Bridging the gap in women’s career development

Bridging The Gap In Women’s Career Development

United Kingdom Report Dr Pamela M Clayton Department of Adult and Continuing Education, University of Glasgow

Contents

Page 1 Gendered statistics, United Kingdom 2 Issues in Women’s Employment in the United Kingdom 3 The Infrastructure for Vocational Guidance in the United Kingdom 4 Draft typology of women’s needs in the United Kingdom 5 Bibliography 6 Other reading 7 List of acronyms 8 Suggested questions for: Providers of guidance Social partners and policymakers 2 16 21 25 27 29 30 32

Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

1 Gendered statistics relevant to women’s employment

The particular constitution position of the United Kingdom dictates that these statistics variously apply to England, England and Wales, Scotland, Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland) and the United Kingdom (including Northern Ireland). In general, despite some regional variations, there is little overall difference in women’s labour market position. ‘Economic activity’ is officially defined as being in employment or self-employment, on a government scheme (training or work) or unemployed (seeking a job or waiting to take up a job). ‘Economic inactivity’ is defined as being neither (self-) employed nor seeking paid work. Those deemed ‘economically inactive’ comprise students (excluding those who work part-time - these are included in the economically active group), those who are permanently sick, disabled, retired and ‘other’. In the majority of cases, ‘other’ means ‘looking after the home or family’, that is, doing unpaid work in the home. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) definition of the unemployed, as used in the Labour Force Surveys carried out in all the member states, is: those, whether registered unemployed or not, without paid employment, who had sought work in the previous four weeks, were available for work within the next fortnight or were waiting to take up employment already gained. ‘Part-time’ is sometimes defined as doing paid work for less than 35 hours per week. There is a wide range of hours subsumed under this category, and differences between men and women. Men and women in the United Kingdom work longer hours than other countries in the European Union.

The changing nature of participation in the labour market Table 1. The economically active by sex, as percentages of all aged 16+, 1981 and 1991 (based on a stratified 10% sample of private households & of persons in communal establishments, of those usually resident in Great Britain). 1981 Status Active Inactive Women 46 54 Men 78 22 Total 61 39 Women 50 50 1991 Men 73 27 Total 61 39

Based on data from the Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1984). Census 1981 and 1991: Economic Activity - Great Britain

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 2. Economic activity and unemployment by sex, Great Britain, 1981 and 1991 1981 Economic status: % economically active % in employment % out of employment % economically inactive % paid work part-time Women 16-59 56.90 54.20 2.70 43.10 50.20 Men 16-64 90.40 79.90 10.50 9.60 not stated Mean 73.65 67.05 6.60 26.35 n/a Women 16-59 67.62 91.80 6.98 32.38 37.75 1991 Men 16-64 86.56 87.24 11.33 13.44 3.34 Mean 77.09 89.52 9.16 22.91 20.55

Adapted from Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1984 and 1994). Census 1981 and 1991: Key statistics for local authorities - Great Britain

The current labour market situation of women and men Table 3 Economic activity rates by sex, United Kingdom, 1997, percentages Women 16-59 Economically active ILO unemployment rate 71 5.9 Men 16-64 84 8.2

Source: ‘Women in the Labour Market: Spring 1997 Labour Force Survey’, Labour Market Trends March 1998

Table 4 Population of working age by sex and employment status, United Kingdom, 1997, millions Women aged 16-59 Population of working age All economically active In employment: full-time part-time self-employed other Total in employment Unemployed Economically inactive
Source: ONS (1998) Social Trends 1998, p. 75

Men aged 16-64 18.7 15.7

All 35.7 27.9

17.0 12.1

6.0 4.5 0.8 0.2 11.4 0.7 4.9 14.5 1.3 2.9

11.0 0.9 2.4 0.2 25.9 2.0 7.8

17.0 5.4 3.1 0.3

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 5. Labour force by sex and age, millions, United Kingdom, 1997 Age group 16-24 25-44 45-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Total Women 2.0 6.4 2.9 0.8 0.4 0.2 12.7 Men 2.4 8.1 3.4 1.1 0.7 0.3 16.0

ONS (1998). Social Trends 1998, p. 75

Table 6. Relationship to labour market (self-employment, unemployment, part-time employment), by sex, 1997, percentages Women 16-59 All in employment Self-employed Unemployment claimants Part-time workers 44 20 23 81 Men 16-64 56 80 77 19 All 100 100 100 100

Sources: ‘Women in the Labour Market: Spring 1997 Labour Force Survey’, Labour Market Trends March 1998; Autumn 1997 Labour Force Survey Statistics in Labour Market Trends, February 1998 GB figure

Table 7. Weekly hours worked (%) by part-time men and women employees aged 16 or over in Great Britain, 1997 Weekly hours worked: Women: manual Men: manual Women: non-manual Men: non-manual 16 or fewer 17-21 42.3 43.5 37.0 53.1 24.2 19.2 29.0 20.1 22-24 9.8 11.2 11.2 7.2 24 or more 23.7 26.1 22.8 19.7 Total 100 100 100 101

Source: ONS (1997). New Earnings Survey1997

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Pay and status of employment of women and men Table 8. Full-time employees on adult rates of pay whose pay (£) for the survey pay-period was not affected by absence, United Kingdom, April 1997 Manual Women Average gross weekly earnings of which overtime payments Public sector Private sector Private non-profit making sector % increase in average gross weekly earning 1996-7 201.1 13.4 219.3 198.6 186.4 4.9 Men 314.3 45.3 296.2 318.5 247.5 4.9 Non-manual Women 317.8 6.1 338.5 302.0 344.0 6.8 Men 483.5 13.6 451.1 496.0 456.2 6.5 All Women 297.2 7.4 328.2 278.2 323.2 6.7 Men 408.7 27.6 404.1 409.6 412.7 6.0

Source: ONS (1997). New Earnings Survey 1997

Table 9. Full-time employees on adult rates of pay whose pay (£) for the survey pay-period was not affected by absence, Hours of paid work, percentage increase in average weekly earnings and average weekly earnings (£), by sex, United Kingdom, April 1996-March 1997 Women 16-59 Average hours worked (manual occupations) Average hours worked (non-manual occupations) Average hours worked (all industries) Average hourly pay (£) (manual occupations) Average hourly pay (£) (non-manual occupations) Average hourly pay (£) (all occupations) % increase in average gross weekly earnings 1996-7 Average gross weekly earnings (£)
Source: ONS 1997 New Earnings Survey 1997

Men 16-64 45.1 37.1 41.8 6.79 12.39 9.82 6.0 409

40.2 39.1 37.6 4.90 8.55 7.88 6.7 297

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 10. Adults aged 16-64 who have been economically employed at any time in the past 8 years, by sex and social class, Winter 1996-7, percentages Women Professional Intermediate Skilled non-manual Skilled manual Partly skilled manual Unskilled manual
Source: ONS (1998). Social Trends 1998

Men 8 29 12 31 15 5

3 28 37 8 19 6

Table 11. Full-time employees on adult rates whose pay for the survey pay-period was not affected by absence, sex, occupational group and average gross weekly earnings, United Kingdom, April 1997 Women Non-manual: managers and administrators professional occupations associate professional and technical occupations clerical and secretarial occupations personal and protective service occupations sales occupations Manual: craft and related occupations plant and machine operatives All non-manual occupations All manual occupations All occupations
Source: ONS (1997). New Earnings Survey 1997

Men

414.9 442.6 366.8 248.5 211.2 225.0

594.1 542.7 491.1 282.6 327.0 327.9

207.5 217.3 317.8 201.1 297.2

345.1 317.4 483.5 314.3 408.7

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 12. Occupational groups by sex, 1981 and 1991, percentages, using the 1981 classification and based on a stratified 10% sample of private households & of persons in communal establishments of those 'usually resident' in England and Wales. 1981 Occupational classes: Professional & related supporting management; senior national & local governmentt managers Professional & related in education, welfare & health Library, artistic & sports Professional & related in science, engineering, technology & similar fields Managerial (inc foremen, office managers, armed forces officers) Clerical & related Selling Security & protective service Catering, cleaning, hairdressing & other personal service Farming, fishing & related Materials processing: making & repairing (excluding metal & electrical) Processing, making, repairing & related (metal & electrical) Painting, repetitive assembly, product inspecting, packaging & related Construction, mining & related, not identified elsewhere Transport, distribution, storage Miscellaneous & inadequately described All occupations 1991

Women Men Women Men 21 65 35 9 23 74 59 10 80 16 32 6 43 1 6 23 40 79 35 65 91 77 26 41 90 20 84 68 94 57 99 94 77 60 33 69 43 14 30 78 62 12 78 19 30 5 41 1 7 25 44 67 31 57 86 70 22 38 88 22 81 70 95 59 99 93 75 56

Adapted from Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1984). Census 1981 and 1991: Economic Activity - Great Britain

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 13. Employees by sex and industry, United Kingdom, June 1997, percentages Women Distribution, hotels, catering and repairs Manufacturing Financial and business services Transport and communications Construction Agriculture Energy and water supply Other services Millions
ONS (1998) Social Trends 1998

Men 20 26 16 9 7 2 1 19 13.4

26 10 19 3 1 1 40 11.3

Table 14. Employment in management and the professions by sex (‘000s), 1996 Managers and administrators* Women Men Female share of employment % 1,330 2,714 33 Professional occupations† 1,090 1,637 40

Source: Labour Force Survey, Spring 1996 * These include senior civil servants, local government officers, senior police, general managers, bank managers, self-employed owners of small businesses and farmers. † These include scientists, engineers, teachers, doctors, lawyers and chartered accountants.

Table 15. Men and women in the legal profession in the United Kingdom, percentages, 1996 Women England and Wales Solicitors holding practising certificates Called to the bar 1995/6 Practising barristers Queen’s Counsels High Court judges Scotland Solicitors on the Roll Practising advocates 34 20 66 80 31 39 24 10 7 69 61 76 90 93 Men

Adapted from: Equal Opportunities Commission Briefing on Women and Men in Britain: Management and the Professions, 1997

Note that Scotland has a separate and different legal system from England and Wales. Men are much more likely than women to be partners, while women are much more likely than 8

Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

men to be assistant solicitors. There was only one female Lord Justice and no female Law Lords in England and Wales in 1996, and only one female judge in Scotland. Although the proportion of women in the legal profession has increased substantially since 1987, men still dominate the upper levels of the profession.

Table 16. Men and women employed in the state education sector, Scotland, percentages, 1996-7 % women Primary schools: All teachers Head teachers Depute head teachers Secondary schools: All teachers Head teachers Depute head teachers Higher Education Institutions: All academic staff Professors Senior lecturers 29.9 8.1 16.4 70.1 91.9 83.6 100 100 100 51.8 9.4 18.3 48.2 90.6 81.7 100 100 100 91.3 75.1 89.1 8.7 24.9 10.9 100 100 100 % men Total

Source: Scottish Education Statistics Fact Card 1998: The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID), September 1998

Mothers in the labour force Table 17. Economic activity status of women by age of youngest dependent child, United Kingdom, Spring 1997, percentages Women Age of youngest dependent child 0-4 Employed full time Employed part-time Unemployed Economically inactive Millions 18 33 4 45 3.0 5-10 23 43 5 29 2.2 11-15 34 40 4 45 1.5 48 24 4 25 10.3 38 29 4 29 17.0 No dependent children All

Source: ONS, Social Trends 1998, p. 80

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 18. Economic activity rates of women with dependent children, lone and partnered mothers, United Kingdom, 1997 Percentage economically active Women with dependent children, all ages Women with dependent children aged 0-4 Lone mothers Partnered mothers 67 55 48 68

Sources: ‘Women in the Labour Market: Spring 1997 Labour Force Survey’, Labour Market Trends March 1998; Brannen et al. (1997), Mothers, Fathers and Employment, DfEE Research Report 10

Table 19. Reasons given for economic inactivity, by sex, people of working age, United Kingdom, 1997 Women Does not want a job Wants job but not sought one in last 4 weeks because: long-term sick or disabled looking after family or home student discouraged worker other
Source: ONS (1998). Social Trends 1998, p. 76

Men 67

All 69

70

6 14 3 1 4

14 2 5 2 5

9 9 4 1 5

Qualification levels of women and men Table 20. Qualified* 'manpower' by sex, percentages, by sex: 10% sample, Great Britain 1981 Level of qualification: a: higher university degrees b: first degrees & equivalent c: qualifications obtained at 18 or above All qualified Women 19 35 55 43 Men 81 65 45 57 Women 27 37 55 45 1991 Men 73 63 45 55

Adapted from Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1984 and 1994). Census 1981 and 1991: Qualified Manpower *Qualified people are those with higher university degrees, first degrees & equivalent and other qualifications obtained at 18 or above, above A level/Higher & below 1st degree. It includes most teaching/nursing qualifications.

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 21. Percentage of working age population without qualifications, United Kingdom, 1997 Women 16-59 21
Source: ONS (1998) Social Trends 1998, p. 67

Men 16-64 16

Table 22. Highly educated (with qualifications above GCE Advanced Level) women in the labour market, percentage activity rate, 1997 Women with children aged 0-4 years: With higher qualifications Without qualififications Economic activity rate (%) 77 26

Source: ‘Women in the Labour Market: Spring 1997 Labour Force Survey’, Labour Market Trends March 1998

The future? Educational attainment of children and young women and men Table 23. Educational attainments of school-age children, by sex, percentage attaining level, England 1997 Girls Level 2 at key stage 1 (aged 7) Reading Spelling Writing Mathematics Level 4 or above at key stage 2 (aged 11) English Mathematics Science Level 5 or above at key stage 3 (age 14) English Mathematics Science 67 60 60 48 60 61 70 61 69 57 63 68 84 67 85 85 75 56 75 82 Boys

Source: ‘National Curriculum Assessments of 7, 11 and 14 Year Olds in England 1997’, DfEE Statistical Bulletin, Issue 4/98 April 1998

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 24. GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and GCE (General Certificate of Education) Advanced Level passes, England 1995/6, by sex, percentages Percentage: gaining 5 or more GCSEs grades A-C gaining 5 or more GCSEs at grades A-G of 17 year olds gaining a score of at least 30 points at GCE A/AS level of 17 year olds gaining at least 2 GCE A/AS passes Girls 49.4 88.3 13 32.2 Boys 39.9 84 15.5 26.7

Source: ‘GCSE and A/AS Examination Results 1995/6, England’, DfEE Statistical Bulletin, Issue 6/97 May 1997

Table 25. Education and vocational training in England, by sex, 1995 and 1996 Percentage: with five or more A-C grade GCSEs*, 1995 with no qualifications on leaving school, 1995 aged 16 staying on in full-time education, 1995 aged 16 entering full-time further education, 1995 aged 16 not in any form of education or training, 1995 aged 18 in education/training, 1995 of women and men studying for NVQ† level 1, 1996 of women and men studying for NVQ† level 2, 1996 of women and men studying for NVQ† level 3, 1996 of women and men studying for NVQ† level 4/5, 1996 Female 49 6 74 39 12 59 7 34 27 11 Male 40 7 68 35 15 60 7 23 28 17

Adapted from Equal Opportunities Commission Briefing on Women and Men in Britain: Education and Vocational Training (1997) * GCSE = General Certificate of Secondary Education † NVQ = National Vocational Qualification, where level 1 is the lowest and 5 the highest

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 26. Students registered on Higher Education vocational courses* in Further Education colleges in Scotland, percentages, by sex, selected subjects, 1995-6 % women All subjects Personal Care Office and Secretarial Social Work Health and Safety Social Studies Business and management Education Science and Mathematics Media Studies Information technology Manufacture / Production Construction Engineering 49.1 93.7 90.5 80.2 66.7 65.4 63.8 57.6 49.4 43.8 35.1 16.3 8.7 5.2 % men 47.5 3.0 8.1 17.2 27.3 33.1 33.7 41.6 48.4 55.9 62.8 78.9 72.9 92.3 Total† 96.6 96.7 98.6 97.4 94.0 98.5 97.5 99.2 97.8 99.8 97.9 95.2 81.6 97.5

Source: Scottish Education Statistics Annual Review 3: 1998 Edition, The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID), September 1998 * Including sub-degree nursing courses and Higher National Diplomas/Certificates † Where totals do not equal 100, this is because of gaps in the statistics on sex.

Note. The statistics for Further Education courses follow a similar pattern but are not recorded here because the non-recording of sex is too great in many subjects.

Table 27. Students registered in Further Education Colleges in Scotland, percentages, by sex and age, 1996-7 Age-group Under 18 18 - 20 21 - 24 25 and over Totals Women 17.8 14.2 10.2 57.8 100 Men 22.1 18.7 10.5 48.6 99.9

Source: Scottish Education Statistics Annual Review 3: 1998 Edition, The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID), September 1998

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 28. Percentages of graduates from Higher Education courses by sex, Scotland, 1986-7 and 1995-6 First degree Year: 1986-7 Women 47.0 Men 53.0 Total (number) 100 (13,240) 1995-6 49.9 50.1 100 (26,766) 54.2 45.8 Postgraduate degree Women 37.4 Men 62.6 Total (number) 100 (4,521) 100 (7,672)

Source: Scottish Education Statistics Annual Review 3: 1998 Edition, The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID), September 1998

Table 29. University performance in the United Kingdom, for the Academic Year 1996/7, and percentage obtaining science degrees, by sex Women Percentage all first degree graduates Percentage obtaining first degree in science 52 41 Men 48 59 Total 100 100

Source: ‘Qualifications Obtained by and Examination Results of Higher Education Students at Higher Education Institutions in the United Kingdom for the Academic Year 1996/7’, HESA (Higher Education Statistics Agency), February 1998

Table 30. Percentages attaining first or upper second class degrees, and percentage increase in those obtaining science qualifications, by sex, United Kingdom, 1996/7 Women Percentage attaining first or upper second class degree Percentage increase in those obtaining science qualifications 51 14 Men 45 1

Source: ‘Qualifications Obtained by and Examination Results of Higher Education Students at Higher Education Institutions in the United Kingdom for the Academic Year 1996/7’, HESA, February 1998

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Table 31. Percentage of full-time first degree entrants to Higher Education, by subject and sex, Scotland, 1996-7 Subject Total Allied Medicine Education Languages Creative Arts Mass Communication Social Studies Biological Sciences Business Administration Medicine and Dentistry Multi-Disciplinary Studies Humanities Agriculture Physical Sciences Architecture Maths and Computing Engineering/Technology Women 52.7 79.5 77.2 71.4 63.3 62.4 62.2 61.7 59.5 56.1 55.6 53.1 51.4 36.3 24.3 20.2 14.8 Men 47.3 20.5 22.8 28.6 36.7 37.6 37.8 38.3 40.5 43.9 44.4 46.9 48.6 63.7 75.7 79.8 85.2 Total (number) 100 (33,182) 100 (2,528) 100 (1,471) 100 (1,189) 100 (1,518) 100 (585)

100 (2,813) 100 (2,587) 100 (5,742) 100 (1,036) 100 (4,360) 100 100 (765) (469)

100 (1,575) 100 (1,401) 100 (1,649) 100 (3,494)

Source: Scottish Education Statistics Annual Review 3: 1998 Edition, The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID), September 1998

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

2 Issues in Women’s Employment in the United Kingdom

The changing nature of participation in the labour market Over half of British women are engaged in the labour market: women now constitute nearly half the workforce and have lower ILO unemployment rates (see tables 1, 2, 3 and 4). Although their participation varies over the age range, the same is true of men (see table 5). Over the past seven years male employment has fallen by 600,000 while female employment has risen by 300,000. Overall, the average time spent in a job since 1975 has risen for women while it has declined for men (CBI 1998:14). Women are, however, much less likely to be self-employed than men (see table 6). The increasing proportion of women in the labour market has been explained by a number of factors. On the one hand there is an increased demand for female labour, arising from: growth of routine non-manual work and services, traditionally ‘women’s jobs’; employers’ preference for ‘flexible’ labour, particularly part-time (see tables 4 and 6) to match fluctuations in work flow - part-timers are easier to hire and dismiss, because they are less well protected by legislation and less likely to be in trade unions; and male labour shortages in the 1960s and early 1970s. On the other hand there is an increased supply of female labour, arising from: decreasing family size; changing social conceptions of women’s roles; increasing qualification of women through the education system; and the desire to increase household income.

Hours worked Women are much more likely than men to work part time, but this can constitute a substantial number of hours (see table 7). At least two-thirds of part-time employees (nearly all of whom are female - male part-timers are likely to be students) were content to work part time (British Social Attitudes Survey 1994/5). Women working full time work fewer hours than men (see table 9) and do less overtime.

Income and position in career structure For women working full time, it is principally the hourly rate which affects their gross pay. Hence, there is a still a pay gap, though women’s pay increased slightly more than men’s in 1996-7 (see tables 8 and 9). Women’s class position, based on occupational strata, is similar to that of men at all levels (taking skilled non-manual and manual as roughly equivalent - which is, however, debatable) except in the professions where there are eight men for every three women (see table 10). Men’s average earnings are always higher (see tables 11). Within strata, women tend to participate in different sectors from men, although the sex balance in the upper occupational classes has been shifting slowly towards women (see table 12). There is a variety of reasons for the pay gap: • men and women tend to be employed in different sectors, with women concentrated in lower-paid occupations such as catering and services (see table 13) 16

Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

• men are more likely to work in the private sector where top rates of pay are higher (see table 8) • men tend to occupy the top posts (see tables 14, 15 and 16) • women who have children are more likely to take a career break, which limits their prospects of promotion • where women and men do different work, it is difficult (though it has not proved impossible) to establish parity between them in order for women to benefit from equal pay for equal work legislation Managerial occupations and the professions have together expanded rapidly since 1981 and women have been increasing their share of such employment relative to men in all areas except science and engineering. Despite a marked increase in the number of women in senior and middle management, however, women are estimated to make up only 3.3 per cent of directors and in many large companies there are no women on the board. Furthermore, male directors and managers earn more than women in the same categories (EOC 1997b). Discrimination: direct and indirect Equal Opportunities Commission enquiries relating to employment increased by more than half between 1991 and 1993 (Social Trends 1996). One explanation casting some light on discrimination in the labour market is the concept of the dual labour market. The ‘primary’ labour market is composed of jobs offering high salaries, career structures, the chance to acquire skills on the job and stable and secure employment; the ‘secondary’ labour market is composed of jobs offering low wages, few possibilities for advancement or the acquisition of skills, and unstable, insecure employment. Studies in the United States of America have shown that ethnic minorities and women are more likely to be selected for secondary jobs, and white males for primary ones. Women and minorities are stereotyped as making insufficiently reliable and stable employees, which is why they are discriminated against and excluded from the better jobs. There is evidence that the same is true to some extent in the United Kingdom. Market segregation is fairly universal, with men and women being employed in different sectors. The reasons for this are, however, complex. For example, women have a greater tendency than men to enter public sector employment. On the one hand, pay in this sector is lower than in the private sector; on the other hand, conditions of service are often better, particularly in relation to extra-statutory maternity leave, and women working full-time in the public sector have higher average gross weekly earnings than in the private sector, although this is reversed for men (see table 8). Furthermore the ethos of service rather than profit, and women’s greater propensity to seek work that is satisfying rather than well-paid, may attract disproportionate numbers of women into the public sector (Clayton & Slowey 1997).

The burden of care Being a mother does not necessarily prevent women working outside the home, particularly as the children get older (see table 17), though it increases their difficulties in so doing, particularly in the case of lone mothers (see table 18). Nevertheless, the propensity of women to enter, leave and re-enter the labour market because of the burden of care means that they have a greater problem maintaining employability (Confederation of British Industry [CBI] 1998:14). According to the CBI, it is the role of government to ensure accessible and affordable early years services, after-school clubs and eldercare (CBI 1998:16). At the same time, employers should implement equal opportunities strategies such as family-friendly working arrangements (CBI 1998:20). Such arrangements include maternity benefits beyond the statutory minimum; paternity leave; and flexible working arrangements. Overall, 92% of 17

Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

establishments provide at least some of these arrangements, but only 5% provided all of them. Furthermore, only 10% of workplaces provide practical assistance with childcare, and only 2% had a workplace nursery (Forth et al. 1996).

Childcare The average age of a mother at her first birth has risen to 28.6 years (ONS 1998, Social Trends, p. 52) and most women will have some work experience prior to motherhood. Twothirds of women who worked during pregnancy returned to work within 9 months of the birth (Callender et al. 1997). Survey data indicates that 4 out of 5 non-working mothers with children aged under 12 would seek employment if they could obtain satisfactory childcare (British Social Attitudes Survey 1994/5); and over one-third of women who did not return to work after maternity leave stated they could not afford to pay for childcare (Callender et al. 1997). The United Kingdom has the highest childcare costs in Europe (Bradshaw et al. 1996). Average childcare costs constitute about one quarter of the earnings of mothers, whether employed full-time or parttime (Kozak et al. 1998). Where a family has two children, one pre-school and one at school but needing after-school and holiday care, a typical childcare bill is around £6,000 per annum (Daycare Trust 1997). Nearly three-quarters of working mothers with children aged 0-4 use informal care (British Social Attitudes Survey 1994/5). Although the majority of economically inactive women choose not to seek employment, a further 14% would like to take paid work but cannot because they are looking after family or home (see table 19). One-quarter of part-time employees said they would work more hours given adequate childcare (British Social Attitudes Survey 1994/5). Particularly disadvantaged are mothers of disabled children or with adult children who continue to live at home. British lone parents have lower employment rates than in other European Union countries, partly because of the ‘benefit trap’ but principally because of the cost of childcare.

Educational qualifications: now and in the future Women on average are less well qualified than men (see tables 20 and 21). This fact not only reduces women’s average income, it also makes it more difficult for mothers to enter the labour market. It is notable that mothers with higher qualifications are very much more likely to be in paid employment than those with none (see table 22). There has, however, been a general increase in the qualifications of young people in England for both boys and girls. The performance of girls at school in mathematics and science has greatly improved and in the early years they do as well as or better than boys in these subjects. Since the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975 provided for the equal treatment of girls and boys, careers guidance and opportunities for work experience must be provided on a nondiscriminatory basis. In addition, positive action is allowed to encourage pupils into nontraditional types of work (Scottish Office 1998). Girls continue to do well in English and modern foreign languages, but now also out-perform boys in science, mathematics and technology at GCSE; they are also more likely than boys to stay in full-time education. They are less likely, however, to take the higher level NVQs which employers now claim to value above school qualifications (see tables 23, 24 and 25). Although subjects such as physics and home economics remain sex-segregated, these attract relatively few pupils of either sex. However, gender-stereotyping remains as is shown by the subject choices of 14 year olds studying foundation level General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) (EOC 1997a) and the subject choices of students in Colleges of Further Education (see table 26). It can be argued that women, in avoiding the declining industrial and construction sectors in favour of the ever-growing tertiary industry, are making 18

Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

a sensible choice. Their relatively low participation in information technology, however, appears at this time to be mistaken. It is, however, of interest that the majority of women in Further Education colleges are aged 25 or over and it is probable that many of these are returners to learning (see table 27). That gender segregation in higher education and work continues to exist has been explained as arising from the sexual division of labour outside school and the ‘hidden curriculum’ within schools, in that girls are socialised into different expectations from boys. Research in Scottish schools shows that in physics, technology and mathematics, boys tend to have more confidence than girls, and they are more likely to ‘see computing as enjoyable and necessary to their future prospects ... girls often have lower expectations and less motivation’ (Scottish Office 1998). The Modern Apprenticeship scheme, which includes study for NVQs level 3 and above, started with males taking 89% of the apprenticeships, but by June 1996 52% of those starting were female. Gender stereotyping, however, is prevalent: young women are concentrated in the ‘caring’ occupations, hairdressing and business administration, while young men predominate in engineering, manufacturing, construction and the motor industry. There is a more even balance in retailing and catering. Similarly, the majority of female Youth Trainees are in office and sales occupations (EOC 1997a). Although girls do better than boys at school up to the age of 16, they do less well after that. Although Scottish women are now more likely than before to attend university, now outnumber men, and are obtaining better class degrees and more postgraduate qualifications (see tables 28 and 30), research shows that ‘proportionately fewer well-qualified girls than boys enter higher education in Scotland’ (Scottish Office 1998). When they do enter higher education, they are still less likely than men, though more likely than before, to study mathematics, sciences or engineering (see tables 29 and 30). Nevertheless, Scottish women are entering former male domains such as medicine and business administration, which potentially lead to high-status, well-paid occupations (see table 31).

Conclusions The traditional image of women disengaging from the labour market to rear a family following which they may wish to re-enter full-time is no longer, if it ever was, adequate as a paradigm on which to base education and training policies. Furthermore, there is a new emphasis by employers on ‘flexible’ working, with increasing periods of part-time work, selfemployment, contract work, geographical mobility etc. - and flexible working requires flexible education and training. As a result, the role of impartial, good quality educational guidance and counselling becomes crucial in assisting individuals to choose from the myriad of education and training opportunities available that which best suits their particular needs at a particular time (Clayton & Slowey 1996). The CBI sees the role of government as including universal access to high quality impartial careers information and guidance (CBI 1998:16). In the United Kingdom, women’s labour market participation is high and their ILO unemployment rates are lower than men’s. Accessing employment does not present a great difficulty for the majority of women who wish it; and the availability of part-time work suits the expressed needs and wishes of the majority of women who opt for it. Nevertheless, the biggest barrier in the United Kingdom for women entering and staying in the labour force, and working the number of hours that they wish, is undoubtedly the expense of childcare. Even when children start attending full-time school (at the age of four or five), they may need after-school and holiday care. Eldercare is another barrier and even less help is available than for those seeking childcare.

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

This is not an area in which vocational guidance can directly intervene, although services can give advice on issues in choosing childcare (for example, South & East Cheshire TEC Ltd, 1998), and by building strong links with local employers, they can act as advocates of familyfriendly working arrangements. On the other hand, one vital statistic is the very much greater labour market participation of qualified women with pre-school children than unqualified women in similar circumstances. This surely is due to the greater income that a qualified woman can command, thus finding childcare affordable. Here vocational guidance can play a role, through advising women on educational opportunities and progression routes. Another role for guidance is confidence-raising, particularly in terms of career progression. Women need the confidence to request further training and education leading to qualifications and to apply for promotion. The great disparity between men and women in the education sector, for example, is, it is claimed, partly due to the reluctance of women to apply for higher level posts. Employers claim to want confident workers, who will take the initiative in advancing themselves and thus advancing the success of their company or sector. The greater educational attainment of young women and equal opportunities policies in school curricula may point to a future change in women’s career progression. Furthermore, their participation in science degree programmes is increasing. Women are marrying and having children later, which gives them the opportunity to develop a career over perhaps ten years or so. Many more women now attend university and attain the qualified status that raises the income from employment. While there is some evidence of trends towards greater convergence in men’s and women’s patterns of employment, gender inequality remains strong. As a recent European Report on women in the labour market comments:
There is little evidence that the current thrust of labour market policies is likely to bring about a new gender order, involving a more equitable distribution of wage work, domestic work and access to income. Indeed some of the tendencies of current labour market policies may be identified as likely to intensify rather than reduce current levels of gender differentiation and inequality, while at the same time involving an ever increasing share of men and women in unsocial and irregular hours, with all the negative consequences of such working arrangements for a satisfying social and family life (Commission of the European Community, 1995, p. 6).

We have to return, however, to the question of women’s role in the home: one reason for many women’s apparent lack of ambition in the workforce is the dual burden under which many of them eventually labour, of paid work and domestic responsibilities. Even those with school-age children must spent large amounts of time on caring and domestic work. The situation is worst of all for lone mothers. Vocational guidance - where it exists - certainly has a role to play in women’s career progression; but it operates in a climate where the cost of childcare and the expectations that women will shoulder the majority of domestic responsibility make it very much more difficult for women than men to focus on building satisfying careers which give them the income they need.

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

3 The Infrastructure for Vocational Guidance in the United Kingdom

There is no statutory provider of vocational guidance open to all adults, but there is state funding for certain categories of people (notably, the young and the unemployed), and there are state-funded information and advice initiatives for adults considering education and training. On the other hand, there is a range of non-statutory bodies offering adult vocational guidance, largely in the education/training and voluntary sectors. Scotland is a particularly fertile field for guidance, which is supported by the Scottish Office through initiatives such as financial support for Adult Guidance Networks. Nevertheless, there is no uniformity of provision in Scotland or in the United Kingdom as a whole.

STATUTORY PROVISION The unemployed The state Employment Service (ES) offers guidance to the unemployed and a specialised service for disabled people, as well as advice, placements and Job Clubs, but does not claim to be a holistic, client-centred guidance and counselling service. The ES is currently involved in two major government initiatives, Welfare to Work (the New Deal) and Employment Zones. Welfare to Work The amount allocated to New Deal generally is £3.5 billion. It began in April 1998 and involves all aged 18 to 24 who have been unemployed for six months or more. From June 1998 those aged 25 or over were included. Those on the scheme have four options: to enter for 12 months paid employment, the voluntary sector, an environmental taskforce or full-time education/training. The ‘fifth option’ is to lose state benefits. Special initiatives for lone parents began in Autumn 1998 and measures for disabled people will follow. In Scotland an option in New Deal is known as Gateway. This consists of a clientbased guidance programme operated by the ES in conjunction with specialised vocational guidance and counselling services and includes indepth guidance and personal development. Employment Zones Areas throughout the United Kingdom were invited to bid to become Employment Zones. These are targeted at people aged 25 or over and unemployed for at least one year, with special emphasis on labour market returners, disabled people and lone parents. Unlike New Deal, it is a voluntary process. The Glasgow Learning Alliance won its bid, which began in February 1998 and lasts for two years. Initiatives include Learning for Work, help with starting a business (also available under New Deal) and an intermediate labour market. One feature is the development of an Employee Development Programme (EDP) among SMEs. There is an integral role for guidance and the Alliance works closely with the Glasgow Adult Guidance Network.

The young Schools have a statutory duty to provide guidance; but this service is poor in about one-third of schools (NACETT) (1997).

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Careers Services across the country offer a service to young people in schools, school leavers, full-time and some part-time students in colleges and adults with disabilities. All are now run on contract from the DfEE and many have become Careers Companies, private companies limited by guarantee, formed from former Local Authority Careers Services and obliged to serve people aged 21 or below. Young people in education also have access to guidance (see below) but this is variable in availability and quality.

Adult learners Learning Direct is a telephone advice line, offering information on local education opportunities, which is free to the user. The University for Industry (UfI) is a brokering service, intended to raise the educational and skill levels of the workforce, particularly those with low skills and/or working in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Its principal functions are likely to be motivating, guiding, informing, tutoring and mentoring, as well as ensuring the existence of an accessible range of quality-assured learning centres, developed out of Learning Direct (Hillman 1997). The pilot in the north east of England has a one-stop shop, free phone line and website, including online booking for courses and online learning (free ‘taster’ courses are available). However, although vocational guidance services are used, they do not form part of the partnership. Careers Services in Scotland have been directed by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID) to offer vocational guidance to certain groups of adults. These include adults attending full-time college courses, or part-time courses which involve studying to improve job prospects or status, and adults with learning difficulties who could be in employment, education or training.

NON-STATUTORY PROVISION Employment Service Job Centres are open to adults who require information on job vacancies and government training programmes (Training for Work), which are funded by central government to support those seeking employment or training. Careers Services are allowed to develop adult guidance but have to find their own funding for this and provision varies widely. Some are able to finance ‘non-core’ work, enabling any adult to request vocational guidance; others have introduced charges to employed adults. Careers Services which do offer a broad adult guidance service can provide one-to-one vocational guidance interviews, careers information and the opportunity to make use of career interest guides, such as Adult Directions. Colleges of Further Education offer pre-entry guidance and counselling to adult enquirers, and some also offer on-course guidance with trained personnel, but there is no uniformity of provision, and there are doubts about the impartiality of such guidance in some cases (Payne & Edwards 1996). Some colleges, such as Glasgow’s Cardonald College, have set up sophisticated advice centres, using Careers Service personnel, which offer a full guidance service to all members of the community. Higher Education institutions provide guidance and information which focuses mainly on full-time students and graduates. Increasingly, institutions employ specialists who work with non-traditional entrants into higher education. Such posts are usually attached to flexible study and access programmes designed for adults, and educational guidance is offered at all stages, including pre-entry. The Open University, however, incorporated guidance and counselling into its courses from the beginning, and was instrumental in persuading adult educators of the value of guidance and in helping to set up and supporting many educational guidance services for adults (EGSAs).

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Local authorities across Britain provide EGSAs, usually through community education or similar departments which offer a range of learning opportunities to adults. Guidance offered is usually linked only with educational opportunities. Public libraries, which receive many enquiries from adults, should not be overlooked: many work closely with their local EGSA (Taylor 1988). Training and Enterprise Councils (TECs, England and Wales), Local Enterprise Companies (LECs, Scotland) and Local Development Companies (LDCs) are involved in a range of guidance initiatives. Some offer pre-entry guidance to adults considering Training for Work. They have been involved in both redundancy counselling, support for recruitment and placement of graduates and the provision of courses for labour market returners. Private sector organisations involved in the delivery of adult guidance. Some careers advisers work on a freelance basis and change fees to clients or organisations to which they are contracted. Some agencies offer psychometric testing and c.v. preparation. National specialised services for disadvantaged groups include the National Association for the Education and Guidance of Offenders (Bridgebuilders), an association of professionals involved in educational services to prisoners and ex-offenders, which aims to promote education and guidance work with such individuals. Some local services have been set up to provide education and guidance for prisoners and ex-offenders. The Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB) has a Student Support Service which comprises of a national team of advisers for students in mainstream, further and higher education. Assistance on matters related to study is offered, as is advice on career planning, mobility and library services. Local and regional services for disadvantaged groups include the Off the Streets and Into Work initiative targets the young homeless or in housing need. Linking Education And Disability (LEAD) Scotland, through involvement in local guidance networks, has been able to extend guidance services to users in their own homes. LEAD North, operating in LEC areas in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, has used ESF grants to develop a team of local organisers and volunteers to offer home tuition and guidance. The Refugee Access Project (RAP) provides careers guidance and counselling for refugees and asylum seekers in the Edinburgh area, targeting in particular those who are unemployed for at least six months and with English as a second language. Women and New Directions (WAND) is a communitybased adult guidance project for women funded by the Scottish Office, aimed at relieving poverty and advance the employment, education and training opportunities for women in the Pilton area of Edinburgh. Priority is given to the low-waged, unemployed and less qualified. The Ethnic Minority Enterprise Centre (EMEC) in Glasgow offers guidance in particular to those wishing to start their own business. Unemployed Workers’ Centres in Glasgow also offer guidance. Education/training programmes and intermediate labour market organisations increasingly include vocational guidance. These include the Women’s Technology Centres. Voluntary sector initiatives have resulted in the establishment of adult vocational guidance services, especially in disadvantaged areas. These are usually funded from a variety of sources, often on an annual basis. Most of these consist of ‘one-stop shops’, offering access to jobs, education and training as well as information, advice and guidance. Some of them offer mobile services, typically carried on guidance buses.

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

Summary and conclusion Vocational guidance and counselling is carried out in the United Kingdom by a wide range of practitioners and organisations. No single agency acts as a statutory provider of adult guidance, although local adult guidance networks have brought providers together to share information, ideas on good practice and facilitate appropriate referral of users. At present, there is no nationally or locally agreed professional qualification in adult vocational guidance although a structure exists for careers guidance in general and there are moves towards harmonisation of adult guidance qualifications. Although there is a number of committed and enthusiastic voluntary sector guidance services for adults, there are questions about their quality, given the low level of initial and in-service training and qualifications. There is too little systematic networking and no common quality standards. Even where, as in Scotland, there is a relatively large amount of guidance provision, there are difficulties for potential clients. In some areas there is duplication of provision, and unhelpful competition between providers; in other areas there is none. There is ample targeting of the unemployed, but poor provision for those facing redundancy, planning retirement or those seeking a career change or career break.. A major problem for adults seeking to compete in today’s rapidly changing labour market is that independent vocational guidance and counselling, with tried and tested methods for facilitating entry to education, training and employment, has a low profile, is not uniformly available and is often hard to access. There is still a tendency to prioritise vocational guidance for school pupils.

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

4 Draft typology of women’s needs in the United Kingdom

Employers’ criteria for employability ‘The qualities that employers look for in recruits - and the qualities needed to manage one’s own career - are often generic and transferable rather than specific. Specialist skills are required in many areas, but in all areas equal emphasis is put on the values, attitudes and skills which are vital in employees contributing effectively in work - in short, on personal development’ (CBI 1998:27).

Women for whom career development (entry and progression) is particularly difficult include:

• • • • • • • • • • • •

those with inadequate literacy/numeracy those with no/low qualifications those with no employment experience returners with previous employment experience but whose skills/qualifications require updating returners with previous employment experience but whose labour market knowledge is out-of-date returners whose confidence and self-esteem have fallen through absence from employment part-time employees full-time employees with low expectations women in organisations which prioritise the training of men non-unionised women women living in disadvantaged areas and subject to postcode discrimination women in rural areas

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

All of the above are aggravated in the case of

those with child/eldercare responsibilities, particularly: ♦ lone mothers ♦ women with unemployed husbands

• •

women with adult children living at home members of ethnic minorities, whatever their qualifications, particularly: ♦ those with inadequate English ♦ those who belong to groups which are adversely stereotyped

Accordingly, their needs include:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

access to basic education, including English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) access to vocational education and reskilling work placements up-to-date labour market information confidence-building, including assessment of prior (experiential) learning (AP[E]L) motivating personal development role models, mentors skills for bargaining for training accommodation addresses training in starting and running small businesses ICT skills information, advice and helping finding childcare, including before, after school and in school holidays contact with support organisations (e.g. for help with eldercare) advocacy interpreting services

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

5 Bibliography

Bradshaw et al. (1996). The Employment of Lone Parents: a comparison of policy in 20 countries. Brannen et al. (1997). Mothers, Fathers and Employment. DfEE Research Report 10 Callender et al. (1997). Maternity Rights in Britain 1996. DSS Research Report 67 Clayton, P. & Slowey, M. (1996). ‘Toward the ‘flexible’ workforce? Implications for gender and the education and training of adults’, Scottish Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, 3(1), pp 45-62 Clayton, P. & Slowey, M. (1997).‘Was it worth it? A comparison of the role of adult education and training in the labour market insertion and progress of men and women in the West of Scotland: results of qualitative research’, AAACE /AERC / CASAE / ESREA / SCUTREA International Conference, INSERT TITLE, Royal Holloway College, 1st to 3rd July 1997 CBI (1998). In Search of Employability: a CBI discussion document. London: Confederation of British Industry (CBI) Publications Unit Daycare Trust (1997). Sharing the Costs of Childcare. DfEE Statistical Bulletin (1997). GCSE and A/AS Examination Results 1995/6, England. Issue 6/97 May 1997 DfEE Statistical Bulletin (1998). National Curriculum Assessments of 7, 11 and 14 Year Olds in England 1997. Issue 4/98 April 1998 EOC (1997a). Briefing on Women and Men in Britain: education and vocational training. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) EOC (1997b). Briefing on Women and Men in Britain: Management and the Professions. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) European Commission (1995). Unemployed Women in the European Community: statistical facts. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Forth et al. (1996). Family Friendly Working Arrangements in Britain. DfEE Research Report 16 HESA (1998). Qualifications Obtained by and Examination Results of Higher Education Students at Higher Education Institutions in the United Kingdom for the Academic Year 1996/7. Higher Education Statistics Agency Hillman, J. (1997). University for Industry: creating a national learning network. London: Institute for Public Policy Research Kozak, M. (1998). Employment, Family Life and the Quality of Care Services: a review of research in the UK (1994-1996). Sheffield: DfEE Labour Force Survey (1996). Labour Market Trends (1998). ‘New Earnings Survey April 1996/7’, February 1998

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Labour Market Trends (1998). ‘Autumn 1997 Labour Force Survey Statistics’, February 1998 Labour Market Trends (1998). ‘Women in the Labour Market: Spring 1997 Labour Force Survey’, March 1998 NACETT (1997). Skills for 2000: report on progress towards the National Targets for Education and Training. London: National Advisory Council for Education and Training Targets (NACETT) Office for National Statistics (1996). 25 Years of Social Trends on CD-ROM (1970-1995), London: ONS Office for National Statistics (1997). New Earnings Survey 1997. London: The Stationery Office Office for National Statistics (1998). Social Trends 1998. London: The Stationery Office Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1984). Census 1981 Economic Activity - Great Britain Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1984). Census 1981: Key statistics for local authorities - Great Britain Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1984). Census 1981: Qualified Manpower Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1994). Census1991 Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1994). Census 1991: Key statistics for local authorities - Great Britain Office of Population Censuses & Surveys/Registrar General Scotland (1994). Census 1991: Qualified Manpower Payne, J. & Edwards, R. (1996). ‘Impartial guidance in Further Education colleges’, Adults Learning. Leicester: NIACE, March, 1996 Scottish Office (1998). Raising Standards - Setting Targets: gender issues in raising attainment. Scottish Office: HMI Audit Unit Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID) (1998). Scottish Education Statistics Annual Review 3: 1998 Edition, September 1998 South & East Cheshire TEC Ltd (1998). Best Practice Guidance Pack. Liverpool: Meridien Projects Ltd (available from South & East Cheshire TEC Ltd) Taylor, J. (1988). ‘Educational guidance for adults in the United Kingdom: developments through the 1980s’, 1988 SCUTREA Conference Proceedings TUC (1998). Learning in the Workplace: a negotiater’s guide. London: Trades Union Congress

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6 Other reading Bhavnani, Reena (1994). Black women in the labour market. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission Chisholm, L. (ed.) (1997). Getting In, Climbing Up and Breaking Through: women returners and vocational guidance and counselling. Bristol: The Policy Press Clayton, P. (1995). ‘Learning workers in two organisations in the West of Scotland: social, economic and personal outcomes of training’, in Towards a Learning Workforce, conference at Lancaster University Department of Continuing Education, 12-13 September 1995, pp 2833 Clayton, P. (1996). ‘A transnational study of vocational guidance and counselling provision for women returners’, Adults Learning October 1996, pp 40-41 Clayton, P. (1998). ‘Access issues in vocational guidance and counselling’, Adults Learning, September 1998, pp 6-7 McGivney, V (1993). Women, Education and Training: barriers to access, informal starting points and progression routes. Leicester: NIACE Owen, David (1994). Ethnic minority women and the labour market. Manchester: Equal Opportunties Commission Sloane, Peter J. (ed.) (1990). Women and low pay. London: Macmillan

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7 Acronyms

AP(E)L CBI CEDA c.v. DfEE DSS EDP EGSA EMEC EOC ES ESF GCE GCSE GDA GNVQ HESA HMI ICG ICT ILO LEAD LEC NACETT NIACE NICEC NOW NVQ ONS

Assessment of prior (experiential) learning Confederation of British Industry Castlemilk Economic Development Agency curriculum vitae Department for Education and Employment Department of Social Services Employee Development Scheme educational guidance service for adults Ethnic Minority Enterprise Centre Equal Opportunities Commission Employment Service European Social Fund General Certificate of Education General Certificate of Secondary Education Glasgow Development Agency General National Vocational Qualifications Higher Education Statistics Agency Her Majesty’s Inspectorate Institute of Careers Guidance Information and Communication Technology International Labour Organisation Linking Education and Disability Local Enterprise Company (Scotland) National Advisory Council for Education and Training Targets National Institute for Adult and Continuing Education National Institute of Career and Employment Counselling New Opportunities for Women National Vocational Qualification Office for National Statistics

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

RAP RNIB SME SOEID STUC TAP TEC TUC UfI WAND

Refugee Access Project Royal National Institute for the Blind small or medium enterprise Scottish Office Education and Industry Department Scottish Trades Union Congress Training Access Point Training and Enterprise Council (England and Wales) Trades Union Congress University for Industry Women and New Directions

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

8 Questions for Task 2
A Providers of guidance Name and address of service Phone/fax/email Opening hours Name and position of contact person a) Functions and philosophy of the service 1. What are the broad functions of the service? 2. What, if any, are the female target groups? Are there any language or cultural problems? Who is allowed to use the service? What area is covered (eg local, regional, national)? 3. Are any other facilities provided by the service? Are other activities carried out at the centre and if so what? 4. What is the philosophy behind what you do? b) History, general structure and access 1. What year did the service start? 2. By whom/what organisation was it inaugurated? 3. What kinds of people are represented on the Management Board (or equivalent)? 4. What is the funding position? 5. Staffing, qualifications and training 6. How do users physically access the service? (e.g., one-stop shop, mobile guidance service, telephone helpline, local college) 7. How is the service advertised / how do users find out about it? 8. How do users make the first contact? (drop-in / phone) 9. Is the agency a welcoming place for women? 10. Are there childcare facilities? 11. What if anything do users pay? 12. What, if any, financial help is available? (e.g. for travel, training, childcare, living expenses while training, other) 13. Are home visits offered? 14. Are there any outreach initiatives? 15. Is there a time limit on use of your services (ie for how long can an individual continue coming? How many hours ‘allowance’ do they have?) 16. Is continuing guidance available after a user has started an education/training course or a job?

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

c) Content of the service 1. Information: Are there free leaflets / information packs available? Are there informative posters inside the reception area? Are job vacancies displayed on noticeboards? Is there a library? Is there access to TAP or other computerised facilities? 2. Is psychometric testing available? 3. Is individual labour market counselling available? If so, does it include: (self)-assessment of skills (self)-assessment of experiential learning motivating information/advice about training information/advice about further education the development of a personal / career plan? (self)-assessment of abilities confidence-building raising self-esteem information/advice about reschooling information/advice about employment possibilities? counselling on social, medical, legal, financial, family, accommodation problems

other 4. Are gender-specific courses and group counselling available? If so, do they include: self-awareness assertiveness training help with job search work experience placements help with setting up own business 5. Does advocacy play any role in your work? 6. Do you run mentoring or befriending schemes? 7. Do you use role models to motivate women? 8. What other methods do you use to help women’s career development? d) Clients 1. What do your female clients want when they first use the service? 2. What problems do women typically have in developing their careers? 3. Do you follow up the progress of clients after they have left the service? 4. If so, what are the most typical progression routes to employment or career development? 5. What methods have you found the most successful? e) Networking 1. With which if any other guidance/counselling agencies do you have cooperative links? 2. Does the agency have links with other relevant agencies and institutions, and if so which? Do you actively work with any other service? 3. Do you maintain close contacts with local employers? 4. Do you have access to up-to-date local labour market information? peer-group counselling career information career planning projects other

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

B Social partners and policymakers

Trade unions Do you think women fare worse than men in the workplace, in terms of career progression? If so, what do you think are the reasons for this? Do you have special initiatives to help women develop their careers? What can vocational guidance services do to assist women in improving their career position? What can women do to help themselves?

Employers What qualities do you look for in your employees? Do you think women fare worse than men in the workplace, in terms of career progression? If so, what do you think are the reasons for this? What is the situation in your organisation? What can vocational guidance services do to assist women in improving their career position? What can women do to help themselves?

Careers services (state-funded) Do you think women fare worse than men in the workplace, in terms of career progression? If so, what do you think are the reasons for this? What should careers services be doing to help women’s career development? What can adult vocational guidance services do to assist women in improving their labour market position? What can women do to help themselves?

Local government Have you conducted a gender audit of women and paid work? Are there any particular problems faced by women in your area? Do you think women fare worse than men in the workplace, in terms of career progression? If so, what do you think are the reasons for this? What should careers services be doing to help girls’ career development? What can adult vocational guidance services do to assist women in improving their labour market position? What can women do to help themselves?

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Bridging the gap in women’s career development: United Kingdom Task One Report, by Pamela M Clayton

National/regional government How important is the quantity and quality of female labour in the national economy? Are you satisfied with the situation concerning women’s career progression? What government initiatives are likely to be particularly helpful in assisting women to improve their labour market position? Is adult vocational guidance one of your priorities? If so, how do you propose to resource this service for the sake of those who cannot pay, including low-paid, unemployed and ‘inactive’ women?

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