003000BCE/ dates vary in places) o People learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, raise animals • Before australopithecines vanished, new hominids (Homo habilis) appeared in East Africa o Used lava rock tools to cut meat and crack open bones = made survival easier • 1.6 million yrs ago, before Homo habilis left, Homo erectus appeared o more intelligent and adaptable than Homo habilis; used intelligence to develop technology; skillful hunters with sophisticated tools; first hominids to migrate to India, China, SE Asia, EU o developed beginning of spoken language; first to use fire • Homo erectus evolved to Homo sapiens o Had larger brains • Neanderthals in SW Asia and Europe survived for 170,000 yrs and vanished 30,000 yrs ago o Religious beliefs; shelters • CroMagnons emerge 40,0008,000 BCE: identical to modern humans o N. Africa > Europe, Asia; made tools with specialized uses; planned hunts; spoken language = cooperation • Cave paintings by primitive people: European and Asian show hunting and daily activities; American and Australian more symbolic = sympathetic magic
12: Humans Try to Control Nature • 40,000 yrs ago, CroMagnons same as modern man • Paleolithic era, mostly nomads= huntergatherers; crafted crude tools i.e. sharpened sticks to aid hunting/gathering • Made artistic creations: jewelry, sculptures, cave paintings • Neolithic Revolution: 10,000 yrs ago, = agricultural revolution (climate change was key reason) • Early farming methods: slashandburn, domestication of animals • Took place in Fertile Crescent (NE Iraq/Mesopotamia) • Farming develops independently in Africa, China, Central America… o Catal Huyuk and Jarmo important agri. sites for studying Neolithic Age Permanent settlements created, benefits= surplus food, specialized workers Disadvantages= floods/fire/drought/disease destroy village; invasion by neighbors 13: Civilization • Villages become cities: o Economic changes: more cultivation>elaborate irrigation systems built; food surplus=specialization; wheel and sail improved trade o Social: social classes formed; religion more organized>worshipped gods with power over nature • Civilization characteristics: 1. Advanced cities 2. Specialized workers 3. Complex institutions 4. Record keeping 5. Advanced technology 6. Art and Architecture Sumer (Ur in bold): • Advanced cities: center of trade for larger area; large population o Defined social classes: rulers/ priests on top; trade w. bartering • Spec. workers: artisans; merchants; scribes; soldiers; teachers; metalworkers; priests; gov. officials; peasants • Complex inst.: formal gov. with laws; priests with religious/political power; education system (for scribes) • Record keeping: cuneiform tablets with business transactions, hist. events, customs, traditions; calendar • Adv. Tech: oxdrawn plows; irrigation systems; pottery eating supplies; bronze weapons; body armor o Roads, pottery • Art and Architecture: ziggurat(massive pyramid temple), temples, temple gates, storage for grain 21: Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia = “land between the rivers” Tigris and Euphrates
o Environmental challenge; unpredictable flooding; no natural barriers; limited natural resources o Solutions: irrigation ditches; city walls; traded worked materials for raw materials • Sumerians had citystates each with own gov. (Uruk, Kish, Lagaash, Umma, Ur) o Each had own ziggurat o Rulers (military leaders) and priests share control: priests mostly (demanded crop taxes) Military leaders had dynasties; shift from priests to military rulers • Cultural diffusion: new ideas spread to other cities • Sumerians = polytheistic (see English) o No joy after death afterworld is bad place o Women priests, women had many rights: landholding, read, write, scribes • Technology: invented wheel, sail, plow, first to use bronze, arithmetic, geometry, base 60 number system, modern time units come from it • Architectural innovations: arches, columns, ramps, pyramid ziggurat • First to develop system of writing (cuneiform) on tablets: written with pointy triangular tipped reeds • 30002000 BCE, Sumer citystates constantly at war with each other and could no longer ward of attacks of people of surrounding hills/deserts • Sumer never recovered from attacks and succeeding rulers adopted Sumerian culture to their own needs • c. 2350 BCE, conqueror Sargon with army from Akkad (citystate N. of Sumer) defeated Sumer o Akkadians already had adopted most of Sumerian culture; Sargon’s conquests spread the culture further beyond TigrisEuphrates Valley • By taking control of N. and S. Mesopotamia, Sargon created 1st empire o At peak, Akkadian Empire controlled Mediterranean Coast in the west to Iran (today) in the east o Lasted only 200 yrs before decline • c. 2000 BCE, nomadic warriors (Amorites) invaded Mesopotamia and overwhelmed Sumerians • established capital at Babylon along Euphrates River • Babylonian Empire reached peak during reign of Hammurabi (17921750 BCE) o Hammurabi’s Code of laws: first single, uniform code of laws written down in stone all over empire o 282 specific laws many related to property issues; protected women and children from unfair treatment o diff. punishment for diff. social classes; principle of retaliation (eye for an eye…) o gov. responsible for society’s actions • 2 centuries after Hammurabi’s reign, Babylonian empire fell to Kassites 23: Pyramids on the Nile • Egypt united into single kingdom early on • Nile flows N.: civilization arose along fertile Nile banks • Nile flooded regularly: necessary for life; deserts as natural barriers • River travel common ended at 1st cataract (rapids) • • winds blow upstream (N to S) so you can travel by sailboat upriver and down • 5000 BCE farming villages with own rituals, god, ruler • 3200 BCE 2 separate kingdoms: lower and upper Egypt • eventually united (most likely) by King Narmer
Old Kingdom: in Mesopotamia, kings represent gods; in Egypt, kings=gods=pharaohs o Theocracy: pharaoh @ center of religion and gov. o Pharaoh had eternal life force (ka): pyramids to protect pharaoh in afterlife • Didn’t use wheel • Early Egyptians polytheistic: Re (sun god), Osiris (dead), Isis (mother/wife goddess) • Believed in an afterlife where you would be judged • Mummification of elites led to advanced medical techniques • King, queen, royals at top of soc. Pyramid o Priests, wealthy landowners, gov. officials, army commanders Peasants and laborers slavery came later Egyptians not locked into social class couple move up esp. if know to read/write o Women had many of the same rights as men • Innovations: o Scribes developed flexible writing system = hieroglyphics (pics changed from representing ideas to letters) Wrote on papyrus reeds o Developed calendar for planting w/ 365 days in a year o Arithmetic for taxes o Geometry for pyramid building o Medicine for healing bones, surgery, check heart rate… • Decline of Old Kingdom o Strong pharaohs regained control during Middle Kingdom (20401640 BCE) o Hyksos from Palestine invaded and ruled Egypt (16301523 BCE) o New Kingdom – Egypt rose again 3.1 The IndoEuropeans o Group of Nomadic ppl from Steppes dry grass lands o Primarily pastoral (herded) o Tamed horses and rose light 2 wheeled chariots o Lived in tribes that spoke forms of indoeuropean languages o ancestor of many modern languages o Nomads migrated in all directions (17001200 BCE) o By 2000 BCE the Hittites occupied Anatolia (Turkey) o High rocky plateau rich in minerals timber agriculture o Separate Hittite city states formed empire in 1650 o Capital Hattusas o Adopted Akkadian (to speak w/ foreigners) after conquering Akkadian Babylon
o Hittites dominated SW Asia 450 yrs (occupied Babylon and fought w/ Assyria) o Signed treaty w/ Assyrians to help each other o Excelled in war technology chariots, iron weapons, armor o Fell in 1190 BC as part of a great wave of invasions from N. (capital burned)
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.