# 5.4 a. 1. 2.

UNDERSTANDING NUCLEAR ENERGY Atomic mass unit 1 atomic mass unit (a.m.u) or 1 u is 1/12 of the mass of the carbon-12 atom. The mass of 1 carbon-12 atom is 12 u or 1.99265 x 10-26 kg. Then, 12 u = 1.99265 x 10-26 kg. Therefore, 1 u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg.

b. 1.

Nuclear fission Nuclear fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei.

The fission of uranium-235 nucleus 2. Fission of uranium-235 nucleus can be written as;

or

c. 1.

Chain reaction A chain reaction is a self-sustaining reaction in which the products of a reaction can initiate another similar reaction.

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The chain reaction in uranium fission 2. d. 1. A controlled chain reaction is used in nuclear power stations while an uncontrolled chain reaction is used in nuclear bombs. Nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is the combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus.

The nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen-2 nuclei 2. Examples of nuclear fusion:

e. 1.

Mass defect and energy in nuclear reaction The lost of mass in the nuclear reactions is called mass defect.

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2.

The relationship between mass defect and the energy released is given by the equation: E = mc2 E = energy released, in joules (J); m = loss of mass or mass defect, in kilograms (kg); c = speed of light = 3.00 x l08 rns-1.

f. 1.

Generation of electricity The energy released from nuclear fission can be used to generate electricity.

Nuclear power station

The generation of electricity process. 2. There are benefits and potential dangers of the use of nuclear fission to generate electricity.

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g.

The Pros and Cons of Using Nuclear Fission to Generate Electricity

Questions: 1. 2. Calculate the mass defect on the fission of uranium-235→ Barium-143 and Krypton-90 in a.m.u. and write the nuclear equation. Radium-226 decays and emits the alpha particle produced Radon-222. 226 222 → + 4 He + Energy 88 Ra 86 Ra 2 (226.0254) (222.0175) (4.0026) Calculate; a. mass defect in u. b. mass defect in kg c. energy emits in Joule [ 1 a.m.u. = 1.66 x 10-27 kg, c = 3 x 108 ms-1 ] 3.
3 4 1 H + → + + Energy 1 He 2 He 0n (2.01410 u) (3.016030 u) (4.00260 u) (1.00867 u) Calculate the mass defect and energy released. 2 1

4.

In the uranium-235 fission, 0.18648 u is loss. How much is the energy produced i. in Joule, J ii. inelectron-volt, eV (1 u = 1.66060 x 10-27 kg and 1 eV = 1.60 x 10-19 J)

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Answers: 1. Before reaction After reaction = 235.04395 + 1.00867 = 236.05262 u. = 142.92054 + 89.91959 + 3(1.00867) = 235.86614 u.

Mass defect = 236.05262 - 235.86614 = 0.18648 u. 235 1 143 90 1 92 U + 0 n → 56 Ba + 36 Kr + 3 0 K 2. a. b. c. 0.005 u. 8.3 x 1030 kg 7.47 x 10-13 J

3.

Mass defect = (2.01410 + 3.016030) - (4.00260 + 1.00867) = 0.01886 u = 0.01866 x 1.66 x 10-27 kg = 3.13 x 10 -29 kg Energy released = mc2 = 3.13 x 10 -29 x (3.0 x 108)2 = 2.82 X 10-12 J

4.

i.

ii.

1 u = 1.66060 x 10-27 kg so 0.18648 u = 3.0967 x 10-28 kg E = mc2 E = 3.0967 x 10-28 x (3.0 x 108)2 = 2.7870 x 10 -11 J 1 electron- volt = 1.66060 x 10-19 J 2.7870 x 10 -11 2.7870 x 10 -11 J = = 1.6783 x 10 8 eV -19 1.66060 x 10 = 167.83 MeV

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