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TYPES OF STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL WOOD Bending Stress, Fb When a load is applied to the middle of a beam supported at both ends, it tends to bend the piece, producing bending stresses. But when you look more closely at it, bending is really a combination of compressive, tensile and shear stresses. This is because: the top part of the beam tends to shorten, producing compressive stresses the bottom tends to lengthen, producing tensile stresses the interaction of compressive and tensile stresses produce shear, as the different layers try to slide over each other. When loads are applied, structural members bend, producing tension in the fibers along the face farthest from the applied load, and compression in the fibers along the face nearest to the applied load. This induced stresses are designated as Extreme Fiber Stress in Bending.

Shear Stress, Fv A load which tends to slide one part of a member over an adjacent part produces shear stresses.This can occur in places where a defect in the member might weaken the wood fibres and cause them to split along the grain, such as in the top plate of a wall frame. A force applied causing one section of the piece to shear or slide along the on the other section in a direction parallel to grain. In a loaded beam where the induced stress on the side is compression and on the other side is tension, there is a tendency to create shearing stress parallel to grain. The largest shear parallel to grain stress usually occurs along the neutral axis on the plane at which the induced stress changes from compression to tension.

Tensile Stress, Ft A load which tends to stretch a member produces tensile stresses.This happens to members designed to stop a pulling-apart action,such as a ceiling joist fixed to the foot of two rafters,resisting their tendency to spread apart under the roof load. A force generating tension parallel to grain, creates a tendency to elongate the wood fibers and to cause them to slip by each other. Resistance to tension applied strictly parallel to grain is the highest strength property of wood. This resistance, however, is substantially reduced when the force is applied at an angle to the grain or when the cross section of the piece is reduced by knots or holes.

Tensile Flexural Stress, Ft This are similar to compression parallel to grain in that they act across the full cross section and tend to stretch the member.

Compressive Structural Stress, Fc A load which tends to shorten or crush a member produces compressive stresses. This particularly applies to supporting members such as a post supporting a beam. Applied stresses from this type of loading are generally considered consistent across the entire cross-section of the member, and the fibers are uniformly stressed parallel to the grain along the full length of the member.

Axial Compressive Stress The working stress in static compression parallel to the grain for green untreated timber piles is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation: C= (S 1.645SD) / 1.88

where :

S = Average small clear crushing strength determined from ASTM D 2555 SD = Standard deviation of small clear crushing strength.

For dynamic stresses (short term stresses due to pile installation), the working stress parallel to the grain is three times the static working stress parallel to the grain for green untreated timber piles. Extreme Fiber Bending Stress The extreme fiber bending stress for timber piles (f) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation : f = (S 1.645SD) / 2.04 where : S = Average small clear bending strength determined per ASTM D 2555 SD = Standard deviation of small clear bending strength.

For dynamic stresses (short term stresses due to pile installation) the working stress for small clear wood bending strength is three times the static working stress for small clear wood bending strength for green untreated timber piles (f).

Compressive Stress, Fc, Parallel to Grain A force generating compression parallel to grain creates a tendency to compress the wood fibers in lengthwise position. As with tension resistance to compression parallel to grain is affected by the angle of load to grain and by the presence of knots and holes.

Compressive Stress Perpendicular to the Grain The working stress in compression, perpendicular to the grain, for green untreated timber piles is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation: C = S / 1.5 where : S = Average proportional limit stress of small clear specimens determined per ASTM D 2555 A force applied perpendicular to grain, such as the bearing under the ends of a beam, tends to compress the wood at its surface. While the wood becomes more than dense as it is compressed, this action causes slight displacement of the supported member. Thus, limits are placed on loading in bearing perpendicular to grain. For sawn lumber, the compression perpendicular to grain values are based on a deformation limit that has been shown by experience to provide for adequate service in typical wood frame construction. Therefore, stress modifications for duration of load are not applicable to compression perpendicular to grain allowable stresses for sawn lumber.

Shear Stress Perpendicular to the Grain The working stress in horizontal shear perpendicular to the grain for green untreated timber piles () is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation:

= (S 1.645SD) / 5.47 where : S = Average small clear shear strength specimens determined per ASTM D 2555 SD = Standard deviation of small clear shear strength.

Modulus of Elasticity The average small clear modulus of elasticity values determined per ASTM D 2555 shall be taken as the values for timber piles. Elasticity implies that deformation produced by low stresses is completely recoverable after loads are removed. When loaded to higher stress levels, plastic deformation or failure occurs. The three moduli of elasticity, which are denoted by El, Er, and Et, respectively, are the elastic moduli along the longitudinal, radial, and tangential axes of wood.

Modulus of Rigidity, G The modulus of rigidity, also called shear modulus, indicates the resistance to deflection of a member caused by shear stress. The three moduli of rigidity is denoted by Glr, Glt, and Grt are the elastic constants in Lr, Lt and Rt plane, respectively.

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