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Electromagnetic spectrum The distribution of all the different types of electromagnetic waves arranged in ascending order of wave lengths or frequencies.
2. Common Properties Of All Electromagnetic Waves. Common properties of electromagnetic waves
2.Travel at the same speed of 3 x 108 ms-1 in vacuum but slow down in other material media. 3. Travel through solids, liquids, gases and vacuum. 4. Obey the laws of reflection,refraction,diffraction and interference. 5. Can be absorbed and emitted by matter.
6. The wave equation , v = f λ
7.Transfer energy from one place to one another without the need for a material medium.
Types of EM waves Radio wave
Application Communication Transmitting TV and radio programmes Communicate with satellite. Heating food in microwave oven Telephony Remote control Security system Thermal imaging Seeing Photography Photosynthesis Kill microbes Detect security codes on expensive equipment Imaging defects in bones Security system Kill cancer cells Radiotheraphy Sterilisation Medical tracers
Danger/over exposure Large doses of radio wave may cause cancer and leukemia. Burns if concentrated Affects the brain Cataracts Burns if concentrated Very intense visible light can damage the retina Sunburn Skin cancer Cataracts Destroy body cells Cause mutation and cancer Destroy body cells Cause mutations and cancer
Sun Hot objects Sun Hot objects Flame Sun Special lamp X- rays machine Radioactive nuclei decaying
X - rays
ACTIVITIES (50 minutes) 1. The diagram shows an electromagnetic spectrum
The waves at P,Q,R and S are P A. B. C. D. ultraviolet x-ray microwave x-ray Q x-ray ultraviolet infrared infrared R microwave infrared ultraviolet ultraviolet S infrared microwave x-ray microwave
2. At an airport, a passenger’s bag is placed in the baggage scanner.
The contents in the bag are examined by using A. B. C. D. x-ray gamma rays ultraviolet rays infrared rays
3.All electromagnetic waves have the same A. speed in vacuo B. speed in given medium C. frequency in vacuo D. frequency in a given medium 4.Which of the following lists of electromagnetic radiation is arranged in order of increasing length? A. ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, radio waves B. infrared, ultraviolet, visible light, radio waves C. ultraviolet, visible light, radio waves, infrared D infrared, radio waves, ultraviolet, visible light 5. Arrange the following electromagnetic waves in the order of decreasing wavelength Ultraviolet x- ray red light violet light microwaves infrared
________________________________________________________________ 6. Name three of the sources of electromagnetic waves. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 7. Name one property that all electromagnetic waves have in common. ________________________________________________________________ 8. State one application for each type of the following electromagnetic waves . (a) gamma rays: ________________________________________________ (b) ultraviolet rays :______________________________________________ (c) infrared rays : _______________________________________________ (d) radio waves:_________________________________________________ (e) x –rays : ____________________________________________________ (f) visible light: ________________________________________________ (g) microwaves:________________________________________________
9. Name the electromagnetic waves which are used widely in the field of (a) communication ________________________________________________________________
(b) medicine ________________________________________________________________
10(a) Which component of the electromagnetic spectrum is detrimental to us if exposed excessively? ________________________________________________________________ (b)For each type of electromagnetic waves mentioned in (a), state the detrimental effects concerned. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ASSESEMENT ( 40 minutes) 1. The diagram below shows some of the components of the electromagnetic spectrum. radio waves microwaves infrared A ultraviolet x-rays gamma rays
(a) What is the name of component A? ________________________________________________________________ (b) What is the speed , in vacuum, of radio waves and ultraviolet waves? ________________________________________________________________ (c) All the electromagnetic waves are transverse. What is the meaning of transverse? ________________________________________________________________
2. (a) Figure 1 shows the main components of electromagnetic spectrum in order of increasing frequency. radio A visible B x-rays C
Increasing frequency Figure 1 What are the names of the missing components marked A to C? A: __________________ B: __________________ C: __________________
(b)Figure 2 shows the seven components of visible light which is part of the electromagnetic spectrum
X Figure 2
Identify the missing components X, Y and Z. X: ____________________ Y : ____________________ Z: _____________________ (d) State two common characteristics of all electromagnetic waves when they travel from the Sun to Earth. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
3. The following are types of waves Infrared Sound ocean waves ultraviolet radio
(a) Which of these waves are in the electromagnetic spectrum? ________________________________________________________________ (b) State one property of all electromagnetic waves ________________________________________________________________
4.Figure (a) shows an airport radar transmitting microwave signals. Microwaves are transmitted to determine the position of aeroplanes.
(a) microwaves are a type of ___________________ waves.
(b) The radar transmit a signal at a velocity of 3.0 x 10 8 ms-1 towards the aeroplane P and detects the reflected signal 4.0 x 10 -4 s later. Calculate the distance of P from the radar transmitter at that time.
(c)The radar detects the same signal after reflection by another aeroplane,Q. The signal from Q arrives later than the signal from P. (i)Compare the distances of P and Q from the radar. ________________________________________________________________ (ii)State how the difference of distance of P and Q from the radar is determined at any time. ________________________________________________________________
Answers of ACTIVITIES 1. B 2. A 3. A 4. A 5.microwaves, infrared, red light, violet light, ultraviolet, x-ray 6.sun, lighted bulb, fire 7.transferring of energy from the source to its surrounding area 8(a)food sterilization (b)scanning body(in medicine) (c)kill bacteria (d)to light up dark places (e)remote control (f)telecommunication (g)broadcasting 9.(a)microwaves, radio waves (b)gamma rays, x-rays 10.(a)gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet (b)gamma rays : cause cancer X rays : cause cell danger Ultraviolet : cause skin cancer Answers of ASSESMENT 1.(a) visible light (b)3 x 10 8 ms-1 (c)Transverse waves mean that the waves travel in a direction perpendicular to the direction of vibration. 2.(a) A : infrared B : ultraviolet C : gamma rays (b) X : blue Y: green Z : yellow (c)1. They can travel through in vacuo 2. They obeys the laws of refraction, reflection, diffraction and interference 3. (a) radio, infrared and ultraviolet (b) All electromagnetic waves travel with the same speed of 3 x 10 8 ms-1 4.(a) electromagnetic waves 2d (b) V= t
3 × 10 8 × 4 × 10 4 2
= 60000 m (c)The distance of Q is greater than the distance of P from the radar (c) Determine the shortest distance of P or Q to the radar i.e the distance of P to the radar is equal as Q to the radar.
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