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Transformer is a device that can raise or lowered AC voltage.

a) Structure and symbol of transformers.

When an alternating current passes through a conductor wound around one side of iron
core (primary coil).
The alternating voltage causes the alternating magnetic field to be set up inside the iron
In turn, it will induce an alternating voltage in secondary coil.
Magnetic flux which passes the secondary coil will induce e.m.f. in secondary coil which
then carries an alternating current.

b) Relationship between number of turn (N) and voltage (V)

Vp = primary voltage, Vs= primary voltage

Np = number of turn of the primary coil,
Ns = number of turn of the secondary coil.
Votage (V) α number of turn (N)
Vα N
V = KN Vp = Vs or Vp = Np
V = K
Np Ns Vs Ns

For ideal transformer

Pp = VpIp = VsIs = Ps

Input power = Output power

VsIs = VpIp

c) The efficiency of transformer

Efficiency = Output power x 100 %

Input power
= VsIs x 100%

Exercise 1

A transformer had 50 number of turn of the primary coil and 250 number of turn of
secondary coil. If input voltage is 12V ac, what is the output voltage?


Exercise 2
For an ideal transformer, the number of turn of the primary coil and the number of turn of
secondary coil are 2400 coil and 100 coil respectively. If the current in the secondary coil
is 5.0A and input voltage is 240 V, What is the
(a) output voltage
(b) primary current?


d) Energy Loss

A transformer is designed so that as little energy as possible is wasted inside it.
Important features are:
1) low-resistance copper coil so that heating (I2R) losses are small;
2) laminated core to reduce eddy current losses;
3) core made of soft magnetic material to reduce the energy required to bring
about magnetic reversals;
4) efficient core design to ensure that all the primary flux is linked with the


A.Objective Questions.

6V ac
6V12W Q
6V 12W

1. Which statement are correct about the brightness of the bulb P and the bulb Q.
A Bulb P is brighter than bulb Q
B Bulb P and bulb Q have the same brightness
C Bulb Q is brighter than bulb P.

2. Input voltage for an ideal transformer is 240V and it output voltage is 12V. If
primary current is 5A,what is the secondary current?
A 100 A B 25 A
C 4A D 1A
E 0.5 A


Base on diagram above, calculate the output voltage.

A 6 V a.c. B 12 V a.c.
C 120 V a.c. D 240 V a.c. E 360 V a.c.

4. Input voltage for the transformer is 220V. It primary current is 5A and secondary
current is 2A. If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%, what is the output voltage
at it secondary coil?

A 220 V C 550 V
B 440 V D 688 V E 1246 V

5. For a step-down transformer , what are the relative numbers of turns on the two coils
and the material of the core?

Primary turns Secondary turns Core material

A few many Hard steel
B few many Soft ion
C many few Hard steel
D many few Soft ion

B. Structure question.

1. Figure 1 represents a simple type of transformer. The coil on the left is connected
to an a.c power source. At the instant shown, the current is at its maximum
positive value.

Figure 1
(a) On figure 1, draw the magnetic field pattern set up by current.
(b) The current in the left-hand coil goes through one complete cycle. State
(i) the changes in the current,
(ii) the changes in the magnetic field,
(iii) any possible effects on the right-hand coil


Answer Sheet:
Activity 1 Activity 2
Vs/Vp =Ns/Np
Vs= 250x12 (a) Vs/Vp =Ns/Np
50 Vs= 100x 240
= 60 V 2400
= 10 V
Section A. (b) VpIp = Vs Is
1. B 240 x Ip = 10 x 5
2. A Ip = 0.21A
3. D
4. B
5. D

Section B.


(b) (i) The current will vary sinusoidally with time. Since it goes
through one complete cycle, the current will flow through the coil in one
direction and then reverse direction after going through half a cycle.
The magnitude will vary between zero and its maximum value.

(ii) The magnetic field will also vary sinusoidally with time in the same
way as the current. The strength of the magnetic field is directly
proportional to the current through the coil.
(iii) Since magnetic field varies, the magnetic flux linkage with the right-hand
coil will vary with time. According to Faraday's Law of electromagnetic
induction, an e.m.f. will be induced across the right-hand coil which tends to
want to oppose the changes in the flux linkage.