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SCATTERING

interesting results. To evaluate Equation (2.103) we must specify ελ (k) and ε∗ λ (k ), keeping in mind that they are perpendicular to the respective photon momenta k and k . We choose the z-axis along k, the direction of the incident photon. Therefore we choose ε1 (k) along the x-axis and ε2 (k) along the y-axis and obtain a right-handed triplet of unit vectors ε1 (k), ε 2 (k), k/ωk . We characterize k in spherical coordinates as k = ωk (sin θ cos φ , sin θ sin φ , cos φ ). We choose ε 1 (k ) to be real and to be in the x, y-plane perpendicular to k . Thus ε1 (k ) = (a, b, 0) with a and b to be determined such that a2 + b2 = 1. The requirement that ε1 (k ) is perpendicular to k gives aω sin θ cos φ + bω sin θ sin φ = 0. These two relations between a and b give a = sin φ and b = − cos φ or a = − sin φ and b = cos φ . We choose the ﬁrst solution so ε 1 (k ) = (sin φ , − cos φ , 0), independent of θ . We deﬁne ε2 (k ) to be real as well and given by ε2 (k ) = (k /ω ) × ε 1 (k ) where the order of the vectors in the cross product has been chosen such that we obtain a right-handed triplet of unit vectors ε1 (k ), ε 2 (k ), k /ωk . We ﬁnd that ε2 (k ) = (cos θ cos φ , cos θ sin φ , − sin θ ). With these expressions for the polarization vectors we ﬁnd ε1 (k) · ε1 (k ) = sin φ ε1 (k) · ε2 (k ) = cos θ cos φ ε2 (k) · ε1 (k ) = − cos φ ε 2 (k) · ε2 (k ) = cos θ sin φ (2.104)

If we assume that the incident photon is unpolarized we must average over its two possible polarizations, that is sum over λ and divide by 2. If we assume that the polarization of the outgoing photon is not measured we must sum over its two possible polarizations, that is sum over λ . Note that we must calculate the sum of squared terms and not the square of the sum. We get 2 dσ 2 1 ελ (k) · ε λ (k ) = r2 e 2 d λ,λ =1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 =1 2 re (sin φ + cos θ cos φ + cos φ + cos θ sin φ ) 2 2 = 1 2 re (1 + cos θ )

(2.105)

This result exhibits an interesting angular dependence of the cross section: it is maximum for θ = 0 or π , that is, for outgoing photons along the incident photon’s direction or in the opposite direction. It is minimal at directions perpendicular to the incident photon’s direction. There is no φ dependence as expected because there is no direction deﬁned transverse to the incident photon’s direction for unpolarized incident photons. The total cross section is obtained by integrating Equation (2.106) over θ σ = 8π 2 r 3 e (2.106)

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