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American International University Bangladesh (AIUB) Faculty of Engineering

Analog Electronics 2 (LAB)

Experiment No# 3: Design of Active Filters


Theory: A filter is a frequency sensitive circuit. It passes some frequencies but blocks or attenuates others. Active filters are composed of operational amplifiers along with passive components such as resistors, capacitors etc. To achieve a steeper roll-off, Butterworth filter is used. Objective: The objective of this experiment is to investigate the characteristics of different types of filter namely Low pass filters, High pass filters. Basic filters and Butterworth filters will be investigated. Equipments required: 1. Power supply 2. Signal generator 3. Resistors 4. Capacitors 5. Oscilloscope 6. Operational Amplifiers ( 741 or 301)

Study of Basic low pass filter


Circuit Diagram:
Rf = 10K

+15 V + R = 10 K -15 V C = 0.001uF VO=m( E1-E2)

Ei

Fig 1: Low pass filter for a roll-off -20 db/decade Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit according to the figure 1. 2. Apply an input voltage of 5 V (p-p).

3. Vary the frequency and calculate gain, AV = 4. Note the data in a data sheet given below: Frequency (Hz) f Input Ei 5 V (p-p)

VO for the range of frequencies. Ei

Output VO

Gain =

VO Ei

Report:

1 . 2RC 2. Draw the response curve (gain vs. frequency) in a semi log graph paper and find the 3-db frequency or cut-off frequency from the graph. 3. Design a filter for a cut-off frequency of 10 KHz.
1. Calculate the cut-off frequency theoretically using the formula fC =

-40 db/Decade Low Pass Butterworth filter


Circuit Diagram:
C2 = 2C1

Rf = 2R

+15 V VO Ri = R R = 10 K -15 V C = 0.01 uF Ei + VO

Fig. 2: Low Pass Filter for a roll-off of -40db/decade Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit according to the figure 2. 2. Apply an input voltage of 5 V (p-p). 3. Vary the frequency and calculate gain, AV = 4. Note the data in a data sheet given below: Frequency (Hz) f Input Ei 5 V (p-p) Output VO Gain =

VO for the range of frequencies. Ei

VO Ei

Report: 1. Calculate the cut-off frequency from the formula fC = 2. Draw the frequency curve in semi log graph paper. 3. Design a filter for a frequency of 1 KHz
0.707 . 2RC 1

40 db/Decade High Pass Butterworth filter


Circuit Diagram
R2 = R1 /2 Rf = R1

+15 V C = 0.01 uf C2 = C VO + -15 V R1 VO

Ei

Fig. 3: High Pass Filter for a roll-off of 40db/decade Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit according to the figure 3. 2. Apply an input voltage of 5 V (p-p). 3. Vary the frequency and calculate gain, AV = 4. Note the data in a data sheet given below: Frequency (Hz) f Input Ei 5 V (p-p) Output VO Gain =

VO for the range of frequencies. Ei

VO Ei

Report: 1. Calculate the cut-off frequency from the formula fC = 2. Draw the frequency curve in semi log graph paper. 3. Design a filter for a frequency of 1 KHz

1.414 . 2R 1 C