1 PART ONE: THE BASIC TOOLS OF CHEMISTRY Chapter Three: Molecules, Ions, and Their Compounds (Text from

Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, by Kotz, Treichel, and Weaver

Molecular formula: a formula that describes the composition of the compound but gives no structural information Condensed formula: a formula that indicates how certain atoms are grouped together Structural formula: a formula that shows how all the atoms are attached within a molecule, with lines between atoms representing bonds Ball-and-stick model: a type of molecular model that employs multicolored spheres to represent atoms and sticks to represent bonds Space-filling model: a type of molecular model that gives a better impression of the relative sizes of the atoms Ionic compound: compounds that consist of ions (atoms or groups of atoms that bear a positive or negative electric charge) Cation: a positively charged ion Anion: a negatively charged ion Halide ions: the anions of group 7A (17), including fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide Oxoanions: polyatomic negative ions that contain oxygen Electrostatic forces: the forces of repulsion or attraction that occur when two ions are brought together Crystal lattice: the solid state of an ionic solid, an extended three-dimensional network Binary compounds: compounds composed of two nonmetallic elements Mass percent: the mass of each element in the compound relative to the total mass of the compound Empirical formula: the simplest whole-number atom ratio for a compound Hydrated compounds: compounds in which molecules of water are associated with ions of the compound Anhydrous: a substance without water

2 PART ONE: THE BASIC TOOLS OF CHEMISTRY Chapter Three: Molecules, Ions, and Their Compounds (Text from Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, by Kotz, Treichel, and Weaver

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