\


.
3 = :=
Substructure Design
In order to maximize the design loads of the substructure components, e.g. pier cap negative moment, pier
columns, footing loads, etc., HL93 vehicle loads were placed on the deck. In some cases, the placement of the
loads ignored the location of the median traffic barrier. This assumption is considered to be conservative.
Braking forces
The bridge is NOT expected to become onedirectional in the future. Future widening is expected to occur to
the outside if additional capacity is needed. Therefore, for braking force calculations, N
lanes
3 = .
The designer utilized engineering judgement to ignore the location of the median barrier for live load placement
for the substructure design and NOT ignore the median barrier for braking forces. The designer feels that the
probability exists that the combination of lanes loaded on either side of the median barrier exists. However, this
same approach was not used for the braking forces since these loaded lanes at either side of the median traffic
barrier will NOT be braking in the same direction.
A3. Concrete, Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel Properties
Unit weight of concrete.........
conc
150 pcf :=
Modulus of elasticity for
reinforcing steel................... E
s
29000 ksi :=
Ultimate tensile strength for
prestressing tendon............... f
pu
270 ksi :=
Modulus of elasticity for
prestressing tendon............... E
p
28500 ksi :=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 8
B. LRFD Criteria
The bridge components are designed in accordance with the following LRFD design criteria:
B1. Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3.6.2]
An impact factor will be applied to the static load of the design truck or tandem, except for centrifugal and
braking forces.
Impact factor for fatigue and
fracture limit states............... IM
fatigue
1
15
100
+ 1.15 = :=
Impact factor for all other limit
states.................................. IM 1
33
100
+ 1.33 = :=
B2. Resistance Factors [LRFD 5.5.4.2]
Flexure and tension of
reinforced concrete.............. 0.9 :=
Flexure and tension of
prestressed concrete............. ' 1.00 :=
Shear and torsion of normal
weight concrete...................
v
0.90 :=
B3. Limit States [LRFD 1.3.2]
The LRFD defines a limit state as a condition beyond which the bridge or component ceases to satisfy the
provisions for which it was designed. There are four limit states prescribed by LRFD. These are as follows:
STRENGTH LIMIT STATES
Load combinations which ensure that strength and stability, both local and global, are provided to resist the
specified statistically significant load combinations that a bridge is expected to experience in its design life.
Extensive distress and structural damage may occur under strength limit state, but overall structural integrity
is expected to be maintained.
EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATES
Load combinations which ensure the structural survival of a bridge during a major earthquake or flood, or
when collided by a vessel, vehicle, or ice flow, possibly under scoured conditions. Extreme event limit
states are considered to be unique occurrences whose return period may be significantly greater than the
design life of the bridge.
SERVICE LIMIT STATES
Load combinations which place restrictions on stress, deformation, and crack width under regular
service conditions.
FATIGUE LIMIT STATES
Load combinations which place restrictions on stress range as a result of a single design truck occurring
at the number of expected stress range cycles. It is intended to limit crack growth under repetitive loads
to prevent fracture during the design life of the bridge.
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 9
Table 3.4.11  Load Combinations and Load Factors
Revisions to LRFD Table 3.4.11 above per SDG:
1. SDG 2.1.1 states: In LRFD Table 3.4.11, under Load Combination: LL, IM, etc., Limit State:
Extreme Event I, use
eq
0.0 := .
2. Per SDG 2.4.1B:
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 10
Table 3.4.12  Load factors for permanent loads,
p
The load factor for wind in Strength Load Combination III in construction is 1.25 [LRFD 3.4.2.1].
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 11
C. FDOT Criteria
C1. Chapter 1  General Requirements
General [SDG 1.1]
The design life for bridge structures is 75 years.
Criteria for Deflection and SpantoDepth Ratios [SDG 1.2]
Per SDG 1.2, either LRFD 2.5.2.6.3 or 2.5.2.6.2 should be met. Based on the superstructure
depth; 2.5.2.6.3 is not met, so 2.5.2.6.2 should be met. The deflection limit is span/800 for
vehicular load and span/300 on cantilever arms.
Environmental Classifications [SDG 1.3]
The environment can be classified as either "Slightly", "Moderately" or "Extremely" aggressive.
Per 1.02 General Notes:
Environmental classification
for superstructure................ Environment
super
"Slightly"
Environmental classification
for substructure................... Environment
sub
"Moderately"
Concrete and Environment [SDG 1.4]
The concrete cover for each bridge component is based on either the environmental classification or the
length of bridge [SDG 1.4].
Concrete cover for the deck.. cover
deck
2 in L
bridge
100ft < if
2.5in otherwise
2.5in = := [SDG 4.2.1]
Concrete cover for
substructure not in contact
with water........................... cover
sub
4 in Environment
sub
"Extremely" = if
3 in otherwise
3 in = :=
Concrete cover for
substructure cast against earth
or in contact with water......... cover
sub.earth
4.5in Environment
sub
"Extremely" = if
4 in otherwise
4 in = :=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 12
Minimum 28day compressive
strength of concrete
components......................... Class Location
II (Bridge Deck) CIP Bridge Deck
Approach Slabs f
c.slab
4.5ksi :=
IV CIP Substructure f
c.sub
5.5ksi :=
V (Special) Concrete Piling f
c.pile
6.0ksi :=
VI Prestressed Beams f
c.beam
8.5ksi :=
Correction factor for Florida
lime rock coarse aggregate..... K
1
0.9 :=
Unit Weight of Florida lime
rock concrete (kcf)............... w
c.limerock
.145
kip
ft
3
:=
Modulus of elasticity for
slab..................................... E
c.slab
33000K
1
w
c.limerock
kip
ft
3

\




.
1.5
f
c.slab
ksi 3479ksi = :=
Modulus of elasticity for
beam.................................. E
c.beam
33000 K
1
w
c.limerock
kip
ft
3

\




.
1.5
f
c.beam
ksi 4781ksi = :=
Modulus of elasticity for
substructure........................ E
c.sub
33000 K
1
w
c.limerock
kip
ft
3

\




.
1.5
f
c.sub
ksi 3846ksi = :=
Modulus of elasticity for
piles.................................... E
c.pile
33000 K
1
w
c.limerock
kip
ft
3

\




.
1.5
f
c.pile
ksi 4017ksi = :=
C2. Chapter 2  Loads and Load Factors
Dead loads [SDG 2.2]
Weight of future wearing
surface...............................
fws
15psf L
bridge
100ft < if
0 psf otherwise
0 psf = := [SDG 4.2.1]
Weight of sacrificial milling
surface, using t
mill
0.5in = ......
.
mill
t
mill
conc
6.25psf = :=
[SDG 4.2.2.A]
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 13
Table2.21MiscellaneousDeadLoads
ITEM UNIT LOAD
Concrete,Counterweight(Plain) Lb/cf 145
Concrete,Structural Lb/cf 150
FutureWearingSurface Lb/sf 15
1
Soil;Compacted Lb/cf 115
StayinPlaceMetalForms Lb/sf 20
2
32"FShape(Index420) Lb/ft 420
Median,32"FShape(Index421) Lb/ft 485
42"VerticalShape(Index422) Lb/ft 590
32"VerticalShape(Index423) Lb/ft 385
42"FShape(Index425) Lb/ft 625
CorralShape(Index424) Lb/ft 460
ThrieBeamRetrofit(Index471,475&476) Lb/ft 40
ThrieBeamRetrofit(Index472,473&474) Lb/ft 30
VerticalFaceRetrofitwith8"curbheight(Index480483) Lb/ft 270
TrafficRailing/SoundBarrier(8'0")(Index5210) Lb/ft 1010
FloridaI36Beam(Index20036) Lb/ft 840
3. Weight of buildup concrete for camber and cross slope not included.
General
TrafficRailings
PrestressedBeams
3
1. Future Wearing Surface allowance applies only to minor widenings of existing bridges
originally designed for a Future Wearing Surface, regardless of length (see SDG 7.2
Widening Classifications and Definitions) or new short bridges (see SDG 4.2 Bridge
Length Definitions).
2. Unit load of metal forms and concrete required to fill the form flutes. Apply load over
the projected plan area of the metal forms.
Weight of traffic railing
barrier................................. w
barrier.ea
420 plf :=
Weight of traffic railing median
barrier................................. w
median.bar
485 plf :=
Weight of compacted soil......
soil
115 pcf :=
Weight of stayinplace metal
forms..................................
forms
20psf :=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 14
Barrier / Railing Distribution for BeamSlab Bridges [SDG 2.8 & LRFD 4.6.2.2.1]
Dead load of barriers applied to
the exterior and interior
beams............ w
barrier
w
barrier.ea
N
beams
2 0.093 klf = :=
For purposes of this design example, all barriers will be equally distributed amongst all the beams comprising the
superstructure.
Include the dead load of the
traffic barriers on the design
load of the exterior beams...... w
barrier.exterior
w
barrier
w
median.bar
N
beams
+ 0.147 klf = :=
Include the dead load of the
traffic barriers on the design
load of the interior beams....... w
barrier.interior
w
barrier
w
median.bar
N
beams
+ 0.147 klf = :=
Seismic Provisions [SDG 2.3 & LRFD 4.7.4.3 & 4.7.4.4]
Seismic provisions for minimum bridge support length only.
Wind Loads [SDG 2.4]
Basic wind speed (mph)........ V 150 :=
Height, superstructure.......... z
sup
20.5ft =
Height, substructure............. z
sub
8.25ft =
Gust effect factor................ G 0.85 :=
Pressure coefficient, super
structure............................. C
p.sup
1.1 :=
Pressure coefficient, sub
structure............................. C
p.sub
1.6 :=
Velocity pressure exposure
coefficient, superstructure.... K
z.sup
max 0.85 2.01
z
sup
900ft

\


.
.2105
,
(
(
(
0.907 = :=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 15
Velocity pressure exposure
coefficient, substructure...... K
z.sub
max 0.85 2.01
z
sub
900ft

\


.
.2105
,
(
(
(
0.85 = :=
Wind pressure, super
structure, Strength III,
Service IV..........................
P
z.sup.StrIII.ServIV
2.56 10
6
K
z.sup
V
2
G C
p.sup
0.049 = :=
Wind pressure, super
structure, Strength V,
Service I............................
P
z.sup.StrV.ServI
2.5610
6
K
z.sup
70
2
G C
p.sup
0.011 = :=
Wind pressure, sub
structure, Strength III,
Service IV..........................
P
z.sub.StrIII.ServIV
2.56 10
6
K
z.sub
V
2
G C
p.sub
0.067 = :=
Wind pressure, sub
structure, Strength V,
Service I............................
P
z.sub.StrV.ServI
2.5610
6
K
z.sub
70
2
G C
p.sub
0.015 = :=
C3. Chapter 4  Superstructure Concrete
General [SDG 4.1]
Yield strength of reinforcing
steel.................................... f
y
60ksi :=
Note: Epoxy coated reinforcing not allowed on FDOT projects.
Deck Slabs [SDG 4.2]
Bridge length definition......... BridgeType "Short" L
bridge
100ft < if
"Long" otherwise
"Long" = :=
Thickness of sacrificial milling
surface................................ t
mill
0 in L
bridge
100ft < if
0.5in otherwise

\


.
0.5in =
Deck thickness.................... t
slab
8.0in
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 16
Deck Slab Design [SDG 4.2.4]
The empirical design method is not permitted per SDG 4.2.4.A. Therefore, the traditional design method will be
used.
The minimum transverse top slab reinforcing at the median barrier and overhang may be determined using
the table in SDG 4.2.4.B because a minimum 8" slab depth and less than 6' overhang is provided. A
minimum area of steel of 0.40in
2
per foot should be provided in the top of the deck slab at the median
barrier, and 0.80in
2
per foot should be provided at the Fshape barrier.
Pretensioned Beams [SDG 4.3] (Note: Compression = +, Tension = )
Minimum compressive
concrete strength at release is
the greater of 4.0 ksi or 0.6
fc...............................
f
ci.beam.min
max 4ksi 0.6f
c.beam
,
( )
5.1ksi = :=
Maximum compressive concrete
strength at release is the lesser
of 6.0 ksi or 0.8 fc..........
f
ci.beam.max
min 0.8f
c.beam
6.0ksi ,
( )
6 ksi = :=
Any value between the minimum and maximum may be selected for the design.
Compressive concrete strength
at release.... f
ci.beam
6 ksi :=
Corresponding modulus of
elasticity.............................. E
ci.beam
33000 K
1
w
c.limerock
kip
ft
3

\




.
1.5
f
ci.beam
ksi 4017ksi = :=
Limits for tension in top of beam at release (straight strand only) [SDG 4.3.1.C]
Outer 15 percent of design
beam............................. f
top.outer15
12 f
ci.beam
psi 930 psi = :=
Center 70 percent of
design beam [LRFD
5.9.4.1.21]....................
f
top.center70
min 0.2 ksi 0.0948 f
ci.beam
ksi ,
( )
200 psi = :=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 17
Timedependent variables for creep and shrinkage calculations
Relative humidity............ H 75 :=
Age (days) of concrete
when load is applied........ T
0
1 :=
Age (days) of concrete
when section becomes
composite..................... T
1
120 :=
Age (days) of concrete
used to determine long term
losses.................... T
2
10000 :=
C4. Chapter 6  Superstructure Components
Temperature Movement [SDG 6.3]
The temperature values for "Concrete Only" in the preceding table apply to this example.
Temperature mean......... t
mean
70F :=
Temperature high........... t
high
105 F :=
Temperature low............ t
low
35F :=
Temperature rise............ t
rise
t
high
t
mean
35F = :=
Temperature fall............. t
fall
t
mean
t
low
35F = :=
Coefficient of thermal
expansion [LRFD 5.4.2.2] for
normal weight concrete.........
t
6 10
6
F
:=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 18
Expansion Joints [SDG 6.4]
For new construction, use only the joint types listed in the preceding table. A typical joint for most prestressed
beam bridges is the poured joint with backer rod [DS Index 21110].
Maximum joint width...... W
max
3 in :=
Proposed joint width at
70
o
F............................
W 1 in :=
Minimum joint width....... W
min
0.5W :=
Movement [6.4.2]
For prestressed concrete structures, the movement is based on the greater of the following combinations:
Movement from the
combination of temperature
fall, creep, and
shrinkage................. x
fall
x
temperature.fall
x
creep.shrinkage
+
... =
(Note: A temperature rise with creep
and shrinkage is not investigated since
they have opposite effects).
Temperature Load Factor
TU
1.2 :=
Movement from factored
effects of temperature..... x
rise
TU
x
temperature.rise
=
(Note: For concrete structures, the
temperature rise and fall ranges are
the same.
x
fall
TU
x
temperature.fall
=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 19
C5. Miscellaneous
Beam Parameters
Distance from centerline pier to
centerline bearing.................
K1 11in :=
(Note: Sometimes the K value at the end
bent and pier may differ.
Distance from centerline end
bent (FFBW) to centerline
bearing................................
K2 16in :=
Distance from end of beam to
centerline of bearing.......... J 8 in :=
Beam length......................... L
beam
L
span
K1 J ( ) K2 J ( ) 89.083ft = :=
Beam design length...............
L
design
L
span
K1 K2 87.75ft = :=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 20
D. Substructure
D1. End Bent Geometry (Note: End bent back wall not shown)
Depth of end bent cap........... h
EB
2.5ft :=
Width of end bent cap........... b
EB
3.5ft :=
Length of end bent cap.......... L
EB
88ft :=
Height of back wall............... h
BW
3.6ft :=
Back wall design width........... L
BW
1 ft :=
Thickness of back wall.......... t
BW
12in :=
D2. Pier Geometry
Depth of pier cap................. h
Cap
4.5ft := Column diameter.................. b
Col
4.0ft :=
Width of pier cap................. b
Cap
4.5ft := Number of columns............. n
Col
4 :=
Length of pier cap................ L
Cap
88ft := Surcharge on top of footing... h
Surcharge
2.0ft :=
Height of pier column........... h
Col
14.0ft :=
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 21
D3. Footing Geometry
Depth of footing.................. h
Ftg
4.0ft :=
Width of footing................... b
Ftg
7.5ft :=
Length of footing.................. L
Ftg
7.5ft :=
D4. Pile Geometry
Pile Embedment Depth.......... Pile
embed
12in :=
Pile Size.............................. Pile
size
18in :=
D5. Approach Slab Geometry
Approach slab thickness....... t
ApprSlab
13.75 in :=
Approach slab length............ L
ApprSlab
32ft :=
(Note: The min. approach slab dimension due to the
skew is
30ft
cos Skew ( )
31.93ft = ).
D6. Soil Properties
Unit weight of soil................
soil
115 pcf =
Defined Units
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 22
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Dead Loads
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\103DesignPar.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the dead loads for design of the bridge components.
Page Contents
24 A. NonComposite Section Properties
A1. Summary of the properties for the selected beam type
A2. Effective Flange Width [LRFD 4.6.2.6]
26 B. Composite Section Properties
B1. Interior beams
B2. Exterior beams
B3. Summary of Properties
29 C. Dead Loads
C1. Interior Beams
C2. Exterior Beams
C3. Summary
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 23
A. NonComposite Section Properties
A1. Summary of Properties for the Selected Beam Type
BeamTypeTog BeamType :=
PCBeams
NONCOMPOSITE PROPERTIES FIB36 FIB45 FIB54 FIB63 FIB72 FIB78
Moment of Iner t ia [ in
4
] I 127545 226625 360041 530560 740895 904567
Sect ion Ar ea [ in
2
] A
b
807 870 933 996 1059 1101
yt op [ in] y
top
19.51 24.79 29.97 35.06 40.09 43.4
ybot [ in] y
bot
16.49 20.21 24.03 27.94 31.91 34.6
Dept h [ in] h 36 45 54 63 72 78
Top f lange widt h [ in] b
tf
48 48 48 48 48 48
Top f lange dept h [ in] h
tf
3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
Widt h of web [ in] b
web
7 7 7 7 7 7
Bot t om f lange widt h [ in] b 38 38 38 38 38 38
Bot t om f lange dept h [ in] h
bf
7 7 7 7 7 7
Bot t om f lange t aper [ in] E 15.5 17 17 16 17 17
:=
output beamprops type , ( ) beamprops
1
( )
type "FIB36" = if
beamprops
2
( )
type "FIB45" = if
beamprops
3
( )
type "FIB54" = if
beamprops
4
( )
type "FIB63" = if
beamprops
5
( )
type "FIB72" = if
beamprops
6
( )
type "FIB78" = if
beamprops
0
( )
( )
0 0 ,
otherwise
:=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 24
FIB36
5
5
20.5
20.5
17
0
0
48
48
31
27.5
27.5
43
43
5
36
29
20.5
8.5
5
3.5
0
0
3.5
5
8.5
20.5
29
36
36

\




















.
in := FIB45
5
5
20.5
20.5
17
0
0
48
48
31
27.5
27.5
43
43
5
45
38
21
8.5
5
3.5
0
0
3.5
5
8.5
21
38
45
45

\




















.
in := FIB54
5
5
20.5
20.5
17
0
0
48
48
31
27.5
27.5
43
43
5
54
47
30
8.5
5
3.5
0
0
3.5
5
8.5
30
47
54
54

\




















.
in := FIB63
5
5
20.5
20.5
17
0
0
48
48
31
27.5
27.5
43
43
5
63
56
40
8.5
5
3.5
0
0
3.5
5
8.5
40
56
63
63

\




















.
in :=
Beamtype FIB36 BeamType "FIB36" = if
FIB45 BeamType "FIB45" = if
FIB54 BeamType "FIB54" = if
FIB63 BeamType "FIB63" = if
FIB72 BeamType "FIB72" = if
FIB78 BeamType "FIB78" = if
:=
I
nc
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
0
in
4
:=
A
nc
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
1
in
2
:=
yt
nc
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
2
in :=
yb
nc
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
3
in :=
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
5
1.27510
807
19.51
16.49
36
48
3.5
7
38
7
15.5
4
2.86510
=
h
nc
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
4
in :=
b
tf
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
5
in :=
h
tf
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
6
in :=
b
w
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
7
in :=
b
bf
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
8
in :=
h
bf
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
9
in :=
J x output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
11
in
4
:=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 25
The noncomposite beam properties are given and can be obtained from the FDOT Instructions for Design
Standards, Index 20010 Series.
NONCOMPOSITE PROPERTIES FIB36
Moment of Iner t ia [ in
4
] I
nc
127545
Sect ion Ar ea [ in
2
] A
nc
807
yt op [ in] yt
nc
19.51
ybot [ in] yb
nc
16.49
Dept h [ in] h
nc
36
Top f lange widt h [ in] b
tf
48
Top f lange dept h [ in] h
tf
3.5
Widt h of web [ in] b
w
7
Bot t om f lange widt h [ in] b
bf
38
Bot t om f lange dept h [ in] h
bf
7
Bot t om f lange t aper [ in] E 15.5
Sect ion Modulus t op [ in
3
] S
tnc
6537
Sect ion Modulus bot t om [ in
3
] S
bnc
7735
BeamType "FIB36" =
0 24 48
36
18
0
A2. Effective Flange Width [LRFD 4.6.2.6]
Interior beams
The effective flange width: b
eff.interior
BeamSpacing 10ft = :=
Exterior beams
For exterior beams, the effective flange width:
b
eff.exterior
BeamSpacing
2
Overhang + w + = where:
Crosssectional area of the barrier..... A
b
2.77ft
2
:=
w
A
b
2 t
slab
2.078ft = :=
Effective flange width: b
eff.exterior
BeamSpacing
2
Overhang + w +

\


.
11.619ft = :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 26
Transformed Properties
To develop composite section properties, the effective flange width of the slab should be transformed to the
concrete properties of the beam.
n
E
c.slab
E
c.beam
0.728 = :=
Modular ratio between the deck and beam.
Transformed slab width for interior beams b
tr.interior
n b
eff.interior
( )
87.313in = :=
Transformed slab width for exterior beams b
tr.exterior
n b
eff.exterior
( )
101.45in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 27
B. Composite Section Properties
B1. Interior beams
Height of the composite section..................... h h
nc
h
buildup
+ t
slab
+ 45in = :=
Area of the composite section........................ A
slab
b
tr.interior
t
slab
698.5 in
2
= :=
A
fillet
b
tf
h
buildup
48in
2
= :=
A
Interior
A
nc
A
fillet
+ A
slab
+ 1553.5in
2
= :=
Distance from centroid of beam to extreme fiber in tension
y
b
A
nc
yb
nc
A
fillet
h
nc
h
buildup
2
+

\


.
+ A
slab
h
nc
h
buildup
+
t
slab
2
+

\


.
+
A
Interior
28.1in = :=
Distance from centroid of beam to extreme
fiber in compression..................................... y
t
h y
b
16.9in = :=
Moment of Inertia........................................
I
slab
1
12
b
tr.interior
( )
t
slab
3
A
slab
h
t
slab
2
y
b
\


.
2
+ 119446in
4
= :=
I
fillet
b
tf
( )
h
buildup
3
12
A
fillet
h
nc
h
buildup
2
+ y
b
\


.
2
+ 3368in
4
= :=
I
Interior
I
nc
A
nc
y
b
yb
nc
( )
2
+ I
slab
+ I
fillet
+ 359675in
4
= :=
Section Modulus (top, top of beam, bottom)... S
t
I
Interior
y
t
21319 in
3
= :=
S
tb
I
Interior
h
nc
y
b
45695 in
3
= :=
S
b
I
Interior
y
b
12787 in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 28
B2. Exterior beams
Calculations are similar to interior beams.
Height of the composite section..................... h h
nc
h
buildup
+ t
slab
+ 45in = :=
Area of the composite section........................ A
slab
b
tr.exterior
t
slab
811.602 in
2
= :=
A
fillet
b
tf
h
buildup
48in
2
= :=
A
Exterior
A
nc
A
fillet
+ A
slab
+ 1666.6in
2
= :=
Distance from centroid of beam to extreme fiber in tension
y'
b
A
nc
yb
nc
A
fillet
h
nc
h
buildup
2
+

\


.
+ A
slab
h
nc
h
buildup
+
t
slab
2
+

\


.
+
A
Exterior
29.002in = :=
Distance from centroid of beam to extreme
fiber in compression..................................... y'
t
h y'
b
15.998in = :=
Moment of Inertia........................................
I
slab
1
12
b
tr.exterior
( )
t
slab
3
A
slab
h
t
slab
2
y'
b
\


.
2
+ 121157in
4
= :=
I
fillet
b
tf
( )
h
buildup
3
12
A
fillet
h
nc
h
buildup
2
+ y'
b
\


.
2
+ 2702in
4
= :=
I
Exterior
I
nc
A
nc
y'
b
yb
nc
( )
2
+ I
slab
+ I
fillet
+ 377744in
4
= :=
Section Modulus (top, top of beam, bottom)... S
t
I
Exterior
y'
t
23612.2 in
3
= :=
S
tb
I
Exterior
h
nc
y'
b
53980.3 in
3
= :=
S
b
I
Exterior
y'
b
13024.7 in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 29
B3. Summary of Properties
0 60 120
45
22.5
0
COMPOSITE SECTION PROPERTIES INTERIOR EXTERIOR
Ef f ect ive slab widt h [ in] b
eff.interior /exterior
120.0 139.4
Tr ansf or med slab widt h [ in] b
tr .interior /exterior
87.3 101.5
Height of composit e sect ion [ in] h 45.0 45.0
Ef f ect ive slab ar ea [ in
2
] A
slab
698.5 811.6
Ar ea of composit e sect ion [ in
2
] A
Inter ior/Exterior
1553.5 1666.6
Neut r al axis t o bot t om f iber [ in] y
b
28.1 29.0
Neut r al axis t o t op f iber [ in] y
t
16.9 16.0
Iner t ia of composit e sect ion [ in
4
] I
Interior /Exter ior
359675.0 377743.8
Sect ion modulus t op of slab [ in
3
] S
t
21318.8 23612.2
Sect ion modulus t op of beam [ in
3
] S
tb
45694.6 53980.3
Sect ion modulus bot t om of beam [ in
3
] S
b
12786.8 13024.7
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 30
C. Dead Loads
Calculate the moments and shears as a function of "x", where "x" represents any point along the length of the
beam from 0 feet to L
design
. The values for the moment and shear at key design check points are given...
where Support 0 ft :=
ShearChk 3.2ft :=
Debond1 10ft :=
{Check beam for debonding, if not debonding, enter 0 ft.)
Debond2 20ft :=
(Check beam for debonding, if not debonding, enter 0 ft.)
Midspan 0.5L
design
43.875ft = :=
For convenience in Mathcad, place these points
in a matrix......................................... x
Support
ShearChk
Debond1
Debond2
Midspan

\






.
0
3.2
10
20
43.875

\






.
ft = := pt 0 4 .. :=
C1. Interior Beams
Design Moments and Shears for DC Dead Loads
Weight of beam w
BeamInt
A
nc
conc
0.841 klf = :=
M
RelBeamInt
x ( )
w
BeamInt
L
beam
2
x
w
BeamInt
x
2
2
:=
Moment  selfweight of beam at Release.. 
M
BeamInt
x ( )
w
BeamInt
L
design
2
x
w
BeamInt
x
2
2
:=
Moment  selfweight of beam................. 
V
BeamInt
x ( )
w
BeamInt
L
design
2
w
BeamInt
x :=
Shear  selfweight of beam ................... 
Weight of deck slab, includes haunch and milling surface
w
SlabInt
t
slab
t
mill
+
( )
BeamSpacing h
buildup
b
tf
+
conc
1.112 klf = :=
Moment  selfweight of deck slab, includes 
haunch and milling surface ..................... M
SlabInt
x ( )
w
SlabInt
L
design
2
x
w
SlabInt
x
2
2
:=
Shear  selfweight of deck slab, includes 
haunch and milling surface...................... V
SlabInt
x ( )
w
SlabInt
L
design
2
w
SlabInt
x :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 31
Weight of stayinplace forms w
FormsInt
BeamSpacing b
tf
( )
forms
0.12 klf = :=
Moment  stayinplace forms..................  M
FormsInt
x ( )
w
FormsInt
L
design
2
x
w
FormsInt
x
2
2
:=
Shear  stayinplace forms. ....................  V
FormsInt
x ( )
w
FormsInt
L
design
2
w
FormsInt
x :=
Weight of traffic railing barriers
w
barrier.interior
0.147 klf =
Moment  traffic railing barriers...............  M
TrbInt
x ( )
w
barrier.interior
L
design
2
x
w
barrier.interior
x
2
2
:=
Shear  traffic railing barriers...................  V
TrbInt
x ( )
w
barrier.interior
L
design
2
w
barrier.interior
x :=
DC Load total
w
DC.BeamInt
w
BeamInt
w
SlabInt
+ w
FormsInt
+ w
barrier.interior
+ 2.22klf = :=
DC Load Moment
M
DC.BeamInt
x ( ) M
BeamInt
x ( ) M
SlabInt
x ( ) + M
FormsInt
x ( ) + M
TrbInt
x ( ) + :=
DC Load Shear
V
DC.BeamInt
x ( ) V
BeamInt
x ( ) V
SlabInt
x ( ) + V
FormsInt
x ( ) + V
TrbInt
x ( ) + :=
DC Load Rotation
DC.BeamInt
w
DC.BeamInt
w
barrier.interior
( )
L
design
3
24E
c.beam
I
nc
w
barrier.interior
L
design
3
24E
c.beam
I
Interior
+ 0.81deg = :=
Design Moments and Shears for DW Dead Loads
Weight of future wearing surface w
FwsInt
BeamSpacing
fws
0 klf = :=
Moment  weight of future wearing 
surface.................................................
M
FwsInt
x ( )
w
FwsInt
L
design
2
x
w
FwsInt
x
2
2
:=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 32
Shear  weight of future wearing surface .  V
FwsInt
x ( )
w
FwsInt
L
design
2
w
FwsInt
x :=
Weight o f utility loads w
UtilityInt
0 klf :=
Moment  utility loads.............................  M
UtilityInt
x ( )
w
UtilityInt
L
design
2
x
w
UtilityInt
x
2
2
:=
Shear  utility loads.................................  V
UtilityInt
x ( )
w
UtilityInt
L
design
2
w
UtilityInt
x :=
DW Load total
w
DW.BeamInt
w
FwsInt
w
UtilityInt
+ 0 klf = :=
DW Load Moment
M
DW.BeamInt
x ( ) M
FwsInt
x ( ) M
UtilityInt
x ( ) + :=
DW Load Shear
V
DW.BeamInt
x ( ) V
FwsInt
x ( ) V
UtilityInt
x ( ) + :=
DW Load Rotation
DW.BeamInt
w
DW.BeamInt
L
design
3
24E
c.beam
I
Interior
0 deg = :=
C2. Exterior Beams
Design Moments and Shears for DC Dead Loads
Weight of beam w
BeamExt
A
nc
conc
0.841 klf = :=
Moment  selfweight of beam at Release..  M
RelBeamExt
x ( )
w
BeamExt
L
beam
2
x
w
BeamExt
x
2
2
:=
Moment  selfweight of beam.................  M
BeamExt
x ( )
w
BeamExt
L
design
2
x
w
BeamExt
x
2
2
:=
Shear  selfweight of beam ...................  V
BeamExt
x ( )
w
BeamExt
L
design
2
w
BeamExt
x :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 33
Weight of deck slab, includes haunch and milling surface
w
SlabExt
t
slab
t
mill
+
( )
Overhang
BeamSpacing
2
+

\


.
h
buildup
b
tf
+
(
(
conc
1.064 klf = :=
Moment  selfweight of deck slab, includes 
haunch and milling surface ..................... M
SlabExt
x ( )
w
SlabExt
L
design
2
x
w
SlabExt
x
2
2
:=
Shear  selfweight of deck slab, includes 
haunch and milling surface...................... V
SlabExt
x ( )
w
SlabExt
L
design
2
w
SlabExt
x :=
Weight of stayinplace forms w
FormsExt
BeamSpacing b
tf
2

\


.
forms
0.06klf = :=
Moment  stayinplace forms..................  M
FormsExt
x ( )
w
FormsExt
L
design
2
x
w
FormsExt
x
2
2
:=
Shear  stayinplace forms. ....................  V
FormsExt
x ( )
w
FormsExt
L
design
2
w
FormsExt
x :=
Weight of traffic railing barriers
w
barrier.exterior
0.147 klf =
Moment  traffic railing barriers...............  M
TrbExt
x ( )
w
barrier.exterior
L
design
2
x
w
barrier.exterior
x
2
2
:=
Shear  traffic railing barriers...................  V
TrbExt
x ( )
w
barrier.exterior
L
design
2
w
barrier.exterior
x :=
DC Load total
w
DC.BeamExt
w
BeamExt
w
SlabExt
+ w
FormsExt
+ w
barrier.exterior
+ 2.112 klf = :=
DC Load Moment
M
DC.BeamExt
x ( ) M
BeamExt
x ( ) M
SlabExt
x ( ) + M
FormsExt
x ( ) + M
TrbExt
x ( ) + :=
DC Load Shear
V
DC.BeamExt
x ( ) V
BeamExt
x ( ) V
SlabExt
x ( ) + V
FormsExt
x ( ) + V
TrbExt
x ( ) + :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 34
DC Load Rotation
DC.BeamExt
w
DC.BeamExt
w
barrier.exterior
( )
L
design
3
24E
c.beam
I
nc
w
barrier.exterior
L
design
3
24E
c.beam
I
Exterior
+ 0.767 deg = :=
Design Moments and Shears for DW Dead Loads
Weight of future wearing surface w
FwsExt
Overhang 1.5417ft
BeamSpacing
2
+

\


.
fws
0 klf = :=
Moment  weight of future wearing 
surface.................................................
M
FwsExt
x ( )
w
FwsExt
L
design
2
x
w
FwsExt
x
2
2
:=
Shear  weight of future wearing surface .  V
FwsExt
x ( )
w
FwsExt
L
design
2
w
FwsExt
x :=
Weight o f utility loads w
UtilityExt
0 klf :=
Moment  utility loads.............................  M
UtilityExt
x ( )
w
UtilityExt
L
design
2
x
w
UtilityExt
x
2
2
:=
Shear  utility loads.................................  V
UtilityExt
x ( )
w
UtilityExt
L
design
2
w
UtilityExt
x :=
DW Load total w
DW.BeamExt
w
FwsExt
w
UtilityExt
+ 0 klf = :=
DW Load Moment M
DW.BeamExt
x ( ) M
FwsExt
x ( ) M
UtilityExt
x ( ) + :=
DW Load Shear V
DW.BeamExt
x ( ) V
FwsExt
x ( ) V
UtilityExt
x ( ) + :=
DW Load Rotation
DW.BeamExt
w
DW.BeamExt
L
design
3
24E
c.beam
I
Exterior
0 deg = :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 35
Support ShrChk Debond1 Debond2 Midspan
Load/Location, x (ft)= 0.0 3.2 10.0 20.0 43.9
INTERIOR BEAM
Beam at Rel ease 0.0 115.5 332.4 580.7 833.7
Beam 0.0 113.7 326.8 569.5 809.1
Sl ab 0.0 150.5 432.5 753.7 1070.8
Forms 0.0 16.2 46.7 81.3 115.5
Barri er 0.0 19.9 57.2 99.7 141.7
TOTAL DC 0.0 300.4 863.2 1504.3 2137.1
FWS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Uti l i ti es 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL DW 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
EXTERIOR BEAM
Beam at Rel ease 0.0 115.5 332.4 580.7 833.7
Beam 0.0 113.7 326.8 569.5 809.1
Sl ab 0.0 143.9 413.6 720.7 1023.9
Forms 0.0 8.1 23.3 40.7 57.8
Barri er 0.0 19.9 57.2 99.7 141.7
TOTAL DC 0.0 285.7 820.9 1430.6 2032.5
FWS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Uti l i ti es 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL DW 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
DESIGN MOMENTS (ftkip)
C3. Summary
Support ShrChk Debond1 Debond2 Midspan
Load/Location, x (ft)= 0.0 3.2 10.0 20.0 43.9
INTERIOR BEAM
Beam 36.9 34.2 28.5 20.1 0.0
Sl ab 48.8 45.3 37.7 26.6 0.0
Forms 5.3 4.9 4.1 2.9 0.0
Barri er 6.5 6.0 5.0 3.5 0.0
TOTAL DC 97.4 90.3 75.2 53.0 0.0
FWS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Uti l i ti es 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL DW 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
EXTERIOR BEAM
Beam 36.9 34.2 28.5 20.1 0.0
Sl ab 46.7 43.3 36.0 25.4 0.0
Forms 2.6 2.4 2.0 1.4 0.0
Barri er 6.5 6.0 5.0 3.5 0.0
TOTAL DC 92.6 85.9 71.5 50.4 0.0
FWS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Uti l i ti es 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL DW 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
CORRESPONDING SHEARS (kip)
Write Out Data
Superstructure Design 2.01 Dead Loads 36
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Live Load Distribution Factors
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\201DeadLoads.xmcd(R)
Description
This document calculates the live load distribution factors as per the LRFD.
Page Contents
36 A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
37 B. BeamSlab Bridges  Application [LRFD 4.6.2.2.1]
38 C. Moment Distribution Factors
C1. Moment: Interior Beams [LRFD 4.6.2.2.2b]
C2. Moment: Exterior Beams [LRFD 4.6.2.2.2d]
C3. Moment: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.6.2.2.2e ]
C4. Distribution Factors for Design Moments
42 D. Shear Distribution Factors
D1. Shear: Interior Beams [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3a]
D2. Shear: Exterior Beams [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3b]
D3. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c]
D4. Distribution Factors for Design Shears
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 35
A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
Overall bridge length............. L
bridge
180ft =
Bridge design span length...... L
span
90ft =
Beam design length............... L
design
87.750ft =
Skew angle.......................... Skew 20 deg =
Superstructure Beam Type.... BeamType "FIB36" =
Number of beams................. N
beams
9 =
Beam Spacing...................... BeamSpacing 10ft =
Deck overhang..................... Overhang 4.5417ft =
Roadway clear width............ Rdwy
width
42ft =
Number of design traffic
lanes...................................
N
lanes
3 =
Height of composite section... h 45.0in =
Distance from neutral axis to
bottom fiber of noncomposite
section................................ yb
nc
16.5in =
Thickness of deck slab......... t
slab
8 in =
Modular ratio between beam
and deck............................. n
1
1.374 =
Moment of inertia for
noncomposite section.......... I
nc
127545.0 in
4
=
Area of noncomposite
section................................ A
nc
807.0 in
2
=
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 36
B. BeamSlab Bridges  Application [LRFD 4.6.2.2.1]
Live load on the deck must be distributed to the precast, prestressed beams. AASHTO provides factors for the
distribution of live load into the beams. The factors can be used if the following criteria is met:
Width of deck is constant 
Number of beams is not less than four 
Beams are parallel and have approximately the same stiffness 
The overhang minus the barrier width does not exceed 3.0 feet 
Curvature in plan is less than the limit specified in Article 4.6.1.2.4 
If these conditions are not met, a refined method of analysis is required and diaphragms shall be provided.
Distance between center of gravity of
noncomposite beam and deck....................... e
g
h yb
nc
( )
t
slab
2
24.51 in = :=
Longitudinal stiffness parameter..................... K
g
n
1
I
nc
A
nc
e
g
2
+

\

.
841584in
4
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 37
C. Moment Distribution Factors
C1. Moment: Interior Beams [LRFD 4.6.2.2.2b]
One design lane 
Distribution factor for moment in interior beams when one design lane is loaded
g
m.Interior
0.06
S
14

\


.
0.4
S
L

\


.
0.3
K
g
12.0 L t
s
3
\



.
0.1
+ =
Using variables defined in this example,
g
m.Interior1
0.06
BeamSpacing
14ft

\


.
0.4
BeamSpacing
L
design

\


.
0.3
K
g
12.0
in
ft
L
design
t
slab
3
\



.
0.1
+ 0.536 = :=
Two or more design lanes 
Distribution factor for moment in interior beams when two or more design lanes are loaded
g
m.Interior
0.075
S
9.5

\


.
0.6
S
L

\


.
0.2
K
g
12.0 L t
s
3
\



.
0.1
+ =
Using variables defined in this example,
g
m.Interior2
0.075
BeamSpacing
9.5ft

\


.
0.6
BeamSpacing
L
design

\


.
0.2
K
g
12.0
in
ft
L
design
t
slab
3
\



.
0.1
+ 0.773 = :=
Range of Applicability 
The greater distribution factor is selected for moment design of the beams.
g
m.Interior
max g
m.Interior1
g
m.Interior2
,
( )
0.773 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 38
Verify the distribution factor satisfiesLRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".
g
m.Interior
S BeamSpacing 3.5ft > ( ) BeamSpacing 16.0ft s ( )
t
s
t
slab
4.5in >
( )
t
slab
12in s
( )
L L
design
20ft >
( )
L
design
240 ft s
( )
N
b
N
beams
4 >
( )
K
g
K
g
10000 in
4
>

\

.
K
g
7000000 in
4
s

\

.
g
m.Interior
S t
s
L N
b
K
g
( )
if
"NG, does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise
0.773 = :=
C2. Moment: Exterior Beams [LRFD 4.6.2.2.2d]
One design lane 
Distribution factor for moment in exterior beams when one design lane is loaded
P
1
D
e
S + 2 ft
S
=
P
2
D
e
S + 8 ft
S
=
D
e
Overhang 1.5417ft 3ft = :=
S BeamSpacing 10ft = :=
The distribution factor for one design lane loaded is based on the lever rule, which includes a 0.5 factor for
converting the truck load to wheel loads and a 1.2 factor for multiple truck presence.
g
m.Exterior1
if 2 ft 6 ft + ( ) D
e
S +
( )
<
2 S 2D
e
+ 10ft
( )
S
0.5 ,
S D
e
+ 2 ft
( )
S
0.5 ,
(
(
1.2 0.96 = :=
Two or more design lanes 
Distribution factor for moment in exterior beams when two or more design lanes are loaded
g
m.Exterior
g
m.Interior
0.77
d
e
9.1
+

\


.
=
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 39
Using variables defined in this example,
Distance from centerline of web for exterior beam to barrier
d
e
Overhang 1.5417ft 3ft = :=
g
m.Exterior2
g
m.Interior2
0.77
d
e
9.1ft
+

\


.
0.85 = :=
Range of Applicability 
The greater distribution factor is selected for moment design of the beams.
g
m.Exterior
max g
m.Exterior1
g
m.Exterior2
,
( )
0.96 = :=
Verify the distribution factor satisfiesLRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".
g
m.Exterior
d
e
d
e
5.5ft s
( )
d
e
1 ft >
( )
g
m.Exterior
d
e
if
"NG, does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise
0.96 = :=
C3. Moment: Skew Modification Factor [LRFD 4.6.2.2.2e ]
A skew modification factor for moments may be used if the supports are skewed and the difference between
skew angles of two adjacent supports does not exceed 10 degrees.
g
m.Skew
1 0.25
K
g
12.0L t
s
3
\



.
0.25
(
(
(
S
L

\


.
0.5
tan ( )
1.5
=
Using variables defined in this example,
c
1
0.25
K
g
12.0
in
ft
L
design
t
slab
3
\



.
0.25
(
(
(
(
BeamSpacing
L
design

\


.
0.5
0.094 = :=
g
m.Skew
1 c
1
tan Skew ( )
1.5
0.979 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 40
Verify the distribution factor satisfiesLRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".
g
m.Skew
Skew 30deg > ( ) Skew 60deg s ( )
S BeamSpacing 3.5ft > ( ) BeamSpacing 16.0ft s ( )
L L
design
20ft >
( )
L
design
240 ft s
( )
N
b
N
beams
4 >
( )
g
m.Skew
S L N
b
( )
if
"NG, does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise
:=
g
m.Skew
if Skew 30deg < 1 , g
m.Skew
,
( )
1 = :=
C4. Distribution Factors for Design Moments
Interior Exterior
1 Lane 0.536 0.960
2+ Lanes 0.773 0.850
Skew 1.000 1.000
DESIGN 0.773 0.960
Moment Distribution Factors
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 41
D. Shear Distribution Factors
D1. Shear: Interior Beams [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3a]
One design lane 
Distribution factor for shear in interior beams when one design lane is loaded
g
v
0.36
S
25
+ =
Using variables defined in this example,
g
v.Interior1
0.36
BeamSpacing
25ft
+ 0.76 = :=
Two or more design lanes 
Distribution factor for shear in interior beams when two or more design lanes are loaded
g
v
0.2
S
12
+
S
35

\


.
2.0
=
Using variables defined in this example,
g
v.Interior2
0.2
BeamSpacing
12ft
+
BeamSpacing
35ft

\


.
2.0
0.952 = :=
Range of Applicability 
The greater distribution factor is selected for shear design of the beams
g
v.Interior
max g
v.Interior1
g
v.Interior2
,
( )
0.952 = :=
Verify the distribution factor satisfiesLRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".
g
v.Interior
S BeamSpacing 3.5ft > ( ) BeamSpacing 16.0 ft s ( )
t
s
t
slab
4.5in >
( )
t
slab
12in s
( )
L L
design
20ft >
( )
L
design
240 ft s
( )
N
b
N
beams
4 >
( )
g
v.Interior
S t
s
L N
b
( )
if
"NG, does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise
0.952 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 42
D2. Shear: Exterior Beams [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3b]
One design lane 
Distribution factor for shear in exterior beams when one design lane is loaded
P
1
D
e
S + 2 ft
S
=
P
2
D
e
S + 8 ft
S
=
D
e
3ft =
S 10ft =
The distribution factor for one design lane loaded is based on the lever rule, which includes a 0.5 factor
for converting the truck load to wheel loads and a 1.2 factor for multiple truck presence.
g
v.Exterior1
if 2 ft 6 ft + ( ) D
e
S +
( )
<
2 S 2D
e
+ 10ft
( )
S
0.5 ,
S D
e
+ 2 ft
( )
S
0.5 ,
(
(
1.2 0.96 = :=
Two or more design lanes 
Distribution factor for shear in exterior beams when two or more design lanes are loaded
g
v.Exterior
g
v.Interior
0.6
d
e
10
+

\


.
=
Using variables defined in this example,
d
e
3.000ft =
g
v.Exterior2
g
v.Interior2
0.6
d
e
10ft
+

\


.
0.857 = :=
Range of Applicability 
The greater distribution factor is selected for shear design of the beams
g
v.Exterior
max g
v.Exterior1
g
v.Exterior2
,
( )
0.96 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 43
Verify the distribution factor satisfiesLRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".
g
v.Exterior
d
e
d
e
5.5ft s
( )
d
e
1 ft >
( )
g
v.Exterior
d
e
if
"NG, does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise
0.96 = :=
D3. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c]
Skew modification factor for shear shall be applied to the exterior beam at the obtuse corner (u >90
o
) and to
all beams in a multibeam bridge.
g
v.Skew
1 0.20
12.0L t
s
3
K
g

\



.
0.3
tan ( ) + =
Using variables defined in this example,
g
v.Skew
1 0.20
12.0
in
ft
L
design
t
slab
3
K
g

\



.
0.3
tan Skew ( ) + 1.064 = :=
Verify the distribution factor satisfiesLRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".
g
v.Skew
Skew 0 deg > ( ) Skew 60deg s ( )
S BeamSpacing 3.5ft > ( ) BeamSpacing 16.0 ft s ( )
L L
design
20ft >
( )
L
design
240 ft s
( )
N
b
N
beams
4 >
( )
g
v.Skew
S L N
b
( )
if
"NG, does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise
1.064 = :=
If uplift is a design issue, the skew factor for all beams is unconservative. However, uplift is not a design issue
for prestressed concrete beam bridges designed as simple spans.
D4. Distribution Factors for Design Shears
Interior Exterior
1 Lane 0.760 0.960
2+ Lanes 0.952 0.857
Skew 1.064 1.064
DESIGN 1.012 1.021
Shear Distribution Factors
Superstructure Design 2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 44
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Live Load Analysis
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\202LLDistFactors.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides examples of the LRFD HL93 live load analysis necessary for the superstructure
design.
Page Contents
46 A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
A2. Beam Parameters
A3. Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3.6.2]
47 B. Maximum Live Load Moment, Reaction and Rotation
B1. Maximum Live Load Rotation  One HL93 vehicle
B2. Live Load Moments and Shears  One HL93 truck
B3. Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier   Two HL93 vehicles
B4. Summary
Superstructure Design 2.03 Live Load Analysis 45
A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
Overall bridge length............. L
bridge
180ft =
Bridge design span length...... L
span
90ft =
A2. Beam Parameters
Beam length......................... L
beam
89.083ft =
Beam design length............... L
design
87.75ft =
Modulus of elasticity for
beam................................... E
c.beam
4781ksi =
Moment of inertia for the
interior beam........................ I
Interior
359675in
4
=
Moment of inertia of the
exterior beam....................... I
Exterior
377744in
4
=
A3. Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3.6.2]
Impact factor for limit states,
except fatigue and fracture.... IM 1.33 =
Superstructure Design 2.03 Live Load Analysis 46
B. Maximum Live Load Moment, Reaction and Rotation
This section shows how to calculate the maximum live load moment, reaction (shear), and rotation. The
formulas for rotation were obtained from Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain by Warren C. Young, 6th
Edition, McGrawHill.
B1. Maximum Live Load Rotation  One HL93 vehicle
The rotations are calculated for one vehicle over the interior and exterior beams. The composite beam sections
are used to calculate the stiffness (E
c.beam
I ) of the beams.
The maximum live load rotation in a simple span is calculated by positioning the axle loads of an HL93 design
truck in the following locations:
Axle loads............................ P1 32kip :=
P2 32kip :=
P3 8 kip :=
Lane load............................. w
L
0.64
kip
ft
:=
Center of gravity for axle
loads................................... x
cg
P1 0 ft ( ) P2 14ft ( ) + P3 28ft ( ) +
P1 P2 + P3 +
9.333ft = :=
Distance from center of gravity
for axle loads to centerline of
span ................ z
14ft x
cg
2
2.333ft = :=
Superstructure Design 2.03 Live Load Analysis 47
Distance from left support to
axle loads............................ X
1
L
design
2
z x
cg
32.208ft = :=
X
2
X
1
14ft + 46.208ft = :=
X
3
X
1
28ft + 60.208ft = :=
Interior Beam
Rotation induced by each axle
load.................................... 1
P1 X
1
6 E
c.beam
I
Interior
( )
L
design
2 L
design
X
1
( )
L
design
X
1
( )
0.075 deg = :=
2
P2 X
2
6 E
c.beam
I
Interior
( )
L
design
2 L
design
X
2
( )
L
design
X
2
( )
0.072 deg = :=
3
P3 X
3
6 E
c.beam
I
Interior
( )
L
design
2 L
design
X
3
( )
L
design
X
3
( )
0.014 deg = :=
Rotation induced by HL93
truck..................................
truck
1 2 + 3 + ( ) 0.161 deg = :=
Rotation induced by lane
load....................................
lane
w
L
L
design
3
24 E
c.beam
I
Interior
( )
0.086 deg = :=
Rotation induced by HL93
truck and lane load...............
LL.Interior
truck
lane
+ 0.248 deg = :=
Exterior Beam
Rotations induced by each axle
load.................................... 1
P1 X
1
6 E
c.beam
I
Exterior
( )
L
design
2 L
design
X
1
( )
L
design
X
1
( )
0.071 deg = :=
2
P2 X
2
6 E
c.beam
I
Exterior
( )
L
design
2 L
design
X
2
( )
L
design
X
2
( )
0.069 deg = :=
3
P3 X
3
6 E
c.beam
I
Exterior
( )
L
design
2 L
design
X
3
( )
L
design
X
3
( )
0.013 deg = :=
Superstructure Design 2.03 Live Load Analysis 48
Rotation induced by HL93
truck...................................
truck
1 2 + 3 + ( ) 0.153 deg = :=
Rotation induced by lane load.
lane
w
L
L
design
3
24 E
c.beam
I
Exterior
( )
0.082 deg = :=
Rotation induced by HL93
truck and lane load...............
LL.Exterior
truck
lane
+ 0.236 deg = :=
B2. Live Load Moments and Shears  One HL93 truck
The live load moments and shears in a simple span is calculated by positioning the axle loads of an HL93 design
truck in the following locations:
Superstructure Design 2.03 Live Load Analysis 49
Case 1 HL93 truck moment and shear:
M
truck1
x ( ) P1
L
design
x
( )
L
design
x P2
L
design
x 14ft
( )
L
design
x + P3
L
design
x 28ft
( )
L
design
x + :=
V
truck1
x ( ) P1
L
design
x
( )
L
design
P2
L
design
x 14ft
( )
L
design
+ P3
L
design
x 28ft
( )
L
design
+ :=
Case 2 HL93 truck moment and shear:
M
truck2
x ( ) P1
L
design
x
( )
L
design
x 14ft ( ) P2
L
design
x
( )
L
design
x + P3
L
design
x 14ft
( )
L
design
x + :=
V
truck2
x ( ) P1
x 14ft ( )
L
design
P2
L
design
x
( )
L
design
+ P3
L
design
x 14ft
( )
L
design
+ :=
Maximum moment and shear
induced by the HL93 truck... M
truck
x ( ) max M
truck1
x ( ) M
truck2
x ( ) ,
( )
:=
(Note: Choose
maximum value)
V
truck
x ( ) max V
truck1
x ( ) V
truck2
x ( ) ,
( )
:=
Moment and shear induced by
the lane load......................... M
lane
x ( )
w
L
L
design
2
x
w
L
x
2
2
:=
V
lane
x ( )
w
L
L
design
2
w
L
x :=
Live load moment and shear for
HL93 truck load (including
impact) and lane load............. M
LLI
x ( ) M
truck
x ( ) IM M
lane
x ( ) + :=
V
LLI
x ( ) V
truck
x ( ) IM V
lane
x ( ) + :=
Live load reaction (without
impact) .............................. R
LL
x ( ) V
truck
x ( ) V
lane
x ( ) + :=
R
LL
Support ( ) 92.4 kip =
Superstructure Design 2.03 Live Load Analysis 50
B3. Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier  Two HL93 vehicles
While two HL93 vehicles controls in this design, the tandem and single truck with lane load needs to be
investigated for other design span lengths. The maximum live load reaction at an intermediate pier is calculated
by positioning the axle loads of an HL93 design truck in the following locations:
Distance from left support of
corresponding span to axle
loads................................... X
1
25ft :=
X
2
X
1
14ft + 39ft = :=
X
3
X
1
28ft + 53ft = :=
X
4
L
design
28ft 25ft 34.75ft = :=
X
5
X
4
14ft + 48.75ft = :=
X
6
X
4
28ft + 62.75ft = :=
Reaction induced by each axle
load.................................... R
1
P1
L
design
L
design
X
1
( )
X
4
+
35.6kip = :=
R
2
P2
L
design
L
design
X
2
( )
X
5
+
35.6kip = :=
R
3
P3
L
design
L
design
X
3
( )
X
6
+
8.9kip = :=
Reaction induced by HL93
trucks................................. R
trucks
R
1
R
2
+ R
3
+
( )
80kip = :=
Reaction induced by lane load
on both spans................ R
lanes
w
L
L
span
2
2 ( ) 57.6kip = :=
Superstructure Design 2.03 Live Load Analysis 51
Reaction induced by HL93
truck and lane load............... R
LLs
90% R
trucks
R
lanes
+
( )
123.8 kip = :=
Reaction induced by HL93
truck (including impact factor)
and lane load........................ R
LLIs
90% R
trucks
IM R
lanes
+
( )
147.6 kip = :=
B4. Summary
Support ShrChk Debond1 Debond2 Midspan
Load/Location, x (ft)= 0.0 3.2 10.0 20.0 43.9
MOMENTS: INTERIOR BEAM
Li ve l oad + DLA 0.0 349.2 995.4 1708.6 2344.3
Di stri buti on Factor 0.773 0.773 0.773 0.773 0.773
Desi gn Li ve Load + DLA Moment 0.0 270.1 769.8 1321.3 1812.9
MOMENTS: EXTERIOR BEAM
Li ve l oad + DLA 0.0 349.2 995.4 1708.6 2344.3
Di stri buti on Factor 0.960 0.960 0.960 0.960 0.960
Desi gn Li ve Load + DLA Moment 0.0 335.3 955.6 1640.2 2250.6
SHEARS: INTERIOR BEAM
Li ve l oad + DLA 113.7 108.1 96.3 79.0 37.7
Di stri buti on Factor 1.012 1.012 1.012 1.012 1.012
Desi gn Li ve Load + DLA Shear 115.1 109.4 97.5 80.0 38.2
SHEARS: EXTERIOR BEAM
Li ve l oad + DLA 113.7 108.1 96.3 79.0 37.7
Di stri buti on Factor 1.021 1.021 1.021 1.021 1.021
Desi gn Li ve Load + DLA Shear 116.1 110.4 98.4 80.7 38.5
LL ROTATIONS (BRG PADS)
Interior
Beam
Exterior
Beam
Li ve l oad w/o DLA 0.00432 0.00411
Di stri buti on Factor 0.773 0.960
Desi gn Li ve Load Rotati on 0.00334 0.00395
LL REACTIONS (BRG PADS)
Interior
Beam
Exterior
Beam
Li ve l oad w/o DLA 92.4 92.4
Di stri buti on Factor 1.012 1.021
Desi gn Li ve Load Reacti ons 93.6 94.4
1 HL93 REACTION w/o DLA w/ DLA
Pi er/End Bent (1 Truck) 92.4 113.7
Pi er (2 Trucks)
123.8 147.6
DESIGN LIVE LOAD
Redefine Variables
Superstructure Design 2.03 Live Load Analysis 52
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Prestressed Beam Design  Part I
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\203LiveLoads.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design of the prestressed concrete beam  interior beam design.
Page Contents
54 LRFD Criteria
55 A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
A2. Section Properties
A3. Superstructure Loads at Midspan
A4. Superstructure Loads at Debonding Locations
A5. Superstructure Loads at the Other Locations
58 B. Interior Beam Midspan Moment Design
B1. Strand Pattern definition at Midspan
B2. Prestressing Losses [LRFD 5.9.5]
B3. Stress Limits (Compression = +, Tension = )
B4. Service I and III Limit States
B5. Strength I Limit State moment capacity [LRFD 5.7.3]
B6. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
73 C. Interior Beam Debonding Requirements
C1. Strand Pat tern definition at Support
C2. Stresses at support at release
C3. Strand Pat tern definition at Debond1
C4. Stresses at Debond1 at Release
C5. Strand Pat tern definition at Debond2
C6. Stresses at Debond2 at Release
79 D. Shear Design
D1. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance
D2.13  and u Parameters Methods 13
D3. Longitudinal Reinforcement
D4. Interface Shear Reinforcement
89 E. Summary
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 53
LRFD Criteria
STRENGTH I  Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind.
WA 0 = For superstructure design, water load and stream pressure are not
applicable.
FR 0 = No friction forces.
TU 0 = No uniform temperature load effects due to simple spans. Movements
are unrestrained.
CR SH ,
These effects are accounted during the design of the prestressed strands
with a factor of 1.0 for all Limit States 1.0 CR SH + ( ) .
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + =
STRENGTH II  Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Ownerspecified special design
vehicles, evaluation permit vehicles, or both without wind.
"The FL120 permit vehicle is not evaluated in this design example"
SERVICE I  Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH
wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.
BR WL 0 = , For prestressed beam design, braking forces and wind on live load are
negligible.
Service1 1.0DC 1.0DW + 1.0LL + 1.0 CR SH + ( ) + =
"Applicable for maximum compressive stresses in beam ONLY. For tension, see Service III."
SERVICE III  Load combination for longitudinal analysis relating only to tension in prestressed
concrete structures with the objective of crack control.
Service3 1.0DC 1.0DW + 0.8LL + 1.0 CR SH + ( ) + =
"Applicable for maximum tension at midspan ONLY. For compression, see Service I."
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 54
A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
Overall bridge length....... L
bridge
180ft =
Design span length......... L
span
90ft =
Skew angle.................... Skew 20 deg =
A2. Section Properties
NONCOMPOSITE PROPERTIES FIB36
Moment of Iner t ia [ in
4
] I
nc
127545
Sect ion Ar ea [ in
2
] A
nc
807
yt op [ in] yt
nc
19.51
ybot [ in] yb
nc
16.49
Dept h [ in] h
nc
36
Top f lange widt h [ in] b
tf
48
Top f lange dept h [ in] h
tf
3.5
Widt h of web [ in] b
w
7
Bot t om f lange widt h [ in] b
bf
38
Bot t om f lange dept h [ in] h
bf
7
Bot t om f lange t aper [ in] E 15.5
Sect ion Modulus t op [ in
3
] S
tnc
6537
Sect ion Modulus bot t om [ in
3
] S
bnc
7735
COMPOSITE SECTION PROPERTIES INTERIOR EXTERIOR
Ef f ect ive slab widt h [ in] b
eff.interior /exterior
120.0 139.4
Tr ansf or med slab widt h [ in] b
tr .interior /exterior
87.3 101.5
Height of composit e sect ion [ in] h 45.0 45.0
Ef f ect ive slab ar ea [ in
2
] A
slab
698.5 811.6
Ar ea of composit e sect ion [ in
2
] A
Inter ior/Exterior
1553.5 1666.6
Neut r al axis t o bot t om f iber [ in] y
b
28.1 29.0
Neut r al axis t o t op f iber [ in] y
t
16.9 16.0
Iner t ia of composit e sect ion [ in
4
] I
Interior /Exter ior
359675.0 377743.8
Sect ion modulus t op of slab [ in
3
] S
t
21318.8 23612.2
Sect ion modulus t op of beam [ in
3
] S
tb
45694.6 53980.3
Sect ion modulus bot t om of beam [ in
3
] S
b
12786.8 13024.7
A3. Superstructure Loads at Midspan
DC Moment of Beam at Release............... M
RelBeam
M
RelBeamInt
Midspan ( ) 833.7 kip ft = :=
DC Moment of Beam.............................. M
Beam
M
BeamInt
Midspan ( ) 809.1 kip ft = :=
DC Moment of Slab............................... M
Slab
M
SlabInt
Midspan ( ) 1070.8kip ft = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 55
DC Moment of stayinplace forms.......... M
Forms
M
FormsInt
Midspan ( ) 115.5 kip ft = :=
DC Moment of traffic railing barriers........ M
Trb
M
TrbInt
Midspan ( ) 141.7 kip ft = :=
DW Moment of future wearing surface.... M
Fws
M
FwsInt
Midspan ( ) 0 kip ft = :=
DW Moment of Utilities.......................... M
Utility
M
UtilityInt
Midspan ( ) 0 kip ft = :=
Live Load Moment................................. M
LLI
M
LLI.Interior
Midspan ( ) 1812.9kip ft = :=
Service1 1.0DC 1.0DW + 1.0LL + =
Service I Limit State......................... 
M
Srv1
1.0 M
Beam
M
Slab
+ M
Forms
+ M
Trb
+
( )
1.0 M
Fws
M
Utility
+
( )
1.0 M
LLI
( )
+
+ 3950kip ft = :=
Service3 1.0DC 1.0DW + 0.8LL + =
Service III Limit State....................... 
M
Srv3
1.0 M
Beam
M
Slab
+ M
Forms
+ M
Trb
+
( )
1.0 M
Fws
M
Utility
+
( )
0.8 M
LLI
( )
+
+ 3587.4kip ft = :=
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + =
Strength I Limit State........................ 
M
r
1.25 M
Beam
M
Slab
+ M
Forms
+ M
Trb
+
( )
1.50 M
Fws
M
Utility
+
( )
1.75 M
LLI
( )
+
+ 5844kip ft = :=
A4. Superstructure Loads at Debonding Locations
DC Moment of Beam at Release 
Debond1 10ft = Location........................ M
RelBeamD1
M
RelBeamInt
Debond1 ( ) 332.4 kip ft = :=
DC Moment of Beam at Release 
Debond2 20ft = Location........................ M
RelBeamD2
M
RelBeamInt
Debond2 ( ) 580.7 kip ft = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 56
A5. Superstructure Loads at the Other Locations
At Support location
DC Shear &
Moment......................... V
DC.BeamInt
Support ( ) 97.4 kip = M
DC.BeamInt
Support ( ) 0ft kip =
DW Shear & Moment .... V
DW.BeamInt
Support ( ) 0 kip = M
DW.BeamInt
Support ( ) 0ft kip =
LL Shear & Moment.. .... V
LLI.Interior
Support ( ) 115.1 kip = M
LLI.Interior
Support ( ) 0ft kip =
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + =
Strength I Limit State........................ 
V
u.Support
1.25V
DC.BeamInt
Support ( ) 1.50 V
DW.BeamInt
Support ( )
( )
1.75 V
LLI.Interior
Support ( )
( )
+
+ 323.1 kip = :=
At Shear Check location
DC Shear &
Moment......................... V
DC.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) 90.3kip = M
DC.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) 300.4ft kip =
DW Shear & Moment .... V
DW.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) 0 kip = M
DW.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) 0ft kip =
LL Shear & Moment.. .... V
LLI.Interior
ShearChk ( ) 109.4 kip = M
LLI.Interior
ShearChk ( ) 270.1ft kip =
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + =
Strength I Limit State........................ 
V
u
1.25V
DC.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) 1.50V
DW.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) + 1.75V
LLI.Interior
ShearChk ( ) + 304.4 kip = :=
M
shr
1.25M
DC.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) 1.50 M
DW.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) + 1.75M
LLI.Interior
ShearChk ( ) + 848.1ft kip = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 57
B. Interior Beam Midspan Moment Design
B1. Strand Pattern definition at Midspan
Using the following schematic, the proposed strand pattern at the midspan section can be defined.
STRAND PATTERN DEFINITIONS AND BEAM LOCATIONS
Support 0 = ShearChk 3.2ft = Debond1 10ft = Debond2 20ft = Midspan 43.88ft =
Strand pattern at midspan
Strand type.................... strand
type
"LowLax" :=
(Note: Options "LowLax" "StressRelieved" ( )
Strand size..................... strand
dia
0.6in :=
(Note: Options 0.5in 0.5625in 0.6in ( )
Strand area.................... StrandArea 0.153 strand
dia
0.5in = if
0.192 strand
dia
0.5625in = if
0.217 strand
dia
0.6in = if
0.0 otherwise

\






.
in
2
0.217 in
2
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 58
Define the number of strands
and eccentricity of strands
from bottom of beam......
Rows of strand
from bottom of
beam
Input
(inches)
Number of
strands
per row MIDSPAN
y9 = 19 n9 = 0
y8 = 17 n8 = 0
y7 = 15 n7 = 0
y6 = 13 n6 = 0
y5 = 11 n5 = 0
y4 = 9 n4 = 0
y3 = 7 n3 = 5
y2 = 5 n2 = 17
y1 = 3 n1 = 17
Strand c.g. = 4.38 Total strands = 39
MIDSPAN Strand Pattern Data
BeamType "FIB36" =
Area of prestressing steel........................ A
ps.midspan
strands
total
StrandArea
( )
8.5in
2
= :=
Transformed section properties
SDG 4.3.1C6 states: When calculating the service limit state capacity for pretensioned concrete flat slabs and
girders, use the transformed section properties as follows: at strand transfer; for calculation of prestress losses; for
live load application.
Modular ratio between the prestressing
strand and beam. ................................... n
p
E
p
E
c.beam
5.961 = :=
Noncomposite area transformed............. A
nc.tr
A
nc
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ 849 in
2
= :=
Noncomposite neutral axis transformed... yb
nc.tr
yb
nc
A
nc
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+
A
nc.tr
15.9in = :=
Noncomposite inertia transformed... I
nc.tr
I
nc
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ 133104.1in
4
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus top......... S
topnc.tr
I
nc.tr
h
nc
yb
nc.tr
6619.2in
3
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus bottom.... S
botnc.tr
I
nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
8375.9in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 59
Modular ratio between the mild reinforcing
and transformed concrete beam............... n
m
E
s
E
c.beam
6.066 = :=
Assumed area of reinforcement in deck
slab per foot width of deck slab............... A
deck.rebar
0.62
in
2
ft
:=
(Note: Assuming #5 at 12"spacing, top
and bottom longitudinally).
Distance from bottom of beam to rebar.... y
bar
h t
mill
t
slab
2
40.5 in = :=
Total reinforcing steel within effective width
of deck slab.................................. A
bar
b
eff.interior
A
deck.rebar
6.2in
2
= :=
Composite area transformed.................... A
tr
A
Interior
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ n
m
1
( )
A
bar
+ 1626.9in
2
= :=
Composite neutral axis transformed.......
y
b.tr
y
b
A
Interior
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ y
bar
n
m
1
( )
A
bar
+
A
tr
27.8in = :=
Composite inertia transformed.......
I
tr
I
Interior
y
b.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ y
b.tr
y
bar
( )
2
n
m
1
( )
A
bar
+ 387708in
4
= :=
Composite section modulus top of
slab....................................................... S
slab.tr
I
tr
h y
b.tr
22482 in
3
= :=
Composite section modulus top of
beam..................................................... S
top.tr
I
tr
h y
b.tr
t
slab
t
mill
h
buildup
50057.7 in
3
= :=
Composite section modulus bottom of
beam..................................................... S
bot.tr
I
tr
y
b.tr
13969.1 in
3
= :=
Eccentricity of strands at midspan for
composite section.................................. e
cg.tr
y
b.tr
strand
cg
in 23.4 in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 60
B2. Prestressing Losses [LRFD 5.9.5]
For prestressing members, the total loss, f
pT
, is expressed as:
f
pT
f
pLT
=
where... longterm loss shrinkage
and creep for concrete, and
relaxation of the steel.......
f
pLT
Loss due to elastic shortening is not included in the total loss equation due to the use of transformed section
properties.
Initial Stresses in Strands
Specified yield strength of the prestressing
steel [LRFD 5.4.4.1]..............................
f
py
0.85f
pu
( )
strand
type
"StressRelieved" = if
0.90f
pu
( )
strand
type
"LowLax" = if
243 ksi = :=
Jacking stress [LRFD 5.9.3]................ f
pj
0.70 f
pu
( )
strand
type
"StressRelieved" = if
0.75 f
pu
( )
strand
type
"LowLax" = if
202.5 ksi = :=
Elastic Shortening
When calculating concrete stresses using transformed section properties, the effects of losses and gains due to
elastic deformations are implicitly accounted for and f
pES
should not be included in the prestressing force
applied to the transformed section at transfer. However, the elastic shortening loss is needed for calculation of
the stress in prestressing and relaxation of the prestressing strands. The loss due to elastic shortening in
pretensioned members shall be taken as:
f
pES
E
p
E
ci
f
cgp
=
where...
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer of
prestress force.......................................
E
ci.beam
4016.8ksi =
Modulus elasticity of prestressing steel..... E
p
28500 ksi =
Eccentricity of strands at midspan for
noncomposite section............................
e
cg.nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in 11.5in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 61
Corresponding total prestressing force...... F
ps
A
ps
f
pj
1713.8kip = :=
Concrete stresses at c.g. of the prestressing
force at transfer and the self wt of the beam
at maximum moment location.................. f
cgp
F
ps
A
nc.tr
F
ps
e
cg.nc.tr
2
I
nc.tr
+
M
RelBeam
e
cg.nc.tr
I
nc.tr
2.9ksi = :=
Losses due to elastic shortening............... f
pES
E
p
E
ci.beam
f
cgp
20.3 ksi = :=
Prestressing stress at transfer.................. f
pt
if f
pj
f
pES
0.55f
py
> f
pj
f
pES
, 0.55f
py
,
( )
182.2 ksi = :=
TimeDependent Losses  Approximate Estimate LRFD 5.9.5.3
Longterm prestress loss due to creep of concrete,
shrinkage of concrete, and relaxation of steel:
f
pLT
10.0
f
pj
A
ps
A
nc.tr
h
st
12.0
h
st
+ f
pR
+ = where...
h
1.7 0.01 H 1 = :=
st
5
1
f
ci.beam
ksi
+
0.7 = :=
f
pR
2.4ksi strand
type
"LowLax" = if
10.0ksi ( ) strand
type
"StressRelieved" = if
2.4ksi = :=
f
pLT
10.0
f
pj
A
ps
A
nc.tr
h
st
12.0ksi
h
st
+ f
pR
+ 24.2ksi = :=
Total Prestress Loss  Approximate Estimate
The total loss, f
pT
0
, is expressed as........ f
pT
0
f
pLT
24.2ksi = :=
Percent loss of strand force..................... Loss
f
pT
0
f
pj
12% = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 62
TimeDependent Losses  Refined Estimates LRFD 5.9.5.4
Longterm prestress loss due to creep of concrete,
shrinkage of concrete, and relaxation of steel:
f
pLT
f
pSR
f
pCR
+ f
pR1
+
( )
id
f
pSD
f
pCD
+ f
pR2
+ f
pSS
( )
df
+ = where...
Shrinkage
id
f
pSR
bid
E
p
K
id
= where...
b.fi
1.9k
vs.g
k
hc.g
k
f.g
k
td.fi
T
0
0.118
1.3 = :=
d.fd
1.9k
vs.d
k
hc.d
k
f.d
k
td.d.fd
T
0
0.118
1.7 = :=
b.di
1.9k
vs.g
k
hc.g
k
f.g
k
td.di
T
0
0.118
1 = :=
b.fd
1.9k
vs.g
k
hc.g
k
f.g
k
td.fd
T
1
0.118
0.7 = :=
Shrinkage strain
bid
k
vs.g
k
hs
k
f.g
k
td.di
0.00048 0.000248 = :=
Transformed section coefficient K
id
1
1
E
p
E
ci.beam
A
ps
A
nc.tr
1
A
nc.tr
e
cg.nc.tr
2
I
nc.tr
+

\



.
1 0.7
b.fi
+
( )
+
0.8 = :=
Losses due to shrinkage of girder between
time of transfer and deck placement
f
pSR
bid
E
p
K
id
5.7ksi = :=
Creep
id
Losses due to creep of girder between
time of transfer and deck placement
f
pCR
E
p
E
ci.beam
f
cgp
b.di
K
id
16.1 ksi = :=
Relaxation of Prestressing Strands
id
Per AASHTO LRFD 5.9.5.4.2c f
pR1
may be
assumed to equal 1.2 ksi for lowrelaxation strands.
K
L
30 strand
type
"LowLax" = if
7 otherwise
30 = :=
Losses due to relaxation of
prestressing strands between time
of transfer and deck placement
f
pR1
f
pt
K
L
f
pt
f
py
0.55

\


.
strand
type
"StressRelieved" = if
1.2ksi strand
type
"LowLax" = if
1.2ksi = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 63
Total TimeDependent Losses  Between
time of transfer and deck placement f
pLT.id
f
pSR
f
pCR
+ f
pR1
+ 23ksi = :=
Shrinkage
df
f
pSD
bdf
E
p
K
df
=
Shrinkage Strain
bdf
k
vs.g
k
hs
k
f.g
k
td.fd
0.00048 0.000324 = :=
Transformed section coefficient K
df
1
1
E
p
E
ci.beam
A
ps
A
tr
1
A
tr
e
cg.tr
2
I
tr
+

\



.
1 0.7
b.fi
+
( )
+
0.812 = :=
Losses due to shrinkage of girder between
deck placement and final time
f
pSD
bdf
E
p
K
df
7.5ksi = :=
Creep
df
f
pCD
E
p
E
ci.beam
f
cgp
fi
di
( )
K
df
E
p
E
c.beam
f
cd
fd
K
df
+ =
Permanent load moments at midspan acting on
noncomposite section (except beam at
transfer)................................................
M
nc
M
Slab
M
Forms
+ :=
M
nc
1186.3kip ft =
Permanent load moments at midspan acting
on composite section..............................
M M
Trb
M
Fws
+ M
Utility
+ :=
M 141.7 kip ft =
Loss in the strands P
loss
A
ps
f
pLT.id
194.7 kip = :=
Change in concrete stress at
centroid of prestressing strands
due to longterm losses between
transfer and deck placement
f
cd
P
loss
A
nc.tr
P
loss
e
cg.nc.tr
( )
2
I
nc.tr
M
nc
e
cg.nc.tr
I
nc.tr
M e
cg.tr
I
tr
1.8 ksi = :=
Losses due to creep
between deck placement
and final time
f
pCD
E
p
E
ci.beam
f
cgp
b.fi
b.di
( )
K
df
E
p
E
c.beam
f
cd
b.fd
K
df
+ 1.3 ksi = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 64
Relaxation
df
Losses due to relaxation of prestressing strands
in composite section between time of deck
placement and final time f
pR2
f
pR1
1.2ksi = :=
Shrinkage of Decking
df
f
pSS
E
p
E
c.beam
f
cdf
K
df
1 0.7
b.fd
+
( )
= where...
Shrinkage Strain
ddf
k
vs.d
k
hs
k
f.d
k
td.fd
0.00048 0.000413 = :=
Eccentricity of deck with respect to gross
composite section
e
d
y
t
t
slab
2
12.9 in = :=
Change in concrete stress at centroid of
prestressing strands due to shrinkage of
deck concrete
f
cdf
ddf
b
eff.interior
t
slab
E
c.slab
1 0.7
d.fd
+
( )
1
A
tr
e
cg.tr
e
d
I
tr
\


.
0.1 ksi = :=
Losses due to shrinkage of deck composite
section
f
pSS
E
p
E
c.beam
f
cdf
K
df
1 0.7
b.fd
+
( )
0.8 ksi = :=
Total TimeDependent Losses  Between deck placement and final time
f
pLT.df
f
pSD
f
pCD
+ f
pR2
+ f
pSS
8.2ksi = :=
Total TimeDependent Losses
f
pLT
f
pLT.id
f
pLT.df
+ 31.2 ksi = :=
Total Prestress Loss  Refined Estimes
f
pT
1
f
pLT
31.2ksi = :=
The total loss, f
pT
1
, is expressed as.....
Percent loss of strand force..................... Loss
f
pT
1
f
pj
15.4 % = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 65
Per SDG 4.3.1.C.6, use the Approximate Estimate of TimeDependent
Losses for precast, pretensioned, normal weight concrete members designed as simply supported beams
(typical condition). For all other members use the Refined Estimates of TimeDependent Losses.
(If refined method is preferred
type in " Refined Estimate"
under conditions.)
Conditions "Approximate Estimate" :=
Total Prestress Loss
Prestressing Stress Prior to Transfer f
pj 202.50 ksi
Prestressing Stress at Transfer f
pt 182.22 ksi
Loss Due to Relaxation f
pR 2.40 ksi
Total Prestressing Loss f
pT 24.24 ksi
Loss
11.97 %
St r ess Summar y Tabl e
Approximate Estimate
B3. Stress Limits (Compression = +, Tension = )
Initial Stresses [SDG 4.3]
Limit of tension in top of beam at release (straight strand only)
f
top.outer15
0.93 ksi =
Outer 15 percent of design beam........
f
top.center70
0.2 ksi =
Center 70 percent of design beam......
Compressive concrete strength at
release...................................................
f
ci.beam
6 ksi =
Limit of compressive concrete strength
at release.............................................. 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi =
The actual stress in strand after losses at
transfer have occured............................. f
pe
f
pj
202.5 ksi = :=
Calculate the stress at the top and bottom of beam at release:
Total force of strands............................. F
pe
f
pe
A
ps
1713.8kip = :=
pjTop70
M
RelBeam
S
topnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
topnc.tr
\


.
+ 0.551 ksi = :=
Stress at top of beam at center 70%.........
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 66
pjBotBeam
M
RelBeam
S
botnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
botnc.tr
+

\


.
+ 3.179 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam at center 70%...
Top70Release "OK"
pjTop70
0 ksi s
pjTop70
f
top.center70
> . if
"OK"
pjTop70
0 ksi >
pjTop70
0.6f
ci.beam
s . if
"NG" otherwise
:= where f
top.center70
0.2 ksi =
where
0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi =
Top70Release "OK" =
BotRelease "OK"
pjBotBeam
0.6f
ci.beam
s if
"NG"
pjBotBeam
0 ksi s if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where
0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi =
BotRelease "OK" =
(Note: Some Mathcad equation explanations
The check for the top beam stresses checks to see if tension is present,
pjTop70
0 ksi s , and then 
applies the proper allowable. A separate line is used for the compression and tension allowables.
The last line, "NG" otherwise, is a catchall statement such that if the actual stress is not within
the allowables, it is considered " NG".)
For the bottom beam, the first line,
pjBotBeam
0.6f
ci.beam
s , checks that the allowable 
compression is not exceeded. The second line assures that no tension is present, if there is then the
variable will be set to " NG". The catchall statement, "NG" otherwise, will be ignored since the
first line was satisfied. If the stress were to exceed the allowable, neither of the first two lines will
be satisfied therefore the last line would produce the answer of " NG".
Final Stresses [LRFD Table 5.9.4.2.11 & 5.9.4.2.21]
(1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads
f
allow1.TopSlab
0.45 f
c.slab
2.025 ksi = :=
Limit of compression in slab..............
f
allow1.TopBeam
0.45f
c.beam
3.825 ksi = :=
Limit of compression in top of beam..
(2) Sum of effective prestress, permanent loads and transient loads
(Note: The engineer is reminded that this check needs to be made also for stresses during shipping and
handling. For purposes of this design example, this calculation is omitted).
f
allow2.TopSlab
0.60 f
c.slab
2.7ksi = :=
Limit of compression in slab..............
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 67
f
allow2.TopBeam
0.60f
c.beam
5.1ksi = :=
Limit of compression in top of beam..
(3) Tension at bottom of beam only
Limit of tension in bottom of beam.....
f
allow3.BotBeam
0.0948 f
c.beam
ksi
( )
Environment
super
"Extremely" = if
0.19 f
c.beam
ksi
( )
otherwise
0.554 ksi = :=
(Note: For not worse than moderate corrosion
conditions.) Environment
super
"Slightly" =
B4. Service I and III Limit States
At service, check the stresses of the beam for compression and tension. In addition, the forces in the strands
after losses need to be checked.
The actual stress in strand after all losses
have occured.........................................
f
pe
f
pj
f
pT
178.3 ksi = :=
Allowable stress in strand after all losses
have occured.........................................
f
pe.Allow
0.80f
py
194.4 ksi = :=
LRFD
5.9.3
"OK, stress at service after losses satisfied" f
pe
f
pe.Allow
s if
"NG, stress at service after losses not satisfied" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.9.3
"OK, stress at service after losses satisfied" =
Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at midspan:
F
pe
f
pe
A
ps
1508.6kip = :=
Total force of strands.............................
peTopBeam
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
topnc.tr
0.846 ksi = :=
Stress at top of beam..............................
peBotBeam
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
botnc.tr
+ 3.849 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam.........................
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 68
Service I Limit State
The compressive stresses in the top of the beam will be checked for the following conditions:
(1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads
(2) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads and transient loads
(Note: Transient loads can include loads during shipping and handling. For purposes of this design
example, these loads are omitted).
(1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads. The stress due to permanent loads can be calculated as
follows:
1
TopSlab
M
Trb
M
Fws
+ M
Utility
+
S
slab.tr
0.076 ksi = :=
Stress in top of slab..........................
Stress in top of beam........................
1
TopBeam
M
Beam
M
Slab
+ M
Forms
+
S
topnc.tr
M
Trb
M
Fws
+ M
Utility
+
S
top.tr
peTopBeam
+

\


.
+ 2.806 ksi = :=
Check top slab stresses..................... TopSlab1 if 1
TopSlab
f
allow1.TopSlab
s "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
where f
allow1.TopSlab
2.03ksi = TopSlab1 "OK" =
Check top beam stresses................... TopBeam1 if 1
TopBeam
f
allow1.TopBeam
s "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
where f
allow1.TopBeam
3.83 ksi = TopBeam1 "OK" =
(2) Sum of effective prestress, permanent loads and transient loads
2
TopSlab
1
TopSlab
M
LLI
S
slab.tr
+ 1.043 ksi = :=
Stress in top of slab..........................
2
TopBeam
1
TopBeam
M
LLI
S
top.tr
+ 3.24 ksi = :=
Stress in top of beam........................
TopSlab2 if 2
TopSlab
f
allow2.TopSlab
s "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
Check top slab stresses.....................
where f
allow2.TopSlab
2.7ksi = TopSlab2 "OK" =
TopBeam2 if 2
TopBeam
f
allow2.TopBeam
s "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
Check top beam stresses...................
where f
allow2.TopBeam
5.1ksi =
TopBeam2 "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 69
Service III Limit State total stresses
(3) Tension at bottom of beam only
Stress in bottom of beam..................
3
BotBeam
M
Beam
M
Slab
M
Forms
S
botnc.tr
M
Trb
M
Fws
M
Utility
S
bot.tr
+
peBotBeam
+ 0.8
M
LLI
S
bot.tr
+ 0.377 k = :=
BotBeam3 if 3
BotBeam
f
allow3.BotBeam
> "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
Check bottom beam stresses.............
where f
allow3.BotBeam
0.55 ksi = BotBeam3 "OK" =
B5. Strength I Limit State moment capacity [LRFD 5.7.3]
Strength I Limit State design moment.......
M
r
5844.0ft kip =
Factored resistance
M
r
M
n
=
Nominal flexural resistance
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
y
d
s
a
2
\


.
+ A'
s
f'
s
d'
s
a
2
\


.
0.85 f'
c
b b
w
( )
h
f
a
2
h
f
2
\


.
+ =
For a rectangular, section without compression reinforcement,
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
y
d
s
a
2
\


.
+ =
where a
1
c =
and
c
A
ps
f
pu
A
s
f
s
+
0.85 f'
c
1
b k A
ps
f
pu
d
p
+
=
In order to determine the average stress in the prestressing steel to be used for moment capacity, a factor "k"
needs to be computed.
Value for "k".......................................... k 2 1.04
f
py
f
pu
\


.
0.28 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 70
Stress block factor.................................
1
min max 0.85 0.05
f
c.beam
4000psi
1000psi

\


.
0.65 ,
(
(
0.85 ,
(
(
0.65 = :=
Distance from the compression fiber to cg
of prestress........................................... d
p
h strand
cg
in 40.6 in = :=
(Note: For strength calculations, deck
reinforcement is conservatively ignored.)
Area of reinforcing mild steel................... A
s
0 in
2
:=
Distance from compression fiber to
reinforcing mild steel............................... d
s
0 in :=
Assume f
s
f
y
= [LRFD 5.7.2.1] f
s
f
y
60ksi = :=
Distance between the neutral axis and
compressive face................................... c
A
ps
f
pu
A
s
f
s
+
0.85f
c.beam
1
b
tr.interior
k A
ps
f
pu
d
p
+
5.4in = :=
Depth of equivalent stress block............... a
1
c 3.5in = :=
Average stress in prestressing steel........... f
ps
f
pu
1 k
c
d
p

\


.
260 ksi = :=
Resistance factor for tension and flexure of
prestressed members [LRFD 5.5.4.2]......
' 1.00 =
Moment capacity provided...................... M
r.prov
' A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
+
(
(
7128kip ft = :=
Check moment capacity provided exceeds
required................................................. Moment
Capacity
"OK" M
r.prov
M
r
> if
"NG" otherwise

\


.
:=
Moment
Capacity
"OK" =
where M
r
5844ft kip =
Check assumption that f
s
f
y
= ................. Check_f
s
if A
s
0 = "OK" , if
c
d
s
0.6 < "OK" , "Not OK" ,

\


.
,

\


.
:=
Check_f
s
"OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 71
B6. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Minimum Reinforcement
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the factored moment capacity provided is at least equal to the
lesser of the cracking moment and 1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load
combinations.
Modulus of Rupture............................... f
r
0.24 f
c.beam
ksi 0.7 ksi = := [SDG 1.4.1.B]
Total unfactored dead load moment on
noncomposite section............................. M
d.nc
M
Beam
M
nc
+ 1995.4kip ft = :=
Flexural cracking variability factor
(1.2 for precast segmental structures,
1.6 otherwise)........................................
1
1.6 :=
Prestress variability factor (1.1 for bonded
tendons, 1.0 for unbonded tendons).........
2
1.1 :=
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of reinforcement
(0.67 for A615, Grade 60 reinforcement,
0.75 for A706, Grade 60 reinforcement,
1.00 for prestressed concrete structures)..
3
1.00 :=
Cracking moment............. M
cr
3
1
f
r
2
peBotBeam
+
( )
S
bot.tr
M
d.nc
S
bot.tr
S
botnc.tr
1

\


.
+ 2294kip ft = :=
Required flexural resistance............. M
r.reqd
min M
cr
133 % M
r
,
( )
2293.5kip ft = :=
Check the capacity provided, M
r.prov
7127.9ft kip = , exceeds minimum requirements, M
r.reqd
2293.5ft kip =
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" M
r.prov
M
r.reqd
> if
"NG, reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 72
C. Interior Beam Debonding Requirements
C1. Strand Pattern definition at Support
Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Support 0 =
Rows of
strand from
bottom of
beam
Input
(inches)
Number
of
strands
per row MIDSPAN
Number of
strands per
row SUPPORT COMMENTS
y9 = 19 n9 = 0 n9 = 0
y8 = 17 n8 = 0 n8 = 0
y7 = 15 n7 = 0 n7 = 0
y6 = 13 n6 = 0 n6 = 0
y5 = 11 n5 = 0 n5 = 0
y4 = 9 n4 = 0 n4 = 0
y3 = 7 n3 = 5 n3 = 5
y2 = 5 n2 = 17 n2 = 15
y1 = 3 n1 = 17 n1 = 11
St r and
c.g. = 4.61 39
Tot al
st r ands = 31
SUPPORT Strand Pattern Data
A
ps.Support
strands
total
StrandArea
( )
6.7in
2
= :=
Area of prestressing steel........................
Noncomposite area transformed............. A
nc.tr
A
nc
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Support
+ 840.4 in
2
= :=
Noncomposite neutral axis transformed... yb
nc.tr
yb
nc
A
nc
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Support
+
A
nc.tr
16in = :=
Noncomposite inertia transformed... I
nc.tr
I
nc
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Support
+ 131886in
4
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus top......... S
topnc.tr
I
nc.tr
h
nc
yb
nc.tr
6600.4in
3
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus bottom.... S
botnc.tr
I
nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
8233.5in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 73
C2. Stresses at support at release
The actual stress in strand after losses at
transfer have occured............................. f
pe
f
pj
202.5 ksi = :=
Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release:
Total force of strands............................. F
pe.s
f
pe
A
ps.Support
1362.2kip = :=
Eccentricity of strands at support............ e
cg.nc.tr.s
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in 11.4in = :=
Stress at top of beam at support...............
pjTopEnd
F
pe.s
A
nc.tr
F
pe.s
e
cg.nc.tr.s
S
topnc.tr
\


.
0.733 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam at support...
pjBotEnd
F
pe.s
A
nc.tr
F
pe.s
e
cg.nc.tr.s
S
botnc.tr
+

\


.
3.508 ksi = :=
TopRelease "OK"
pjTopEnd
0 ksi s
pjTopEnd
f
top.outer15
> . if
"OK"
pjTopEnd
0 ksi >
pjTopEnd
0.6f
ci.beam
s . if
"NG" otherwise
:=
TopRelease "OK" =
where f
top.outer15
0.93 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi =
BotRelease "OK"
pjBotEnd
0.6f
ci.beam
s if
"NG"
pjBotEnd
f
top.center70
s if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = where f
top.center70
0.2 ksi = BotRelease "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 74
C3. Strand Pattern definition at Debond1
Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Debond1 10ft =
Rows of
strand from
bottom of
beam
Input
(inches)
Number
of
strands
per row MIDSPAN SUPPORT
Number of
strands per
row DEBOND1 COMMENTS
y9 = 19 n9 = 0 0 n9 = 0
y8 = 17 n8 = 0 0 n8 = 0
y7 = 15 n7 = 0 0 n7 = 0
y6 = 13 n6 = 0 0 n6 = 0
y5 = 11 n5 = 0 0 n5 = 0
y4 = 9 n4 = 0 0 n4 = 0
y3 = 7 n3 = 5 5 n3 = 5
y2 = 5 n2 = 17 15 n2 = 17
y1 = 3 n1 = 17 11 n1 = 13
St r and
c.g. = 4.54 39 31
Tot al
st r ands = 35
DEBOND1 Strand Pattern Data
A
ps.Debond1
strands
total
StrandArea
( )
7.6in
2
= :=
Area of prestressing steel........................
Noncomposite area transformed............. A
nc.tr
A
nc
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond1
+ 844.7 in
2
= :=
Noncomposite neutral axis transformed... yb
nc.tr
yb
nc
A
nc
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond1
+
A
nc.tr
16in = :=
Noncomposite inertia transformed.. I
nc.tr
I
nc
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond1
+ 132454in
4
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus top......... S
topnc.tr
I
nc.tr
h
nc
yb
nc.tr
6608.5in
3
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus bottom.... S
botnc.tr
I
nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
8300.7in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 75
C4. Stresses at Debond1 at Release
The actual stress in strand after losses at
transfer have occured............................. f
pe
f
pj
202.5 ksi = :=
Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release:
Total force of strands............................. F
pe
f
pe
A
ps.Debond1
1538kip = :=
Eccentricity of strands at Debond1.......... e
cg.nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in 11.4in = :=
Stress at top of beam at Debond1............
pjTop15
M
RelBeamD1
S
topnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
topnc.tr
\


.
+ 0.232 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam at Debond1......
pjBotBeam
M
RelBeamD1
S
botnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
botnc.tr
+

\


.
+ 3.455 ksi = :=
Top stress limit.............................. f
top.limit
if Debond1 0.15L
beam
s f
top.outer15
, f
top.center70
,
( )
0.93 ksi = :=
TopRelease "OK"
pjTop15
0 ksi s
pjTop15
f
top.limit
> . if
"OK"
pjTop15
0 ksi >
pjTop15
0.6f
ci.beam
s . if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.limit
0.93 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = TopRelease "OK" =
BotRelease "OK"
pjBotBeam
0.6f
ci.beam
s if
"NG"
pjBotBeam
f
top.center70
s if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = where f
top.center70
0.2 ksi = BotRelease "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 76
C5. Strand Pattern definition at Debond2
Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Debond2 20ft =
Rows of
strand from
bottom of
beam
Input
(inches)
Numbe
r of
strands
per MIDSPAN SUPPORT DEBOND1
Number of
strands per
row DEBOND2 COMMENTS
y9 = 19 n9 = 0 0 0 n9 = 0
y8 = 17 n8 = 0 0 0 n8 = 0
y7 = 15 n7 = 0 0 0 n7 = 0
y6 = 13 n6 = 0 0 0 n6 = 0
y5 = 11 n5 = 0 0 0 n5 = 0
y4 = 9 n4 = 0 0 0 n4 = 0
y3 = 7 n3 = 5 5 5 n3 = 5
y2 = 5 n2 = 17 15 17 n2 = 17
y1 = 3 n1 = 17 11 13 n1 = 17
St r and
c.g. = 4.38 39 31 35
Tot al
st r ands = 39 Al l strands are acti ve beyond thi s poi nt
DEBOND2 Strand Pattern Data
A
ps.Debond2
strands
total
StrandArea
( )
8.5in
2
= :=
Area of prestressing steel........................
Noncomposite area transformed............. A
nc.tr
A
nc
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond2
+ 849 in
2
= :=
Noncomposite neutral axis transformed... yb
nc.tr
yb
nc
A
nc
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond2
+
A
nc.tr
15.9in = :=
Noncomposite inertia transformed.... I
nc.tr
I
nc
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond2
+ 133104in
4
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus top......... S
topnc.tr
I
nc.tr
h
nc
yb
nc.tr
6619in
3
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus bottom.... S
botnc.tr
I
nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
8376in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 77
C6. Stresses at Debond2 at Release
The actual stress in strand after losses at
transfer have occured............................. f
pe
f
pj
202.5 ksi = :=
Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release:
Total force of strands............................. F
pe
f
pe
A
ps.Debond2
1713.8kip = :=
Eccentricity of strands at Debond2.......... e
cg.nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in 11.51 in = :=
Stress at top of beam at Debond2............
pjTop15
M
RelBeamD2
S
topnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
topnc.tr
\


.
+ 0.092 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam at Debond2.......
pjBotBeam
M
RelBeamD2
S
botnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
botnc.tr
+

\


.
+ 3.54 ksi = :=
pjBotBeam
3.54ksi =
Top stress limit................................. f
top.limit
if Debond2 0.15L
beam
s f
top.outer15
, f
top.center70
,
( )
0.2 ksi = :=
TopRelease "OK"
pjTop15
0 ksi s
pjTop15
f
top.limit
> . if
"OK"
pjTop15
0 ksi >
pjTop15
0.6f
ci.beam
s . if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.limit
0.2 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = TopRelease "OK" =
BotRelease "OK"
pjBotBeam
0.6f
ci.beam
s if
"NG"
pjBotBeam
f
top.center70
s if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.center70
0.2 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = BotRelease "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 78
D. Shear Design
D1. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance [LRFD 5.8.3.3]
The nominal shear resistance, Vn, shall be determined as the lesser of:
V
n
V
c
V
s
+ V
p
+ =
V
n
0.25 f'
c
b
v
d
v
V
p
+ =
The shear resistance of a concrete member may be separated into a component, V
c
, that relies on tensile
stresses in the concrete, a component, V
s
, that relies on tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement, and a
component, V
p
, that is the vertical component of the prestressing force.
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section.................................................. V
c
0.0316 f
c
b
v
d
v
=
Nominal shear resistance of shear
reinforcement section.............................. V
s
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
s
=
Nominal shear resistance from prestressing
for straight strands (nondraped).............. V
p
0 kip :=
Effective shear depth.............................. d
v
max d
p
a
2
0.9d
p
, 0.72h ,

\


.
3.24 ft = :=
(Note: This location is the same location as previously estimated for ShearChk 3.2ft = .)
D2.1  and u Parameters Method 1 [LRFD Appendix B5]
Tables are given in LRFD to determine  from the longitudinal strain and
v
f'
c
parameter, so these values need
to be calculated.
Longitudinal strain for sections with
prestressing and transverse reinforcement.
x
M
u
d
v
0.5V
u
cot ( ) + A
ps
f
po
2 E
s
A
s
E
p
A
ps
+
( )
=
Effective width................................ b
v
b
w
:= where b
v
7 in =
Effective shear depth........................ d
v
3.2ft =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 79
Factor indicating ability of diagonally
cracked concrete to transmit tension..
(Note: Values of 2 = and 45deg = cannot be assumed
since beam is prestressed.)
Angle of inclination for diagonal
compressive stresses........................
LRFD Table B5.21 presents values of u and  for sections with transverse reinforcement . LRFD Appendix B5
states that data given by the table may be used over a range of values. Linear interpolation may be used, but is
not recommended for hand calculations.
The initial value of
x
should not be taken greater than 0.001.
The longitudinal strain and
v
f'
c
parameter are calculated for the appropriate critical sections.
The shear stress on the concrete shall be determined as [LRFD 5.8.2.91]:
v
V
u
V
p
b
v
d
v
=
Factored shear force at the critical section
V
u
304.4 kip =
Shear stress on the section...................... v
V
u
v
V
p
v
b
v
d
v
1.243 ksi = :=
Parameter for locked in difference in strain
between prestressing tendon and concrete. f
po
0.7f
pu
189 ksi = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 80
The prestressing strand force becomes
effective with the transfer length.............. L
transfer
60strand
dia
3ft = :=
Since the transfer length, L
transfer
3ft = , is less than the shear check location, ShearChk 3.2ft = , from the
end of the beam, the full force of the strands are effective.
Factored moment on section.................... M
u
max M
shr
V
u
d
v
,
( )
986.1 kip ft = :=
For the longitudinal strain calculations, an
initial assumption for must be made....... 23.3 deg :=
Area of concrete on the tension side of the
member.................................................
A
c
A
nc
b
tf
h
tf
1.5in +
( )
b
w
h
nc
0.5h h
tf
( )
A
ps.Support
A
s
490.3 in
2
= :=
Longitudinal strain..................................
x1
min
M
u
d
v
0.5V
u
cot ( ) + A
ps.Support
f
po
2 E
s
A
s
E
p
A
ps.Support
+
( )
1000 ( ) 1 ,
(
(
(
(
1.6 = :=
x
if
x1
0 < max 0.2
M
u
d
v
0.5 V
u
cot ( ) + A
ps.Support
f
po
2 E
c.beam
A
c
E
s
A
s
+ E
p
A
ps.Support
+
( )
1000 ( ) ,
(
(
(
(
,
x1
,
(
(
(
(
0.121 = :=
v
f'
c
parameter.......................................
v
f
c.beam
0.146 =
Based on LRFD Table B5.21, the values of u and  can be approximately taken as:
Angle of inclination of compression
stresses.................................................
23.3deg =
Factor relating to longitudinal strain on the
shear capacity of concrete...................... 2.79 :=
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section.................................................. V
c
0.0316 f
c.beam
ksi b
v
d
v
69.9kip = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 81
D2.2  and u Parameters Method 2 [LRFD 5.8.3.4.2]
The strain in nonprestressed long tension
reinforcement........................................
s1
min
M
u
d
v
V
u
V
p
+ A
ps.Support
f
po
E
s
A
s
E
p
A
ps.Support
+
0.006 ,

\




.
0.003456 = :=
s
if
s1
0 < max 0.0004
M
u
d
v
V
u
V
p
+ A
ps.Support
f
po
E
c.beam
A
c
E
s
A
s
+ E
p
A
ps.Support
+
,

\




.
,
s1
,

\




.
0.000261 = :=
Angle of inclination of compression stresses
1
4.8
1 750
s
+
4.013 = :=
Factor relating to longitudinal strain on the
shear capacity of concrete.......................
1
29 3500
s
+ 28.1 = :=
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section.................................................. V
c.1
0.0316
1
f
c.beam
ksi b
v
d
v
100.6 kip = :=
D2.3  and u Parameters Method 3 [LRFD 5.8.3.4.3]
Nominal shear resistance provided by
concrete when inclined cracking results
from combined shear and moment
V
ci
0.02 f'
c
b
v
d
v
V
d
+
V
i
M
cr
M
max
+ 0.06 f'
c
b
v
d
v
> =
Nominal shear resistance provided by
concrete when inclined cracking results
from excessive principal tensions in web
V
cw
0.06 f'
c
0.30f
pc
+
( )
b
v
d
v
V
p
+ =
Modulus of rupture for LRFD Section
5.8.3.4.3............................................... f
r.5.8.3.4.3
0.2 f
c.beam
ksi 0.583 ksi = :=
Shear force due to unfactored dead
load (DC and DW)
V
d
V
DC.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) V
DW.BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) + 90.3ki = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 82
Moment due to
unfactored dead load on
noncomposite member
M
d
M
BeamInt
ShearChk ( ) M
SlabInt
ShearChk ( ) + M
FormsInt
ShearChk ( ) + 280.5 kip ft = :=
Radius of gyration r
I
nc
A
nc
12.57 in = :=
Compressive stress in concrete after
allowance for all prestress losses at
centroid of cross section
f
pc
F
pe.s
A
nc
1
e
cg.nc.tr.s
y
b
yb
nc
( )
r
2
(
(
(
M
d
y
b
yb
nc
( )
I
nc
+ 0.037 ksi = :=
Compressive stress due to effective
prestress forces only at the extreme
fiber where tensile stress is caused
by externally applied loads
f
cpe
F
pe.s
A
nc
1
e
cg.nc.tr.s
yb
nc
r
2
+

\



.
3.697 ksi = :=
Moment causing flexural cracking at
section due to externally applied loads
M
cre
S
b
f
r.5.8.3.4.3
f
cpe
+
M
d
S
bnc
+

\


.
4173kip ft = :=
Maximum factored moment at section
due to externally applied loads
M
max
1.75M
LLI.Interior
ShearChk ( ) 472.6 kip ft = :=
Factored shear force at section
due to externally applied loads
V
i
1.75 V
LLI.Interior
ShearChk ( ) 191.5 kip = :=
Nominal shear resistance provided by concrete when inclined cracking results from combined shear
and moment
V
ci
max 0.02 f
c.beam
ksi b
v
d
v
V
d
+
V
i
M
cre
M
max
+ 0.06 f
c.beam
ksi b
v
d
v
,

\


.
1797.2kip = :=
Nominal shear resistance provided by concrete when inclined cracking result from excessive principal
tensions in web
V
cw
0.06
f
c.beam
ksi
ksi 0.30f
pc

\


.
b
v
d
v
V
p
+
(
(
44.6 kip = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 83
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section..................................................
V
c.2
min V
ci
V
cw
,
( )
44.6 kip = :=
cot min 1 3
f
pc
f
c.beam
ksi

\



.
+ 1.8 ,
(
(
(
V
ci
V
cw
> if
1.0 otherwise
(
(
(
(
1.038 = :=
2
atan
1
cot

\


.
43.9 deg = :=
2
"NA" :=
v
0.25 f
c.beam
b
v
d
v
V
p
+ ,

\


.
338.2 kip = :=
and................................................. V
s
V
n
V
c
V
p
268.3 kip = :=
Spacing of stirrups
Minimum transverse reinforcement.......... s
min
A
v
f
y
0.0316b
v
f
c.beam
ksi
57.7in = :=
Transverse reinforcement required........... s
req
if V
s
0 s s
min
,
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
V
s
,

\


.
12.5 in = :=
Minimum transverse reinforcement
required................................................ s min s
min
s
req
,
( )
12.5in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 84
Maximum transverse reinforcement spacing
s
max
if
V
u
v
V
p
v
b
v
d
v
( )
0.125 f
c.beam
< min 0.8d
v
24in ,
( )
, min 0.4d
v
12in ,
( )
,
(
(
12i = :=
Spacing of transverse reinforcement
cannot exceed the following spacing........ spacing if s
max
s > s , s
max
,
( )
12in = :=
D3. Longitudinal Reinforcement [LRFD 5.8.3.5]
For sections not subjected to torsion, longitudinal reinforcement shall be proportioned so that at each section
the tensile capacity of the reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member, taking into account any
lack of full development of that reinforcement, shall be proportioned to satisfy:
General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement
T
M
u
d
v
V
u
v
V
p
0.5V
s

\


.
cot ( ) + =
where............................................. V
s
min
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
spacing
V
u
v
,

\


.
279.8 kip = :=
and................................................. T
M
u
d
v
'
V
u
v
V
p
0.5V
s

\


.
i cot ( ) + 7212.7kip = :=
At the shear check location
Longitudinal reinforcement, previously
computed for positive moment design.......
A
ps.Support
6.7in
2
=
Equivalent force provided by this steel...... T
psShearChk
A
ps.Support
f
pe
1362.2kip = :=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" T
psShearChk
T > if
"NG, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"NG, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided" =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 85
At the support location
General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement
T
M
u
d
v
V
u
v
0.5V
s
V
p
\


.
cot ( ) + = where M
u
0 ft kip =
where............................................. V
s
min
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
spacing
V
u
v
,

\


.
279.8 kip = :=
and................................................. T
V
u
v
0.5V
s
V
p
\


.
cot ( ) 460.6 kip = :=
In determining the tensile force that the reinforcement is expected to resist at the inside edge of the bearing
area, the values calculated at d
v
3.2ft = from the face of the support may be used. Note that the force is
greater due to the contribution of the moment at d
v
. For this example, the actual values at the face of the
support will be used.
Longitudinal reinforcement, previously
computed for positive moment design.......
A
ps.Support
6.7in
2
=
The prestressing strand force is not all effective at the support area due to the transfer length required to go
from zero force to maximum force. A factor will be applied that takes this into account.
Transfer length...................................... L
transfer
36in =
Distance from center line of bearing to end
of beam.......................................... J 8 in =
Estimated length of bearing pad............... L
pad
8 in :=
Determine the force effective at the inside edge of the bearing area.
Factor to account for effective force........ Factor
J
L
pad
2
+
L
transfer
0.333 = :=
Equivalent force provided by this steel...... T
psSupport
A
ps.Support
f
pe
Factor 454.1 kip = :=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" T
psSupport
T > if
"NG, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"NG, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided" =
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 86
If the equation is not satisfied, we can increase the shear steel contribution by specifying the actual stirrup spacing
used at this location. Based on the Design Standard, stirrups are at the following spacing.
spacing 3 in :=
recomputing....................................... V
s
min
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
spacing
V
u
v
,

\


.
338.2 kip = :=
and................................................. T
V
u
v
0.5V
s
V
p
\


.
cot ( ) 392.7 kip = :=
Equivalent force provided by this steel.... T
psSupport
A
ps.Support
f
pe
Factor 454.1 kip = :=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" T
psSupport
T > if
"NG, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" =
D4. Interface Shear Reinforcement [LRFD 5.8.4]
Assumed a roughened surface per LRFD
5.8.4.3:
c 0.28ksi := 1.00 := K
1
0.3 := K
2
1.8ksi :=
Distance between the centroid of the
steel in the tension side of the beam to
the center of the compression blocks in
the deck
d
interface.avg
d
p
t
slab
2
:=
V
u.interface
V
u
:=
Interface shear force per unit length per
LRFD C5.8.4.27 V
uh
V
u.interface
d
interface.avg
8.3
kip
in
= :=
V
nh.reqd
V
uh
v
9.2
kip
in
= :=
A
cv
b
tf
in
in

\


.
48
in
2
in
= :=
V
nh.max
min K
2
A
cv
K
1
f
c.slab
A
cv
,
( )
ft 777.6 kip = :=
CheckV
nh.reqd
if V
nh.reqd
ft V
nh.max
< "OK" , "No Good" ,
( )
"OK" = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 87
The minimum reinforcement
requirement may be waived if
V
uh
A
cv
0.21 ksi < assuming requirements of
LRFD 5.8.4.4 are satisfied.
MinInterfaceReinfReqd if
V
uh
A
cv
0.21ksi < "No" , "Yes" ,

\


.
"No" = :=
Minimum interface steel, if required
A
vf.min
if MinInterfaceReinfReqd "Yes" = min 0.05A
cv
ksi
f
y
1.33 V
nh.reqd
c A
cv
f
y
,

\


.
, 0
in
2
ft
,

\



.
0
in
2
ft
= :=
Design interface steel per LRFD
5.8.4.13, if required
A
vf.des
max
V
nh.reqd
c A
cv
f
y
0
in
2
ft
,

\



.
0
in
2
ft
= :=
A
vf.reqd
max A
vf.min
A
vf.des
,
( )
0
in
2
ft
= :=
Area of reinforcement passing through the
interface between the deck and the girder.
Minimum interface steel, if required
A
v.prov.interface
A
v
spacing
2.48
in
2
ft
= :=
TotalInterfaceSteelProvided A
v.prov.interface
2.5
in
2
ft
= :=
TotalInterfaceSteelRequired A
vf.reqd
0
in
2
ft
= :=
CheckInterfaceSteel if
TotalInterfaceSteelProvided
TotalInterfaceSteelRequired 0.001
in
2
ft
+
1 > "OK" , "Add Interface Steel" ,

\




.
"OK" = :=
CR
InterfaceSteel
TotalInterfaceSteelProvided
TotalInterfaceSteelRequired 0.001
in
2
ft
+
2480 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 88
Note:
Typically shear steel is extended up into the deck slab.
These calculations are based on shear steel functioning as interface reinforcing.
The interface_factor can be used to adjust this assumption.
Several important design checks were not performed in this design example (to reduce the length of
calculations). However, the engineer should assure that the following has been done at a minimum:
Design for anchorage steel 
Design for camber 
Design check for beam transportation loads 
Design for fatigue checks when applicable 
E. Summary
Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design  Part I 89
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Prestressed Beam Design  Part II
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\204PSBeam1.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design of the prestressed concrete beam  exterior beam design.
Page Contents
91 A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
A2. Section Properties
A3. Superstructure Loads at Midspan
A4. Superstructure Loads at Debonding Locations
A5. Superstructure Loads at the Other Locations
94 B. Exterior Beam Midspan Moment Design
B1. Strand Pattern definition at Midspan
B2. Prestressing Losses [LRFD 5.9.5]
B3. Stress Limits (Compression = +, Tension = )
B4. Service I and III Limit States
B5. Strength I Limit State moment capacity [LRFD 5.7.3]
B6. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
110 C. Exterior Beam Debonding Requirements
C1. Strand Pat tern definition at Support
C2. Stresses at support at release
C3. Strand Pat tern definition at Debond1
C4. Stresses at Debond1 at Release
C5. Strand Pat tern definition at Debond2
C6. Stresses at Debond2 at Release
116 D. Shear Design
D1. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance [LRFD 5.8.3.3]
D2.13  and u Parameters Methods 13
D3. Longitudinal Reinforcement [LRFD 5.8.3.5]
D4. Interface Shear Reinforcement
126 E. Deflection Check
127 F. Summary
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 90
A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
Overall bridge length....... L
bridge
180ft =
Design span length......... L
span
90ft =
Skew angle.................... Skew 20 deg =
A2. Section Properties
NONCOMPOSITE PROPERTIES FIB36
Moment of Iner t ia [ in
4
] I
nc
127545
Sect ion Ar ea [ in
2
] A
nc
807
yt op [ in] yt
nc
19.51
ybot [ in] yb
nc
16.49
Dept h [ in] h
nc
36
Top f lange widt h [ in] b
tf
48
Top f lange dept h [ in] h
tf
3.5
Widt h of web [ in] b
w
7
Bot t om f lange widt h [ in] b
bf
38
Bot t om f lange dept h [ in] h
bf
7
Bot t om f lange t aper [ in] E 15.5
Sect ion Modulus t op [ in
3
] S
tnc
6537
Sect ion Modulus bot t om [ in
3
] S
bnc
7735
COMPOSITE SECTION PROPERTIES INTERIOR EXTERIOR
Ef f ect ive slab widt h [ in] b
eff.interior /exterior
120.0 139.4
Tr ansf or med slab widt h [ in] b
tr .interior /exterior
87.3 101.5
Height of composit e sect ion [ in] h 45.0 45.0
Ef f ect ive slab ar ea [ in
2
] A
slab
698.5 811.6
Ar ea of composit e sect ion [ in
2
] A
Inter ior/Exterior
1553.5 1666.6
Neut r al axis t o bot t om f iber [ in] y
b
28.1 29.0
Neut r al axis t o t op f iber [ in] y
t
16.9 16.0
Iner t ia of composit e sect ion [ in
4
] I
Interior /Exter ior
359675.0 377743.8
Sect ion modulus t op of slab [ in
3
] S
t
21318.8 23612.2
Sect ion modulus t op of beam [ in
3
] S
tb
45694.6 53980.3
Sect ion modulus bot t om of beam [ in
3
] S
b
12786.8 13024.7
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 91
A3. Superstructure Loads at Midspan
DC Moment of Beam at Release............... M
RelBeam
M
RelBeamExt
Midspan ( ) 833.7 kip ft = :=
DC Moment of Beam.............................. M
Beam
M
BeamExt
Midspan ( ) 809.1 kip ft = :=
DC Moment of Slab............................... M
Slab
M
SlabExt
Midspan ( ) 1023.9kip ft = :=
DC Moment of stayinplace forms.......... M
Forms
M
FormsExt
Midspan ( ) 57.8kip ft = :=
DC Moment of traffic railing barriers........ M
Trb
M
TrbExt
Midspan ( ) 141.7 kip ft = :=
DW Moment of future wearing surface.... M
Fws
M
FwsExt
Midspan ( ) 0 kip ft = :=
DW Moment of Utilities.......................... M
Utility
M
UtilityExt
Midspan ( ) 0 kip ft = :=
Live Load Moment................................. M
LLI
M
LLI.Exterior
Midspan ( ) 2250.6kip ft = :=
Service1 1.0DC 1.0DW + 1.0LL + =
Service I Limit State......................... 
M
Srv1
1.0 M
Beam
M
Slab
+ M
Forms
+ M
Trb
+
( )
1.0 M
Fws
M
Utility
+
( )
+ 1.0 M
LLI
( )
+ 4283kip ft = :=
Service3 1.0DC 1.0DW + 0.8LL + =
Service III Limit State....................... 
M
Srv3
1.0 M
Beam
M
Slab
+ M
Forms
+ M
Trb
+
( )
1.0 M
Fws
M
Utility
+
( )
+ 0.8 M
LLI
( )
+ 3832.9kip ft = :=
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + =
Strength I Limit State........................ 
M
r
1.25 M
Beam
M
Slab
+ M
Forms
+ M
Trb
+
( )
1.50 M
Fws
M
Utility
+
( )
+ 1.75 M
LLI
( )
+ 6479.1kip ft = :=
A4. Superstructure Loads at Debonding Locations
DC Moment of Beam at Release 
Debond1 10ft = Location........................ M
RelBeamD1
M
RelBeamExt
Debond1 ( ) 332.4 kip ft = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 92
DC Moment of Beam at Release 
Debond2 20ft = Location....................... M
RelBeamD2
M
RelBeamExt
Debond2 ( ) 580.7 kip ft = :=
A5. Superstructure Loads at the Other Locations
At Support location
DC Shear &
Moment......................... V
DC.BeamExt
Support ( ) 92.6 kip = M
DC.BeamExt
Support ( ) 0 kip ft =
DW Shear & Moment .... V
DW.BeamExt
Support ( ) 0 kip = M
DW.BeamExt
Support ( ) 0 kip ft =
LL Shear & Moment.. .... V
LLI.Exterior
Support ( ) 116.1 kip = M
LLI.Exterior
Support ( ) 0 kip ft =
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + =
Strength I Limit State........................ 
V
u.Support
1.25V
DC.BeamExt
Support ( ) 1.50 V
DW.BeamExt
Support ( )
( )
+ 1.75 V
LLI.Exterior
Support ( )
( )
+ 318.9 k = :=
At Shear Check location
DC Shear &
Moment......................... V
DC.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) 85.9kip = M
DC.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) 285.7 kip ft =
DW Shear & Moment .... V
DW.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) 0 kip = M
DW.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) 0 kip ft =
LL Shear & Moment.. .... V
LLI.Exterior
ShearChk ( ) 110.4 kip = M
LLI.Exterior
ShearChk ( ) 335.3 kip ft =
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + =
Strength I Limit State........................ 
V
u
1.25V
DC.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) 1.50 V
DW.BeamExt
ShearChk ( )
( )
+ 1.75 V
LLI.Exterior
ShearChk ( )
( )
+ 300.6 k = :=
M
shr
1.25M
DC.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) 1.50 M
DW.BeamExt
ShearChk ( )
( )
+ 1.75 M
LLI.Exterior
ShearChk ( )
( )
+ 944ft k = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 93
B. Exterior Beam Midspan Moment Design
B1. Strand Pattern definition at Midspan
Using the following schematic, the proposed strand pattern at the midspan section can be defined.
STRAND PATTERN DEFINITIONS AND BEAM LOCATIONS
Support 0 = ShearChk 3.2ft = Debond1 10ft = Debond2 20ft = Midspan 43.88ft =
Strand pattern at midspan
Strand type.................... strand
type
"LowLax" :=
(Note: Options "LowLax" "StressRelieved" ( )
Strand size..................... strand
dia
0.6in :=
(Note: Options 0.5in 0.5625in 0.6in ( )
Strand area.................... StrandArea 0.153 strand
dia
0.5in = if
0.192 strand
dia
0.5625in = if
0.217 strand
dia
0.6in = if
0.0 otherwise

\






.
in
2
0.217 in
2
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 94
Define the number of strands
and eccentricity of strands
from bottom of beam......
Rows of strand
from bottom of
beam
Input
(inches)
Number of
strands
per row MIDSPAN
y9 = 19 n9 = 0
y8 = 17 n8 = 0
y7 = 15 n7 = 0
y6 = 13 n6 = 0
y5 = 11 n5 = 0
y4 = 9 n4 = 0
y3 = 7 n3 = 5
y2 = 5 n2 = 17
y1 = 3 n1 = 17
Strand c.g. = 4.38 Total strands = 39
MIDSPAN Strand Pattern Data
BeamType "FIB36" =
Area of prestressing steel........................ A
ps.midspan
strands
total
StrandArea
( )
:=
A
ps.midspan
8.5in
2
=
Transformed section properties
SDG 4.3.1C6 states: When calculating the Service limit state capacity for pretensioned concrete flat slabs and
girders, use the transformed section properties as follows: at strand transfer; for calculation of prestress losses; for
live load application.
Modular ratio between the prestressing
strand and beam. ................................... n
p
E
p
E
c.beam
5.961 = :=
Noncomposite area transformed............. A
nc.tr
A
nc
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ 849 in
2
= :=
Noncomposite neutral axis transformed... yb
nc.tr
yb
nc
A
nc
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+
A
nc.tr
15.9in = :=
Noncomposite inertia transformed... I
nc.tr
I
nc
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ 133104.1in
4
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus top......... S
topnc.tr
I
nc.tr
h
nc
yb
nc.tr
6619.2in
3
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus bottom.... S
botnc.tr
I
nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
8375.9in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 95
Modular ratio between the mild reinforcing
and transformed concrete beam............... n
m
E
s
E
c.beam
6.066 = :=
Assumed area of reinforcement in deck
slab per foot width of deck slab............... A
deck.rebar
0.62
in
2
ft
:=
(Note: Assuming #5 at 12"spacing, top
and bottom longitudinally).
Distance from bottom of beam to rebar.... y
bar
h t
mill
t
slab
2
40.5 in = :=
Total reinforcing steel within effective width
of deck slab.................................. A
bar
b
eff.exterior
A
deck.rebar
7.2in
2
= :=
Composite area transformed.................... A
tr
A
Exterior
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ n
m
1
( )
A
bar
+ 1745in
2
= :=
Composite neutral axis transformed..........
y
b.tr
y'
b
A
Exterior
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ y
bar
n
m
1
( )
A
bar
+
A
tr
28.7in = :=
Composite inertia transformed..................
I
tr
I
Exterior
y
b.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.midspan
+ y
b.tr
y
bar
( )
2
n
m
1
( )
A
bar
+ 407590in
4
= :=
Composite section modulus top of
slab....................................................... S
slab.tr
I
tr
h y
b.tr
24929.6 in
3
= :=
Composite section modulus top of
beam..................................................... S
top.tr
I
tr
h y
b.tr
t
slab
t
mill
h
buildup
59505.2 in
3
= :=
Composite section modulus bottom of
beam..................................................... S
bot.tr
I
tr
y
b.tr
14226.4 in
3
= :=
Eccentricity of strands at midspan for
composite section.................................. e
cg.tr
y
b.tr
strand
cg
in 24.3 in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 96
B2. Prestressing Losses [LRFD 5.9.5]
For prestressing members, the total loss, f
pT
, is expressed as:
f
pT
f
pLT
=
where... longterm loss shrinkage
and creep for concrete, and
relaxation of the steel....... f
pLT
Loss due to elastic shortening is not included in the total loss equation due to the use of transformed section
properties.
Initial Stress in Strands
Specified yield strength of the prestressing
steel [LRFD 5.4.4.1]..............................
f
py
0.85f
pu
( )
strand
type
"StressRelieved" = if
0.90f
pu
( )
strand
type
"LowLax" = if
243 ksi = :=
Jacking stress [LRFD 5.9.3]................... f
pj
0.70 f
pu
( )
strand
type
"StressRelieved" = if
0.75 f
pu
( )
strand
type
"LowLax" = if
202.5 ksi = :=
Elastic Shortening
When calculating concrete stresses using transformed section properties, the effects of losses and gains due to
elastic deformations are implicitly accounted for and f
pES
should not be included in the prestressing force
applied to the transformed section at transfer. However, the elastic shortening loss is needed for calculation of
the stress in prestressing and relaxation of prestressing strands. The loss due to elastic shortening in
pretensioned members shall be taken as:
f
pES
E
p
E
ci
f
cgp
=
where.........
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer of
prestress force.......................................
E
ci.beam
4016.8ksi =
Modulus elasticity of prestressing steel.....
E
p
28500 ksi =
Eccentricity of strands at midspan for
noncomposite section............................
e
cg.nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in 11.5in = :=
Corresponding total prestressing force...... F
ps
A
ps
f
pj
1713.8kip = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 97
Concrete stresses at c.g. of the prestressing
force at transfer and the self wt of the beam
at maximum moment location.................. f
cgp
F
ps
A
nc.tr
F
ps
e
cg.nc.tr
2
I
nc.tr
+
M
RelBeam
e
cg.nc.tr
I
nc.tr
2.86 ksi = :=
Losses due to elastic shortening............... f
pES
E
p
E
ci.beam
f
cgp
20.28 ksi = :=
Prestressing stress at transfer.................. f
pt
if f
pj
f
pES
0.55f
py
> f
pj
f
pES
, 0.55f
py
,
( )
182.22ksi = :=
TimeDependent Losses  Approximate Estimate LRFD 5.9.5.3
Longterm prestress loss due to creep of concrete,
shrinkage of concrete, and relaxation of steel:
f
pLT
10.0
f
pj
A
ps
A
nc.tr
h
st
12.0
h
st
+ f
pR
+ = where...
h
1.7 0.01 H 0.95 = :=
st
5
1
f
ci.beam
ksi
+
0.714 = :=
f
pR
2.4ksi strand
type
"LowLax" = if
10.0ksi ( ) strand
type
"StressRelieved" = if
2.4ksi = :=
f
pLT
10.0
f
pj
A
ps
A
nc.tr
h
st
12.0ksi
h
st
+ f
pR
+ 24.2ksi = :=
Total Prestress Loss  Approximate Estimate
The total loss, f
pT
0
, is expressed as..... f
pT
0
f
pLT
24.2ksi = :=
Percent loss of strand force..................... Loss
f
pT
0
f
pj
12% = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 98
TimeDependent Losses  Refined Estimates LRFD 5.9.5.4
Longterm prestress loss due to creep of concrete,
shrinkage of concrete, and relaxation of steel:
f
pLT
f
pSR
f
pCR
+ f
pR1
+
( )
id
f
pSD
f
pCD
+ f
pR2
+ f
pSS
( )
df
+ = where...
Shrinkage
id
f
pSR
bid
E
p
K
id
= where...
b.fi
1.9k
vs.g
k
hc.g
k
f.g
k
td.fi
T
0
0.118
1.3 = :=
d.fd
1.9k
vs.d
k
hc.d
k
f.d
k
td.d.fd
T
0
0.118
1.7 = :=
b.di
1.9k
vs.g
k
hc.g
k
f.g
k
td.di
T
0
0.118
1 = :=
b.fd
1.9k
vs.g
k
hc.g
k
f.g
k
td.fd
T
1
0.118
0.7 = :=
bid
k
vs.g
k
hs
k
f.g
k
td.di
0.00048 0.000248 = :=
Shrinkage strain.....................................
Transformed section coefficient......... K
id
1
1
E
p
E
ci.beam
A
ps
A
nc.tr
1
A
nc.tr
e
cg.nc.tr
2
I
nc.tr
+

\



.
1 0.7
b.fi
+
( )
+
0.8 = :=
Losses due to shrinkage of girder between
time of transfer and deck placement......... f
pSR
bid
E
p
K
id
5.7ksi = :=
Creep
id
Losses due to creep of girder between
time of transfer and deck placement......... f
pCR
E
p
E
ci.beam
f
cgp
b.di
K
id
16.1 ksi = :=
f
pCR
16.1ksi =
Relaxation of Prestressing Strands
id
K
L
30 strand
type
"LowLax" = if
7 otherwise
30 = :=
Per AASHTO LRFD 5.9.5.4.2c f
pR1
may be assumed to equal 1.2 ksi for
lowrelaxation strands.
Losses due to relaxation of
prestressing strands between time of
transfer and deck placement.............
f
pR1
f
pt
K
L
f
pt
f
py
0.55

\


.
strand
type
"StressRelieved" = if
1.2ksi strand
type
"LowLax" = if
1.2ksi = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 99
Total TimeDependent Losses 
Between time of transfer and deck
placement
f
pLT.id
f
pSR
f
pCR
+ f
pR1
+ 23ksi = :=
Shrinkage
df
f
pSD
bdf
E
p
K
df
=
Shrinkage Strain....................................
bdf
k
vs.g
k
hs
k
f.g
k
td.fd
0.00048 0.000324 = :=
Transformed section coefficient.............. K
df
1
1
E
p
E
ci.beam
A
ps
A
tr
1
A
tr
e
cg.tr
2
I
tr
+

\



.
1 0.7
b.fi
+
( )
+
0.812 = :=
Losses due to shrinkage of girder between
deck placement and final time.................. f
pSD
bdf
E
p
K
df
7.511 ksi = :=
Creep
df
f
pCD
E
p
E
ci.beam
f
cgp
fi
di
( )
K
df
E
p
E
c.beam
f
cd
fd
K
df
+ =
Permanent load moments at midspan
acting on noncomposite section (except
beam at transfer)....................................
M
nc
M
Slab
M
Forms
+ 1081.7kip ft = :=
Permanent load moments at midspan
acting on composite section..................... M M
Trb
M
Fws
+ M
Utility
+ 141.7 kip ft = :=
Loss in the strands................................. P
loss
A
ps
f
pLT.id
194.7 kip = :=
Change in concrete stress at centroid
of prestressing strands due to
longterm losses between transfer
and deck placement.......................
f
cd
P
loss
A
nc.tr
P
loss
e
cg.nc.tr
2
I
nc.tr
M
nc
e
cg.nc.tr
I
nc.tr
M e
cg.tr
I
tr
1.65 ksi = :=
Losses due to creep between deck
placement and final time..............
f
pCD
E
p
E
ci.beam
f
cgp
b.fi
b.di
( )
K
df
E
p
E
c.beam
f
cd
b.fd
K
df
+ 0.87 ksi = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 100
Relaxation
df
Losses due to relaxation of prestressing
strands in composite section between
time of deck placement and final time....... f
pR2
f
pR1
1.2ksi = :=
Shrinkage of Decking
df
f
pSS
E
p
E
c.beam
f
cdf
K
df
1 0.7
b.fd
+
( )
= where...
Shrinkage Strain....................................
ddf
k
vs.d
k
hs
k
f.d
k
td.fd
0.00048 0.000413 = :=
Eccentricity of deck with respect to gross
composite section.................................. e
d
y'
t
t
slab
2
12in = :=
Change in concrete stress at centroid of
prestressing strands due to shrinkage of
deck concrete........................................
f
cdf
ddf
b
eff.interior
t
slab
E
c.slab
1 0.7
d.fd
+
( )
1
A
tr
e
cg.tr
e
d
I
tr
\


.
0.09 ksi = :=
Losses due to shrinkage of deck
composite section.................................. f
pSS
E
p
E
c.beam
f
cdf
K
df
1 0.7
b.fd
+
( )
0.66 ksi = :=
Total TimeDependent Losses  Between deck placement and final time
f
pLT.df
f
pSD
f
pCD
+ f
pR2
+ f
pSS
8.5ksi = :=
Total TimeDependent Losses f
pLT
f
pLT.id
f
pLT.df
+ 31.5 ksi = :=
Total Prestress Loss  Refined Estimates
The total loss, f
pT
1
, is expressed as..... f
pT
1
f
pLT
31.5ksi = :=
Percent loss of strand force..................... Loss
f
pT
1
f
pj
15.6 % = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 101
Per SDG 4.3.1.C.6, use the Approximate Estimate of TimeDependent
Losses for precast, pretensioned, normal weight concrete members designed as simply supported beams
(typical condition). For all other members use the Refined Estimates of TimeDependent Losses.
(If refined method is preferred
type in " Refined Estimate"
under conditions.)
Conditions "Approximate Estimate" :=
Total Prestress Loss
Prestressing Stress Prior to Transfer f
pj 202.5 ksi
Prestressing Stress at Transfer f
pt 182.22 ksi
Loss Due to Relaxation f
pR 2.40 ksi
Total Prestressing Loss f
pT 24.24 ksi
Loss
11.97 %
St r ess Summar y Tabl e
Approximate Estimate
B3. Stress Limits (Compression = +, Tension = )
Initial Stresses [SDG 4.3]
Limit of tension in top of beam at release (straight strand only)
f
top.outer15
0.93 ksi =
Outer 15 percent of design beam........
f
top.center70
0.2 ksi =
Center 70 percent of design beam......
Limit of compressive concrete strength at
release...................................................
0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi =
Total jacking force of strands.................. F
pj
f
pj
A
ps
1713.8kip = :=
The actual stress in strand after losses at
transfer have occured............................. f
pe
f
pj
202.5 ksi = :=
Calculate the stress at the top and bottom of beam at release:
Total force of strands............................. F
pe
f
pe
A
ps
1713.8kip = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 102
pjTop70
M
RelBeam
S
topnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
topnc.tr
\


.
+ 0.55 ksi = :=
Stress at top of beam at center 70%.........
pjBotBeam
M
RelBeam
S
botnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
botnc.tr
+

\


.
+ 3.18 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam at center 70%...
Top70Release "OK"
pjTop70
0 ksi s
pjTop70
f
top.center70
> . if
"OK"
pjTop70
0 ksi >
pjTop70
0.6f
ci.beam
s . if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.center70
0.2 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = Top70Release "OK" =
BotRelease "OK"
pjBotBeam
0.6f
ci.beam
s if
"NG"
pjBotBeam
0 ksi s if
"NG" otherwise
:=
BotRelease "OK" =
where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi =
(Note: Some MathCad equation explanations
The check for the top beam stresses checks to see if tension is present,
pjTop70
0 ksi s , and then 
applies the proper allowable. A separate line is used for the compression and tension allowables.
The last line, "NG" otherwise, is a catchall statement such that if the actual stress is not within
the allowables, it is considered " NG".)
For the bottom beam, the first line,
pjBotBeam
0.6f
ci.beam
s , checks that the allowable 
compression is not exceeded. The second line assures that no tension is present, if there is then the
variable will be set to " NG". The catchall statement, "NG" otherwise, will be ignored since the
first line was satisfied. If the stress were to exceed the allowable, neither of the first two lines will
be satisfied therefore the last line would produce the answer of " NG".
Final Stresses [LRFD Table 5.9.4.2.11 & 5.9.4.2.21]
(1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads
f
allow1.TopSlab
0.45 f
c.slab
2.03ksi = :=
Limit of compression in slab..............
f
allow1.TopBeam
0.45f
c.beam
3.83ksi = :=
Limit of compression in top of beam..
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 103
(2) Sum of effective prestress, permanent loads and transient loads
(Note: The engineer is reminded that this check needs to be made also for stresses during shipping and
handling. For purposes of this design example, this calculation is omitted).
f
allow2.TopSlab
0.60 f
c.slab
2.7ksi = :=
Limit of compression in slab..............
f
allow2.TopBeam
0.60f
c.beam
5.1ksi = :=
Limit of compression in top of beam..
(3) Tension at bottom of beam only
Limit of tension in bottom of beam.....
f
allow3.BotBeam
0.0948 f
c.beam
ksi
( )
Environment
super
"Extremely" = if
0.19 f
c.beam
ksi
( )
otherwise
0.55 ksi = :=
(Note: For not worse than moderate corrosion
conditions.) Environment
super
"Slightly" =
B4. Service I and III Limit States
At service, check the stresses of the beam for compression and tension. In addition, the forces in the strands
after losses need to be checked.
The actual stress in strand after all losses
have occured.........................................
f
pe
f
pj
f
pT
178.3 ksi = :=
Allowable stress in strand after all losses
have occured.........................................
f
pe.Allow
0.80f
py
194.4 ksi = :=
LRFD
5.9.3
"OK, stress at service after losses satisfied" f
pe
f
pe.Allow
s if
"NG, stress at service after losses not satisfied" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.9.3
"OK, stress at service after losses satisfied" =
Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at midspan:
F
pe
f
pe
A
ps
1508.6kip = :=
Total force of strands.............................
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 104
peTopBeam
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
topnc.tr
0.85 ksi = :=
Stress at top of beam..............................
peBotBeam
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
botnc.tr
+ 3.85ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam.........................
Service I Limit State
The compressive stresses in the top of the beam will be checked for the following conditions:
(1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads
(2) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads and transient loads
(Note: Transient loads can include loads during shipping and handling. For purposes of this design
example, these loads are omitted).
(1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads. The stress due to permanent loads can be calculated as
follows:
1
TopSlab
M
Trb
M
Fws
+ M
Utility
+
S
slab.tr
0.07ksi = :=
Stress in top of slab..........................
Stress in top of beam........................
1
TopBeam
M
Beam
M
Slab
+ M
Forms
+
S
topnc.tr
M
Trb
M
Fws
+ M
Utility
+
S
top.tr
+
peTopBeam
+ 2.61 ksi = :=
TopSlab1 if 1
TopSlab
f
allow1.TopSlab
s "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
Check top slab stresses.....................
where f
allow1.TopSlab
2.03ksi = TopSlab1 "OK" =
TopBeam1 if 1
TopBeam
f
allow1.TopBeam
s "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
Check top beam stresses...................
where f
allow1.TopBeam
3.83 ksi =
TopBeam1 "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 105
(2) Sum of effective prestress, permanent loads and transient loads
2
TopSlab
1
TopSlab
M
LLI
S
slab.tr
+ 1.15 ksi = :=
Stress in top of slab..........................
2
TopBeam
1
TopBeam
M
LLI
S
top.tr
+ 3.06 ksi = :=
Stress in top of beam........................
Check top slab stresses..................... TopSlab2 if 2
TopSlab
f
allow2.TopSlab
s "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
where f
allow2.TopSlab
2.7ksi = TopSlab2 "OK" =
Check top beam stresses................... TopBeam2 if 2
TopBeam
f
allow2.TopBeam
s "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
where f
allow2.TopBeam
5.1ksi = TopBeam2 "OK" =
Service III Limit State total stresses
(3) Tension at bottom of beam only
Stress in bottom of beam..................
3
BotBeam
M
Beam
M
Slab
M
Forms
S
botnc.tr
M
Trb
M
Fws
M
Utility
S
bot.tr
+
peBotBeam
+ 0.8
M
LLI
S
bot.tr
+ 0.5 ksi = :=
BotBeam3 if 3
BotBeam
f
allow3.BotBeam
> "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
Check bottom beam stresses.............
where f
allow3.BotBeam
0.55 ksi = BotBeam3 "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 106
B5. Strength I Limit State moment capacity [LRFD 5.7.3]
Strength I Limit State design moment.......
M
r
6479.1ft kip =
Factored resistance
M
r
M
n
=
Nominal flexural resistance
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
y
d
s
a
2
\


.
+ A'
s
f'
s
d'
s
a
2
\


.
0.85 f'
c
b b
w
( )
h
f
a
2
h
f
2
\


.
+ =
For a rectangular, section without compression reinforcement,
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
y
d
s
a
2
\


.
+ = where a
1
c =
and
c
A
ps
f
pu
A
s
f
s
+
0.85 f'
c
1
b k A
ps
f
pu
d
p
+
=
In order to determine the average stress in the prestressing steel to be used for moment capacity, a factor "k"
needs to be computed.
Value for "k".......................................... k 2 1.04
f
py
f
pu
\


.
0.28 = :=
Stress block factor.................................
1
min max 0.85 0.05
f
c.beam
4000psi
1000psi

\


.
0.65 ,
(
(
0.85 ,
(
(
0.65 = :=
Distance from the compression fiber to cg
of prestress........................................... d
p
h strand
cg
in 40.6 in = :=
(Note: For strength calculations, deck
reinforcement is conservatively ignored.)
Area of reinforcing mild steel................... A
s
0 in
2
:=
Distance from compression fiber to
reinforcing mild steel............................... d
s
0 in :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 107
Assume f
s
f
y
= [LRFD 5.7.2.1]...............
f
s
f
y
60ksi = :=
Distance between the neutral axis and
compressive face................................... c
A
ps
f
pu
A
s
f
s
+
0.85f
c.beam
1
b
tr.exterior
k A
ps
f
pu
d
p
+
4.64 in = :=
Depth of equivalent stress block............... a
1
c 3.02 in = :=
Average stress in prestressing steel........... f
ps
f
pu
1 k
c
d
p

\


.
261.4 ksi = :=
Resistance factor for tension and flexure of
prestressed members [LRFD 5.5.4.2]......
' 1.00 =
Moment capacity provided...................... M
r.prov
' A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
+
(
(
7208.2kip ft = :=
Check moment capacity provided exceeds
required................................................. Moment
Capacity
"OK" M
r.prov
M
r
> if
"NG" otherwise

\


.
:=
Moment
Capacity
"OK" =
where
M
r
6479.1ft kip =
Check assumption that f
s
f
y
= ................. Check_f
s
if A
s
0 = "OK" , if
c
d
s
0.6 < "OK" , "Not OK" ,

\


.
,

\


.
:=
Check_f
s
"OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 108
B6. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Minimum Reinforcement
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the factored moment capacity provided is at least equal to the
lesser of the cracking moment and 1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load
combinations.
Modulus of Rupture............................... f
r
0.24 f
c.beam
ksi 0.7 ksi = := [SDG 1.4.1.B]
Total unfactored dead load moment on
noncomposite section............................. M
dnc
M
Beam
M
nc
+ 1890.8kip ft = :=
Flexural cracking variability factor
(1.2 for precast segmental structures,
1.6 otherwise).......................................
1
1.6 :=
Prestress variability (1.1 for bonded tendons,
1.0 for unbonded tendons)......................
2
1.1 :=
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of the
reinforcement (0.67 for A615 Grade 60
reinforcement, 0.75 for A706 Grade 60
reinforcement, 1.00 for prestressed concrete
structures)............................................
3
1.00 :=
Cracking moment...................................
M
cr
3
1
f
r
2
peBotBeam
+
( )
S
bot.tr
M
d.nc
S
bot.tr
S
botnc.tr
1

\


.
(
(
2299kip ft = :=
Required flexural resistance............. M
r.reqd
min M
cr
133 % M
r
,
( )
2299kip ft = :=
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.prov
7208.2ft kip = , exceeds minimum requirements,
M
r.reqd
2299ft kip = .
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" M
r.prov
M
r.reqd
> if
"NG, reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 109
C. Interior Beam Debonding Requirements
C1. Strand Pattern definition at Support
Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Support 0 =
Rows of
strand from
bottom of
beam
Input
(inches)
Number
of
strands
per row MIDSPAN
Number of
strands per
row SUPPORT COMMENTS
y9 = 19 n9 = 0 n9 = 0
y8 = 17 n8 = 0 n8 = 0
y7 = 15 n7 = 0 n7 = 0
y6 = 13 n6 = 0 n6 = 0
y5 = 11 n5 = 0 n5 = 0
y4 = 9 n4 = 0 n4 = 0
y3 = 7 n3 = 5 n3 = 5
y2 = 5 n2 = 17 n2 = 15
y1 = 3 n1 = 17 n1 = 11
St r and
c.g. = 4.61 39
Tot al
st r ands = 31
SUPPORT Strand Pattern Data
A
ps.Support
strands
total
StrandArea
( )
6.73in
2
= :=
Area of prestressing steel........................
Noncomposite area transformed............. A
nc.tr
A
nc
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Support
+ 840.4 in
2
= :=
Noncomposite neutral axis transformed... yb
nc.tr
yb
nc
A
nc
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Support
+
A
nc.tr
16in = :=
Noncomposite inertia transformed..... I
nc.tr
I
nc
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Support
+ 131886in
4
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus top......... S
topnc.tr
I
nc.tr
h
nc
yb
nc.tr
6600.4in
3
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus bottom.... S
botnc.tr
I
nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
8233.5in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 110
C2. Stresses at support at release
Total jacking force of strands.................. F
pj
f
pj
A
ps.Support
1362.2kip = :=
The actual stress in strand after losses at
transfer have occured............................. f
pe
f
pj
202.5 ksi = :=
Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release:
Total force of strands............................. F
pe.s
f
pe
A
ps.Support
1362.2kip = :=
Eccentricity of strands at support............ e
cg.nc.tr.s
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in 11.4in = :=
Stress at top of beam at support...............
pjTopEnd
F
pe.s
A
nc.tr
F
pe.s
e
cg.nc.tr.s
S
topnc.tr
\


.
0.73 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam at support...
pjBotEnd
F
pe.s
A
nc.tr
F
pe.s
e
cg.nc.tr.s
S
botnc.tr
+

\


.
3.51ksi = :=
TopRelease "OK"
pjTopEnd
0 ksi s
pjTopEnd
f
top.outer15
> . if
"OK"
pjTopEnd
0 ksi >
pjTopEnd
0.6f
ci.beam
s . if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.outer15
0.93 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = TopRelease "OK" =
(Note: See Sect D3  By inspection, if the factor to account for the strand force
varying up to the transfer length of the strands is applied, the stresses at the top will
be within the allowable limit.)
BotRelease "OK"
pjBotEnd
0.6f
ci.beam
s if
"NG"
pjBotEnd
f
top.center70
s if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = where f
top.center70
0.2 ksi = BotRelease "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 111
C3. Strand Pattern definition at Debond1
Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Debond1 10ft =
Rows of
strand from
bottom of
beam
Input
(inches)
Number
of
strands
per row MIDSPAN SUPPORT
Number of
strands per
row DEBOND1 COMMENTS
y9 = 19 n9 = 0 0 n9 = 0
y8 = 17 n8 = 0 0 n8 = 0
y7 = 15 n7 = 0 0 n7 = 0
y6 = 13 n6 = 0 0 n6 = 0
y5 = 11 n5 = 0 0 n5 = 0
y4 = 9 n4 = 0 0 n4 = 0
y3 = 7 n3 = 5 5 n3 = 5
y2 = 5 n2 = 17 15 n2 = 17
y1 = 3 n1 = 17 11 n1 = 13
St r and
c.g. = 4.54 39 31
Tot al
st r ands = 35
DEBOND1 Strand Pattern Data
A
ps.Debond1
strands
total
StrandArea
( )
7.59 in
2
= :=
Area of prestressing steel........................
Noncomposite area transformed............. A
nc.tr
A
nc
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond1
+ 844.7 in
2
= :=
Noncomposite neutral axis transformed... yb
nc.tr
yb
nc
A
nc
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond1
+
A
nc.tr
16in = :=
Noncomposite inertia transformed...........
I
nc.tr
I
nc
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond1
+ 132454in
4
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus top......... S
topnc.tr
I
nc.tr
h
nc
yb
nc.tr
6608.5in
3
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus bottom.... S
botnc.tr
I
nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
8300.7in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 112
C4. Stresses at Debond1 at Release
Total jacking force of strands.................. F
pj
f
pj
A
ps.Debond1
1538kip = :=
The actual stress in strand after losses at
transfer have occured............................. f
pe
f
pj
202.5 ksi = :=
Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release:
Total force of strands............................. F
pe
f
pe
A
ps.Debond1
1538kip = :=
Eccentricity of strands at Debond1.......... e
cg.nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in 11.41 in = :=
Stress at top of beam at Debond1............
pjTop15
M
RelBeamD1
S
topnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
topnc.tr
\


.
+ 0.23 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam at Debond1.......
pjBotBeam
M
RelBeamD1
S
botnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
botnc.tr
+

\


.
+ 3.46 ksi = :=
Top stress limit.............................. f
top.limit
if Debond1 0.15L
beam
s f
top.outer15
, f
top.center70
,
( )
0.93 ksi = :=
TopRelease "OK"
pjTop15
0 ksi s
pjTop15
f
top.limit
> . if
"OK"
pjTop15
0 ksi >
pjTop15
0.6f
ci.beam
s . if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.limit
0.93 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = TopRelease "OK" =
BotRelease "OK"
pjBotBeam
0.6f
ci.beam
s if
"NG"
pjBotBeam
f
top.center70
s if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.center70
0.2 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = BotRelease "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 113
C5. Strand Pattern definition at Debond2
Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Debond2 20ft =
Rows of
strand from
bottom of
beam
Input
(inches)
Numbe
r of
strands
per MIDSPAN SUPPORT DEBOND1
Number of
strands per
row DEBOND2 COMMENTS
y9 = 19 n9 = 0 0 0 n9 = 0
y8 = 17 n8 = 0 0 0 n8 = 0
y7 = 15 n7 = 0 0 0 n7 = 0
y6 = 13 n6 = 0 0 0 n6 = 0
y5 = 11 n5 = 0 0 0 n5 = 0
y4 = 9 n4 = 0 0 0 n4 = 0
y3 = 7 n3 = 5 5 5 n3 = 5
y2 = 5 n2 = 17 15 17 n2 = 17
y1 = 3 n1 = 17 11 13 n1 = 17
St r and
c.g. = 4.38 39 31 35
Tot al
st r ands = 39 Al l strands are acti ve beyond thi s poi nt
DEBOND2 Strand Pattern Data
A
ps.Debond2
strands
total
StrandArea
( )
8.46 in
2
= :=
Area of prestressing steel........................
Noncomposite area transformed............. A
nc.tr
A
nc
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond2
+ 849 in
2
= :=
Noncomposite neutral axis transformed... yb
nc.tr
yb
nc
A
nc
strand
cg
in n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond2
+
A
nc.tr
15.9in = :=
Noncomposite inertia transformed.... I
nc.tr
I
nc
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in
( )
2
n
p
1
( )
A
ps.Debond2
+ 133104in
4
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus top......... S
topnc.tr
I
nc.tr
h
nc
yb
nc.tr
6619.2in
3
= :=
Noncomposite section modulus bottom.... S
botnc.tr
I
nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
8375.9in
3
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 114
C6. Stresses at Debond2 at Release
Total jacking force of strands.................. F
pj
f
pj
A
ps.Debond2
1713.8kip = :=
The actual stress in strand after losses at
transfer have occured............................. f
pe
f
pj
202.5 ksi = :=
Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release:
Total force of strands............................. F
pe
f
pe
A
ps.Debond2
1713.8kip = :=
Eccentricity of strands at Debond2.......... e
cg.nc.tr
yb
nc.tr
strand
cg
in 11.51 in = :=
Stress at top of beam at Debond2............
pjTop15
M
RelBeamD2
S
topnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
topnc.tr
\


.
+ 0.09 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam at Debond2.......
pjBotBeam
M
RelBeamD2
S
botnc.tr
F
pe
A
nc.tr
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
botnc.tr
+

\


.
+ 3.54 ksi = :=
Top stress limit................................ f
top.limit
if Debond2 0.15L
beam
s f
top.outer15
, f
top.center70
,
( )
0.2 ksi = :=
TopRelease "OK"
pjTop15
0 ksi s
pjTop15
f
top.limit
> . if
"OK"
pjTop15
0 ksi >
pjTop15
0.6f
ci.beam
s . if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.limit
0.2 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = TopRelease "OK" =
BotRelease "OK"
pjBotBeam
0.6f
ci.beam
s if
"NG"
pjBotBeam
f
top.center70
s if
"NG" otherwise
:=
where f
top.center70
0.2 ksi = where 0.6f
ci.beam
3.6ksi = BotRelease "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 115
D. Shear Design
D1. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance [LRFD 5.8.3.3]
The nominal shear resistance, Vn, shall be determined as the lesser of:
V
n
V
c
V
s
+ V
p
+ =
V
n
0.25 f'
c
b
v
d
v
V
p
+ =
The shear resistance of a concrete member may be separated into a component, V
c
, that relies on tensile
stresses in the concrete, a component, V
s
, that relies on tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement, and a
component, V
p
, that is the vertical component of the prestressing force.
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section.................................................. V
c
0.0316 f
c
b
v
d
v
=
Nominal shear resistance of shear
reinforcement section.............................. V
s
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
s
=
Nominal shear resistance from prestressing
for straight strands (nondraped).............. V
p
0 kip :=
Effective shear depth.............................. d
v
max d
p
a
2
0.9d
p
, 0.72h ,

\


.
:=
d
v
39.1 in = or d
v
3.3ft =
(Note: This location is close to the same location as previously estimated for
ShearChk 3.2ft = .)
D2.1  and u Parameters Method 1 [LRFD Appendix B5]
Tables are given in LRFD to determine  from the longitudinal strain and
v
f'
c
parameter, so these values need
to be calculated.
Longitudinal strain for sections with
prestressing and transverse reinforcement.
x
M
u
d
v
0.5 V
u
V
p
cot ( ) + A
ps
f
po
2 E
s
A
s
E
p
A
ps
+
( )
=
Effective width................................ b
v
b
w
:= where b
v
7 in =
Effective shear depth........................ d
v
3.3ft =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 116
Factor indicating ability of diagonally
cracked concrete to transmit tension..
(Note: Values of 2 = and 45deg = cannot be assumed
since beam is prestressed.)
Angle of inclination for diagonal
compressive stresses........................
LRFD Table B5.21 presents values of u and  for sections with transverse reinforcement. LRFD Appendix B5
states that data given by the table may be used over a range of values. Linear interpolation may be used, but is
not recommended for hand calculations.
The initial value of
x
should not be taken greater than 0.001.
The longitudinal strain and
v
f'
c
parameter are calculated for the appropriate critical sections.
The shear stress on the concrete shall be determined as [LRFD equation 5.8.2.91]:
v
V
u
V
p
b
v
d
v
=
Factored shear force at the critical section
V
u
300.6 kip =
Shear stress on the section...................... v
V
u
v
V
p
v
b
v
d
v
1.2ksi = :=
Parameter for locked in difference in strain
between prestressing tendon and concrete. f
po
0.7f
pu
189 ksi = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 117
The prestressing strand force becomes
effective with the transfer length.............. L
transfer
60strand
dia
36in = :=
Since the transfer length, L
transfer
3ft = , is less than the shear check location, ShearChk 3.2ft = , from the
end of the beam, the full force of the strands are effective.
Factored moment on section.................... M
u
max M
shr
V
u
d
v
,
( )
979.5 kip ft = :=
For the longitudinal strain calculations, an
initial assumption for must be made.......
23.3 deg :=
Area of concrete on the tension side of the
member.................................................
A
c
A
nc
b
tf
h
tf
1.5in +
( )
b
w
h
nc
0.5h h
tf
( )
A
ps.Support
A
s
490.3 in
2
= :=
Longitudinal strain.............................
x1
min
M
u
d
v
0.5 V
u
cot ( ) + A
ps.Support
f
po
2 E
s
A
s
E
p
A
ps.Support
+
( )
1000 1 ,
(
(
(
(
1.622 = :=
x
if
x1
0 < max 0.2
M
u
d
v
0.5 V
u
cot ( ) + A
ps.Support
f
po
2 E
c.beam
A
c
E
s
A
s
+ E
p
A
ps.Support
+
( )
1000 ,
(
(
(
(
,
x1
,
(
(
(
(
0.123 = :=
v
f'
c
parameter.......................................
v
f
c.beam
0.144 =
Based on LRFD Table B5.21, the values of u and  can be approximately taken as:
Angle of inclination of compression stresses
23.3deg =
Factor relating to longitudinal strain on the
shear capacity of concrete......................
2.79 :=
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section.................................................. V
c
0.0316 f
c.beam
ksi b
v
d
v
70.4kip = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 118
D2.2  and u Parameters Method 2 [LRFD 5.8.3.4.2]
The strain in nonprestressed long
tension reinforcement..........................
s1
min
M
u
d
v
V
u
V
p
+ A
ps.Support
f
po
E
s
A
s
E
p
A
ps.Support
+
0.006 ,

\




.
0.003496 = :=
s
if
s1
0 < max .0004
M
u
d
v
V
u
V
p
+ A
ps.Support
f
po
E
s
A
s
E
p
A
ps.Support
+ E
c.beam
A
c
+
,

\




.
,
s1
,

\




.
0.000264 = :=
Angle of inclination of compression
stresses................................................
1
4.8
1 750
s
+
4 = :=
Factor relating to longitudinal strain on the
shear capacity of concrete......................
1
29 3500
s
+
( )
28.1 = :=
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section.................................................. V
c.1
0.0316
1
f
c.beam
ksi b
v
d
v
101 kip = :=
D2.3  and u Parameters Method 3 [LRFD 5.8.3.4.3]
Nominal shear resistance provided by
concrete when inclined cracking results
from combined shear and moment...........
V
ci
0.02 f'
c
b
v
d
v
V
d
+
V
i
M
cr
M
max
+ 0.06 f'
c
b
v
d
v
> =
Nominal shear resistance provided by
concrete when inclined cracking results
from excessive principal tensions in web..
V
cw
0.06 f'
c
0.30f
pc
+
( )
b
v
d
v
V
p
+ =
Radius of gyration................................. r
I
nc
A
nc
12.6in = :=
Modulus of rupture for LRFD Section
5.8.3.4.3............................................... f
r.5.8.3.4.3
0.2 f
c.beam
ksi 0.58 ksi = :=
Shear force due to unfactored dead load
(DC and DW)........................................
V
d
V
DC.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) V
DW.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) + 85.9 k = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 119
Moment due to unfactored dead load... M
d
M
DC.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) M
DW.BeamExt
ShearChk ( ) + 285.7 kip ft = :=
Compressive stress in concrete after
allowance for all prestress losses at
centroid of cross section.................. f
pc
F
pe.s
A
nc
1
e
cg.nc.tr.s
y'
b
yb
nc
( )
r
2
(
(
(
M
d
y'
b
yb
nc
( )
I
nc
+ 0.172 ksi = :=
Compressive stress due to effective
prestress forces only at the extreme
fiber where tensile stress is caused by
externally applied loads...........................
f
cpe
F
pe.s
A
nc
1
e
cg.nc.tr.s
yb
nc
r
2
+

\



.
3.7 ksi = :=
Moment causing flexural cracking at
section due to externally applied loads....... M
cre
S
b
f
r.5.8.3.4.3
f
cpe
+
M
d
S
bnc
+

\


.
4164.2kip ft = :=
Maximum factored moment at section
due to externally applied loads.................. M
max
1.75M
LLI.Exterior
ShearChk ( ) 586.7 kip ft = :=
Factored shear force at section due to
externally applied loads...........................
V
i
1.75 V
LLI.Exterior
ShearChk ( ) 193.2 kip = :=
Nominal shear resistance provided by
concrete when inclined cracking results
from combined shear and moment...........
V
ci
max 0.02 f
c.beam
ksi b
v
d
v
V
d
+
V
i
M
cre
M
max
+ 0.06 f
c.beam
ksi b
v
d
v
,

\


.
1473.1kip = :=
Nominal shear resistance provided by
concrete when inclined cracking result
from excessive principal tensions in web..
V
cw
0.06
f
c.beam
ksi
ksi 0.30f
pc

\


.
b
v
d
v
V
p
+
(
(
33.7 kip = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 120
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section..................................................
V
c.2
min V
ci
V
cw
,
( )
33.7 kip = :=
cot min 1 3
f
pc
f
c.beam
ksi

\



.
+ 1.8 ,
(
(
(
V
ci
V
cw
> if
1.0 otherwise
(
(
(
(
1.18 = :=
2
atan
1
cot

\


.
40.3 deg = :=
2
"NA" :=
v
0.25 f
c.beam
b
v
d
v
V
p
+ ,

\


.
334 kip = :=
and................................................. V
s
V
n
V
c
V
p
263.6 kip = :=
Spacing of stirrups
Minimum transverse reinforcement.......... s
min
A
v
f
y
0.0316b
v
f
c.beam
ksi
57.7in = :=
Transverse reinforcement required........... s
req
if V
s
0 s s
min
,
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
V
s
,

\


.
12.8 in = :=
Minimum transverse reinforcement
required................................................ s min s
min
s
req
,
( )
12.8in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 121
Maximum transverse reinforcement spacing
s
max
if
V
u
v
V
p
v
b
v
d
v
( )
0.125 f
c.beam
< min 0.8d
v
24in ,
( )
, min 0.4d
v
12in ,
( )
,
(
(
12in = :=
Spacing of transverse reinforcement
cannot exceed the following spacing........ spacing if s
max
s > s , s
max
,
( )
12in = :=
D3. Longitudinal Reinforcement [LRFD 5.8.3.5]
For sections not subjected to torsion, longitudinal reinforcement shall be proportioned so that at each section
the tensile capacity of the reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member, taking into account any
lack of full development of that reinforcement, shall be proportioned to satisfy:
General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement
T
M
u
d
v
V
u
v
V
p
0.5V
s

\


.
cot ( ) + =
where............................................. V
s
min
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
spacing
V
u
v
,

\


.
281.5 kip = :=
and................................................. T
M
u
d
v
'
V
u
v
V
p
0.5V
s

\


.
cot ( ) + 749.2 kip = :=
At the shear check location
Longitudinal reinforcement, previously
computed for positive moment design.......
A
ps.Support
6.7in
2
=
Equivalent force provided by this steel...... T
psShearChk
A
ps.Support
f
pe
1362.2kip = :=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" T
psShearChk
T > if
"NG, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 122
At the support location
General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement
T
M
u
d
v
V
u
v
0.5V
s
V
p
\


.
cot ( ) + = where M
u
0 ft kip =
where............................................. V
s
min
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
spacing
V
u
v
,

\


.
281.5 kip = :=
and................................................. T
V
u
v
0.5V
s
V
p
\


.
cot ( ) 448.6 kip = :=
In determining the tensile force that the reinforcement is expected to resist at the inside edge of the bearing
area, the values calculated at d
v
3.3ft = from the face of the support may be used. Note that the force is
greater due to the contribution of the moment at d
v
. For this example, the actual values at the face of the
support will be used.
Longitudinal reinforcement, previously
computed for positive moment design.......
A
ps.Support
6.7in
2
=
The prestressing strand force is not all effective at the support area due to the transfer length required to go
from zero force to maximum force. A factor will be applied that takes this into account.
Transfer length...................................... L
transfer
36in =
Distance from center line of bearing to
end of beam.......................................... J 8 in =
Estimated length of bearing pad............... L
pad
8 in :=
Determine the force effective at the inside edge of the bearing area.
Factor to account for effective force........ Factor
J
L
pad
2
+
L
transfer
0.33 = :=
Equivalent force provided by this steel...... T
psSupport
A
ps.Support
f
pe
Factor 454.1 kip = :=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" T
psSupport
T > if
"NG, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.8.3.5
"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" =
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 123
D4. Interface Shear Reinforcement [LRFD 5.8.4]
Assumed a roughened surface per LRFD 5.8.4.3: c 0.28ksi := 1.00 := K
1
0.3 := K
2
1.8ksi :=
Distance between the centroid of the steel
in the tension side of the beam to the center
of the compression blocks in the deck......
d
interface.avg
d
p
t
slab
2
36.6in = :=
V
u.interface
V
u
300.6 kip = :=
Interface shear force per unit length per
LRFD C5.8.4.27...................................
V
uh
V
u.interface
d
interface.avg
8.21
kip
in
= :=
V
nh.reqd
V
uh
v
9.1
kip
in
= :=
A
cv
b
tf
in
in

\


.
48
in
2
in
= :=
V
nh.max
min K
2
A
cv
K
1
f
c.slab
A
cv
,
( )
ft 777.6 kip = :=
CheckV
nh.reqd
if V
nh.reqd
ft V
nh.max
< "OK" , "Check V.nh.reqd" ,
( )
"OK" = :=
The minimum reinforcement requirement may be waived if
V
uh
A
cv
0.21 ksi < assuming requirements of LRFD
5.8.4.4.are satisfied.
MinInterfaceReinfReqd if
V
uh
A
cv
0.21ksi < "No" , "Yes" ,

\


.
"No" = :=
Minimum interface steel, if required
A
vf.min
if MinInterfaceReinfReqd "Yes" = min 0.05A
cv
ksi
f
y
1.33 V
nh.reqd
c A
cv
f
y
,

\


.
, 0
in
2
ft
,

\



.
0
in
2
ft
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 124
Design interface steel per LRFD
5.8.4.13, if required
A
vf.des
max
V
nh.reqd
c A
cv
f
y
0
in
2
ft
,

\



.
0
in
2
ft
= :=
A
vf.reqd
max A
vf.min
A
vf.des
,
( )
0
in
2
ft
= :=
Actual stirrup spacing per Design Standard spacing 3in :=
Area of reinforcement passing through the
interface between the deck and the girder.
Minimum interface steel, if required:
A
v.prov.interface
A
v
spacing
:=
TotalInterfaceSteelProvided A
v.prov.interface
2.5
in
2
ft
= :=
TotalInterfaceSteelRequired A
vf.reqd
0
in
2
ft
= :=
CheckInterfaceSteel if
TotalInterfaceSteelProvided
TotalInterfaceSteelRequired 0.001
in
2
ft
+
1 > "OK" , "Add Interface Steel" ,

\




.
"OK" = :=
CR
InterfaceSteel
TotalInterfaceSteelProvided
TotalInterfaceSteelRequired 0.001
in
2
ft
+
2480 = :=
Note:
Typically shear steel is extended up into the deck slab.
These calculations are based on shear steel functioning as interface reinforcing.
The interface_factor can be used to adjust this assumption.
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 125
E. Deflection Check
The FDOT Prestressed beam program version 3.21 was utilized to quickly determine if the FIB36 used in the
interior and exterior beam design will satisfy the deflection criteria per SDG 1.2. Shown below is the calculated
deflection of the exterior beam, which has a higher deflection than the interior beam.
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 126
Live load deflection...............
LL
1.3033in :=
Deflection limit.....................
Allow
L
span
800
1.35in = :=
Check_ if
Allow
LL
> "OK" , "Not OK" ,
( )
:= Check_ "OK" =
Several important design checks were not performed in this design example (to reduce the length of
calculations). However, the engineer should assure that the following has been done at a minimum:
Design for anchorage steel 
Design for camber 
Design check for beam transportation loads 
Design for fatigue checks when applicable 
F. Summary
Superstructure Design 2.05 Prestressed Beam Design  Part II 127
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Traditional Deck Design
References
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\205PSBeam2.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the criteria for the traditional deck design.
Page Contents
129 LRFD Criteria
129 FDOT Criteria
130 A. Input Variables
131 B. Approximate Methods of Analysis  Decks [LRFD 4.6.2]
B1. Width of Equivalent Interior Strips
B2. Live Loads for Equivalent Strips
B3. Dead Load Design Moments
B4. Limit State Moments
137 C. Moment Design
C1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
C2. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
C3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
C4. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
C5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
C6. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 9.7.3.2]
C7. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
146 D. Median Barrier Reinforcement
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 128
LRFD Criteria
Live Loads  Application of Design Vehicular Live Loads  Deck Overhang Load [LRFD 3.6.1.3.4]
This section is not applicable for Florida designs, since the barriers are not designed as structurally
continuous and composite with the deck slab.
Static Analysis  Approximate Methods of Analysis  Decks [LRFD 4.6.2.1]
Deck Slab Design Table [LRFD Appendix A4]
Table A41 in Appendix 4 may be used to determine the design live load moments.
STRENGTH I  Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind.
WA FR 0 = , For superstructure design, water load / stream pressure and
friction forces are not applicable.
TU CR , SH , FR 0 = , Uniform temperature, creep, shrinkage are generally ignored.
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + =
SERVICE I  Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH
wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.
BR WS , WL 0 = , For superstructure design, braking forces, wind on structure
and wind on live load are not applicable.
Service1 1.0DC 1.0DW + 1.0LL + =
FATIGUE  Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a
single design truck.
"Not applicable for deck slabs on multibeam bridges"
FDOT Criteria
Skewed Decks [SDG 4.2.10]
Transverse steel..................................... "Perpendicular to CL of span "
Top reinforcement for deck slab along
skew..................................................... "Use 3 #5 bars @ 6 inch spacing"
Top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement
for deck slab at skew.............................. "Double required amount of reinforcing"
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 129
A. Input Variables
Bridge design span length........................ L
span
90ft =
Number of beams................................... N
beams
9 =
Beam Spacing........................................ BeamSpacing 10ft =
S BeamSpacing :=
Average Buildup..................................... h
buildup
1 in =
Beam top flange width............................. b
tf
48in =
Thickness of deck slab............................ t
slab
8 in =
Milling surface thickness......................... t
mill
0.5in =
Deck overhang....................................... Overhang 4.542ft =
Dynamic Load Allowance........................ IM 1.33 =
Bridge skew........................................... Skew 20 deg =
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 130
B. Approximate Methods of Analysis  Decks [LRFD 4.6.2]
B1. Width of Equivalent Interior Strips [LRFD 4.6.2.1.3]
The deck is designed using equivalent strips of deck width. The equivalent strips account for the longitudinal
distribution of LRFD wheel loads and are not subject to width limitations. The width in the transverse
direction is calculated for both positive and negative moments. The overhangs will not be addressed in this
section.
Width of equivalent strip for positive
moment................................................ E
pos
26 6.6
S
ft
+

\


.
in 92in = :=
Width of equivalent strip for negative
moment................................................ E
neg
48 3.0
S
ft
+

\


.
in 78in = :=
The equivalent strips can be modeled as continuous beams on rigid supports, since typical FloridaI beam
bridges do not have any transverse beams.
B2. Live Loads for Equivalent Strips
All HL93 wheel loads shall be applied to the equivalent strip of deck width, since the spacing of supporting
components in the secondary direction (longitudinal to beams) exceeds 1.5 times the spacing in the primary
direction (transverse to beams). [LRFD 4.6.2.1.5]
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 131
HL93 wheel load................................... P 16kip :=
HL93 wheel load for negative moment..... P
neg
P
E
neg
IM ( ) 3.27 klf = :=
HL93 wheel load for positive moment..... P
pos
P
E
pos
IM ( ) 2.78 klf = :=
Location of Negative Live Load Design Moment
The negative live load design moment is
taken at a distance from the supports....... Loc
negative
min
1
3
b
tf
15in ,

\


.
15in = :=
HL93 Live Load Design Moments
Instead of performing a continuous beam analysis, Table A41 in Appendix A4 may be used to determine the live
load design moments. The following assumptions and limitations should be considered when using these
moments:
The moments are calculated by applying the equivalent strip method to concrete slabs supported on 
parallel beams.
Multiple presence factors and dynamic load allowance are included. 
The values are calculated according to the location of the design section for negative moments in the 
deck (LRFD 4.6.2.1.6). For distances between the listed values, interpolation may be used.
The moments are applicable for decks supported by at least three beams with a width between the 
centerlines of the exterior beams of not less than 14.0 ft.
The values represent the upper bound for moments in the interior regions of the slab. 
A minimum and maximum total overhang width from the center of the exterior girder are evaluated. 
The minimum is 21 in. and the maximum is the smaller of 0.625 BeamSpacing ( ) and 6 ft.
A railing barrier width of 21.0 in. is used to determine the clear overhang width. Florida utilizes a railing 
width of 18.5 in. The difference in moments from the different railing width is expected to be within
acceptable limits for practical design.
The moments do not apply to deck overhangs, which may be detailed in accordance with the provisions 
of SDG 4.2.4.B without further analysis (see section Deck Overhang Design of these calculations).
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 132
For this example..................................... BeamSpacing 10ft =
Loc
negative
15in =
Positive Live Load Design Moment........... M
LL.pos
6.89 ft kip :=
Negative Live Load Design Moment.....
M
LL.neg
15in 12in ( )
4.09ft kip 4.41ft kip ( )
18in 12in ( )
(
(
conc
0.106 klf = :=
Weight of traffic barriers................... P
barrier
w
barrier.ea
b
slab
0.42kip = :=
Weight of median barrier................... P
median.barrier
w
median.bar
b
slab
0.485 kip = :=
"DW" loads include the dead load of a future wearing surface and utilities
Weight of Future Wearing Surface..... w
fws
fws
b
slab
0 klf = :=
Analysis Model for Dead Loads
Any plane frame program can be utilized to develop the moments induced by the dead loads. For this example,
RISA was used to determine the dead load design moments for both the DC and DW loads.
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 134
Positive
Beam / Span Moment (kft) Center Left Right
1 0.00 3.00 2.04 2.09
2 0.67 0.32 0.07 0.17
3 0.39 1.04 0.37 0.43
4 0.45 0.84 0.29 0.27
Design Moments for DC Loads
Negative Moment (kft)
The governing negative design moment for DC loads occurs at beam 1. However, this moment is due to the
overhang, which typically has more negative moment steel requirements than the interior regions of the deck.
Since the overhang is designed separately, the overhang moments are not considered here. For the interior
regions, the positive moment in Span 2 and the negative moment to the right of beam 3 govern.
Positive moment............................... M
DC.pos
0.67kip ft :=
Negative moment............................. M
DC.neg
0.43kip ft :=
Positive
Beam / Span Moment (kft) Center Left Right
1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Negative Moment (kft)
Design Moments for DW Loads
Positive moment............................... M
DW.pos
0.0kip ft :=
Negative moment.............................. M
DW.neg
0.0kip ft :=
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 135
B4. Limit State Moments
The service and strength limit states are used to design the section
Service I Limit State
Positive Service I Moment....................... M
serviceI.pos
M
DC.pos
M
DW.pos
+ M
LL.pos
+ 7.56 kip ft = :=
Negative Service I Moment...................... M
serviceI.neg
M
DC.neg
M
DW.neg
+ M
LL.neg
+ 4.68 kip ft = :=
Strength I Limit State
Positive Strength I Moment......... M
strengthI.pos
1.25M
DC.pos
1.50 M
DW.pos
+ 1.75 M
LL.pos
+ 12.89 kip ft = :=
Negative Strength I Moment.......... M
strengthI.neg
1.25M
DC.neg
1.50 M
DW.neg
+ 1.75M
LL.neg
+ 7.98 kip ft = :=
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 136
C. Moment Design
A few recommendations on bar size and spacing are available to minimize problems during construction.
The same size and spacing of reinforcing should be utilized for both the negative and positive moment 
regions.
If this arrangement is not possible, the top and bottom reinforcement should be spaced as a multiple of 
each other. This pattern places the top and bottom bars in the same grid pattern, and any additional steel
is placed between these bars.
The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment, then
checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control, minimum reinforcement, maximum
reinforcement, shrinkage and temperature reinforcement, and distribution of reinforcement. The procedure is
the same for both positive and negative moment regions.
C1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
Factored resistance
M
r
M
n
=
Nominal flexural resistance
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
y
d
s
a
2
\


.
+ A'
s
f'
y
d'
s
a
2
\


.
0.85 f'
c
b b
w
( )
h
f
a
2
h
f
2
\


.
+ =
Simplifying the nominal flexural resistance
M
n
A
s
f
y
d
s
a
2
\


.
= where a
A
s
f
y
0.85 f'
c
b
=
Using variables defined in this example..... M
r
A
s.pos
f
y
d
s
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
0.85 f
c.slab
b

\


.
(
(
=
where M
r
M
strengthI.pos
:=
f
c.slab
4.5ksi =
f
y
60ksi =
t
slab
h =
0.9 =
t
slab
8 in =
b b
slab
:= b 12in =
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Size of bar...................................... bar "5" :=
Proposed bar spacing....................... spacing
pos
6 in :=
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 137
Bar area.......................................... A
bar
0.310 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 0.625 in =
Area of steel provided per foot of slab...... A
s.pos
A
bar
1 ft
spacing
pos
0.62 in
2
= :=
Distance from extreme compressive fiber to
centroid of reinforcing steel..................... d
s.pos
t
slab
t
mill
+ cover
deck
dia
2
5.69 in = :=
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of
steel required......................................... Given M
r
A
s.pos
f
y
d
s.pos
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
0.85f
c.slab
b

\


.
(
(
=
A
s.reqd.pos
Find A
s.pos
( )
0.54 in
2
= :=
Reinforcing steel required........................
The area of steel provided, A
s.pos
0.62in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required,
A
s.reqd.pos
0.54 in
2
= . If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s.pos
is greater than A
s.reqd
,
the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments.
C2. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
Variables: M
r
M
strengthI.neg
7.98kip ft = :=
f
c.slab
4.5ksi =
f
y
60ksi =
t
slab
h =
0.9 =
t
slab
8 in =
b 12in =
b b
slab
:=
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Size of bar....................................... bar "5" =
Proposed bar spacing....................... spacing
neg
6in :=
Bar area.......................................... A
bar
0.310 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 0.625 in =
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 138
Area of steel provided per foot of slab...... A
s.neg
A
bar
1 ft
spacing
neg
0.62 in
2
= :=
Distance from extreme compressive fiber to
centroid of reinforcing steel................. d
s.neg
t
slab
t
mill
+ cover
deck
dia
2
5.69in = :=
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of
steel required......................................... Given M
r
A
s.neg
f
y
d
s.neg
1
2
A
s.neg
f
y
0.85f
c.slab
b

\


.
(
(
=
Reinforcing steel required........................ A
s.reqd.neg
Find A
s.neg
( )
0.324 in
2
= :=
The area of steel provided, A
s.neg
0.62 in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required,
A
s.reqd.neg
0.32in
2
= . If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s.neg
is greater than A
s.reqd
,
the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments.
C3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the
longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.
The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service
limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.
The maximum spacing of the mild steel
reinforcement for control of cracking at
the service limit state shall satisfy......... s
700
e
s
f
ss
2 d
c
s
where
s
1
d
c
0.7 h d
c
( )
+ =
Exposure factor for Class 1 exposure
condition........................................
e
1.00 := [SDG 3.10]
Overall thickness or depth of the
component..............................
t
slab
8 in =
Positive Moment
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar............................... d
c
cover
deck
t
mill
dia
2
+ 2.31in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 139
s
1
d
c
0.7 t
slab
d
c
( )
+ 1.581 = :=
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
Guess x 1.8in :=
Given
1
2
b x
2
E
s
E
c.slab
A
s.pos
d
s.pos
x
( )
=
x
na.pos
Find x ( ) 1.824 in = :=
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... T
s
M
serviceI.pos
d
s.pos
x
na.pos
3
17.86 kip = :=
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s.pos
28.81 ksi = :=
Required reinforcement spacing........... s
required
700
e
kip
in
s
f
s.actual
2 d
c
10.75 in = :=
Provided reinforcement spacing........... spacing
pos
6 in =
The required spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall not be less than the
reinforcement spacing provided due to the service limit state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for +M is satisfied" s
required
spacing
pos
> if
"NG, crack control for +M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for +M is satisfied" =
Negative Moment
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar .............................. d
c
cover
deck
t
mill
dia
2
+ 2.31in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 140
s
1
d
c
0.7 t
slab
d
c
( )
+ 1.58 = :=
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
Guess x 1.8in :=
Given
1
2
b x
2
E
s
E
c.slab
A
s.neg
d
s.neg
x
( )
=
x
na.neg
Find x ( ) 1.824 in = :=
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment........................ T
s
M
serviceI.neg
d
s.neg
x
na.neg
3
11.06 kip = :=
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment..................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s.neg
17.83 ksi = :=
Required reinforcement spacing........... s
required
700
e
kip
in
s
f
s.actual
2 d
c
20.21 in = :=
Provided reinforcement spacing........... spacing
neg
6 in =
The required spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall not be less than the
reinforcement spacing provided due to the service limit state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" s
required
spacing
neg
> if
"NG, crack control for M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" =
C4. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Minimum Reinforcement [5.7.3.3.2]
Area of steel provided............................. A
s
max A
s.pos
A
s.neg
,
( )
0.62 in
2
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 141
Area of steel required for bending............ A
s.reqd
min A
s.reqd.pos
A
s.reqd.neg
,
( )
0.32in
2
= :=
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.2 times greater than
the cracking moment.
Modulus of Rupture............................... f
r
0.24 f
c.slab
ksi 0.509 ksi = := [SDG 1.4.1.B]
Distance from the extreme tensile fiber to
the neutral axis of the composite section... y
t
slab
2
4 in = :=
Moment of inertia for the section............. I
slab
1
12
b t
slab
3
512 in
4
= :=
Section modulus..................................... S
I
slab
y
128 in
3
= :=
Flexural cracking variability factor............
1
1.6 :=
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of the
reinforcement........................................
3
0.67 :=
Cracking moment................................... M
cr
3
1
f
r
( )
S
5.82 kip ft = :=
Minimum distance to reinforcing steel...... d
s
min d
s.pos
d
s.neg
,
( )
5.69 in = :=
Minimum reinforcement required............. A
min
M
cr
f
y
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
y
0.85 f
c.slab
b

\


.
(
(
0.24 in
2
= :=
Required area of steel for minimum
reinforcement should not be less than
A
s.reqd
133 % or A
min
........................... A
s.req
min A
s.reqd
133 % A
min
,
( )
0.24 in
2
= :=
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 142
Maximum bar spacing for mimimum
reinforcement........................................ spacing
max
b
A
s.req
A
bar

\


.
15.19 in = :=
Greater bar spacing from positive and
negative moment section......................... spacing max spacing
pos
spacing
neg
,
( )
6 in = :=
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum bar spacing for minimum reinforcement
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" spacing spacing
max
s if
"NG, section is underreinforced, so redesign!" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" =
C5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement provided
Size of bar "4" "5" "6" ( )........ bar
st
"5" :=
Bar spacing...................................... bar
spa.st
8 in :=
Bar area.......................................... A
bar.st
0.31 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 0.625 in =
Gross area of section.............................. A
g
b
slab
t
slab
96in
2
= :=
Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature
reinforcement........................................ A
ST
min
0.60
in
2
ft
max
0.11
in
2
ft

\


.
1.30
kip
inft
A
g
2 b
slab
t
slab
+
( )
f
y
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0.11
in
2
ft
= :=
Maximum spacing for shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement....................... spacing
ST
min
A
bar.st
A
ST
3 t
slab
, 18in ,

\


.
18in = :=
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" bar
spa.st
spacing
ST
s if
"NG, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 143
C6. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 9.7.3.2]
The primary reinforcement is placed perpendicular to traffic, since the effective strip is perpendicular to traffic.
Reinforcement shall also be placed in the secondary direction (parallel to traffic) for load distribution purposes.
This reinforcement is placed in the bottom of the deck slab as a percentage of the primary reinforcement.
Distribution reinforcement provided
Size of bar "4" "5" "6" ( )........ bar
dist
"5" :=
Bar spacing...................................... bar
spa.dist
bar
spa.st
8 in = :=
Bar area.......................................... A
bar.dist
0.31 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 0.625 in =
The effective span length (LRFD 9.7.2.3) is
the distance between the flange tips plus the
flange overhang................................ Slab
eff.Length
BeamSpacing b
w
( )
9.417 ft = :=
The area for secondary reinforcement should
not exceed 67% of the area for primary
reinforcement............................ %A
steel
min
220
Slab
eff.Length
ft
% 67% ,

\



.
67% = :=
Required area for secondary
reinforcement........................................ A
s.DistR
A
s.pos
%A
steel
0.42 in
2
= :=
Maximum spacing for secondary
reinforcement........................................ MaxSpacing
DistR
b
A
s.DistR
A
bar.dist

\


.
8.96in = :=
The bar spacing should not exceed the maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement
LRFD
9.7.3.2
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" bar
spa.dist
MaxSpacing
DistR
s if
"NG, distribution reinforcement requirements" otherwise
:=
LRFD
9.7.3.2
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" =
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 144
C7. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
Transverse reinforcing
Bar size bar "5" =
Top spacing spacing
neg
6.0in =
Bottom spacing spacing
pos
6.0in =
Shrinkage and temperature reinforcing
Bar size bar
st
"5" =
Bottom spacing bar
spa.st
8.0in =
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
Longitudinal Distribution reinforcing
Bar size bar
dist
"5" =
Bottom spacing bar
spa.dist
8.0in =
LRFD
9.7.3.2
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" =
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 145
D. Median Barrier Reinforcement
Per SDG 4.2.4.B, the minimum transverse top slab reinforcing at the barrier may be provided per the table in
Section 4.2.4.B if the minimum slab depth is provided. For the 32" Fshape median used for this project, the
minimum slab depth is 8" and the minimum transverse reinforcing is:
A
s.med.barrier
0.4
in
2
ft
:= top and bottom of slab
The reinforcing provided in the top of the
slab is................................................... A
s.prov.top
A
bar
spacing
neg
0.62
in
2
ft
= :=
The reinforcing provided in the bottom of
the slab is.............................................. A
s.prov.bot
A
bar
spacing
pos
0.62
in
2
ft
= :=
Median_Barrier if A
s.prov.top
A
s.med.barrier
> A
s.prov.bot
A
s.med.barrier
> . "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:=
Median_Barrier "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.06 Traditional Deck Design 146
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Deck Overhang Design
References
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\206DeckTraditional.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the overhang deck design.
Page Contents
148 FDOT Criteria
149 A. Input Variables
150 B. Deck Overhang Reinforcement
B1. Negative Moment Region  Reinforcement Requirements [SDG 4.2.4B]
B2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
B3. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
B4. Summary
Superstructure Design 2.07 Deck Overhang Design 147
FDOT Criteria
Deck Slab Design [SDG 4.2.4]
The deck overhang shall be designed using the traditional design method. For the deck overhang design
and median barriers, the minimum transverse top slab reinforcing may be provided without further analysis
where the indicated minimum slab depths are provided in [SDG 4.2.4B] and the total deck overhang is 6
feet or less.
Deck slab designed by the traditional design method:
A
s.TL4
0.8in
2
:= per foot of overhang slab
Superstructure Components  Traffic Railings [SDG 6.7]
All new traffic railing barriers shall satisfy LRFD Chapter 13, TL4 criteria.
Superstructure Design 2.07 Deck Overhang Design 148
A. Input Variables
Beam top flange width............................. b
tf
48in =
Thickness of slab.................................... t
slab
8 in =
Milling surface thickness......................... t
mill
0.5in =
Deck overhang....................................... Overhang 4.54ft =
Dynamic load allowance......................... IM 1.33 =
Design width of overhang........................ b
overhang
1ft :=
Proposed reinforcement detail..................
Superstructure Design 2.07 Deck Overhang Design 149
B. Deck Overhang Reinforcement
B1. Negative Moment Region  Reinforcement Requirements [SDG 4.2.4B]
Reinforcement required for the extreme event limit states
A
s.TL4
0.8in
2
= per foot of deck overhang
Using variables defined in this example,
f
c.slab
4.5ksi = t
slab
h =
f
y
60ksi =
0.9 =
t
slab
8 in =
b 12in = b b
slab
:=
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Size of bar....................................... bar "5" =
Proposed bar spacing....................... spacing 4 in :=
Bar area.......................................... A
bar
0.310 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 0.625 in =
Area of steel provided per foot of slab...... A
s.overhang
A
bar
1 ft
spacing
0.93 in
2
= :=
B2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Area of steel provided............................. A
s
A
s.overhang
0.93in
2
= :=
Minimum Reinforcement
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.2 times greater than
the cracking moment.
Modulus of Rupture............................... f
r
0.24 f
c.slab
ksi 0.51 ksi = := [SDG 1.4.1.B]
Superstructure Design 2.07 Deck Overhang Design 150
Distance from the extreme tensile fiber to
the neutral axis of the composite section... y
t
slab
2
4 in = :=
Moment of inertia for the section............. I
slab
1
12
b t
slab
3
512 in
4
= :=
Section modulus..................................... S
I
slab
y
128 in
3
= :=
Flexural cracking variability factor...........
1
1.6 :=
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of the
reinforcement........................................
3
0.62 :=
Cracking moment................................... M
cr
3
1
f
r
( )
S
5.39 kip ft = :=
Minimum distance to reinforcing steel...... d
s
min d
s.neg
d
s.pos
,
( )
5.69 in = :=
Minimum reinforcement required............. A
min
M
cr
f
y
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
y
0.85 f
c.slab
b

\


.
(
(
0.24 in
2
= :=
Required area of steel for minimum
reinforcement should not be less than
A
s
133 % or A
min
.................................. A
s.req
min A
s.TL4
133 % A
min
,
( )
0.24in
2
= :=
Maximum bar spacing for mimimum
reinforcement........................................ spacing
max
b
A
s.req
A
bar

\


.
15.78 in = :=
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum bar spacing for minimum reinforcement
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" spacing spacing
max
s if
"NG, section is underreinforced, so redesign!" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" =
Superstructure Design 2.07 Deck Overhang Design 151
B3. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
Gross area of section.............................. A
g
b
overhang
t
slab
96in
2
= :=
Minimum area of shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement...................... A
ST
min max 0.11
in
2
ft
1.3
kip
inft
A
g
2 b
overhang
t
slab
+
( )
f
y
(
(
(
0.6
in
2
ft
,
(
(
(
0.11
in
2
ft
= :=
Maximum spacing for shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement....................... spacing
ST
min
A
bar
A
ST
3 t
slab
, 18in ,

\


.
18in = :=
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" spacing spacing
ST
s if
"NG, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
B4. Summary
Size of bar
bar "5" =
Proposed bar spacing
spacing 4 in =
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" =
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
Superstructure Design 2.07 Deck Overhang Design 152
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Creep and Shrinkage Parameters
References
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\207DeckCantilever.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the creep and shrinkage factors as per the LRFD 5.4.2.3.2 and 5.4.2.3.3.
Page Contents
154 A. Input Variables
A1. Time Dependent Variables
A2. Transformed Properties
A3. Compute Volume to Surface area ratios
156 B. Shrinkage Coefficient (LRFD 5.4.2.3.3)
157 C. Creep Coefficient (LRFD 5.4.2.3.2)
Superstructure Design 2.08 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 153
A. Input Variables
A1. Time Dependent Variables
Relative humidity.................................... H 75 =
Age (days) of concrete when load is
applied.................................................. T
0
1 =
Age (days) of concrete deck when section
becomes composite................................ T
1
120 =
Age (days) used to determine long term
losses................................................... T
2
10000 =
A2. Transformed Properties
Required thickness of deck slab............... t
slab
8 in =
Effective slab width for interior beam....... b
eff.interior
120.0 in =
Effective slab width for exterior beam...... b
eff.exterior
139.4 in =
Superstructure beam type........................ BeamTypeTog "FIB36" =
A3. Volume to Surface Area Ratios (Notional Thickness)
The volume and surface area are calculated for 1 ft. of length. The surface area only includes the area
exposed to atmospheric drying. The volume and surface area of the deck are analyzed using the effective slab
width for the interior beam.
Effective slab width............................... b
eff
b
eff.interior
:=
BeamTypeTog BeamType :=
PCBeams
"ERROR"
"A"
"b.tf"
"FIB36"
807
48
"FIB45"
870
48
"FIB54"
933
48
"FIB63"
996
48
"FIB72"
1059
48
"FIB78"
1101
48

\



.
:=
Superstructure Design 2.08 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 154
output beamprops type , ( ) beamprops
1
( )
type "FIB36" = if
beamprops
2
( )
type "FIB45" = if
beamprops
3
( )
type "FIB54" = if
beamprops
4
( )
type "FIB63" = if
beamprops
5
( )
type "FIB72" = if
beamprops
6
( )
type "FIB78" = if
:=
BeamType FIB36 BeamType "FIB36" = if
FIB45 BeamType "FIB45" = if
FIB54 BeamType "FIB54" = if
FIB63 BeamType "FIB63" = if
FIB72 BeamType "FIB72" = if
FIB78 BeamType "FIB78" = if
:=
n rows BeamType ( ) :=
n 15 =
ii 0 n .. :=
Surface BeamType ( )
0
n 2
ii
BeamType
ii 1 + 0 ,
BeamType
ii 0 ,
( )
2
BeamType
ii 1 + 1 ,
BeamType
ii 1 ,
( )
2
+
0.5
=
:=
Surface
beam
Surface BeamType ( ) 1 ft ( ) :=
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
"FIB36"
807
48

\



.
=
A
nc
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
1
in
2
:=
b
tf
output PCBeams BeamTypeTog , ( )
2
in :=
Volume
beam
A
nc
1 ft :=
Surface
deck
2 b
eff
( )
b
tf
1 ft ( ) :=
Volume
deck
b
eff
t
slab
1 ft ( ) :=
Volume Volume
beam
Volume
deck
+ :=
Surface Surface
beam
Surface
deck
+ b
tf
1 ft :=
Superstructure Design 2.08 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 155
Volume of beam..................................... Volume
beam
5.6ft
3
=
Volume of deck...................................... Volume
deck
6.7ft
3
=
Volume of composite section................... Volume 12.3 ft
3
=
Surface area of beam.............................. Surface
beam
17.5 ft
2
=
Surface area of deck.............................. Surface
deck
16.0ft
2
=
Surface area of composite section........... Surface 29.5 ft
2
=
Superstructure Design 2.08 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 156
The shrinkage coefficient uses the notional
thickness of the composite section........... h
o.SH
Volume
Surface
4.99in = :=
The creep coefficient uses the notional
thickness of the noncomposite section,
since the forces responsible for creep are
initially applied to the noncomposite
section.................................................. h
o.CR
Volume
beam
Surface
beam
3.84in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.08 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 157
B. Shrinkage Coefficient (LRFD 5.4.2.3.3)
Shrinkage can range from approximately zero for concrete continually immersed in water to greater than
0.0008 for concrete that is improperly cured. Several factors influence the shrinkage of concrete.
Aggregate characteristics and proportions  Type of cure 
Average humidity at the bridge site  Volume to surface area ratio of member 
W/C ratio  Duration of drying period 
Shrinkage strain for both accelerated &
moistcured concretes without
shrinkageprone aggregates.....................
sh
k
s
k
hs
k
f
k
td
0.48 10
3
=
Factor for the effect of concrete
strength................................................ k
f
5
1
f
ci.beam
ksi
+
0.71 = :=
Factor for effects of the volume to surface
ratio.......................................... k
s
max 1.45 0.13
h
o.SH
in
1.0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Time development factor........................ k
td
t
61 4
f
ci.beam
ksi
t +
=
Factor for relative humidity..................... k
hs
2.00 0.014H 0.95 = :=
Using variables defined in this example,
Shrinkage strain...............................
sh
t ( ) k
s
k
hs
k
f
k
td
t
0.48 10
3
:=
Shrinkage strain on composite section
at Day T
1
120 = ..............................
sh
T
1
( )
0.00025 =
Shrinkage strain on composite section at
Day T
2
10000 = ....................................
sh
T
2
( )
0.00032 =
Shrinkage strain on composite section
from Day T
1
120 = to Day
T
2
10000 = ................................................
.
SH
sh
T
2
( )
sh
T
1
( )
0.000076 = :=
Note: Shrinkage and Creep [LRFD 5.4.2.3]
Assumptions for shrinkage
strain.......
0.0002 after 28 days
0.0005 after one year
Superstructure Design 2.08 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 158
C. Creep Coefficient (LRFD 5.4.2.3.2)
Creep is influenced by the same factors as shrinkage and also by the following factors:
Magnitude and duration of stress 
Maturity of concrete at loading 
Temperature of concrete 
For typical temperature ranges in bridges, temperature is not a factor in estimating creep.
Concrete shortening due to creep generally ranges from 0.5 to 4.0 times the initial elastic shortening,
depending primarily on concrete maturity at loading.
Creep Coefficient t t
i
,
( )
1.9k
s
k
hc
k
f
k
td
t
i
0.118
=
Factor for effect of concrete strength...... k
f
5
1
f
ci.beam
ksi

\


.
+
0.71 = :=
Factor for the effect of the volumeto
surface ratio of the component................ k
s
max 1.45 0.13
h
o.CR
in
1.0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Humidity factor for creep........................ k
hc
1.56 0.008 H 0.96 = :=
Using variables defined in this example,
Creep coefficient............................. t t
i
,
( )
1.9k
s
k
hc
k
f
k
td
t
t
i
0.118
:=
Creep coefficient on noncomposite
section from Day T
0
1 = to Day
T
1
120 = ........................................
cr1
T
1
T
0
,
( )
1 = :=
Creep coefficient on noncomposite
section from Day T
0
1 = to Day
T
2
10000 = .....................................
cr2
T
2
T
0
,
( )
1.3 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.08 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 159
Creep factor at Day T
1
.................... C
120
1
cr1
+ 2 = :=
Creep factor at Day T
2
................... C
10000
1
cr2
+ 2.3 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.08 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 160
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Expansion Joint Design
References
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\208CreepShrinkage.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design of the bridge expansion joints.
Page Contents
160 LRFD Criteria
160 FDOT Criteria
161 A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
A2. Temperature Movement [SDG 6.3]
A3. Expansion Joints [SDG 6.4]
A4. Movement [6.4.2]
164 B. Expansion Joint Design
B1. Movement from Creep, Shrinkage and Temperature (SDG 6.4.2)
B2. Movement from Temperature (SDG 6.4.2)
B3. Temperature Adjustment for Field Placement of Joint
B4. Bearing Design Movement/Strain
166 C. Design Summary
Superstructure Design 2.09 Expansion Joint Design 159
LRFD Criteria
Uniform Temperature [3.12.2]
Superseded by SDG 2.7.1 and SDG 6.3.
Shrinkage and Creep [5.4.2.3]
Movement and Loads  General [14.4.1]
Bridge Joints [14.5]
FDOT Criteria
Uniform Temperature  Joints and Bearings [SDG 2.7.1]
Delete LRFD [3.12.2] and substitute in lieu thereof SDG Chapter 6.
Expansion Joints [SDG 6.4]
Superstructure Design 2.09 Expansion Joint Design 160
A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
Overall bridge length............................... L
bridge
180ft =
Bridge design span length........................ L
span
90ft =
Skew angle............................................ Skew 20 deg =
A2. Temperature Movement [SDG 6.3]
The temperature values for "Concrete Only" in the preceding table apply to this example.
Temperature mean........................... t
mean
70F =
Temperature high............................. t
high
105 F =
Temperature low.............................. t
low
35F =
Temperature rise.............................. t
rise
t
high
t
mean
35F = :=
Temperature fall............................... t
fall
t
mean
t
low
35F = :=
Coefficient of thermal expansion [LRFD
5.4.2.2] for normal weight concrete.........
t
6 10
6
1
F
=
A3. Expansion Joints [SDG 6.4]
Superstructure Design 2.09 Expansion Joint Design 161
For new construction, use only the joint types listed in the preceding table. A typical joint for most prestressed
beam bridges is the poured joint with backer rod..
Proposed joint width at 70
o
F (per
FDOT Instructions for Design
Standards Index 21110) ................... W 2 in :=
Maximum joint width........................ W
max
3 in :=
Minimum joint width......................... W
min
0.5W :=
A4. Movement [SDG 6.4.2]
Temperature
The movement along the beam due to temperature should be resolved along the axis of the expansion joint or
skew.
Displacements normal to skew at top of bents
Temperature rise.............................. z
TempR
t
t
rise
cos Skew ( ) L
span
0.21in = :=
Temperature Fall.............................. z
TempF
t
t
fall
cos Skew ( ) L
span
0.21 in = :=
Displacements parallel to skew at top of bents
Temperature rise.............................. x
TempR
t
t
rise
sin Skew ( ) L
span
0.08 in = :=
Temperature Fall.............................. x
TempF
t
t
fall
sin Skew ( ) L
span
( )
0.08in = :=
For poured joint with backer rod, displacements parallel to the skew are not significant in most joint designs.
For this example, these displacements are ignored.
Creep and Shrinkage
The following assumptions are used in this design example:
Creep and Shrinkage prior to day 120 (casting of deck) is neglected for the expansion joint design. 
Creep [LRFD 5.4.2.3] is not considered at this time. After day 120, all beams are assumed to creep 
towards their centers. The slab will offer some restraint to this movement of the beam. The beam and
slab interaction, combined with forces not being applied to the center of gravity for the composite
section, is likely to produce longitudinal movements and rotations. For most prestressed beams
designed as simple spans for dead and live load, these joint movements due to creep are ignored.
Superstructure Design 2.09 Expansion Joint Design 162
Shrinkage after day 120 is calculated using LRFD 5.4.2.3.
Creep strain...........................................
CR
0. :=
Shrinkage strain.....................................
SH
0.00008 =
Strain due to creep and shrinkage.............
CS
CR
SH
+ 0.000076 = :=
The movement along the beam due to creep and shrinkage should be resolved along the axis of the expansion
joint or skew.
Displacements normal to skew at top
of bents........................................... z
CS
CS
cos Skew ( ) L
span
0.08in = :=
Displacements parallel to skew at top
of bents........................................... x
CS
CS
sin Skew ( ) L
span
0.03 in = :=
For poured joint with backer rod, displacements parallel to the skew are not significant in most joint designs.
For this example, these displacements are ignored.
Superstructure Design 2.09 Expansion Joint Design 163
B. Expansion Joint Design
For prestressed concrete structures, the movement is based on the greater of two cases:
Movement from the combination of temperature fall, creep, and shrinkage 
Movement from factored effects of temperature 
B1. Movement from Creep, Shrinkage and Temperature (SDG 6.4.2)
The combination of creep, shrinkage, and temperature fall tends to "open" the expansion joint.
Movement from the combination of
temperature fall, creep, and shrinkage....... z
Temperature.Fall
z
temperature.fall
z
creep.shrinkage
+ =
Using variables defined in this example.....
CST
z
CS
z
TempF
+ 0.29 in = :=
Joint width from opening caused by creep,
shrinkage, and temperature...................... W
CSTopen
W
CST
+ 2.29in = :=
The joint width from opening should not exceed the maximum joint width.
CST
J t_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" W
CSTopen
W
max
s if
"NG, joint width exceeds maximum joint width" otherwise
:=
CST
J t_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" =
B2. Movement from Temperature (SDG 6.4.2)
Movement from factored effects of temperature rise
z
rise.or.fall
TU
z
temperature.rise.or.fall
=
Using variables defined in this example,
Joint width from opening caused by
factored temperature fall......................... W
Topen
W
TU
z
TempF
+ 2.26 in = :=
Joint width from closing caused by
factored temperature rise......................... W
Tclose
W
TU
z
TempR
1.74in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.09 Expansion Joint Design 164
The joint width from opening should not exceed the maximum joint width.
Temperature
J t_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" W
Topen
W
max
s if
"NG, joint width exceeds maximum joint width" otherwise
:=
Temperature
J t_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" =
The joint width from closing should not be less than the minimum joint width.
Temperature
J t_Close
"OK, joint width is not less than minimum joint width" W
Tclose
W
min
> if
"NG, joint width exceeds minimum joint width" otherwise
:=
Temperature
J t_Close
"OK, joint width is not less than minimum joint width" =
B3. Temperature Adjustment for Field Placement of Joint
For field temperatures other than 70
o
F, a
temperature adjustment is provided. The
adjustment is used during construction to
obtain the desired joint width................... T
Adj
z
TempR
t
rise
0.0061
in
F
= :=
B4. Bearing Design Movement/Strain
For the bearing pad design, the following
strain due to temperature, creep and
shrinkage will be utilized........................
CST
CR
SH
+
t
t
fall
+
( )
0.000286 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.09 Expansion Joint Design 165
C. Design Summary
Joint width at 70
o
................................... W 2 in =
Joint width from opening caused by creep,
shrinkage, and temperature...................... W
CSTopen
2.29in =
CST
J t_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" = ........ W
max
3 in =
Joint width from opening caused by
factored temperature.............................. W
Topen
2.26in =
Temperature
J t_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" = ........ W
max
3 in =
Joint width from closing caused by
factored temperature.............................. W
Tclose
1.74in =
Temperature
J t_Close
"OK, joint width is not less than minimum joint width" = ........ W
min
1 in =
Adjustment for field temperatures other
than 70
o
................................................
T
Adj
0.0061
in
F
=
EXPANSION JOINT DETAIL
Defined Units
Superstructure Design 2.09 Expansion Joint Design 166
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad Design
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\209ExpansionJ oint.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design of the bridge composite neoprene bearing pad. Only the interior beam at End
bent 1 bearing pad is designed within this file.
For the design of bearing pads for any other beam type (exterior beam) and location (at pier), design is similar
to methodology shown in this file. This may be modified by changing input values in section A3 of these
calculations.
Page Contents
168 LRFD Criteria
168 FDOT Criteria
169 A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
A2. Bearing Design Movement/Strain
A3. Bearing Design Loads
171 B. Composite Bearing Pad Design
B1. Bearing Pad Selection
B2. Minimum Support Length [LRFD 4.7.4.4]
172 C. Design Summary
C1. Bearing Pad Dimensions
C2. Design Checks
Superstructure Design 2.10 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 167
LRFD Criteria
Force Effects Due to Superimposed Deformations [LRFD 3.12]
Modified by SDG 2.7 and SDG 6.3.
Minimum Support Length Requirements [LRFD 4.7.4.4]
FDOT Criteria
Seismic Provisions  General [SDG 2.3.1]
Simple span concrete beam bridges supported on elastomeric bearings are exempt from seismic design.
Design for minimum seismic support length only.
Vessel Collision  Design Methodology  Damage Permitted [SDG 2.11.4]
Ship impact on bearings is not considered in this example.
Temperature Movement [SDG 6.3]
Bearings [SDG 6.5]
Specifies design of Composite neoprene bearing pads in accordance with LRFD Method B [LRFD 14.7.5].
Superstructure Design 2.10 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 168
A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
Bridge design span length........................ L
span
90ft =
Skew angle............................................ Skew 20 deg =
The bearing pad will be placed in alignment with the beam, so for the purposes of bearing pad selection,
Skew
BP
0deg := .
Beam grade........................................... Beam
Grade
0.15 % =
A2. Bearing Design Movement/Strain
For the bearing pad design, the following
strain due to temperature, creep and
shrinkage will be utilized..........................
CST
0.00029 =
Shear deformation..................................
s
CST
L
span
0.31 in = :=
A3. Bearing Pad Design Loads
The design of the interior and exterior beams follow the same procedures and concept as outlined in this design
example. In order to minimize the calculations, only one beam type will be evaluated. Flexibility to evaluate an
interior or exterior beam is given by changing the input values chosen below (see input options note).
DC dead loads....................................... R
DC
V
DC.BeamInt
Support ( ) 97.42 kip = :=
Note: Input options......
V
DC.BeamInt
Support ( )
V
DC.BeamExt
Support ( )
V
DW.BeamInt
Support ( )
V
DW.BeamExt
Support ( )
LL.Int
LL.Ext
R
LL.Int
R
LL.Ext

\













.
DW dead loads...................................... R
DW
V
DW.BeamInt
Support ( ) 0 kip = :=
DC Dead Load Rotation ..........................
DC
DC.BeamInt
0.81deg = :=
DW Dead Load Rotation .........................
DW
DW.BeamInt
0 deg = :=
Superstructure Design 2.10 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 169
Live Load Rotation .................................
LL
LL.Int
0.19deg = :=
Live Load Reaction................................. R
LL
R
LL.Int
93.56 kip = :=
Service I Limit State Design Loads.
Service1 1.0DC 1.0DW + 1.0LL + =
Total Dead Load Bearing Design Load....... R
BrgDL
1.0R
DC
1.0R
DW
+ 97.42 kip = :=
Live Load Bearing Design Load................ R
BrgLL
1.0R
LL
93.56 kip = :=
Dead Load Design Rotation.....................
DL
DC
DW
+ 0.81deg = :=
Live Load Design Rotation.......................
LL
0.19141 deg =
Superstructure Design 2.10 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 170
B. Composite Bearing Pad Design
B1. Bearing Pad Selection
The Instructions for Design Standard Index 20510 contains the following table:
Based on the table, bearing pad type D will be selected with the following limitations:
R
LL.All
135kip :=
R
DL.All
147kip 1.75 135kip R
BrgLL
( )
+ 219.52kip = :=
Skew
All
5deg :=
S.All
0.75in :=
B2. Minimum Support Length [LRFD 4.7.4.4]
Minimum support length........................ N 8 0.02
L
span
ft
+ .08
z
sup
ft
+

\


.
1 .000125
Skew
deg

\


.
2
+
(
(
in 12.01 in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.10 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 171
C. Design Summary
C1. Bearing Pad Dimensions
Based on Design Standard Index 20510, the bearing pad D dimensions are:
Length of bearing pad............................. L
pad
8 in :=
Width of bearing pad.............................. W
pad
32in :=
Height of bearing pad.............................. h
pad
1.90625 in :=
Number of external elastomer layers......... n
e
2 :=
Number of internal elastomer layers......... n
i
2 :=
Support length provided.......................... N
prov
J
1
2
L
pad
+ if Skew 15deg < 4in , 2in , ( ) + 14in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.10 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 172
C2. Design Checks
Live_Load if R
LL.All
R
BrgLL
> "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:= Live_Load "OK" =
Dead_Load if R
DL.All
R
BrgDL
> "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:= Dead_Load "OK" =
Skew_Chk if Skew
All
Skew
BP
> "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:= Skew_Chk "OK" =
Shear
All
if
S.All
s
> "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:= Shear
All
"OK" =
Support_Length if N
prov
N > "OK" , "NG" ,
( )
:= Support_Length "OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.10 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 173
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Beam Stability
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\210BearingPad.xmcd(R)
Description
These are calculations for the Lateral Stability of Precast Concrete Bridge Girders during construction. The
number of intermediate bracing points (06) represents any intermediate bracing that is to be present between the
points of bearing. A value of zero represents no intermediate bracing points between the bearing points.
Page Contents
175 A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
A2. Girder Properties
A3. Bearing Pad Properties
A4. Loads
A5. Lateral Deflection and Eccentricity of Girder Center of Gravity
A6. Bearing Pad Rotational Stiffness
180 B. Stability Calculations
B1. Calculations of Bending Moments
B2. Service Stress Check for Girder Placement (Prior to beam bracing)
B3. Rol l Stabi l i ty Check for Girder Placement (Prior to beam braci ng)
B4. Service Stress Check for Braced Beam (Prior to deck placement)
B5. Rol l Stabi l i ty Check for Braced Beam (Prior to deck placement)
B6. Service Stress Check for Braced Beam (During deck placement)
B7. Rol l Stabi l i ty Check During Deck Placement
186 C. Verify Bracing Requirements
C1. Bracing Requirements
C2. Verification of Bracing Adequacy
187 D. Summary
D1. Temporary Bracing Variables
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 174
A. Input Variables
A1. Bridge Geometry
Bridge design span length........................ L
span
90ft =
Skew angle between bearing pad and
girder.................................................... Skew
brg.pad
0 :=
Number of intermediate bracing points
(from 0 to 6)......................................... n
b
1 :=
Sweep tolerance.................................... tol
S
1
8
in
10ft
:=
Initial imperfection of bracing.................. e
b
.25in :=
A2. Girder Properties
Girder type........................................... BeamType "FIB36" :=
Unit weight of concrete..........................
conc
0.15
kip
ft
3
=
Unit weight of concrete for deck pour...... w
cd
conc
0.15
kip
ft
3
= :=
Concrete strength................................... f
c.beam
8.5ksi =
Beam spacing........................................ BeamSpacing 10ft =
Number of beams in crosssection........... N
beams
9 =
Overhang length..................................... Overhang 4.54ft =
Deflection of deck limit at edge of
cantilever..............................................
max
0.25in := (0.25 in recommended value)
Deck thickness...................................... t
slab.total
t
slab
t
mill
+ 8.5in = :=
Unbraced length of beam........................ L
b
L
span
n
b
1 +
45ft = :=
Girder height......................................... h
nc
3ft =
Top flange width.................................... b
tf
4ft =
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 175
Bottom flange width............................... b
bf
3.17ft =
Modulus of Elasticity.............................. E
c.beam
4.78 10
3
ksi =
Shear Modulus...................................... G
shear
0.416667E
c.beam
1992.1ksi = :=
Area of concrete.................................... A
nc
807 in
2
=
Moment of Inertia, about xaxis............... I
nc
127545in
4
=
Moment of Inertia, about yaxis............... I
y
81131 in
4
=
Distance from CG to top of beam............ yt
nc
19.51 in =
Distance from CG to bottom of beam....... yb
nc
16.49 in =
Torsional constant................................. J x 28654 in
4
=
Section Modulii...................................... S
tnc
6537in
3
=
S
bnc
7735in
3
=
S
yt
2 I
y
b
tf
3380in
3
= :=
S
yb
2 I
y
b
bf
4270in
3
= :=
Selfweight of beam............................... w w
BeamInt
0.84 klf = :=
Selfweight of slab................................ w
d
t
slab.total
w
cd
106.25psf = :=
Effective prestressing force (may assume
all losses have occurred)......................... F
pe
A
ps.midspan
f
pj
f
pT
( )
1508.6kip = :=
Eccentricity of prestressing..................... e
cg.nc.tr
11.51 in =
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 176
A3. Bearing Pad Properties
Bearing pad plan dimensions.................... W
pad
32in =
L
pad
8 in =
Thickness of internal elastomer layer........ h
ri
0.5in :=
Number of interior layers of elastomer...... n
i
2 =
(For bearing pads, use 0.85G in
calculations because material is
not homogeneous)
Elastomer Shear Modulus........................ G
bp
93.5psi :=
Tilt angle of support............................... .01 := (0.01 recommended value)
Distance from bottom of beam to roll axis
(half bearing pad thickness)..................... h
r
h
pad
2
0.95 in = :=
A4. Loads
Basic wind speed (mph).......................... V
B
V mph 150 mph = :=
Wind speed factor for construction
inactive wind speed................................. R
E
0.6 := V V
B
R
E
90mph = :=
Construction active wind speed (20 mph
recommended)....................................... V
E
20mph :=
Construction wind load factor.................. 1.25 :=
Gust effect factor................................... G 0.85 =
Pressure coefficient, single girder............. C
pg
2.2 :=
Pressure coefficient, entire bridge section.. C
p
C
p.sup
:=
Bridge height, measured to midheight of
beam..................................................... Height z
sup
20.5ft = :=
Velocity pressure exposure coefficient...... K
z
K
z.sup
0.91 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 177
Construction active wind load for single
girder................................................... w
wE
0.00256 K
z
G C
pg
V
E
mph

\


.
2
psf 1.74psf = :=
Construction inactive wind load for single
girder................................................... w
w
0.00256 K
z
G C
pg
V
mph

\


.
2
psf 35.16 psf = :=
Construction active wind load for entire
bridge section......................................... w
wD
0.00256 K
z
G C
p
V
E
mph

\


.
2
psf 0.87psf = :=
Weight of build up................................. w
b
50plf :=
Weight of forms.................................... w
f
20psf := (20 psf recommended)
Live loads during deck pour..................... w
1
20psf := (Use 20 psf and 75 plf at edge
of overhang per AASHTO
Guide Design Specifications for
Temporary Works)
P
1
75plf :=
(recommend 10 kips for bridge
widths less than 45 feet and 20
kips otherwise)
Total weight of finishing machine............ w
fm
20kip :=
Wheel location of finishing machine in
relation to edge of overhang, positive is
to exterior of overhang edge, negative is
to interior of overhang edge.....................
d
fm
2.5in := (2.5 in. recommended)
A5. Lateral Deflection and Eccentricity of Girder Center of Gravity
Maximum lateral deflection of uncracked
section.................................................. z
o
wL
span
4
120 E
c.beam
I
y
2.05 in = :=
Eccentricity due to sweep....................... e
S
min 1.5in L
span
tol
S
,
( )
2
3
0.75 in = :=
Eccentricity due to construction inactive
wind speed............................................ e
w
w
w
h
nc
L
span
4
120 E
c.beam
I
y
0.26 in = :=
Eccentricity due to wind loading at
construction active wind speed girder only e
wE
w
wE
h
nc
L
span
4
120 E
c.beam
I
y
0.01in = :=
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 178
Eccentricity due to wind loading at
construction active wind speed entire
bridge section........................................ e
wD
w
wD
h
nc
L
span
4
120 E
c.beam
I
y
0.0063in = :=
A6. Bearing Pad Rotational Stiffness
b_a .5 .6 .7 .75 .8 .9 1 1.2 1.4 2 4 10 1000 ( ) :=
C 136.7 116.7 104.4 100 96.2 90.4 86.2 80.4 76.7 70.8 64.9 61.9 60 ( ) :=
C' linterp b_a
T
C
T
,
L
pad
W
pad
,

\


.
186.7 = :=
Effect of skew on stiffness (coefficient)... Ang 0 15 30 45 60 ( ) :=
Stiffness .8883 .5922 .4666 .3948 .323 ( ) :=
Bearing pad rotational stiffness......... K
linterp Ang
T
Stiffness
T
,
Skew
deg
,

\


.
G
bp
W
pad
5
L
pad
C' n
i
h
ri
3
689966
kip in
rad
= :=
Coefficient for reaction at bracing based
on number of brace points, intermediate (i),
end (e).................................................. k
vi
0
1.25
1.1
1.143
1.132
1.135
1.134

\









.
:= k
ve
.5
.375
.4
.393
.395
.395
.395

\









.
:=
K
vi
k
vi
n
b
1.25 = :=
K
ve
k
ve
n
b
0.38 = :=
k
m
.12513
.07818
.06396
.06481
.06349
.06377
.06298
.12513
.05212
.04357
.04321
.04294
.04251
.04227
.12513
.03905
.03337
.0324
.03267
.03189
.0319
.12513
.03128
.02725
.02592
.02651
.02551
.02569
.12513
.02874
.02317
.02181
.02239
.02136
.02155
.12513
.02697
.02026
.01899
.01946
.01847
.01858
.12513
.02569
.01808
.01689
.01726
.0163
.01636
.12513
.02472
.01637
.01526
.01554
.01462
.01464
.12513
.02395
.01501
.01395
.01417
.01327
.01326
.12513
.02333
.01391
.01289
.01306
.01216
.01213
.12513
.02281
.01344
.01199
.01212
.01125
.01119

\









.
:=
Coefficient for bending moment in girder
based on number of brace points............. K
M
k
m
n
b
N
beams
2 ,
0.02472 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 179
B. Stability Calculations
B1. Calculations of Bending Moments
Unfactored vertical load during deck
placement for ext. beam (not including
finishing machine)..................................
w
D.ext
w w
b
+ P
1
+ w
d
w
1
+
( )
.5BeamSpacing Overhang + ( ) + w
f
.5BeamSpacing Overhang + b
tf
( )
+ 2.28 klf = :=
w
D.int
w w
b
+ w
d
w
1
+
( )
BeamSpacing + w
f
BeamSpacing b
tf
( )
+ 2.27klf = :=
Strength I torsional distributed overhang
moment during deck placement
M
c
1.25 w
d
w
f
+
( )
1.5w
1
+
Overhang .5b
tf
( )
.5b
tf
.5 Overhang .5b
tf
( )
+
1.5P
1
Overhang + 2.07
kip ft
ft
= :=
Strength I torsional finishing machine
moment................................................ M
fm
1.50.5 w
fm
Overhang d
fm
+
( )
71.25 kip ft = :=
Lateral moment due to construction
inactive wind speed................................ M
w
K
M
w
w
h
nc
L
span
2
21.12 kip ft = :=
Vertical moment due to girder selfweight M
g
wL
span
2
8
851.13kip ft = :=
Lateral moment due to construction active
wind speed, braced condition................... M
wE
K
M
w
wE
h
nc
L
span
2
1.04 kip ft = :=
Lateral moment due to construction active
wind speed, unbraced condition............... M
wE.u
.125 w
wE
h
nc
L
span
2
5.27 kip ft = :=
Vertical moment due to selfweight and
construction loads during deck placement,
exterior girder........................................ M
gD
w
D.ext
L
span
2
w
fm
L
span
+
8
2534.61 kip ft = :=
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 180
B2. Service Stress Check for Girder Placement (Prior to beam bracing)
Camber (approximate)............................
c
L
span
2
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
5wL
span
2
48
\



.
2
8 E
c.beam
I
nc
4.23 in = :=
Distance from center of gravity to roll
axis...................................................... y yb
nc
h
r
+
c
2
3
+ 20.26 in = :=
Elastic rotational spring constant (sum of
2 bearing pads)...................................... K
6.9 10
5
kip in
rad
=
Radius of stability.................................. r
K
wL
span
759.98ft = :=
Stress at top of beam, tension.................. f
ttE
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
tnc
+
M
g
S
tnc
M
wE.u
S
yt
+ 0.76 ksi = :=
Stress at top of beam, compression.......... f
tcE
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
tnc
+
M
g
S
tnc
M
wE.u
S
yt
0.8 ksi = :=
Compression check.......................... Ck
E.t.comp
if f
tcE
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
tcE
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Tension check................................. Ck
E.t.tens
if f
ttE
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
ttE
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Stress at bottom of beam, tension............ f
btE
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
bnc
M
g
S
bnc
+
M
wE.u
S
yb
+ 2.78 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam, compression.... f
bcE
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
bnc
M
g
S
bnc
+
M
wE.u
S
yb
2.81 ksi = :=
Compression check............................ Ck
E.b.comp
if f
bcE
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
bcE
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Tension check................................... Ck
E.b.tens
if f
btE
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
btE
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 181
Check for stress at girder placement........
Ck
stress.plcmnt
if min Ck
E.t.comp
Ck
E.t.tens
, Ck
E.b.comp
, Ck
E.b.tens
,
( )
1 = "OK" , "Not OK" ,
( )
:=
Ck
stress.plcmnt
"OK" =
B3. Roll Stability Check for Girder Placement (Prior to beam bracing)
Modulus of rupture................................. f
r
0.24
f
c.beam
ksi
ksi 0.7ksi = :=
Lateral cracking moment......................... M
lat
min
f
r
f
ttE
( )
I
y
b
tf
2

\


.
f
r
f
btE
( )
I
y
b
bf
2

\


.
,
(
(
(
(
410.5 kip ft = :=
Rotation angle at cracking.......................
cr
M
lat
M
g
27.64 deg = :=
Rotation angle at failure...........................
f
min 0.4
5 z
o
5 z
o
( )
2
10z
o
e
S
e
wE
+ z
o
+ 2.5e
wE
+ y +
w
wE
h
nc
2
2 w
+

\



.
+
(
(
(
.5
+
5 z
o
(
(
(
(
(
22.92 deg = :=
Final rotation..........................................
r e
S
+ e
wE
+
w
wE
h
nc
2
2 w
+
r y z
o
0.58deg = :=
Factor of safety for cracking (Unbraced
beam)................................................... FS
cr
r
cr
( )
z
o
cr
e
S
+ e
wE
+ y
cr
+
w
wE
h
nc
2
2 w
+
370.2 = :=
Factor of safety for failure (Unbraced beam)
FS
f
r
f
( )
z
o
1 2.5
f
+
( )
f
e
S
+ e
wE
1 2.5
f
+
( )
+ y
f
+
w
wE
h
nc
2
2 w
+
334.6 = :=
Check for stability at girder placement......
Ck
stab.plcmnt
if 0 > ( ) FS
cr
1 >
( )
. FS
f
1.5 >
( )
. "OK" , "Not OK" ,
:=
Ck
stab.plcmnt
"OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 182
B4. Service Stress Check for Braced Beam (Prior to deck placement)
Stress at top of beam, tension.................. f
tt
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
tnc
+
M
g
S
tnc
M
w
S
yt
+ 0.7 ksi = :=
Stress at top of beam, compression.......... f
tc
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
tnc
+
M
g
S
tnc
M
w
S
yt
0.85 ksi = :=
Compression check............................ Ck
B.t.comp
if f
tc
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
tc
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Tension check................................... Ck
B.t.tens
if f
tt
6
f
c.beam
( )
psi
psi s f
tt
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,
(
(
1 = :=
Stress at bottom of beam, tension............ f
bt
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
bnc
M
g
S
bnc
+
M
w
S
yb
+ 2.73 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam, compression.... f
bc
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
bnc
M
g
S
bnc
+
M
w
S
yb
2.85 ksi = :=
Compression check............................ Ck
B.b.comp
if f
bc
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
bc
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Tension check................................... Ck
B.b.tens
if f
bt
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
bt
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Check for stress at braced condition........
Ck
stress.braced
if min Ck
B.t.comp
Ck
B.t.tens
, Ck
B.b.comp
, Ck
B.b.tens
,
( )
1 = "OK" , "Not OK" ,
( )
:=
Ck
stress.braced
"OK" =
B5. Roll Stability Check for Braced Beam (Prior to deck placement)
Initial rotation.........................................
i
r e
S
+
r y z
o
min e
b
e
w
,
( )
y
+ 1.29 deg = :=
Maximum torque between bracing points.. T
B
wL
span
e
w
1.62 kip ft = :=
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 183
Twist due to torque................................
B
T
B
.5 L
b
G
shear
J x
0.0053deg = :=
Total rotation.........................................
w
i
B
+ 1.29 deg = :=
Rotation limits........................................
w.max
min
cr
5 deg ,
( )
5 deg = :=
Wind load rotation check......................... FS
w
w.max
w
3.87 = :=
Ck
stab.braced
if FS
w
1 > "OK" , "Not OK" ,
( )
:=
Ck
stab.braced
"OK" =
B6. Service Stress Check for Braced Beam (During deck placement)
Stress at top of beam, tension.................. f
ttD
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
tnc
+
M
gD
S
tnc
M
wE
S
yt
+ 3.86 ksi = :=
Stress at top of beam, compression.......... f
tcD
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
tnc
+
M
gD
S
tnc
M
wE
S
yt
3.87 ksi = :=
Compression check............................ Ck
D.t.comp
if f
tcD
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
tcD
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Tension check................................... Ck
D.t.tens
if f
ttD
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
ttD
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Stress at bottom of beam, tension............ f
btD
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
bnc
M
gD
S
bnc
+
M
wE
S
yb
+ 0.18 ksi = :=
Stress at bottom of beam, compression.... f
bcD
F
pe
A
nc
F
pe
e
cg.nc.tr
S
bnc
M
gD
S
bnc
+
M
wE
S
yb
0.18 ksi = :=
Compression check................................
Ck
D.b.comp
if f
bcD
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
bcD
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 184
Tension check................................... Ck
D.b.tens
if f
btD
6
f
c.beam
psi
psi s f
btD
0.6 f
c.beam
> . 1 , 0 ,

\


.
1 = :=
Check for stresses at deck placement condition
Ck
stress.deck
if min Ck
D.t.comp
Ck
D.t.tens
, Ck
D.b.comp
, Ck
D.b.tens
,
( )
1 = "OK" , "Not OK" ,
( )
:=
Ck
stress.deck
"OK" =
B7. Roll Stability Check during Deck Placement
Lateral cracking moment........................ M
latD
min
f
r
f
ttD
( )
I
y
.5b
tf
f
r
f
btD
( )
I
y
.5b
bf
(
(
312.49kip ft = :=
Rotation angle at cracking.......................
crD
M
latD
M
gD
7.06 deg = :=
Initial rotation........................................
i.D
r e
S
+
r y z
o
min e
b
e
wD
,
( )
y
+ 0.6deg = :=
Torque due to construction live loads....... T
D
.5w
fm
P
1
L
b
+
( )
Overhang d
fm
+
( )
63.53 kip ft = :=
Twist due to construction live loads.........
D
T
D
.5 L
b
G
shear
J x
0.21deg = :=
Deflection at cantilever due to twist..........
D
Overhang tan
D
( )
0.2in = :=
Total rotation.........................................
D
i.D
D
+ 0.8deg = :=
Rotation limits........................................
D.max
min
crD
5 deg ,
( )
5 deg = :=
Deck placement rotation check................ Ck
stab.deck
if
D
max
s
D
D.max
s . "OK" , "Not OK" ,
( )
:=
Ck
stab.deck
"OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 185
C. Verify Bracing Requirements
C1. Bracing Requirements
Factored horizontal force at each beam end
and anchor brace, at midheight of beam.... F
e
w
w
h
nc
L
b
K
ve
2.22kip = :=
Factored horizontal bracing force at each
intermediate span brace (if present), at
midheight of beam.................................. F
i
if n
b
0 = "N/A" , w
w
h
nc
L
b
K
vi
,
( )
7.42kip = :=
Factored overturning force at each beam end and anchor brace, at top of beam
M
e
M
fm
M
c
L
b
K
ve
+ w
wD
h
nc
L
b
K
ve
.5 h
nc
+ .9w L
b
b
bf
2
z
o
i.D
e
S
+
min e
b
e
wD
,
( )
y
i.D
+ +
...

\


.
(
(
(
K
ve
87.1 kip f = :=
Factored overturning force at each intermediate span brace (if present), at top of beam
M
i
M
fm
M
c
L
b
K
vi
+ w
wD
h
nc
L
b
K
vi
.5 h
nc
+ .9w L
b
b
bf
2
z
o
i.D
e
S
+
min e
b
e
wD
,
( )
y
i.D
+ +
...

\


.
(
(
(
K
vi
124.2 kip f = :=
C2. Verification of Bracing Adequacy
Stress checks........................................
Ck
stress.plcmnt
"OK" =
Ck
stress.braced
"OK" =
Ck
stress.deck
"OK" =
Stability checks......................................
Ck
stab.plcmnt
"OK" = (If Ck
stab.plcmnt
is "Not OK,"
the girder must be braced prior
to crane release.)
Ck
stab.braced
"OK" =
Ck
stab.deck
"OK" =
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 186
D. Summary
D1. Temporary Bracing Variables
Maximum unbraced length...................... L
b
45ft =
Factored horizontal force at each beam end
and anchor brace, at midheight of beam.... F
e
2.22kip =
Factored horizontal bracing force at each
intermediate span brace (if present), at
midheight of beam.................................. F
i
7.42kip =
Factored overturning force at each beam
end and anchor brace, at top of beam....... M
e
87.14 kip ft =
Factored overturning force at each
intermediate span brace (if present), at top
of beam................................................ M
i
124.22kip ft =
Superstructure Design 2.11 Beam Stability 187
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Dead Loads
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\211BeamStability.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design dead loads applied to the substructure from the superstructure. The
selfweight of the substructure is generated by the analysis program for the substructure model.
Page Contents
189 A. General Criteria
A1. End Bent Geometry
A2. Pier Geometry
191 B. Dead Loads (DC, DW)
B1. Beam Dead loads
B2. End Bent Dead loads
B3. Pier Dead loads
B4. End Bent and Pier Dead Load Summary
Substructure Design 3.01 Dead Loads 188
A. General Criteria
A1. End Bent Geometry
(Note: End bent back
wall not shown)
Depth of end bent cap.......... h
EB
2.5ft
Width of end bent cap.......... b
EB
3.5ft
Length of end bent cap......... L
EB
88ft
Height of back wall.............. h
BW
3.6ft
Backwall design width.......... L
BW
1ft
Thickness of back wall.......... t
BW
1ft
Pile Geometry:
Pile Embedment Depth.......... Pile
embed
1ft
Pile Size.............................. Pile
size
18in
Substructure Design 3.01 Dead Loads 189
A2. Pier Geometry
A model of the substructure has been created utilizing RISA. The model will have the loads applied at the
pedestals from the superstructure. In addition, it will generate it's own selfweight based on the following
member properties of the pier:
Depth of pier cap................. h
Cap
4.5ft
Width of pier cap................. b
Cap
4.5ft
Length of pier cap................ L
Cap
88ft
Height of pier column........... h
Col
14ft
Column diameter.................. b
Col
4ft
Number of columns............. n
Col
4
Surcharge........................... h
Surcharge
2ft
Height of footing.................. h
Ftg
4ft
Width of footing................... b
Ftg
7.5ft
Length of footing.................. L
Ftg
7.5ft
Substructure Design 3.01 Dead Loads 190
B. Dead Loads (DC, DW)
B1. Beam Dead Loads
The dead loads of the superstructure (moment and shears) were previously computed utilizing the beam design
length, L
design
87.750ft (see section 2.01 Dead Loads). For reactions on the pier, the reactions should be
computed based on the span length, L
span
90.0ft . Conservatively, we will adjust the loads as follows:
Modification factors for span loads.........
1
L
span
L
design
1.03
DC load at end bent for interior beam........ P
DC.BeamInt
1
V
DC.BeamInt
Support ( ) 99.92 kip
DC load at end bent for exterior beam....... P
DC.BeamExt
1
V
DC.BeamExt
Support ( ) 95.02 kip
DW load at end bent for interior beam....... P
DW.BeamInt
1
V
DW.BeamInt
Support ( ) 0 kip
DW load at end bent for exterior beam...... P
DW.BeamExt
1
V
DW.BeamExt
Support ( ) 0 kip
B2. End Bent Dead loads
DC load at end bent for interior beam........ P
DC.EndbentInt
P
DC.BeamInt
99.92 kip
DC load at end bent for exterior beam....... P
DC.EndbentExt
P
DC.BeamExt
95.02 kip
DW load at end bent for interior beam....... P
DW.EndbentInt
P
DW.BeamInt
0 kip
DW load at end bent for exterior beam...... P
DW.EndbentExt
P
DW.BeamExt
0 kip
B3. Pier Dead Loads
Dead load at pier for interior beam........... P
DC.PierInt
2 P
DC.BeamInt
199.83kip
Substructure Design 3.01 Dead Loads 191
Dead load at pier for exterior beam........... P
DC.PierExt
2 P
DC.BeamExt
190.05kip
Dead load at pier for interior beam........... P
DW.PierInt
2 P
DW.BeamInt
0 kip
Dead load at pier for exterior beam........... P
DW.PierExt
2 P
DW.BeamExt
0 kip
B4. End Bent and Pier Dead Load Summary
End Bent Beam Reactions
Beam x y z x y z
1 0.0 95.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 95.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT END BENTS
DC Loads (kip) DW Loads (kip)
Pier Beam Reactions
Beam x y z x y z
1 0.0 190.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 190.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT PIER
DC Loads (kip) DW Loads (kip)
Substructure Design 3.01 Dead Loads 192
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Pier Cap Live Load Analysis
References
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\301SubDeadLoad.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the pier cap design live load.
Page Contents
194 A. Input Variables
A1. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c]
A2. Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier  Two HL93 Vehicles
A3. HL93 Vehicle Placement
Substructure Design 3.02 Pier Cap Live Load Analysis 193
A. Input Variables
A1. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c]
Skew modification factor for shear shall be applied to the exterior beam at the obtuse corner (u>90 deg) and
to all beams in a multibeam bridge, whereas g
v.Skew
1.064 = .
A2. Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier  Two HL93 Vehicles
The live load reaction (including impact and skew modification factors) is applied on the deck as two wheelline
loads.
HL93 Line Load, including truck and lane HL93
R
LLIs
2
g
v.Skew
78.5 kip = :=
The HL93 line load can be placed within 2' of the overhang and median barriers.
A3. HL93 Vehicle Placement
HL93 vehicles, comprising of HL93 wheelline loads and lane loads, should be placed on the deck to maximize
the moments in the pier cap. Note that for the maximum cap moments, live load may be placed on both sides of
the roadway. Utilizing our engineering judgement, it is possible to have up to six lanes of HL93 vehicles at a
single time. However, note that for the calculation of the braking forces, vehicles in only one roadway were
utilized since the braking forces would be counter productive or in opposite directions.
Depending on the number of design lanes, a multiple presence factor (LRFD Table 3.6.1.1.21) is applied to the
HL93 wheel line loads and lane load.
Lanes
1
2
3
4
5
6

\







.
:= MPF
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.65
0.65
0.65

\







.
:= HL93_Line_Load HL93 MPF :=
HL93_Line_Load
94.2
78.5
66.725
51.025
51.025
51.025

\







.
kip =
Substructure Design 3.02 Pier Cap Live Load Analysis 194
Substructure Design 3.02 Pier Cap Live Load Analysis 195
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Pier Cap Design Loads
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\302SubLiveLoad.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design parameters necessary for the substructure pier cap design. The loads
calculated in this file are only from the superstructure. Substructure selfweight, wind on substructure and
uniform temperature on substructure can be generated by the substructure analysis model/program chosen by
the user.
For this design example, RISA was chosen as the analysis model/program.
Page Contents
197 LRFD Criteria
199 A. General Criteria
A1. Bearing Design Movement/Strain
A2. Pier Dead Load Summary
A3. Center of Movement
200 B. Lateral Load Analysis
B1. Centrifugal Force: CE [LRFD 3.6.3]
B2. Braking Force: BR [LRFD 3.6.4]
B3. Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Forces
B4. Wind Pressure on Structure: WS
B5. Wind Pressure on Vehicles [LRFD 3.8.1.3]
214 C. Design Limit States
C1. Strength I Limit State
C2. Strength V Limit State
C3. Service I Limit State
C4. Summary of Results
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 196
LRFD Criteria
STRENGTH I  Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind.
WA 0 = Water load and stream pressure are not applicable.
FR 0 = No friction forces.
TU Uniform temperature load effects on the pier will be generated by the
substructure analysis model.
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.75LL + 1.75 BR + 0.50 TU CR + SH + ( ) + =
STRENGTH II  Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Ownerspecified special design
vehicles, evaluation permit vehicles, or both without wind.
"Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example"
STRENGTH III  Load combination relating to the bridge exposed to wind velocity exceeding 55 MPH.
"Applicable to pier column design but not to substructure pier cap design"
STRENGTH IV  Load combination relating to very high dead load to live load force effect ratios.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
STRENGTH V  Load combination relating to normal vehicular use of the bridge with wind of 55 MPH
velocity.
Strength5 1.25DC 1.50 DW + 1.35LL + 1.35 BR + 1.3WS + 1.0WL +
0.50 TU CR + SH + ( ) +
... =
EXTREME EVENT I  Load combination including earthquake.
"Not applicable for this simple span prestressed beam bridge design example"
EXTREME EVENT II  Load combination relating to ice load, collision by vessels and vehicles, and certain
hydraulic events.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
SERVICE I  Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH
wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.
Service1 1.0DC 1.0DW + 1.0LL + 1.0BR + 1.0WS + 1.0WL + 1.0 TU CR + SH + ( ) + =
SERVICE II  Load combination intended to control yielding of steel structures and slip of
slipcritical connections due to vehicular live load.
"Not applicable for this simple span prestressed beam bridge design example"
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 197
SERVICE III  Load combination for longitudinal analysis relating to tension in prestressed concrete
superstructures with the objective of crack control.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
SERVICE IV  Load combination relating only to tension in prestressed concrete columns with the
objective of crack control.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
FATIGUE I  Fatigue and fracture load combination related to infinite loadinduced fatigue life.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
FATIGUE II  Fatigue and fracture load combination relating to finite loadinduced fatigue life.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 198
A. General Criteria
A1. Bearing Design Movement/Strain
Strain due to temperature, creep and
shrinkage..............................................
CST
0.00029 =
(Note: See Sect. 2.09.B4  Bearing Design
Movement/Strain)
A2. Pier Dead Load Summary
Beam x y z x y z
1 0.0 190.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 190.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT PIER
DC Loads (kip) DW Loads (kip)
A3. Center of Movement
By inspection, the center of movement will
be the intermediate pier..................... L
0
L
span
90ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 199
B. Lateral Load Analysis
B1. Centrifugal Force: CE [LRFD 3.6.3]
Since the design speed is not specified, it will be conservatively taken as the maximum specified in the AASHTO
publication, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.
Design Speed........................................ V
design
70mph :=
Factor per LRFD 3.6.3........................... f
4
3
:=
Horizontal radius.................................... R 3800ft :=
Centrifugal factor................................... C
f V
design
2
g R
:=
C 0.11 =
Centrifugal force.................................... P
c
C
R
trucks
IM
2
g
v.Skew
6.5kip = :=
HL93 P
c
+ 85.01 kip =
HL93 P
c
72kip =
B2. Braking Force: BR [LRFD 3.6.4]
The braking force should be taken as the greater of:
25% of axle weight for design truck / tandem
5% of design truck / tandem and lane
The number of lanes for braking force calculations depends on future expectations of the bridge. For this
example, the bridge is not expected to become onedirectional in the future, and future widening is expected to
occur to the outside. From this information, the number of lanes is
N
lanes
3 =
The multiple presence factor (LRFD Table
3.6.1.1.21) should be taken into account.. MPF 1.2 N
lanes
1 = if
1.0 N
lanes
2 = if
0.85 N
lanes
3 = if
0.65 otherwise
0.85 = :=
Braking force as 25% of axle weight for
design truck / tandem............................. BR
Force.1
25% 72kip ( ) N
lanes
MPF 45.9 kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 200
Braking force as 5% of axle weight for
design truck / tandem and lane.................
BR
Force.2
5% 72kip w
L
L
bridge
+
( )
N
lanes
MPF 23.87 kip = :=
Governing braking force......................... BR
Force
max BR
Force.1
BR
Force.2
,
( )
45.9 kip = :=
Distribution of Braking Forces to Pier
The same bearing pads are provided at the pier and end bent to distribute the braking forces. The braking force
transferred to the pier or end bents is a function of the bearing pad and pier column stiffnesses. For this
example, (1) the pier column stiffnesses are ignored, (2) the deck is continuous over pier 2 and expansion joints
are provided only at the end bents.
Braking force at pier............................... BR
Pier
BR
Force
K
Pier
( )
=
where............................................. K
Pier
N
pads.pier
K
pad
N
pads.pier
N
pads.endbent
+
( )
K
pad
=
Simplifying and using variables defined in this example,
pier stiffness can be calculated as....... K
Pier
2 N
beams
1 2 + 1 + ( ) N
beams
0.5 = :=
corresponding braking force.............. BR
Pier
BR
Force
K
Pier
( )
22.95 kip = :=
Since the bridge superstructure is very stiff in the longitudinal direction, the braking forces are assumed to be
equally distributed to the beams under the respective roadway.
beams 5 :=
Braking force at pier per beam................. BR
Pier
BR
Pier
beams
4.59kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 201
Adjustments for Skew
The braking force is transferred to the pier by the bearing pads. The braking forces need to be resolved
along the direction of the skew for design of the pier substructure.
Braking force perpendicular (zdirection) to
the pier per beam.................................... BR
z.Pier
BR
Pier
cos Skew ( ) 4.31 kip = :=
Braking force parallel (xdirection) to the
pier per beam......................................... BR
x.Pier
BR
Pier
sin Skew ( ) 1.57 kip = :=
Adjustments for Braking Force Loads Applied 6' above Deck
The longitudinal moment induced by braking forces over a pier is resisted by the moment arm. Conservatively,
assume the braking occurs over one span only, then the result is an uplift reaction on the downstation end bent
or pier and a downward reaction at the upstation end bent or pier. In this example, the braking is assumed to
occur in span 1 and the eccentricity of the downward load with the bearing and centerline of pier eccentricities
is ignored.
Moment arm from top of bearing pad to
location of applied load............................ M
arm
6ft h + 9.75ft = :=
Braking force in pier
(ydirection), vertical
BR
y.Pier
BR
Pier
M
arm
L
span
0.5 kip = :=
Only the downward component of this force is considered. Typically, the vertical forces (uplift) are small
and can be ignored.
Beam x y z
1 1.6 0.5 4.3
2 1.6 0.5 4.3
3 1.6 0.5 4.3
4 1.6 0.5 4.3
5 1.6 0.5 4.3
6 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 0.0 0.0
BR Loads (kip)
BRAKING FORCES AT PIER
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 202
B3. Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Forces
The forces transferred from the superstructure to the substructure due to temperature, creep, and shrinkage are
influenced by the shear displacements in the bearing pad. In this example, only temperature and shrinkage
effects are considered. Creep is ignored, since this example assumes the beams will creep towards their center
and the composite deck will offer some restraint.
Displacements at top of pier due to
temperature, creep, and shrinkage............
Pier2
L
0
x
dist
1

\

.
CST
0 in = :=
where
CST
0.00029 =
Since the bridge has two equal spans and fairly constant pier stiffnesses, the center of movement is the
intermediate pier. The center of movement has no displacements, so the pier has no displacements.
Shear force transferred through each
bearing pad due to creep, shrinkage, and
temperature............................................ CST
Pier
G
bp
L
pad
W
pad
Pier2
h
pad
0 kip = :=
This force needs to be resolved along the direction of the skew...
Shear force perpendicular (zdirection) to
the pier per beam................................... CST
z.Pier
CST
Pier
cos Skew ( ) 0 kip = :=
Shear force parallel (xdirection) to the pier
per beam............................................... CST
x.Pier
CST
Pier
sin Skew ( ) 0 kip = :=
Beam x y z
1 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 0.0 0.0
CR, SH, TU Loads (kip)
CREEP, SHRINKAGE,
TEMPERATURE FORCES AT
PIER
Summary of beam reactions at the pier
due to creep, shrinkage and temperature...
Note:
Shrinkage and temperature effects from
the pier substructure can be calculated
within the substructure model / analysis
program. These values are only from the
superstructure.
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 203
B4. Wind Pressure on Structure: WS
The wind loads are applied to the superstructure and substructure.
Loads from Superstructure [SDG 2.4], Strength III and Service IV Limit States
The wind pressure on the superstructure consists of lateral (xdirection) and longitudinal (zdirection)
components.
Height above ground that the wind pressure
is applied............................................... z
sup
20.5ft =
Design wind pressure ............................. P
z.super
P
z.sup.StrIII.ServIV
ksf 48.83 psf = :=
x z [Global]
For prestressed beam bridges, the following
wind pressures factors are given to account
for the angle of attack [SDG Table 2.4.13] Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
:= Wind
Factor
1.0
0.88
0.82
0.66
0.34
0.0
0.12
0.24
0.32
0.38

\






.
:=
Wind pressures based on angle of attack are
as follows..............................................
Wind
super
P
z.super
Wind
Factor
:=
x z [Global]
Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
= Wind
super
48.83
42.97
40.04
32.23
16.6
0
5.86
11.72
15.63
18.56

\






.
psf =
The exposed superstructure area influences the wind forces that are transferred to the supporting substructure.
Tributary areas are used to determine the exposed superstructure area.
Exposed superstructure area at Pier 2....... A
Super
L
span
h 2.667ft + ( ) 577.53ft
2
= :=
Forces due to wind applied to the
superstructure....................................... WS
Super.Pier
Wind
super
A
Super
:=
x z [Global]
WS
Super.Pier
28.2
24.8
23.1
18.6
9.6
0.0
3.4
6.8
9.0
10.7

\






.
kip =
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 204
Case 1  Skew Angle of Wind = 0 degrees
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WS.x.case1
WS
Super.Pier
0 0 ,
28.2kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WS.z.case1
WS
Super.Pier
0 1 ,
0 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular
(zdirection) to the pier........... WS
z.Pier.case1
F
WS.z.case1
cos Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case1
sin Skew ( ) + 9.65 kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to
the pier.......
WS
x.Pier.case1
F
WS.z.case1
sin Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case1
cos Skew ( ) + 26.5kip = :=
Case 2  Skew Angle of Wind = 60 degrees
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WS.x.case2
WS
Super.Pier
4 0 ,
9.59kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WS.z.case2
WS
Super.Pier
4 1 ,
10.72 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular
(zdirection) to the pier...........
WS
z.Pier.case2
F
WS.z.case2
cos Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case2
sin Skew ( ) + 13.35 kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection)
to the pier.......
WS
x.Pier.case2
F
WS.z.case2
sin Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case2
cos Skew ( ) + 12.68 kip = :=
A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required. The maximum transverse and longitudinal
forces are used in the following calculations.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to
the pier.......................................
WS
z.Pier.StrIII.ServIV
max WS
z.Pier.case1
WS
z.Pier.case2
,
( )
13.35 k = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the pier....... WS
x.Pier.StrIII.ServIV
max WS
x.Pier.case1
WS
x.Pier.case2
,
( )
26.5 ki = :=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 205
Loads from Superstructure [SDG 2.4], Strength V and Service I Limit States
The wind pressure on the superstructure consists of lateral (xdirection) and longitudinal (zdirection)
components.
Height above ground that the wind pressure
is applied............................................... z
sup
20.5ft =
Design wind pressure ............................. P
z.super
P
z.sup.StrV.ServI
ksf 0.01ksf = :=
x z [Global]
For prestressed beam bridges, the following
wind pressures factors are given to account
for the angle of attack [SDG Table 2.4.13] Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
= Wind
Factor
1
0.88
0.82
0.66
0.34
0
0.12
0.24
0.32
0.38

\






.
=
Wind pressures based on angle of attack are
as follows..............................................
Wind
super
P
z.super
Wind
Factor
:=
x z [Global]
Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
= Wind
super
10.63
9.36
8.72
7.02
3.62
0
1.28
2.55
3.4
4.04

\






.
psf =
The exposed superstructure area influences the wind forces that are transferred to the supporting substructure.
Tributary areas are used to determine the exposed superstructure area.
Exposed superstructure area at Pier 2....... A
Super
L
span
h 2.667ft + ( ) 577.53ft
2
= :=
Forces due to wind applied to the
superstructure....................................... WS
Super.Pier
Wind
super
A
Super
:=
x z [Global]
WS
Super.Pier
6.1
5.4
5.0
4.1
2.1
0.0
0.7
1.5
2.0
2.3

\






.
kip =
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 206
Case 1  Skew Angle of Wind = 0 degrees
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WS.x.case1
WS
Super.Pier
0 0 ,
6.14kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WS.z.case1
WS
Super.Pier
0 1 ,
0 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular
(zdirection) to the pier..........
WS
z.Pier.case1
F
WS.z.case1
cos Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case1
sin Skew ( ) + 2.1kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection)
to the pier..
WS
x.Pier.case1
F
WS.z.case1
sin Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case1
cos Skew ( ) + 5.77kip = :=
Case 2  Skew Angle of Wind = 60 degrees
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WS.x.case2
WS
Super.Pier
4 0 ,
2.09kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WS.z.case2
WS
Super.Pier
4 1 ,
2.33 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular
(zdirection) to the pier.......
WS
z.Pier.case2
F
WS.z.case2
cos Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case2
sin Skew ( ) + 2.91 kip = :=
Force parallel
(xdirection) to the pier..
WS
x.Pier.case2
F
WS.z.case2
sin Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case2
cos Skew ( ) + 2.76kip = :=
A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required. The maximum transverse and longitudinal
forces are used in the following calculations.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the
pier....................................................... WS
z.Pier.StrV.ServI
max WS
z.Pier.case1
WS
z.Pier.case2
,
( )
2.91 ki = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the pier....... WS
x.Pier.StrV.ServI
max WS
x.Pier.case1
WS
x.Pier.case2
,
( )
5.77k = :=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 207
Beam x y z x y z
1 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
2 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
3 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
4 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
5 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
6 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
7 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
8 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
9 2.9 0.0 1.5 0.6 0 0.3
WS Loads (kip) WS Loads (kip)
Strength III, Service IV Strength V, Service I
WIND ON STRUCTURE FORCES AT PIER
Loads on Substructure [SDG 2.4], Strength III and Service IV Limit States
Design wind pressure ............................. P
z.sub
P
z.sub.StrIII.ServIV
ksf 66.59 psf = :=
For prestressed beam bridges, the following
wind pressures factors are given in the
SDG...................................................... Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
= Wind
Factor
1
0.88
0.82
0.66
0.34
0
0.12
0.24
0.32
0.38

\






.
=
For prestressed beam bridges, the following
wind pressures are given in the SDG.........
Wind
sub
P
z.sub
Wind
Factor
:=
x z [Global]
Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
= Wind
sub
66.59
58.6
54.6
43.95
22.64
0
7.99
15.98
21.31
25.3

\






.
psf =
General equation for wind forces applied to
the substructure.....................................
WS
Force
Wind
Pressure
( )
ExposedArea
Substructure
( )
Skew
Adjustment
( )
=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 208
For modeling purposes in this example, the following information summarizes the placement of wind
forces on the substructure.
The longitudinal (zdirection) wind load on the pier cap is applied as a line load along the front of the cap.
WS
z.PierCap.StrIIIServIV
Wind
sub
4 1 ,
h
Cap
cos Skew ( ) Wind
sub
0 0 ,
h
Cap
sin Skew ( ) 0.21klf = :=
The transverse (xdirection) wind load on the pier cap is applied as a point load on the end of the cap.
WS
x.PierCap.StrIIIServIV
Wind
sub
0 0 ,
b
Cap
h
Cap
( )
cos Skew ( ) Wind
sub
4 1 ,
L
Cap
h
Cap
( )
sin Skew ( ) + 2.16 kip = :=
The longitudinal (zdirection) wind load on the column is applied as a line load on the exposed column height.
WS
z.PierCol.StrIIIServIV
Wind
sub
4 1 ,
b
Col
cos Skew ( ) Wind
sub
0 0 ,
b
Col
sin Skew ( ) 0.19klf = :=
The transverse (xdirection) wind load on the column is applied as a line load on the exposed column height.
WS
x.PierCol.StrIIIServIV
Wind
sub
0 0 ,
b
Col
cos Skew ( ) Wind
sub
4 1 ,
b
Col
sin Skew ( ) + 0.22 klf = :=
Loads on Substructure [SDG 2.4], Strength V and Service I Limit States
Design wind pressure ............................. P
z.sub
P
z.sub.StrV.ServI
ksf 14.5psf = :=
For prestressed beam bridges, the following
wind pressures factors are given in the
SDG...................................................... Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
= Wind
Factor
1
0.88
0.82
0.66
0.34
0
0.12
0.24
0.32
0.38

\






.
=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 209
For prestressed beam bridges, the following
wind pressures are given in the SDG.........
Wind
sub
P
z.sub
Wind
Factor
:=
x z [Global]
Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
= Wind
sub
14.5
12.76
11.89
9.57
4.93
0
1.74
3.48
4.64
5.51

\






.
psf =
General equation for wind forces applied to
the substructure.....................................
WS
Force
Wind
Pressure
( )
ExposedArea
Substructure
( )
Skew
Adjustment
( )
=
The longitudinal (zdirection) wind load on the pier cap is applied as a line load along the front of the cap.
WS
z.PierCap.StrVServI
Wind
sub
4 1 ,
h
Cap
cos Skew ( ) Wind
sub
0 0 ,
h
Cap
sin Skew ( ) 0.05 klf = :=
The transverse (xdirection) wind load on the pier cap is applied as a point load on the end of the cap.
WS
x.PierCap.StrVServI
Wind
sub
0 0 ,
b
Cap
h
Cap
( )
cos Skew ( ) Wind
sub
4 1 ,
L
Cap
h
Cap
( )
sin Skew ( ) + 0.47 kip = :=
The longitudinal (zdirection) wind load on the column is applied as a line load on the exposed column height.
WS
z.PierCol.StrVServI
Wind
sub
4 1 ,
b
Col
cos Skew ( ) Wind
sub
0 0 ,
b
Col
sin Skew ( ) 0.04 klf = :=
The transverse (xdirection) wind load on the column is applied as a line load on the exposed column height.
WS
x.PierCol.StrVServI
Wind
sub
0 0 ,
b
Col
cos Skew ( ) Wind
sub
4 1 ,
b
Col
sin Skew ( ) + 0.05klf = :=
B5. Wind Pressure on Vehicles [LRFD 3.8.1.3] x z
The LRFD specifies that wind load should
be applied to vehicles on the bridge..........
Skew
wind
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
:= Wind
LRFD
.100
.088
.082
.066
.034
0
.012
.024
.032
.038

\






.
kip
ft
:=
Height above ground for wind pressure on
vehicles.................................................
Z
2
h
Col
h
Surcharge
6ft + h
Cap
+ h + 26.25ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 210
The wind forces on vehicles are
transmitted to Pier 2 of the substructure
using tributary lengths............................
L
Pier
L
span
90ft = :=
Forces due to wind on vehicles applied to
the superstructure..................................
WL
Super.Pier
Wind
LRFD
L
Pier
:=
x z
WL
Super.Pier
9.0
7.9
7.4
5.9
3.1
0.0
1.1
2.2
2.9
3.4

\






.
kip =
A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required. The maximum transverse and longitudinal
forces are used in the following calculations.
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WL.x
WL
Super.Pier
0 0 ,
9 kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WL.z
WL
Super.Pier
4 1 ,
3.42 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the
pier.......................................................
WL
z.Pier
F
WL.z
cos Skew ( ) F
WL.x
sin Skew ( ) + 6.29 kip = :=
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the pier
per beam......................................... WL
z.Beam
WL
z.Pier
N
beams
0.7kip = :=
WL
x.Pier
F
WL.z
sin Skew ( ) F
WL.x
cos Skew ( ) + 9.63kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the cap........
Force parallel (xdirection) to the cap per
beam..................................................... WL
x.Beam
WL
x.Pier
N
beams
1.07 kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 211
Longitudinal Adjustments for Wind on Vehicles
The longitudinal moment is resisted by the moment arm (similar to braking forces).
Moment arm from top of bearing pad to
location of applied load...........................
M
arm
9.750ft =
(M
arm
= h + 6 ft)
Vertical force in pier due to wind pressure
on vehicle per beam (+/)........................ WL
y.Beam
WL
z.Beam
M
arm
L
span
0.08 kip = :=
For this design example, this component of the load is ignored.
Transverse Adjustments for Wind on Vehicles
Using the principles of the lever rule for transverse distribution of live load on beams, the wind on live can be
distributed similarly. It assumes that the wind acting on the live load will cause the vehicle to tilt over. Using the
lever rule, the tilting effect of the vehicle is resisted by up and down reactions on the beams assuming the deck
to act as a simple span between beams.
Moment arm from top of bearing pad to
location of applied load...........................
M
arm
9.750ft =
Vertical reaction on one beamon pier from
transverse wind pressure on vehicles (+/)
WL
y.Beam
WL
x.Pier
M
arm
BeamSpacing
9.39 kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 212
Since this load can occur at any beam location, conservatively apply this load
to all beams
Beam x y z
1 1.1 9.4 0.7
2 1.1 9.4 0.7
3 1.1 9.4 0.7
4 1.1 9.4 0.7
5 1.1 9.4 0.7
6 1.1 9.4 0.7
7 1.1 9.4 0.7
8 1.1 9.4 0.7
9 1.1 0.0 0.7
WL Loads (kip)
WIND ON LIVE LOAD
FORCES AT PIER
Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 213
C. Design Limit States
The design loads for strength I, strength V, and service I limit states are summarized in this section. For each
limit state, maximum positive moment in the cap, maximum negative moment in the cap, and maximum shear are
presented.
These reactions are from the superstructure only, acting on the substructure. In the RISA analysis model,
include the following loads:
DC: selfweight of the substructure, include pier cap and columns 
TU: a temperature increase and fall on the pier substructure utilizing the following parameters: 
coefficient of expansion
t
6 10
6
1
F
=
temperature change temperature
increase
temperature
fall
= 35F =
Two load cases would be required for temperature with a positive and negative strain being inputed.
Fixity of the pier was provided at the bottom of the columns.
Substructure Model
Load Combinations:
All applied loads in the substructure analysis model should be multiplied by the appropriate load factor values 
and combined with the limit state loads calculated in this file for the final results. The multiple presence factor
is included with the moving load case factors.
Beam Shear:
Beam Shear:
\


.
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
+ A'
s
f'
s
d'
s
a
2
\


.
0.85 f'
c
b b
w
( )
h
f
a
2
h
f
2
\


.
+ =
For a rectangular, nonprestressed section,
M
n
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
=
a
A
s
f
y
0.85 f'
c
b
=
Assume f
s
f
y
:= [LRFD 5.7.2.1]
B1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
Using variables defined in this example...... M
r
A
s.pos
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
0.85 f
c.sub
b

\


.
(
(
=
where f
c.sub
5.5ksi =
f
y
60ksi =
0.9 =
h
Cap
54in =
b
Cap
54in =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 225
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Number of bars................................ n
bar
9 :=
Size of bar....................................... bar "10" :=
Note: if bar spacing is "1", the spacing is less than 3", and a bigger bar size should be selected.
Bar area........................................... A
bar
1.270 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 1.270 in =
Equivalent bar spacing....................... bar
spa
5.8in =
Area of steel provided............................. A
s.pos
n
bar
A
bar
11.43 in
2
= :=
Distance from extreme compressive fiber to
centroid of reinforcing steel (assuming a #6
stirrup).................................................. d
s
h
Cap
cover
sub
dia
2
3
4
in 49.6in = :=
Stress block factor.................................
1
min max 0.85 0.05
f
c.sub
4ksi
ksi

\


.
0.65 ,
(
(
0.85 ,
(
(
0.78 = :=
Distance between the neutral axis and
compressive face................................... c
A
s.pos
f
s
0.85f
c.sub
1
b
Cap
3.51 in = :=
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of
steel required......................................... Given M
r
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85f
c.sub
b
Cap
\


.
(
(
=
Area of steel required.............................. A
s.reqd
Find A
s
( )
7.88 in
2
= :=
The area of steel provided, A
s.pos
11.43 in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required,
A
s.reqd
7.88in
2
= . If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s.pos
is greater than A
s.reqd
,
the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the applied moments.
Moment capacity provided..................... M
r.pos
A
s.pos
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
0.85f
c.sub
b
Cap
\


.
(
(
2482.1kip ft = :=
Check assumption that f
s
f
y
= ................. Check_f
s
if
c
d
s
0.6 < "OK" , "Not OK" ,

\


.
:=
Check_f
s
"OK" =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 226
B2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Minimum Reinforcement
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least equal to the lesser of
the cracking moment and 1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load combinations.
Modulus of Rupture............................... f
r
0.24 f
c.sub
ksi 562.8 psi = := [SDG 1.4.1.B]
Section modulus of cap........................... S
b
Cap
h
Cap
2
6
26244 in
3
= :=
Flexural cracking variability factor...........
1
1.6 :=
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of the
reinforcement........................................
3
0.67 := (for ASTM A615, Grade 60 reinforcing
steel, per SDG 1.4.1.C)
Cracking moment................................... M
cr
3
1
f
r
S 1319.6 kip ft = :=
Required flexural resistance............. M
r.reqd
min M
cr
133 % M
r
,
( )
1319.6kip ft = :=
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.pos
2482.1ft kip = , exceeds minimum requirements,
M
r.reqd
1319.6ft kip = .
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" M
r.pos
M
r.reqd
> if
"NG, reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 227
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the
longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.
The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service
limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.
The maximum spacing of the mild steel
reinforcement for control of cracking at
the service limit state shall satisfy......... s
700
e
s
f
ss
2 d
c
s
where
s
1
d
c
0.7 h d
c
( )
+ =
Exposure factor for Class 1 exposure
condition........................................
e
1.00 := [SDG 3.15.8]
Overall thickness or depth of the
component..............................
h
Cap
4.5ft =
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar............................... d
c
cover
sub
dia
2
+
3
4
in + 4.38 in = :=
s
1
d
c
0.7 h
Cap
d
c
( )
+ 1.13 = :=
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
Guess value x 11.1 in :=
Given
1
2
b
Cap
x
2
E
s
E
c.sub
A
s.pos
d
s
x
( )
=
x
na
Find x ( ) 11.09 in = :=
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... T
s
M
Service1.pos
d
s
x
na
3
319.4 kip = :=
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 228
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s.pos
27.94 ksi = :=
Required reinforcement spacing........... s
required
700
e
kip
in
s
f
s.actual
2 d
c
13.47 in = :=
Provided reinforcement spacing........... bar
spa
5.84 in =
The required spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall not be less than the
reinforcement spacing provided due to the service limit state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" s
required
bar
spa
> if
"NG, crack control for M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 229
B4. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Size of bar....................................... bar
st
"6" :=
Spacing of bar................................. bar
spa.st
12in :=
Bar area........................................... A
bar
0.44 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 0.750 in =
Minimum area of shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement................. A
shrink.temp
min
0.60
in
2
ft

\


.
max
0.11
in
2
ft

\


.
1.3b
Cap
h
Cap
kip
inft
2 b
Cap
h
Cap
+
( )
f
y
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0.29
in
2
ft
= :=
Maximum spacing of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
spacing
shrink.temp
min
A
bar
A
shrink.temp
12in ,

\


.
b
Cap
36in >
( )
h
Cap
36in >
( )
if
min
A
bar
A
shrink.temp
3 b
Cap
, 3 h
Cap
, 18in ,

\


.
otherwise
12in = :=
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" bar
spa.st
spacing
shrink.temp
s if
"NG, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 230
B5. Mass Concrete Provisions [SDG 3.9]
Surface area of pier cap.......................... Surface
cap
2 b
Cap
h
Cap
2b
Cap
2h
Cap
+
( )
L
Cap
+ 1624.5ft
2
= :=
Volume of pier cap................................. Volume
cap
b
Cap
h
Cap
L
Cap
1782ft
3
= :=
Mass concrete provisions apply if the volume to surface area ratio,
Volume
cap
Surface
cap
1.1ft = , exceeds 1 ft and the
minimum dimension exceeds 3 feet
SDG
3.9
"Use mass concrete provisions"
Volume
cap
Surface
cap
1.0ft > b
Cap
3ft > . h
Cap
3ft > . if
"Use regular concrete provisions" otherwise
:=
SDG
3.9
"Use mass concrete provisions" =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 231
C. Negative Moment Design
M
r
M
Strength1.neg
:=
M
r
2210.2ft kip =
Factored resistance
M
r
M
n
=
Nominal flexural resistance
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
+ A'
s
f'
s
d'
s
a
2
\


.
0.85 f'
c
b b
w
( )
1
h
f
a
2
h
f
2
\


.
+ =
For a rectangular, nonprestressed section,
M
n
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
=
a
A
s
f
y
0.85 f'
c
b
=
Assume f
s
f
y
:= [LRFD 5.7.2.1]
C1. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
Using variables defined in this example,
where f
c.sub
5.5ksi =
f
y
60ksi =
0.9 =
h
Cap
54in =
b
Cap
54in =
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Number of bars................................ n
bar
9 :=
Size of bar....................................... bar "10" :=
Note: if bar spacing is "1", the spacing is less than 3", and a bigger bar size should be selected.
Bar area........................................... A
bar
1.270 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 1.270 in =
Equivalent bar spacing...................... bar
spa
5.8in =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 232
Area of steel provided............................. A
s.neg
n
bar
A
bar
11.43 in
2
= :=
Distance from extreme compressive fiber to
centroid of reinforcing steel (assuming a #6
stirrup)............................................. d
s
h
Cap
cover
sub
dia
2
3
4
in 49.62 in = :=
Stress block factor.................................
1
min max 0.85 0.05
f
c.sub
4ksi
ksi

\


.
0.65 ,
(
(
0.85 ,
(
(
0.78 = :=
Distance between the neutral axis and
compressive face................................... c
A
s.neg
f
s
0.85f
c.sub
1
b
Cap
3.51 in = :=
Depth of equivalent stress block............... a
1
c 2.72 in = :=
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of
steel required......................................... Given M
r
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85f
c.sub
b
Cap
\


.
(
(
=
Area of steel required.............................. A
s.reqd
Find A
s
( )
10.15 in
2
= :=
The area of steel provided, A
s.neg
11.43 in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required,
A
s.reqd
10.15 in
2
= . If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the
proposed reinforcing is adequate for the applied moments.
Moment capacity provided..................... M
r.neg
A
s.neg
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
2482.1kip ft = :=
Check assumption that f
s
f
y
= ................. Check_f
s
if
c
d
s
0.6 < "OK" , "Not OK" ,

\


.
:=
Check_f
s
"OK" =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 233
C2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Minimum Reinforcement
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least equal to the lesser of
the cracking moment and 1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load combinations.
Modulus of Rupture................................ f
r
0.24 f
c.sub
ksi 562.85 psi = := [SDG 1.4.1.B]
Section modulus of cap........................... S
b
Cap
h
Cap
2
6
15.19 ft
3
= :=
Flexural cracking variability factor...........
1
1.6 :=
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of the
reinforcement........................................
3
0.67 := (for ASTM A615, Grade 60 reinforcing
steel, per SDG 1.4.1.C)
Cracking moment................................... M
cr
1
3
f
r
S 1319.6 kip ft = :=
Required flexural resistance............. M
r.reqd
min M
cr
133 % M
r
,
( )
1.32 10
3
kip ft = :=
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.neg
2482.1ft kip = , exceeds minimum requirements, M
r.reqd
1319.6ft kip = .
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" M
r.neg
M
r.reqd
> if
"NG, reinforcement for negative moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 234
C3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the
longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.
The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service
limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.
The maximum spacing of the mild steel
reinforcement for control of cracking at
the service limit state shall satisfy......... s
700
e
s
f
ss
2 d
c
s
where
s
1
d
c
0.7 h d
c
( )
+ =
Exposure factor for Class 1 exposure
condition........................................
e
1.00 := [SDG 3.15.8]
Overall thickness or depth of the
component..............................
h
Cap
54in =
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar............................... d
c
cover
sub
dia
2
+
3
4
in + 4.38 in = :=
s
1
d
c
0.7 h
Cap
d
c
( )
+ 1.13 = :=
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
Guess value x 11.1 in :=
Given
1
2
b
Cap
x
2
E
s
E
c.sub
A
s.neg
d
s
x
( )
=
x
na
Find x ( ) 11.09 in = :=
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service
limit state moment....................... T
s
M
Service1.neg
d
s
x
na
3
477.14kip = :=
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 235
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s.neg
41.74 ksi = :=
Required reinforcement spacing........... s
required
700
e
kip
in
s
f
s.actual
2 d
c
6.12 in = :=
Provided reinforcement spacing........... bar
spa
5.84 in =
The required spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall not be less than the
reinforcement spacing provided due to the service limit state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" s
required
bar
spa
> if
"NG, crack control for M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 236
D. Shear and Torsion Design [LRFD 5.8]
D1. Check if Torsion Design is Required
T
u
T
Strength1.neg
:= V
u
V
Strength1.neg
:=
For normal weight concrete, torsional
effects shall be investigated if.................. T
u
0.25
v
T
cr
>
and................................................. T
cr
0.125 f
c
A
cp
2
p
c
1
f
pc
0.125 f
c
+ =
Total area enclosed by outside perimeter of
concrete cross section............................ A
cp
h
Cap
b
Cap
20.25ft
2
= :=
Length of outside perimeter of cross
section.................................................. p
c
2 h
Cap
b
Cap
+
( )
18ft = :=
Compressive stress in concrete after
prestress losses have occured..................
f
pc
0 psi :=
Torsional cracking moment..................... T
cr
0.125 f
c.sub
ksi
A
cp
2
p
c
1
f
pc
0.125 f
c.sub
ksi
+ 961.7 kip ft = :=
LRFD
5.8.2
"OK, torsion can be neglected" 0.25
v
T
cr
T
u
> if
"NG, torsion shall be investigated..." otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.8.2
"OK, torsion can be neglected" =
D2. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance
Effective width of the section.................. b
v
b
Cap
54in = :=
Effective shear depth.............................. a
A
s.pos
f
y
0.85f
c.sub
b
Cap
2.72in = :=
d
v
max d
s
a
2
0.9d
s
, 0.72h
Cap
,

\


.
48.26 in = :=
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 237
Determination of and (LRFD 5.8.3.4)
The pier cap is a nonprestressed concrete section not subjected to axial tension. Assuming it has at least
the amount of transverse reinforcement specified in LRFD 5.8.2.5 or an overall depth of less than 16 in,
the Simplified Procedure for determining Shear Resistance per LRFD 5.8.3.4.1 may be used.
2 :=
45deg :=
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section.................................................. V
c
0.0316 f
c.sub
ksi b
v
d
v
386.2 kip = :=
D3. Transverse Reinforcement
Because the overall depth is greater than 16 in, transverse reinforcement shall be provided in the pier cap
according to LRFD 5.8.2.5.
A
v
.0316 f'
c
b
v
s
f
y
>
The pier cap has no prestressing.
V
p
0 kip :=
Stirrups
Size of stirrup bar "4" "5" "6" "7" ( )... bar "6" :=
Number of stirrup bars
"single" "double" ( ).............................. n
bar
"double" :=
Area of shear reinforcement.................... A
v
1.760 in
2
=
Diameter of shear reinforcement.............. dia 0.750 in =
Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement
V
n
V
c
V
p
+ V
s
+ =
where............................................. V
n
min
V
u
v
0.25 f
c.sub
b
v
d
v
V
p
+ ,

\


.
780.89kip = :=
and................................................. V
s
V
n
V
c
V
p
394.66kip = :=
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 238
Spacing of stirrups
Minimum transverse reinforcement.......... s
min
A
v
f
y
0.0316b
v
f
c.sub
ksi
26.39 in = :=
Transverse reinforcement required........... s
req
if V
s
0 s s
min
,
A
v
f
y
d
v
cot ( )
V
s
,

\


.
12.91 in = :=
Minimum transverse reinforcement
required................................................ s min s
min
s
req
,
( )
12.91 in = :=
Maximum transverse reinforcement spacing
s
max
if
V
u
v
V
p
v
b
v
d
v
( )
0.125 f
c.sub
< min
0.8d
v
24in

\


.

\


.
, min
0.4d
v
12in

\


.

\


.
,
(
(
24in = :=
Spacing of transverse reinforcement
cannot exceed the following spacing........ spacing floor
if s
max
s > s , s
max
,
( )
in

\


.
in 12in = :=
LRFD 5.8.3.5 is applicable at the end bearing support areas. Therefore, this check is ignored.
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 239
E. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
Negative moment (top) reinforcement
Bar size............. bar
negM
"10" =
Number of bars.. n
bar.negM
9 =
Bar spacing....... bar
spa.negM
5.8in =
Positive moment (bottom) reinforcement
Bar size............. bar
posM
"10" =
Number of bars.. n
bar.posM
9 =
Bar spacing........ bar
spa.posM
5.8in =
Transverse reinforcement
Bar size............. bar "6" =
Bar spacing........ spacing 12.0 in =
Type of stirrups. n
bar
"double" =
Temperature and Shrinkage
Bar size............. bar
shrink.temp
"6" =
Bar spacing....... bar
spa.st
12in =
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 240
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Pier Column Design Loads
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\304PierCapDesign.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design parameters necessary for the substructure pier column design. Loads are
given in Section 3.03: Pier Cap Design Loads. This section provides the results from analysis using RISA.
Page Contents
242 LRFD Criteria
244 A. General Criteria
A1. Load Summary
247 B. Design Limit States
B1. Strength I Limit State
B2. Strength III Limit State
B3. Strength V Limit State
B4. Summary of Results
Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 241
LRFD Criteria
STRENGTH I  Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind.
WA 0 = Water load and stream pressure are not applicable.
FR 0 = No friction forces.
TU Uniform temperature load effects on the pier will be generated by the
substructure analysis model.
Strength1 1.25DC 1.50 DW 1.75LL 1.75 BR 0.50 TU CR SH ( ) =
STRENGTH II  Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Ownerspecified special design
vehicles, evaluation permit vehicles, or both without wind.
"Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example"
STRENGTH III  Load combination relating to the bridge exposed to wind velocity exceeding 55 MPH.
Strength3 1.25DC 1.50 DW 1.40WS 0.50 TU CR SH ( ) =
STRENGTH IV  Load combination relating to very high dead load to live load force effect ratios.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
STRENGTH V  Load combination relating to normal vehicular use of the bridge with wind of 55 MPH
velocity.
Strength5 1.25DC 1.50 DW 1.35LL 1.35 BR 1.30 WS 1.0WL
0.50 TU CR SH ( )
=
EXTREME EVENT I  Load combination including earthquake.
"Not applicable for this simple span prestressed beam bridge design example"
EXTREME EVENT II  Load combination relating to ice load, collision by vessels and vehicles, and certain
hydraulic events.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
SERVICE I  Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH
wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.
"Not applicable for the pier column design in this design example"
SERVICE II  Load combination intended to control yielding of steel structures and slip of
slipcritical connections due to vehicular live load.
"Not applicable for this simple span prestressed beam bridge design example"
Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 242
SERVICE III  Load combination for longitudinal analysis relating to tension in prestressed concrete
superstructures with the objective of crack control.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
SERVICE IV  Load combination relating only to tension in prestressed concrete columns with the
objective of crack control.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
FATIGUE I  Fatigue and fracture load combination related to infinite loadinduced fatigue life.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
FATIGUE II  Fatigue and fracture load combination relating to finite loadinduced fatigue life.
"Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example"
Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 243
A. General Criteria
The following is a summary of all the loads previously calculated:
A1. Load Summary
Dead Loads  Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for DC and DW loads
Beam x y z x y z
1 0.0 190.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 199.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 190.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT PIER
DC Loads (kip) DW Loads (kip)
Live load 
Live load analysis is done with RISA.
HL93 Line Load.............................. HL93 P
c
85kip
HL93 P
c
72kip
Braking Force  Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for BR loads
Beam x y z
1 1.6 0.5 4.3
2 1.6 0.5 4.3
3 1.6 0.5 4.3
4 1.6 0.5 4.3
5 1.6 0.5 4.3
6 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 0.0 0.0
BR Loads (kip)
BRAKING FORCES AT PIER
Note: The direction of braking was
reversed in order to maximize the
longitudinal braking moments, Mx caused
by " z"loads, to maximize the effects of WS
and WL.
Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 244
Creep, Shrinkage and Temperature  Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for CU, SH and TU loads
Beam x y z
1 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 0.0 0.0
CR, SH, TU Loads (kip)
CREEP, SHRINKAGE,
TEMPERATURE FORCES AT
PIER
Wind on structure  Unfactored beam reactions for WS loads
Beam x y z Beam x y z
1 2.9 0.0 1.5 1 0.6 0.0 0.3
2 2.9 0.0 1.5 2 0.6 0.0 0.3
3 2.9 0.0 1.5 3 0.6 0.0 0.3
4 2.9 0.0 1.5 4 0.6 0.0 0.3
5 2.9 0.0 1.5 5 0.6 0.0 0.3
6 2.9 0.0 1.5 6 0.6 0.0 0.3
7 2.9 0.0 1.5 7 0.6 0.0 0.3
8 2.9 0.0 1.5 8 0.6 0.0 0.3
9 2.9 0.0 1.5 9 0.6 0.0 0.3
WS Loads (kip)
WIND ON STRUCTURE FORCES AT PIER
Strength III, Service IV
WIND ON STRUCTURE FORCES AT PIER
Strength V, Service I
WS Loads (kip)
Note: The direction of wind was reversed in order to maximize the Mz moment about pier column 2
Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 245
WS
z.PierCap.StrIIIServIV
0.209 klf
WS
x.PierCap.StrIIIServIV
2.16 kip
WS
z.PierCol.StrIIIServIV
0.186 klf
WS
x.PierCol.StrIIIServIV
0.216 klf
WS
z.PierCap.StrVServI
0.046 klf
WS
x.PierCap.StrVServI
0.47 kip
WS
z.PierCol.StrVServI
0.041 klf
WS
x.PierCol.StrVServI
0.047 klf
Wind on load on vehicles  Unfactored beam reactions for WL loads
Beam x y z
1 1.1 9.4 0.7
2 1.1 9.4 0.7
3 1.1 9.4 0.7
4 1.1 9.4 0.7
5 1.1 9.4 0.7
6 1.1 9.4 0.7
7 1.1 9.4 0.7
8 1.1 9.4 0.7
9 1.1 0.0 0.7
WL Loads (kip)
WIND ON LIVE LOAD
FORCES AT PIER
Note: The direction of wind was reversed
in order to maximize the Mz moment
about pier column 2
Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 246
B. Design Limit States
The design loads for strength I, strength III, and strength V limit states are summarized in this section. For
each limit state, three loading conditions are presented: maximum axial force and maximum moment in the y
and zdirections.
DC Loads:
BR Loads:
CR/SH/TU Loads:
WS Loads: Strength III, Service IV
Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 247
WS Loads: Strength V, Service I
WL Loads:
See Section 3.03 for Moving Load and Load Combination definitions.
B1. Strength I Limit State
Strength1 1.25DC 1.5DW 1.75 LL 1.75BR 0.50 TU CR SH ( ) =
Column YMoment:
Column ZMoment:
Column ZMoment:
Column Axial:
Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 249
B3. Strength V Limit State
Strength5 1.25DC 1.50 DW 1.35LL 1.35 BR 1.3WS 1.0WL 0.50 TU CR SH ( ) =
Column YMoment:
Column ZMoment:
Column Axial:
\


.
. Therefore, the longitudinal reinforcement in columns can be less than 0.01 A
g
if
allowed by the following equation:
Maximum area of reinforcement..............
A
s
A
g
A
ps
f
pu
A
g
f
y
+ 0.08 s
(Note: 8% maximum is still applicable
as per the LRFD).
Minimum area of reinforcement...............
A
s
f
y
A
g
f'
c
A
ps
f
pu
A
g
f'
c
+ 0.135 >
For nonprestressed columns, the minimum
percentage of reinforcement allowed is.....
(Note: This equation was written in
the form of
A
s%
A
s
A
g
0.135
f
c.sub
f
y
> = where
A
s%
is the percentage of
reinforcement.
A
s%
0.135
f
c.sub
f
y
1.24% = :=
In this situation, the minimum steel requirement was greater than 1% of the gross column area.
Gross concrete area................................ A
g
4
b
Col
2
1809.6in
2
= :=
Minimum steel area................................ A
s
A
s%
A
g
22.39 in
2
= :=
Bar Size................................................. bar "9" :=
Bar Area................................................ A
b
1in
2
:=
Minimum number of bars........................ n
b
A
s
A
b
22.39 = :=
A conservative 24 bars will be analyzed.
Spirals and Ties [LRFD 5.7.4.6]
Tie size [LRFD 5.10.6.3]........................ bar
tie
"3" :=
Tie area................................................. A
bar.tie
0.2in
2
:=
Area of core.......................................... A
core
4
b
Col
2 cover
sub
( )
2
1385.4in
2
= :=
Substructure Design 3.06 Pier Column Design 256
Required tie area....................................
s
0.45
A
g
A
core
1

\


.
f
c.sub
f
y
in
2
ft
0.0126
in
2
ft
= :=
Required tie spacing................................ s min b
Col
12in ,
A
bar.tie
s
,

\


.
12in = :=
...Enter column design criteria...
Column 2
( )
33.75 kip = :=
Maximum service load............................ P
y
723.2 kip =
and corresponding moments.............. M
y
235.4 ft kip =
M
z
1274.6ft kip =
Maximum factored load.......................... Pu
y
980.9 kip =
and corresponding moments..............
Mu
y
307.6 ft kip =
Mu
z
1068.5ft kip =
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 265
B. Pile Loads
B1. 4 Pile Footing Investigation
So far, the design example has assumed that a 4pile footing will be adequate.
Foundation Layout
Size of the square concrete piles.............. Pile
size
18in =
Number of Piles..................................... n
pile
4 :=
Pile Coordinates.....................................
Pile
index
0
1
2
3

\





.
:= X
pile
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25

\





.
ft := Z
pile
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25

\





.
ft :=
k 0 n
pile
1 .. :=
3.75 0 3.75
3.75
0
3.75
Pile Layout
XTransverse Spacing, ft
Z

L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l
S
p
a
c
i
n
g
,
f
t
Overturning Forces due to Moments
General equation for axial load on any pile.. Q
m
P
y
n
M
x
z
0
n
z
z
2
( )
=
+
M
z
x
0
n
x
x
2
( )
=
+ =
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 266
Factored Axial Load on Pile
Q
u
k
Pu
y
1.25 wt
Ftg
+
n
pile
Mu
y
Z
pile
k
0
n
pile
1
z
Z
pile
z

\

.
2
(
(
=
+
Mu
z
X
pile
k
0
n
pile
1
x
X
pile
x

\

.
2
(
(
=
+ :=
Pile
index
0
1
2
3

\





.
:= Q
u
171.2
408.7
340.3
102.9

\





.
kip =
Maximum axial load on pile..................... Q
max
max Q
u
( )
204.34Ton = :=
Required driving resistance (RDR)........... RDR R
n
=
FactoredDesignLoad NetScour + Downdrag +
=
Using variables defined in this example...... R
n
Q
max
pile
314.36Ton = :=
This value should not exceed the limit
specified by FDOT................................. R
n.FDOT.max
300 Ton =
A 4pile footing is not acceptable. It is recommended not to design to the R
n
limit since difficulties in pile
driving can be encountered causing construction delays. Suggest consulting with the District geotechnical
and structural engineers if within 5%10%. We will investigate a 6pile footing.
B2. 6 Pile Footing Investigation
The 4pile footing design involves a limited amount of shear design, since the piles are outside the critical
section for shear. To illustrate the shear design process, a 6pile footing will be evaluated and designed.
New depth of footing............................. h
Ftg.new
4 ft :=
New width of footing............................. b
Ftg.new
12ft :=
New length of footing............................. L
Ftg.new
7.5ft :=
New area of Footing............................... A
ftg.new
b
Ftg.new
L
Ftg.new
90ft
2
= :=
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 267
Footing weight not included in RISA........ wt
Ftg
conc
A
ftg.new
h
Ftg.new
( )
54kip = :=
Foundation Layout
Size of the square concrete piles.............. Pile
size
18in =
Number of Piles..................................... n
pile
6 :=
Pile Coordinates.....................................
Pile
index
0
1
2
3
4
5

\







.
:= X
pile
4.5
0
4.5
4.5
0
4.5

\







.
ft := Z
pile
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25

\







.
ft :=
k 0 n
pile
1 .. :=
6 0 6
3.75
0
3.75
Pile Layout
XTransverse Spacing, ft
Z

L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l
S
p
a
c
i
n
g
,
f
t
Note:
Pile numbering is from "0"to " 5"
and are numbered
CLOCKWISE beginning with
the upper top left side pile.
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 268
Service Axial Load on Pile
Q
k
P
y
1.0wt
Ftg
+
n
pile
M
y
Z
pile
k
0
n
pile
1
z
Z
pile
z

\

.
2
(
(
=
+
M
z
X
pile
k
0
n
pile
1
x
X
pile
x

\

.
2
(
(
=
+ :=
Pile
index
0
1
2
3
4
5

\







.
= Q
76.2
147.0
217.8
182.9
112.1
41.3

\







.
kip =
Factored Axial Load on Pile
Q
u
k
Pu
y
1.25 wt
Ftg
+
n
pile
Mu
y
Z
pile
k
0
n
pile
1
z
Z
pile
z

\

.
2
(
(
=
+
Mu
z
X
pile
k
0
n
pile
1
x
X
pile
x

\

.
2
(
(
=
+ :=
Pile
index
0
1
2
3
4
5

\







.
= Q
u
138.2
197.5
256.9
211.3
151.9
92.6

\







.
kip =
Maximum axial load on pile...................... Q
max
max Q
u
( )
128.44Ton = :=
Minimum axial load on pile (verify no uplift
occurs)................................................. Q
min
min Q
u
( )
46.29 Ton = :=
Required driving resistance (RDR)........... RDR R
n
=
FactoredDesignLoad NetScour + Downdrag +
=
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 269
Using variables defined in this example...... R
n
Q
max
pile
197.6 Ton = :=
This value should not exceed the limit
specified by FDOT................................. R
n.FDOT.max
300 Ton =
A 6pile footing is acceptable.
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 270
C. Pile Tip Elevations for Vertical Load
C1. Pile Capacities
The FBDeep Program, Version 2.02, was utilized to determine the pile capacity. Using boring data, the
program can analyze concrete piles, Hpiles, pipe piles, and drilled shafts. It is available from BSI.
For this design example, the boring data is based on a similar project.
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 271
The following picture shows the boring log entries.
Recall that the factored bearing resistance,
R
n
, is given by.................................... R
n
FactoredDesignLoad NetScour + Downdrag +
=
In this design example, net scour and
downdrag are zero, so the R
n
is............ R
n
197.6 Ton =
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 272
The program was executed, and the output can be summarized as follows:
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 273
A lateral load analysis may require the pile tip elevations to be driven deeper for stability purposes.
This file only evaluates the vertical load requirements based on the boring capacity curves.
Calculate the pile length required.... pile
length
R
n
174.7 Ton
( )
29.5 ft 26.2ft
204.52Ton 174.7 Ton
26.2ft + 28.7ft = :=
Calculate the pile tip elevation required: pile
tip
8.497ft pile
length
20.2 ft = :=
...based on the Estimated Davisson pile capacity curve given above, the pile lengths for vertical load will
require a specified Tip Elevation =pile
tip
20.2 ft = and the pile in the ground length ispile
length
28.7ft =
.
Substructure Design 3.08 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 274
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Pier Footing Design
References
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\308PierPileDesign.xmcd(R)
Description
This document provides the criteria for the pier footing design. For this design example, only column 1
footing will be evaluated.
Page Contents
276 LRFD Criteria
277 A. Input Variables
A1. Design Parameters
A2. Pile Layout
A3. Flexural Design Parameters
A4. Moments  Y Critical Section
A5. Moments  X Critical Section
A6. Design Moments
282 B. Flexural Design
B1. Transverse Flexural Design [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
B2. Transverse Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
B3. Transverse Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
B4. Longitudinal Flexural Design [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
B5. Longitudinal Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
B6. Longitudinal Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
B7. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
B8. Mass Concrete Provisions
290 C. Shear Design Parameters [LRFD 5.13.3.6]
C1. Shear Design Parameters  One Way Shear
C2. Shear Resistance  Simplified Procedure [LRFD 5.8.3.4.1]
C3. One Way Shear  Y Critical Section
C4. One Way Shear  X Critical Section
C5. Two Way Shear Design (Punching Shear)
296 D. Design Summary
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 275
LRFD Criteria
STRENGTH I  Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind.
WA 0 = Water load and stream pressure are not applicable.
FR 0 = No friction forces.
TU Uniform temperature load effects on the pier will be generated by the
substructure analysis model (RISA).
Strength1 1.25 DC 1.50 DW + 1.75 LL + 1.75 BR + 0.50 TU CR + SH + ( ) + =
SERVICE I  Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH
wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.
Service1 1.0 DC 1.0 DW + 1.0 LL + 1.0 BR + 1.0WS + 1.0 WL + 1.0 TU CR + SH + ( ) + =
"For the footing, utilized only to check for crack control"
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 276
A. Input Variables
A1. Design Parameters
Transverse dimension of footing.............. b
Ftg
12 ft =
Longitudinal dimension of footing............ L
Ftg
7.5ft =
Depth of footing..................................... h
Ftg
4 ft =
Area of footing....................................... A
ftg
b
Ftg
L
Ftg
90 ft
2
= :=
Embedment of pile in footing................... Pile
embed
1 ft =
Concrete cover above piles...................... cover
sub
3 in =
Height of surcharge (column height in
ground)................................................. h
Surcharge
2 ft =
Diameter of column................................ b
Col
4 ft =
Area of column...................................... A
g
12.6 ft
2
=
Equivalent square width for the circular
column [LRFD 5.13.3.4]:....................... b
Col.eff
round
A
g
ft
2
1 ,

\



.
ft 3.5ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 277
A2. Pile Layout
Pile size................................................. Pile
size
18 in =
Number of piles..................................... n
pile
6 =
Summary of pile loads
Pile # x Coord. y Coord. Q, Tons Q, kips Qu, Tons Qu, kips
0 2.25 4.5 38.1 76.2 69.1 138.2
1 2.25 0 73.5 147.0 98.8 197.5
2 2.25 4.5 108.9 217.8 128.4 256.9
3 2.25 4.5 91.5 182.9 105.7 211.3
4 2.25 0 56.0 112.1 76.0 151.9
5 2.25 4.5 20.6 41.3 46.3 92.6
Service I Limit State Strength I Limit State
6 0 6
3.75
0
3.75
Pile Layout
y Transverse Spacing, ft
x

L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l
S
p
a
c
i
n
g
,
f
t
A3. Flexural Design Parameters
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 278
Distance from centerline of piles to edge of
footing.................................................. pile
edge
1.5ft :=
Distance from xcritical section (face of
effective column) to edge of footing along
the xaxis.............................................. x
edge
L
Ftg
b
Col.eff
2
2 ft = :=
Distance from xcritical section to
centerline of piles along the xaxis............ x
crit
x
edge
pile
edge
0.5ft = :=
Distance from ycritical section (face of
effective column) to edge of footing along
the yaxis.............................................. y
edge
b
Ftg
b
Col.eff
2
4.25 ft = :=
Distance from ycritical section to centerline
of piles along the yaxis........................... y
crit
y
edge
pile
edge
2.75 ft = :=
A4. Moments  Y Critical Section
Unfactored pile loads contributing to
transverse moment................................. P max Q
0
Q
3
+ Q
2
Q
5
+ ,
( )
259.1 kip = :=
Unfactored moments at critical section due
to pile loads............................................ Mx
Pile
P y
crit
712.43 kip ft = :=
Unfactored moment at critical section due to
footing weight....................................... Mx
Ftg
L
Ftg
h
Ftg
conc
( )
y
edge
2
2
40.64 kip ft = :=
Unfactored moments at critical section due
to surcharge .................................... Mx
Surcharge
L
Ftg
h
Surcharge
soil
( )
y
edge
2
2
15.58 kip ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 279
Factored pile loads contributing to
transverse moment................................. P
u
max Q
u
0
Q
u
3
+ Q
u
2
Q
u
5
+ ,

\

.
349.5 kip = :=
Assure the critical section is within the
footing dimensions................................. P
u
if y
crit
y
edge
> 0 kip , P
u
,
( )
349.5 kip = :=
Factored moments at critical section due to
pile loads............................................... Mux
Pile
P
u
y
crit
961 kip ft = :=
A5. Moments  X Critical Section
Unfactored pile loads contributing to
longitudinal moment............................... P max Q
0
Q
1
+ Q
2
+ Q
3
Q
4
+ Q
5
+ ,
( )
440.9 kip = :=
Unfactored moments at critical section due
to pile loads........................................... My
Pile
P x
crit
220.5 kip ft = :=
Unfactored moment at critical section due to
footing weight........................................ My
Ftg
b
Ftg
h
Ftg
conc
( )
x
edge
2
2
14.4 kip ft = :=
Unfactored moments at critical section due to
surcharge.............................................. My
Surcharge
b
Ftg
h
Surcharge
soil
( )
x
edge
2
2
5.5 kip ft = :=
Factored pile loads contributing to
longitudinal moment................................ P
u
max Q
u
0
Q
u
1
+ Q
u
2
+ Q
u
3
Q
u
4
+ Q
u
5
+ ,

\

.
592.56 kip = :=
Assure the critical section is within the
footing dimensions................................. P
u
if x
crit
x
edge
> 0 kip , P
u
,
( )
592.6 kip = :=
Factored moments at critical section due to
pile loads............................................... Muy
Pile
P
u
x
crit
296.3 kip ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 280
A6. Design Moments
Transverse Footing Design (Mx
moments)  Strength I.............................. Mx
Strength1
Mux
Pile
0.9 Mx
Ftg
0.9 Mx
Surcharge
910.4 kip ft = :=
Transverse Footing Design (Mx
moments)  Service I............................. Mx
Service1
1.0 Mx
Pile
1.0 Mx
Ftg
1.0 Mx
Surcharge
656.2 kip = :=
Longitudinal Footing Design (My
moments)  Strength I............................. My
Strength1
Muy
Pile
0.9 My
Ftg
0.9 My
Surcharge
278.3 kip ft = :=
Longitudinal Footing Design (My
moments)  Service I.......................... My
Service1
1.0 My
Pile
1.0 My
Ftg
1.0 My
Surcharge
200.5 kip ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 281
B. Flexural Design
B1. Transverse Flexural Design [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment, then
checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control, minimum reinforcement, maximum
reinforcement, shrinkage and temperature reinforcement, and distribution of reinforcement. The procedure is
the same for both the transverse and longitudinal moment designs.
Factored resistance................................. M
r
M
n
=
Nominal flexural resistance......................
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
\


.
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
+ A'
s
f'
s
d'
s
a
2
\


.
0.85 f'
c
b b
w
( )
1
h
f
a
2
h
f
2
\


.
+ =
For a rectangular, nonprestressed section, M
n
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
\


.
=
a
A
s
f
s
0.85 f'
c
b
=
Using variables defined in this example,
Factored resistance........................... M
r
Mx
Strength1
910.4 kip ft = :=
Width of section b L
Ftg
7.5ft = :=
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Number of bars............................... n
ybar
9 :=
(Note: Bar size and spacing are
governed by crack control criteria
and not bending capacity).
Size of bar....................................... ybar "9" :=
Note: if bar spacing is "1", the spacing is less than 3", and a bigger bar size should be selected.
Bar area.......................................... A
bar
1.000 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... ybar
dia
1.128 in =
Equivalent bar spacing...................... ybar
spa
10.4 in =
Area of steel provided............................. A
s
n
ybar
A
bar
9 in
2
= :=
Assume f
s
f
y
:= [LRFD 5.7.2.1]
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 282
Distance from extreme compressive fiber
to centroid of reinforcing steel................. d
s
h
Ftg
cover
sub
Pile
embed
ybar
dia
2
32.44 in = :=
1
min
0.85
max
0.85 0.05
f
c.sub
4000psi
1000psi

\


.
0.65
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0.78 = :=
Stress block factor.................................
Distance between the neutral axis and
compressive face................................... c
A
s
f
s
0.85 f
c.sub
1
b
1.66 in = :=
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of
steel required......................................... Given M
r
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85 f
c.sub
b

\


.
(
(
=
Area of steel required.............................. A
s.reqd
Find A
s
( )
6.33 in
2
= :=
Check assumption that f
s
f
y
= ............... Check_f
s
if
c
d
s
0.6 < "OK" , "Not OK" ,

\


.
"OK" = :=
The area of steel provided, A
s
9.00 in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
6.33 in
2
= .
If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed reinforcing is
adequate for the applied moments.
Moment capacity provided...................... M
r.tran
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85 f
c.sub
b

\


.
(
(
1287.7 kip ft = :=
B2. Transverse Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Minimum Reinforcement
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least equal to the lesser of
the cracking moment and 1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load
combinations.
Modulus of rupture................................ f
r
0.24 f
c.sub
ksi 562.8 psi = := [SDG 1.4.1.B]
Section modulus of the footing above the
piles...................................................... S
L
Ftg
h
Ftg
Pile
embed
( )
2
6
11.25 ft
3
= :=
Flexural cracking variability factor............
1
1.6 :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 283
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of
reinforcement......................................
(for ASTM A615, Grade 60 reinforcing
steel, as required by SDG 1.4.1.C)
3
0.67 :=
Cracking moment................................... M
cr
f
r
S
3
1
977.5 kip ft = :=
Required flexural resistance..................... M
r.reqd
min M
cr
133 % M
r
,
( )
977.5 kip ft = :=
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.tran
1287.7 ft kip = , exceeds minimum requirements, M
r.reqd
977.5 ft kip =
.
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for transverse moment is satisfied" M
r.tran
M
r.reqd
> if
"NG, reinforcement for transverse moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for transverse moment is satisfied" =
B3. Transverse Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the
longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.
The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service
limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.
The maximum spacing of the mild steel
reinforcement for control of cracking at
the service limit state shall satisfy......... s
700
e
s
f
ss
2 d
c
s
where
s
1
d
c
0.7 h Pile
embed
d
c
( )
+ =
Exposure factor for Class 1 exposure
condition...............................................
e
1.00 := [SDG 3.10]
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar............................... d
c
cover
sub
ybar
dia
2
+ 3.56 in = :=
s
1
d
c
0.7 h
Ftg
Pile
embed
d
c
( )
+ 1.16 = :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 284
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
Guess value x 6.3 in :=
Given
1
2
b x
2
E
s
E
c.sub
A
s
d
s
x
( )
=
x
na
Find x ( ) 6.28 in = :=
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... T
s
Mx
Service1
d
s
x
na
3
259.52 kip = :=
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s
28.84 ksi = :=
Required reinforcement spacing............... s
required
700
e
kip
in
s
f
s.actual
2 d
c
13.85 in = :=
Provided reinforcement spacing............... ybar
spa
10.36 in =
The required spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall not be less than the
reinforcement spacing provided due to the service limit state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for Mx is satisfied" s
required
ybar
spa
> if
"NG, crack control for Mx not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for Mx is satisfied" =
B4. Longitudinal Flexural Design [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
Factored resistance................................ M
r
M
n
=
Using variables defined in this example,
Factored resistance.......................... M
r
My
Strength1
278.3 kip ft = :=
Width of section.............................. b b
Ftg
12 ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 285
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Number of bars................................ n
xbar
12 :=
Size of bar....................................... xbar "6" :=
Note: if bar spacing is "1", the spacing is less than 3", and a bigger bar size should be selected.
A
bar
0.440 in
2
=
Bar area..........................................
Bar diameter.................................... xbar
dia
0.750 in =
Equivalent bar spacing...................... xbar
spa
12.4 in =
Area of steel provided............................. A
s
n
xbar
A
bar
5.28 in
2
= :=
Distance from extreme compressive fiber
to centroid of reinforcing steel................. d
s
h
Ftg
cover
sub
Pile
embed
ybar
dia
xbar
dia
2
31.5 in = :=
Assume f
s
f
y
:= [LRFD 5.7.2.1]
Stress block factor.................................
1
min
0.85
max
0.85 0.05
f
c.sub
4000psi
1000psi

\


.
0.65
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0.78 = :=
Distance between the neutral axis and
compressive face................................... c
A
s
f
s
0.85 f
c.sub
1
b
0.61 in = :=
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of
steel required......................................... Given M
r
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85 f
c.sub
b

\


.
(
(
=
Area of steel required.............................. A
s.reqd
Find A
s
( )
1.97 in
2
= :=
Check assumption that f
s
f
y
= ............... Check_f
s
if
c
d
s
0.6 < "OK" , "Not OK" ,

\


.
"OK" = :=
The area of steel provided, A
s
5.28 in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
1.97 in
2
= .
If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed reinforcing is
adequate for the applied moments.
Moment capacity provided...................... M
r.long
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85 f
c.sub
b

\


.
(
(
:=
M
r.long
742.8 ft kip =
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 286
B5. Longitudinal Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Minimum Reinforcement
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least equal to the lesser of
the cracking moment and 1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load combinations.
Modulus of rupture................................ f
r
562.8 psi =
Section modulus of the footing above piles S
b
Ftg
h
Ftg
Pile
embed
( )
2
6
31104 in
3
= :=
Flexural cracking variability factor............
1
1.6 :=
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of the
reinforcement........................................
(for ASTM A615, Grade 60 reinforcing
steel, as required by SDG 1.4.1.C)
3
0.67 :=
Cracking moment................................... M
cr
f
r
S
1
3
1563.9 kip ft = :=
Required flexural resistance..................... M
r.reqd
min M
cr
133 % M
r
,
( )
370.2 kip ft = :=
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.long
742.8 ft kip = , exceeds minimum requirements,
M
r.reqd
370.2 ft kip = .
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for longitudinal moment is satisfied" M
r.long
M
r.reqd
> if
"NG, reinforcement for longitudinal moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for longitudinal moment is satisfied" =
B6. Longitudinal Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
The maximum spacing of the mild steel
reinforcement for control of cracking at
the service limit state shall satisfy............. s
700
e
s
f
ss
2 d
c
s
where
s
1
d
c
0.7 h Pile
embed
d
c
( )
+ =
Exposure factor for Class 1 exposure
condition...............................................
e
1.00 := [SDG 3.10]
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 287
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar............................... d
c
cover
sub
ybar
dia
+
xbar
dia
2
+ 4.5 in = :=
s
1
d
c
0.7 h
Ftg
Pile
embed
d
c
( )
+ 1.2 = :=
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
Guess value x 6 in :=
Given
1
2
b x
2
E
s
E
c.sub
A
s
d
s
x
( )
=
x
na
Find x ( ) 3.91 in = :=
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... T
s
My
Service1
d
s
x
na
3
79.7 kip = :=
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s
15.09 ksi = :=
Required reinforcement spacing............... s
required
700
e
kip
in
s
f
s.actual
2 d
c
29.5 in = :=
Provided reinforcement spacing............... xbar
spa
12.41 in =
The required spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall not be less than the
reinforcement spacing provided due to the service limit state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for My is satisfied" s
required
xbar
spa
> if
"NG, crack control for My not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for My is satisfied" =
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 288
B7. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Size of bar....................................... bar
st
"6" :=
Spacing of bar................................. bar
spa.st
12 in :=
Bar area.......................................... A
bar
0.44 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 0.750 in =
Minimum area of shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement............ A
shrink.temp
min
0.6
in
2
ft
max
0.11
in
2
ft
1.3 b
Ftg
h
Ftg
kip
in ft
2 b
Ftg
h
Ftg
+
( )
f
y
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0.39
in
2
ft
= :=
Maximum spacing of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
spacing
shrink.temp
min
A
bar
A
shrink.temp
12in ,

\


.
min b
Ftg
L
Ftg
, h
Ftg
,
( )
18in > if
min
A
bar
A
shrink.temp
18in , 3 min b
Ftg
L
Ftg
, h
Ftg
,
( )
,

\


.
otherwise
12 in = :=
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
LRFD
5.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" bar
spa.st
spacing
shrink.temp
s if
"NG, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
B8. Mass Concrete Provisions
Volume to surface area ratio for footing.... Ratio
VS
b
Ftg
h
Ftg
L
Ftg
2 b
Ftg
L
Ftg
2b
Ftg
2L
Ftg
+
( )
h
Ftg
+
1.07 ft = :=
Mass concrete provisions apply if the volume to surface area ratio exceeds 1 ft and the minimum dimension
exceeds 3 feet.
SDG
3.9
"Use mass concrete provisions" Ratio
VS
1.0 ft > b
Ftg
3ft > h
Ftg
3ft > . L
Ftg
3ft > .
( )
. if
"Use regular concrete provisions" otherwise
:=
SDG
3.9
"Use mass concrete provisions" =
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 289
C. Shear Design Parameters [LRFD 5.13.3.6]
C1. Shear Design Parameters  One Way Shear
Distance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of tension steel (use the top of the
main transverse steel or bottom of the
longitudinal steel)................................... d
e
h
Ftg
Pile
embed
cover
sub
ybar
dia
2.66 ft = :=
Effective shear depth [LRFD 5.8.2.9]......
d
v
max
0.9 d
e
0.72 h

\


.

\


.
=
Using variables defined in this example, d
v
max
0.9 d
e
0.72 h
Ftg
Pile
embed
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
2.39 ft = :=
C2. Shear Resistance  Simplified Procedure [LRFD 5.8.3.4.1]
Values of B = 2 and = 45 deg may be assumed for concrete footings in which the distance from point of zero
shear to the face of the column, pier or wall is less than 3d
v
, with or without transverse reinforcement.
Check
5.8.3.4.1
if y
crit
3 d
v
< "OK, Simplified procedure may be used." , "NG, Use general procedure." ,
( )
:=
Check
5.8.3.4.1
"OK, Simplified procedure may be used." =
Factor indicating ability of diagonally
cracked concrete to transmit tension.. 2.0 :=
Angle of inclination for diagonal
compressive stresses........................ 45deg :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 290
C3. One Way Shear  Y Critical Section
Factored pile loads contributing to
transverse shear .................................... Vu
T
max Q
u
0
Q
u
3
+ Q
u
2
Q
u
5
+ ,

\

.
349.5 kip = :=
Distance between face of equivalent square
column and face of pile................. dy
face
b
Ftg
b
Col.eff
( )
2
Pile
size
2
pile
edge
+

\


.
2 ft = :=
The location of the piles relative to the critical shear plane determines the amount of shear design. According to
LRFD 5.13.3.6.1, if a portion of the pile lies inside the critical section, the pile load shall be uniformly distributed
over the pile width, and the portion of the load outside the critical section shall be included in shear calculations
for the critical section.
Transverse
shear
"Full shear, piles are outside of the ycritical shear plane" dy
face
d
v
> if
"No shear, Ycritical shear plane is outside pile dimension" d
v
dy
face
Pile
size
+
( )
> if
"Partial shear, piles intersect ycritical shear plane" dy
face
d
v
< d
v
dy
face
Pile
size
+
( )
< . if
:=
Transverse
shear
"Partial shear, piles intersect ycritical shear plane" =
If the piles partially intersect the shear plane, the shear for the critical section can be linearly reduced by the
following factor.
y
1 dy
face
d
v
> if
0 d
v
dy
face
Pile
size
+
( )
> if
1
d
v
dy
face
Pile
size
dy
face
d
v
< d
v
dy
face
Pile
size
+
( )
< . if
0.74 = :=
Factored shear along transverse ycritical
section.................................................. Vu
T
y
Vu
T
258.5 kip = :=
The nominal shear resistance for footings
with no prestressing or transverse
reinforcing is the minimum of the
following equations................................ V
n
0.0316 f'
c
b
v
d
v
= or V
n
0.25 f'
c
b
v
d
v
=
Using variables defined in this example, b
v
L
Ftg
7.5ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 291
and the corresponding shear values..... V
c1
0.0316 f
c.sub
ksi b
v
d
v
382.6 kip = :=
V
c2
0.25 f
c.sub
b
v
d
v
3549.7 kip = :=
Nominal shear resistance......................... V
n
min V
c1
V
c2
,
( )
382.6 kip = :=
Check the section has adequate shear capacity
LRFD
5.8.3.3
"OK, footing depth for Ycritical section is adequate for 1way shear" V
n
Vu
T
v
> if
"NG, footing depth for Ycritical section is not adequate for 1way shear" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.8.3.3
"OK, footing depth for Ycritical section is adequate for 1way shear" =
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 292
C4. One Way Shear  X Critical Section
Factored pile loads contributing to
longitudinal shear................................... Vu
L
max Q
u
0
Q
u
1
+ Q
u
2
+ Q
u
3
Q
u
4
+ Q
u
5
+ ,

\

.
592.6 kip = :=
Distance between face of equivalent square
column and face of pile........................... dx
face
L
Ftg
b
Col.eff
( )
2
Pile
size
2
pile
edge
+

\


.
0.25 ft = :=
The location of the piles relative to the critical shear plane determines the amount of shear design.
Longitudinal
shear
"Full shear, piles are outside of the xcritical shear plane" dx
face
d
v
> if
"No shear, Xcritical shear plane is outside pile dimension" d
v
dx
face
Pile
size
+
( )
> if
"Partial shear, piles intersect xcritical shear plane" dx
face
d
v
< d
v
dx
face
Pile
size
+
( )
< . if
:=
Longitudinal
shear
"No shear, Xcritical shear plane is outside pile dimension" =
If the piles partially intersect the shear plane, the shear affecting the critical section can be linearly reduced by
the following factor
x
1 dx
face
d
v
> if
0 d
v
dx
face
Pile
size
+
( )
> if
1
d
v
dx
face
Pile
size
dx
face
d
v
< d
v
dx
face
Pile
size
+
( )
< . if
0 = :=
Factored shear along longitudinal xcritical
section.................................................. Vu
L
x
Vu
L
0 kip = :=
The nominal shear resistance for footings
with no prestressing or transverse
reinforcing is the minimum of the following
equations............................................... V
n
0.0316 f'
c
b
v
d
v
= OR V
n
0.25 f'
c
b
v
d
v
=
Using variables defined in this example, b
v
b
Ftg
12 ft = :=
and the corresponding shear values...... V
c1
0.0316 f
c.sub
ksi b
v
d
v
612.2 kip = :=
V
c2
0.25 f
c.sub
b
v
d
v
5679.6 kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 293
Nominal shear resistance......................... V
n
min V
c1
V
c2
,
( )
612.23 kip = :=
Check the section has adequate shear capacity
LRFD
5.8.3.3
"OK, Xcritical section footing depth is adequate for 1way shear" V
n
Vu
L
v
> if
"NG, Xcritical section footing depth is NO GOOD for 1way shear" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.8.3.3
"OK, Xcritical section footing depth is adequate for 1way shear" =
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 294
C5. Two Way Shear Design (Punching Shear)
Critical section for 2way shear [LRFD
5.13.3.6]............................................... d
v2
0.5 d
v
1.2ft = :=
Maximum shear force for pile 2............... Vu
pile
Q
max
256.9 kip = :=
Nominal shear resistance for 2way action in
sections without shear reinforcement.... V
n
0.063
0.126
c
+

\


.
f
c
b
o
d
v
( )
0.126 f
c
b
o
d
v
s =
Perimeter of critical section..................... b
o
min
4 Pile
size
2 d
v2
+
( )
Pile
size
2 d
v2
pile
edge
+
( )
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
6.89 ft = :=
Ratio of long side to short side of the rectangle, which the concentrated load or reaction is transmitted
c
1.0 :=
Nominal shear resistance.........................
V
n
min
0.063
0.126
c
+

\


.
f
c.sub
ksi b
o
d
v
( )
0.126 f
c.sub
ksi b
o
d
v
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
700.86 kip = :=
LRFD
5.13.3.6.3
"OK, Footing depth for 2way pile punching shear" V
n
Vu
pile
v
> if
"NG, Footing depth for 2way pile punching shear" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.13.3.6.3
"OK, Footing depth for 2way pile punching shear" =
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 295
D. Design Summary
Footing properties Transverse dimension of footing........ b
Ftg
12 ft =
Longitudinal dimension of footing....... L
Ftg
7.5 ft =
Depth of footing............................... h
Ftg
4 ft =
Bottom reinforcement
(transverse) Number of bars............................... n
ybar
9 =
Selected bar size.............................. ybar "9" =
Approximate spacing........................ ybar
spa
10.4 in = use 10" +/spacing
Bottom reinforcement
(longitudinal) Number of bars............................... n
xbar
12 =
Selected bar size............................... xbar "6" =
Approximate spacing........................ xbar
spa
12.4 in = use 12" +/spacing
Temp and shrinkage
(top and side) Selected bar size............................... bar
st
"6" =
Spacing........................................... bar
spa.st
12 in =
Redefine Variables
Substructure Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 296
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
End Bent Live Load Analysis
References
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\309PierFootingDesign.xmcd(R)
Description
This document provides the criteria for the end bent live load design. Since the piles are placed directly
under the beams at the end bent, no positive or negative moment due to live load is introduced in the end
bent cap, therefore, the maximum live load placement will try to maximize a beam reaction or pile load.
Page Contents
298 A. Input Variables
A1. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c]
A2. Maximum Live Load Reaction at End Bent  One HL93 Vehicle
A3. HL93 Vehicle Placement
Substructure Design 3.10 End Bent Live Load Analysis 297
A. Input Variables
A1. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c]
Skew modification factor for shear shall be applied to the exterior beam at the obtuse corner (u>90 deg) and
to all beams in a multibeam bridge, whereas g
v.Skew
1.06 = .
A2. Maximum Live Load Reaction at End Bent  One HL93 Vehicle
Since each beam is directly over each pile, live load will not contribute to any moments or shears in the bent
cap. For the pile design, the live load will not include dynamic amplification since the piles are considered to be
in the ground.
Reaction induced by HL93 truck load...... V
truck
Support ( ) 64.34 kip =
Reaction induced by lane load.................. V
lane
Support ( ) 28.1 kip =
Impact factor........................................ IM 1.33 =
The truck reaction (including impact and
skew modification factors) is applied on
the deck as two wheelline loads.............. wheel
line
V
truck
Support ( )
2

\


.
g
v.Skew
IM 45.5kip = :=
The lane load reaction (including skew
modification factor) is applied on the deck
as two wheelline loads........................... lane
load
V
lane
Support ( )
2

\


.
g
v.Skew
14.9kip = :=
HL93 Line Load.................................... HL93 wheel
line
lane
load
+ 60.4kip = :=
The HL93 line load can be placed within 2'0" of the overhang and median barriers.
Substructure Design 3.10 End Bent Live Load Analysis 298
A3. HL93 Vehicle Placement
HL93 vehicles, comprising of wheel line loads and lane loads, should be placed on the deck to maximize the axial
force in the end bent piles and moments in the pier cap. Note that for maximum effects, live load may be placed
on both sides of the roadway. Utilizing our engineering judgement, it is possible to have up to six lanes of HL93
vehicles at a single time. However, note that for the calculation of braking forces, vehicles in only one roadway
were applied since the braking forces would be counterproductive, in opposite directions.
Depending on the number of design lanes, a multiple presence factor (LRFD Table 3.6.1.1.21) is applied to the
HL93 wheel line loads and lane load.
Lanes
1
2
3
4
5
6

\







.
:= MPF
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.65
0.65
0.65

\







.
:= HL93_Line_Load HL93 MPF := HL93_Line_Load
72.5
60.4
51.4
39.3
39.3
39.3

\







.
kip =
Substructure Design 3.10 End Bent Live Load Analysis 299
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
End Bent Design Loads
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\310EndBentLiveLoads.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design parameters necessary for the substructure end bent design. The loads
calculated in this file are only from the superstructure. Substructure selfweight, wind on substructure and
uniform temperature on substructure can be generated by the substructure analysis model/program chosen
by the user.
For this design example, RISA was chosen as the analysis model/program.
Page Contents
301 A. General Criteria
A1. Bearing Design Movement/Strain
A2. End Bent Dead Load Summary
A3. Center of Movement
302 B. Lateral Load Analysis
B1. Centrifugal Force: CE [LRFD 3.6.3]
B2. Braking Force: BR [LRFD 3.6.4]
B3. Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Forces
B4. Wind Pressure on Structure: WS
B5. Wind Pressure on Vehicles [LRFD 3.8.1.3]
313 C. Design Limit States
C1. Strength I Limit State Loads
C2. Strength V Limit State Loads
C3. Service I Limit State Loads
C4. Summary of Results
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 300
A. General Criteria
A1. Bearing Design Movement/Strain
Strain due to temperature, creep and
shrinkage...............................................
CST
0.00029 =
(Note: See Sect. 2.09.B4  Bearing Design
Movement/Strain)
A2. End Bent Dead Load Summary
Unfactored beam reactions at the end bent for DC and DW loads
Beam x y z x y z
1 0.0 95.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 95.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT END BENTS
DC Loads (kip) DW Loads (kip)
A3. Center of Movement
By inspection, the center of movement will be the intermediate pier.
L
0
L
span
:=
L
0
90.0ft =
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 301
B. Lateral Load Analysis
B1. Centrifugal Force: CE [LRFD 3.6.3]
Since the design speed is not specified, it will be conservatively taken as the maximum specified in the AASHTO
publication, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.
Design Speed........................................ V
design
70mph :=
Factor per LRFD 3.6.3........................... f
4
3
:=
Horizontal radius.................................... R 3800ft :=
Centrifugal factor................................... C
f V
design
2
g R
0.11 = :=
Centrifugal force.................................... P
c
C wheel
line
5.23 kip = :=
HL93 P
c
+ 65.68 kip =
HL93 P
c
55.22 kip =
B2. Braking Force: BR [LRFD 3.6.4]
The braking force should be taken as the greater of:
25% of axle weight for design truck / tandem
5% of design truck / tandem and lane
The number of lanes for braking force calculations depends on future expectations of the bridge. For this
example, the bridge is not expected to become onedirectional in the future, and future widening is expected to
occur to the outside. From this information, the number of lanes is
N
lanes
3 =
The multiple presence factor (LRFD Table
3.6.1.1.21) should be taken into account.. MPF 1.2 N
lanes
1 = if
1.0 N
lanes
2 = if
0.85 N
lanes
3 = if
0.65 otherwise
0.85 = :=
Braking force as 25% of axle weight for
design truck / tandem............................. BR
Force.1
25% 72kip ( ) N
lanes
MPF 45.9 kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 302
Braking force as 5% of axle weight for
design truck / tandem and lane.................
BR
Force.2
5% 72kip w
L
L
span
+
( )
N
lanes
MPF 16.52 kip = :=
Governing braking force......................... BR
Force
max BR
Force.1
BR
Force.2
,
( )
45.9 kip = :=
Distribution of Braking Forces to End Bent
The same bearing pads are provided at the pier and end bent to distribute the braking forces. The braking force
transferred to the pier or end bents is a function of the bearing pad and pier column stiffnesses. For this
example, (1) the pier column stiffnesses are ignored, (2) the deck is continuous over pier 2 and expansion joints
are provided only at the end bents.
Braking force at End Bent....................... BR
Endbent
BR
Force
K
Endbent
( )
=
where............................................. K
Endbent
N
pads.endbent
K
pad
N
pads.pier
N
pads.endbent
+
( )
K
pad
=
Simplifying and using variables defined in this example,
end bent stiffness can be calculated as K
Endbent
N
beams
1 2 + 1 + ( ) N
beams
0.25 = :=
corresponding braking force.............. BR
Endbent
BR
Force
K
Endbent
( )
11.47 kip = :=
Since the bridge superstructure is very stiff in the longitudinal direction, the braking forces are assumed to be
equally distributed to the beams under the respective roadway.
beams 5 :=
Braking force at end bent per beam.......... BR
Endbent
BR
Endbent
beams
2.3kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 303
Adjustments for Skew
The braking force is transferred to the pier by the bearing pads. The braking forces need to be resolved
along the axis of the bearing pads for design of the pier substructure.
Braking force perpendicular (zdirection) to
the skew............................................... BR
z.Endbent
BR
Endbent
cos Skew ( ) 2.16 kip = :=
Braking force parallel (xdirection) to the
skew.................................................... BR
x.Endbent
BR
Endbent
sin Skew ( ) 0.78 kip = :=
Adjustments for Braking Force Loads Applied 6' above Deck
The longitudinal moment induced by braking forces over a pier is resisted by the moment arm. Conservatively,
assume the braking occurs over one span only, then the result is an uplift reaction on the downstation end bent
or pier and a downward reaction at the upstation end bent or pier. In this example, the braking is assumed to
occur in span 1 and the eccentricity of the downward load with the bearing and centerline of pier eccentricities
is ignored.
Moment arm from top of bearing pad to
location of applied load............................ M
arm
6ft h + 9.75ft = :=
Braking force in end bent (ydirection),
vertical.................................................. BR
y.Endbent
BR
Endbent
M
arm
L
span
0.25 kip = :=
Beam x y z
1 0.8 0.2 2.2
2 0.8 0.2 2.2
3 0.8 0.2 2.2
4 0.8 0.2 2.2
5 0.8 0.2 2.2
6 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 0.0 0.0
BR Loads (kip)
BRAKING FORCES AT END
BENT
Only the downward component of this
force is considered. Typically, the
vertical forces (uplift) are small and can
be ignored.
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 304
B3. Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Forces
The forces transferred from the superstructure to the substructure due to temperature, creep, and shrinkage
are influenced by the shear displacements in the bearing pad. In this example, only temperature and shrinkage
effects are considered. Creep is ignored, since this example assumes the beams will creep towards their
center and the composite deck will offer some restraint.
CST
0.00029 =
Displacements at top of end bent due to
temperature, creep, and shrinkage............
Endbent1
L
0
x
dist
0

\

.
CST
0.31 in = :=
Shear force transferred through each
bearing pad due to creep, shrinkage, and
temperature...........................................
CST
Endbent
G
bp
L
pad
W
pad
Endbent1
h
pad
3.87 kip = :=
This force needs to be resolved along the direction of the skew
Shear force perpendicular (zdirection) to
the end bent per beam............................. CST
z.Endbent
CST
Endbent
cos Skew ( ) 3.64 kip = :=
Shear force parallel (xdirection) to the end
bent per beam........................................ CST
x.Endbent
CST
Endbent
sin Skew ( ) 1.32 kip = :=
Summary of beam reactions at the end bent due to creep, shrinkage, and temperature
Beam x y z
1 1.3 0.0 3.6
2 1.3 0.0 3.6
3 1.3 0.0 3.6
4 1.3 0.0 3.6
5 1.3 0.0 3.6
6 1.3 0.0 3.6
7 1.3 0.0 3.6
8 1.3 0.0 3.6
9 1.3 0.0 3.6
CR, SH, TU Loads (kip)
CREEP, SHRINKAGE,
TEMPERATURE FORCES AT
END BENT
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 305
B4. Wind Pressure on Structure: WS
The wind loads are applied to the superstructure and substructure.
Loads from Superstructure [SDG 2.4], Strength III and Service IV Limit States
The wind pressure on the superstructure consists of lateral (xdirection) and longitudinal (zdirection)
components.
Height above ground that the wind pressure
is applied............................................... z
sup
20.5ft =
Design wind pressure ............................. P
z.super
P
z.sup.StrIII.ServIV
ksf 48.83 psf = :=
x z [Global]
For prestressed beam bridges, the following
wind pressures factors are given to account
for the angle of attack [SDG Table 2.4.13] Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
:= Wind
Factor
1.0
0.88
0.82
0.66
0.34
0.0
0.12
0.24
0.32
0.38

\






.
:=
Wind pressures based on angle of attack
are as follows......... ..............................
Wind
super
P
z.super
Wind
Factor
:=
x z [Global]
Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
:= Wind
super
48.83
42.97
40.04
32.23
16.6
0
5.86
11.72
15.63
18.56

\






.
psf =
The exposed superstructure area influences the wind forces that are transferred to the supporting substructure.
Tributary areas are used to determine the exposed superstructure area.
Exposed superstructure area at end bent... A
Super
L
span
2
h 2.667ft + ( ) 288.76ft
2
= :=
Forces due to wind applied to the
superstructure........................................ WS
Super.Endbent
Wind
super
A
Super
:=
x z [Global]
WS
Super.Endbent
14.1
12.4
11.6
9.3
4.8
0.0
1.7
3.4
4.5
5.4

\






.
kip =
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 306
Case 1  Skew Angle of Wind = 0 degrees
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WS.x.case1
WS
Super.Endbent
0 0 ,
14.1kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WS.z.case1
WS
Super.Endbent
0 1 ,
0 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the
end bent...............................................
WS
z.Endbent.case1
F
WS.z.case1
cos Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case1
sin Skew ( ) + 4.82kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the end bent
WS
x.Endbent.case1
F
WS.z.case1
sin Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case1
cos Skew ( ) + 13.25 kip = :=
Case 2  Skew Angle of Wind = 60 degrees
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WS.x.case2
WS
Super.Endbent
4 0 ,
4.79kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WS.z.case2
WS
Super.Endbent
4 1 ,
5.36 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the
pier.......................................................
WS
z.Endbent.case2
F
WS.z.case2
cos Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case2
sin Skew ( ) + 6.67kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the pier.......
WS
x.Endbent.case2
F
WS.z.case2
sin Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case2
cos Skew ( ) + 6.34 kip = :=
A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required. The maximum transverse and longitudinal
forces are used in the following calculations.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the end bent
WS
z.Endbent.StrIII.ServIV
max WS
z.Endbent.case1
WS
z.Endbent.case2
,
( )
6.67 kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the end bent
WS
x.Endbent.StrIII.ServIV
max WS
x.Endbent.case1
WS
x.Endbent.case2
,
( )
13.25 kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 307
Loads from Superstructure, Strength V and Service I Limit States:
Design wind pressure ............................. P
z.super
P
z.sup.StrV.ServI
ksf 10.63 psf = :=
Wind pressures based on angle of attack
are as follows........................................
Wind
super
P
z.super
Wind
Factor
:=
x z [Global]
Wind
skew
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
= Wind
super
10.63
9.36
8.72
7.02
3.62
0
1.28
2.55
3.4
4.04

\






.
psf =
The exposed superstructure area influences the wind forces that are transferred to the supporting substructure.
Tributary areas are used to determine the exposed superstructure area.
Exposed superstructure area at end bent... A
Super
L
span
2
h 2.667ft + ( ) 288.8ft
2
= :=
Forces due to wind applied to the
superstructure........................................
WS
Super.Endbent
Wind
super
A
Super
:=
x z [Global]
WS
Super.Endbent
3.1
2.7
2.5
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.4
0.7
1.0
1.2

\






.
kip =
Case 1  Skew Angle of Wind = 0 degrees
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WS.x.case1
WS
Super.Endbent
0 0 ,
3.07kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WS.z.case1
WS
Super.Endbent
0 1 ,
0 kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 308
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the
end bent................................................
WS
z.Endbent.case1
F
WS.z.case1
cos Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case1
sin Skew ( ) + 1.05kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the end bent
WS
x.Endbent.case1
F
WS.z.case1
sin Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case1
cos Skew ( ) + 2.89 kip = :=
Case 2  Skew Angle of Wind = 60 degrees
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WS.x.case2
WS
Super.Endbent
4 0 ,
1.04kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WS.z.case2
WS
Super.Endbent
4 1 ,
1.17 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the
end bent................................................
WS
z.Endbent.case2
F
WS.z.case2
cos Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case2
sin Skew ( ) + 1.45kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the end bent
WS
x.Endbent.case2
F
WS.z.case2
sin Skew ( ) F
WS.x.case2
cos Skew ( ) + 1.38 kip = :=
A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required. The maximum transverse and longitudinal
forces are used in the following calculations.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the end bent
WS
z.Endbent.StrV.ServI
max WS
z.Endbent.case1
WS
z.Endbent.case2
,
( )
1.45kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the end bent
WS
x.Endbent.StrV.ServI
max WS
x.Endbent.case1
WS
x.Endbent.case2
,
( )
2.89 kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 309
The force due to wind acts on the full superstructure. This force needs to be resolved into the reactions in
each beam. The following table(s) summarize the beam reactions due to wind.
Strength V & Service I Strength III & Service IV
Beam x y z
1 0.3 0.0 0.2
2 0.3 0.0 0.2
3 0.3 0.0 0.2
4 0.3 0.0 0.2
5 0.3 0.0 0.2
6 0.3 0.0 0.2
7 0.3 0.0 0.2
8 0.3 0.0 0.2
9 0.3 0.0 0.2
WS Loads (kip)
WIND ON STRUCTURE
FORCES AT END BENT
Beam x y z
1 1.5 0.0 0.7
2 1.5 0.0 0.7
3 1.5 0.0 0.7
4 1.5 0.0 0.7
5 1.5 0.0 0.7
6 1.5 0.0 0.7
7 1.5 0.0 0.7
8 1.5 0.0 0.7
9 1.5 0.0 0.7
WS Loads (kip)
WIND ON STRUCTURE
FORCES AT END BENT
Loads on Substructure [SDG 2.4]
The end bents are usually shielded from wind by a MSE wall or an embankment fill, so wind on the end bent
substructure is ignored.
B5. Wind Pressure on Vehicles [LRFD 3.8.1.3]
x z
The LRFD specifies that wind load should
be applied to vehicles on the bridge..........
Skew
wind
0
15
30
45
60

\






.
:= Wind
LRFD
.100
.088
.082
.066
.034
0
.012
.024
.032
.038

\






.
kip
ft
:=
The wind forces on vehicles are transmitted
to the end bent using tributary lengths....... L
Endbent
L
span
2
45ft = :=
Forces due to wind on vehicles applied to the
superstructure.................................. WL
Super.Endbent
Wind
LRFD
L
Endbent
:=
x z
WL
Super.Endbent
4.5
4.0
3.7
3.0
1.5
0.0
0.5
1.1
1.4
1.7

\






.
kip =
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 310
A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required. The maximum transverse and longitudinal
forces are used in the following calculations.
Maximum transverse force...................... F
WL.x
WL
Super.Endbent
0 0 ,
4.5kip = :=
Maximum longitudinal force.................... F
WL.z
WL
Super.Endbent
4 1 ,
1.71 kip = :=
The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the end
bent................................................. WL
z.Endbent
F
WL.z
cos Skew ( ) F
WL.x
sin Skew ( ) + 3.15kip = :=
Force perpendicular (zdirection) to the end
bent per beam................................... WL
z.Beam
WL
z.Endbent
N
beams
0.35kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the cap....... WL
x.Endbent
F
WL.z
sin Skew ( ) F
WL.x
cos Skew ( ) + 4.81kip = :=
Force parallel (xdirection) to the cap per
beam..................................................... WL
x.Beam
WL
x.Endbent
N
beams
0.53 kip = :=
Longitudinal Adjustments for Wind on Vehicles
The longitudinal moment is resisted by the
moment arm.
Moment arm from top of bearing pad to
location of applied load............................ M
arm
9.750ft =
(M
arm
= h + 6 ft)
Vertical force in end bent due to wind
pressure on vehicle................................. WL
y.Endbent
WL
z.Beam
M
arm
L
span
0.04 kip = :=
For this design example, this component of the load is ignored.
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 311
Transverse Adjustments for Wind on Vehicles
Using the principles of the lever rule for transverse distribution of live load on beams, the wind on live load can
be distributed similarly. It assumes that the wind acting on the live load will cause the vehicle to tilt over. Using
the lever rule, the tilting effect of the vehicle is resisted by up and down reactions on the beams assuming the
deck to act as a simple span between beams. Conservatively, assume all beams that can see live load can
develop this load since the placement of the vehicle(s) and number of vehicles within the deck is constantly
changing.
Moment arm from top of bearing pad to
location of applied load............................ M
arm
9.750ft =
Vertical reaction on pier fromtransverse
wind pressure on vehicles....................... WL
y.Endbent
WL
x.Endbent
M
arm
BeamSpacing
4.69 kip = :=
Since this load can occur at any beam location, conservatively apply this load to all beams
Beam x y z
1 0.5 4.7 0.3
2 0.5 4.7 0.3
3 0.5 4.7 0.3
4 0.5 4.7 0.3
5 0.5 4.7 0.3
6 0.5 4.7 0.3
7 0.5 4.7 0.3
8 0.5 4.7 0.3
9 0.5 0.0 0.0
WL Loads (kip)
WIND ON LIVE LOAD
FORCES AT END BENT
Substructure Design 3.11 End Bent Design Loads 312
C. Design Limit States
The design loads for strength I, strength III, strength V, and service I limit states are summarized in this
section.
These reactions are from the superstructure only, acting on the substructure. In the RISA analysis model,
include the following loads:
DC: selfweight of the substructure, include end bent cap and backwall. 
TU: a temperature increase and fall on the pier substructure utilizing the following parameters: 
coefficient of expansion
t
6 10
6
1
F
=
temperature change temperature
increase
temperature
fall
= 35F =
Two load cases would be required for temperature with a positive and negative strain being inputed.
For the end bent, assuming the cap to be supported on pin supports at every pile location is an acceptable
modeling decision. A depth of fixity of 7 pile diameters, or 10.5 feet, is assumed.
WS: Wind on the substructure should be applied directly to the analysis model. For the end bent 
surrounded by MSE wall, the wind loads on substructure are nonexistant since the substructure can be
considered shielded by the wall.
All applied loads in the substructure analysis model should be multiplied by the appropriate load factor values 
and combined with the limit state loads calculated in this file for the final results.
Substructure Model
DC Loads:
CR/SH/TU Loads:
WL Loads:
Load Combinations:
Beam Shear:
Beam Shear:
Beam Shear:
=
where 1
sin '
f
+
( )
sin '
f
( )
sin ( ) sin + ( )
+

\


.
2
=
From LRFD Table 3.11.5.31:
Substructure Design 3.13 End Bent Foundation Design Loads 325
defining the following:
soil
115 pcf =
Unit weight of soil
90deg := angle of the end bent back face of the wall to the horizontal
'
f
29deg := effective angle of internal friction, assumed
20deg := friction angle between fill and wall given by
LRFD Table 3.11.5.31
(Note: based on concrete on
clean fine to medium sand)
0 deg := angle of fill to the horizontal
therefore
1
sin '
f
+
( )
sin '
f
( )
sin ( ) sin + ( )
+

\


.
2
2.64 = :=
and
k
a
sin '
f
+
( ) ( )
2
sin ( )
2
sin ( )
( )
0.31 = :=
The horizontal earth pressure due to live load,
p
, [LRFD 3.11.6.4] may be approximated as follows:
p
k
soil
h
eq
= where
soil
115 pcf = Unit weight of soil
k k
a
:= Coefficient of lateral earth pressure
h
eq
4.0ft := equivalent height of soil for vehicular loading,
LRFD Table 3.11.6.41 or 3.11.6.42
therefore
p
k
soil
h
eq
0.14 ksf = :=
Substructure Design 3.13 End Bent Foundation Design Loads 326
C3. Applied Loads
The following is a free body diagram of the loads acting on the end bent.
The loads due to the end bent cap and back wall height were included in the RISA analysis of the end bent, and
therefore are not included here.
Calculate moment at top of pile due to earth pressure per foot of backwall
Lateral force.................................... F
earth
k
a
soil
h
BW
h
EB
+
( )
2
2
0.66
kip
ft
= :=
Lateral force moment arm................. y
earth
h
BW
h
EB
+
3
Pile
embed
1.03ft = :=
Moment at top of pile....................... M
earth
F
earth
y
earth
0.68
kip ft
ft
= :=
Substructure Design 3.13 End Bent Foundation Design Loads 327
Calculate moment at top of pile due to live load surcharge per foot of backwall
Lateral force.................................... F
surcharge
p
h
BW
h
EB
+
( )
0.87
kip
ft
= :=
Lateral force moment arm................. y
surcharge
h
BW
h
EB
+
2
Pile
embed
2.05ft = :=
Moment at top of pile....................... M
surcharge
F
surcharge
y
surcharge
1.78
kip ft
ft
= :=
Calculate moment at top of pile due to approach slab per foot of backwall
(Note: assume
1/3 of weight
is seen at back
wall)
Vertical force................................... P
AS
conc
t
ApprSlab
L
ApprSlab
\


.
1.83
kip
ft
= :=
Vertical force moment arm............... e
AS
t
BW
b
EB
2
1.25 ft = :=
Moment at top of pile....................... M
AS
P
AS
e
AS
2.29
kip ft
ft
= :=
Substructure Design 3.13 End Bent Foundation Design Loads 328
D. Design Load Summary
Strength I
Calculate the Strength I limit state pile reaction.
Vertical force fromRISA analysis....... P
Str1
F
y.StrI
kip 336.1 kip = :=
Vertical force moment arm................ e
Py
t
BW
K2 +
b
EB
2
0.58ft = :=
Moment at top of pile due to vertical
force..............................................
M
P.Str1
P
Str1
e
Py
196.06kip ft = :=
Lateral force perpendicular to bent,
excluding soil forces, from RISA
analysis...........................................
F
Str1
F
z.StrI
kip 6.9kip = :=
(Note: Use 4"
pedestal height).
Lateral force moment arm................ e
Fy
h
EB
Pile
embed
4 in + 1.83ft = :=
Moment at top of pile due to lateral
force..............................................
M
F.Str1
F
Str1
e
Fy
12.65 kip ft = :=
Distribution of loads to piles.............. L
D
L
EB
N
piles
9.78ft = :=
Total Moment..................................
M
strength1
max M
P.Str1
M
F.Str1
+
DC
L
D
M
AS
+
p.min
L
D
M
earth
LS
L
D
M
surcharge
+ +
... M
P.Str1
M
F.Str1
+
p.max
L
D
M
earth
+
M
surcharge
LS
L
D
+
... ,

\


.
:=
M
strength1
249.1 kip ft =
Total lateral force perpendicular to
bent...........................................
F
z.strength1
F
Str1
p.max
F
earth
L
D
+
LS
F
surcharge
L
D
+ 31.41 kip = :=
Total lateral force parallel to bent........ F
x.strength1
F
x.StrI
kip 3.9kip = :=
Total vertical force........................... F
y.strength1
P
Str1
DC
P
AS
L
D
+ 358.51kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.13 End Bent Foundation Design Loads 329
Strength III
Calculate the Strength III limit state pile reaction.
Vertical force fromRISA analysis....... P
Str3
F
y.StrIII
kip 148.3 kip = :=
Vertical force moment arm................ e
Py
0.58ft =
Moment at top of pile due to vertical
force..............................................
M
P.Str3
P
Str3
e
Py
86.51 kip ft = :=
Lateral force perpendicular to bent,
excluding soil forces, from RISA
analysis...........................................
F
Str3
F
z.StrIII
kip 2.8kip = :=
Lateral force moment arm................ e
Fy
1.83ft =
Moment at top of pile due to lateral
force..............................................
M
F.Str3
F
Str3
e
Fy
5.13 kip ft = :=
Distribution of loads to piles.............. L
D
9.78ft =
Total Moment..................................
M
strength3
max
M
P.Str3
M
F.Str3
+
DC
L
D
M
AS
+
p.min
L
D
M
earth
+
M
P.Str3
M
F.Str3
+
p.max
L
D
M
earth
+

\



.

\



.
101.65ft kip = :=
Total lateral force perpendicular to
bent...............................................
F
z.strength3
F
Str3
p.max
F
earth
L
D
+ 12.49 kip = :=
Total lateral force parallel to bent........ F
x.strength3
F
x.StrIII
kip 5.1kip = :=
Total vertical force........................... F
y.strength3
P
Str3
DC
P
AS
L
D
+ 170.71kip = :=
Substructure Design 3.13 End Bent Foundation Design Loads 330
Service I
Calculate the Service I limit state pile reaction.
Vertical force fromRISA analysis...... P
Srv1
F
y.ServI
kip 227.1 kip = :=
Vertical force moment arm................ e
Py
0.58ft =
Moment at top of pile due to vertical
force..............................................
M
P.Srv1
P
Srv1
e
Py
132.47kip ft = :=
Lateral force perpendicular to bent,
excluding soil forces from RISA
analysis...........................................
F
Srv1
F
z.ServI
kip 7 kip = :=
Lateral force moment arm................. e
Fy
1.83ft =
Moment at top of pile due to lateral
force...............................................
M
F.Srv1
F
Srv1
e
Fy
12.83 kip ft = :=
Distribution of loads to piles.............. L
D
9.78ft =
Total Moment..................................
M
service1
max
M
P.Srv1
M
F.Srv1
+ L
D
1.00 M
AS
+ 1.00 L
D
M
earth
+ 1.0L
D
M
surcharge
+
M
P.Srv1
M
F.Srv1
+ 1.0L
D
M
earth
+ 1.0L
D
M
surcharge
+

\



.

\



.
169.3ft k = :=
Total lateral force perpendicular to
bent...............................................
F
z.service1
F
Srv1
1.00 F
earth
F
surcharge
+
( )
L
D
+ 21.93 kip = :=
F
x.service1
F
x.ServI
kip 7.3kip = :=
Total lateral force parallel to bent........
Total vertical force.......................... F
y.service1
P
Srv1
1.0P
AS
L
D
+ 245.03kip = :=
Redefine Variables
Substructure Design 3.13 End Bent Foundation Design Loads 331
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
End Bent Pile Vertical Load Design
Reference
Description
The actual design of the end bent piles for the vertical loads has not been performed in this design
example. For a similar design approach, refer to Section 3.08 Pier Pile Vertical Load Design.
Substructure Design 3.14 End Bent Pile Vertical Load Design 332
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
End Bent Backwall Design
Reference
Reference:C:\Users\st986ch\AAAdata\LRFD PS Beam Design Example\313EndBentFoundLoads.xmcd(R)
Description
This section provides the design for the end bent backwall.
Page Contents
334 A. General Criteria
335 B. Back Wall Design
B1. Design Moments
B2. Flexural Design
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
B4. Minimum Reinforcement
B5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
341 C. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 333
A. General Criteria
Resistance Factor for flexure and tension.. 0.9 =
Resistance Factor for shear and torsion....
v
0.9 =
Load factor for horizontal earth (EH)........
p.max
1.5 :=
Load factor for live load surcharge (LS)...
LS
1.75 :=
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 334
B. Back Wall Design
B1. Design Moments
Calculate Design Moments for Backwall per foot of back wall
The moment for the back wall design can be calculated by taking the applied lateral loads at the location of the
resultant passive force and designing the back wall as simply supported between the End Bent and Approach
Slab.
Lateral Earth Force........................... F
earth
k
a
soil
h
BW
2
2
0.23
kip
ft
= :=
Lateral Earth Moment Arm................ y
earth
h
BW
3
1.2ft = :=
Lateral Surcharge Force.................... F
surcharge
p
h
BW
0.51
kip
ft
= :=
Lateral Surcharge Moment Arm......... y
surcharge
h
BW
2
1.8ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 335
Bending Moment Calculation............. P
1
F
earth
:=
P
2
F
surcharge
:=
a y
earth
:=
b y
surcharge
:=
Bending Moment Calculation cont'd.... M
1
p.max
P
1
h
BW
a
( )
LS
P
2
b +
h
BW
a 0.81
kip ft
ft
= :=
M
2
p.max
P
1
a
LS
P
2
h
BW
b
( )
+
h
BW
b 1.01
kip ft
ft
= :=
M
Str1
max M
1
M
2
,
( )
1.01
kip ft
ft
= :=
M
1
P
1
h
BW
a
( )
P
2
b +
h
BW
a 0.49
kip ft
ft
= :=
M
2
P
1
a P
2
h
BW
b
( )
+
h
BW
b 0.6
kip ft
ft
= :=
M
Srv1
max M
1
M
2
,
( )
0.6
kip ft
ft
= :=
Back wall design moments:
Strength.......................................... Mr
BW
M
Str1
L
BW
1.01kip ft = :=
Service........................................... M
BW
M
Srv1
L
BW
0.6kip ft = :=
B2. Flexural Design
Factored resistance M
r
M
n
=
M
r
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85f
c.sub
b

\


.
(
(
=
where M
r
Mr
BW
1.01 kip ft = :=
b L
BW
12in = :=
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 336
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Size of bar.......................... bar "4" :=
Proposed bar spacing........... spacing 12in :=
Bar area.............................. A
bar
0.200 in
2
=
Bar diameter........................ dia 0.500 in =
Area of steel provided per foot of
back wall A
s
0.20 in
2
=
Distance from extreme compressive
fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel....
d
s
t
BW
cover
sub
dia
2
8.75in = :=
Assume f
s
f
y
:= [LRFD 5.7.2.1]
Stress block factor...........................
1
min max 0.85 0.05
f
c.sub
4000psi
1000psi

\


.
0.65 ,
(
(
0.85 ,
(
(
0.78 = :=
Distance between the neutral axis and
compressive force........................... c
A
s
f
s
0.85f
c.sub
1
b
0.28in = :=
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required
Given M
r
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85 f
c.sub
b

\


.
(
(
(
(
=
A
s.reqd
Find A
s
( )
0.03 in
2
= :=
Check assumption that f
s
f
y
= .......... Check_f
s
if
c
d
s
0.6 < "OK" , "Not OK" ,

\


.
"OK" = :=
The area of steel provided, A
s
0.20 in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
0.03 in
2
= .
If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed reinforcing is
adequate for the design moments.
Moment capacity provided..................... M
r.prov
A
s
f
s
d
s
1
2
A
s
f
s
0.85 f
c.sub
b

\


.
(
(
7.78kip ft = :=
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 337
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the
longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.
The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service
limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.
The maximum spacing of the mild steel
reinforcement for control of cracking at
the service limit state shall satisfy......... s
700
e
s
f
ss
2 d
c
s
where
s
1
d
c
0.7 h d
c
( )
+ =
Exposure factor for Class 1 exposure
condition........................................
e
1.00 := [SDG 3.10]
Overall thickness or depth of the
component..............................
t
BW
12in =
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar............................... d
c
cover
sub
dia
2
+ 3.25in = :=
s
1
d
c
0.7 t
BW
d
c
( )
+ 1.53 = :=
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
Guess value x 1.4in :=
Given
1
2
b x
2
E
s
E
c.sub
A
s
d
s
x
( )
=
x
na
Find x ( ) 1.36in = :=
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... T
s
M
BW
d
s
x
na
3
0.87kip = :=
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment....................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s
4.33 ksi = :=
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 338
Required reinforcement spacing........... s
required
700
e
kip
in
s
f
s.actual
2 d
c
99.23 in = :=
Provided reinforcement spacing........... spacing 12in =
The required spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall not be less than the
reinforcement spacing provided due to the service limit state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" s
required
spacing > if
"NG, crack control for M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.4
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" =
B4. Minimum Reinforcement
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.2 times greater than
the cracking moment.
Modulus of Rupture................................ f
r
0.24 f
c.sub
ksi 562.8 psi = :=
Section modulus..................................... S
b t
BW
2
6
288 in
3
= :=
Flexural cracking variability factor............
1
1.6 :=
Ratio of specified minimum yield strength
to ultimate tensile strength of the
reinforcement........................................
3
0.67 :=
Cracking moment................................... M
cr
f
r
S
1
3
14.48 kip ft = :=
Required flexural resistance............. M
r.reqd
min M
cr
133 % M
r
,
( )
1.35kip ft = :=
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.prov
7.8ft kip = , exceeds minimum requirements, M
r.reqd
1.3ft kip = .
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for moment is satisfied" M
r.prov
M
r.reqd
> if
"NG, reinforcement for moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for moment is satisfied" =
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 339
B5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8]
Size of bar "4" "5" "6" "7" ( ) bar
st
bar :=
Shrinkage reinforcement provided............ bar
spa.st
spacing :=
A
bar
0.20 in
2
=
Bar area..........................................
dia 0.500 in =
Bar diameter....................................
Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature
reinforcement...................... A
ST
max
0.11
in
2
ft

\


.
min
0.6
in
2
ft

\


.
1.3h t
BW
kip
inft
2 h t
BW
+
( )
f
y
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0.11
in
2
ft
= :=
Maximum spacing for shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement....................... spacing
ST.reqd
min
A
bar
A
ST
3 t
BW
, 18in ,

\


.
18in = :=
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
LRFD
5.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" bar
spa.st
spacing
ST.reqd
s if
"NG, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 340
C. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
Moment reinforcement (each face)
Bar size............. bar "4" =
Bar spacing....... spacing 12in =
Temperature and Shrinkage
Bar size............. bar
shrink.temp
"4" =
Bar spacing........ bar
spa.st
12in =
Redefine Variables
Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 341