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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Ecuador (disambiguation). E!uador redirects here. For the city in "ra#il, see E!uador, $io %rande do &orte.

Republic of Ecuador Repblica del Ecuador


'oat of arms

Motto: (ios, patria y libertad ()panish) *ro (eo, *atria et +ibertate (+atin)

%od, homeland and freedom Hail, Oh Homeland

Anthem: Salve, Oh Patria ()panish)

,enu -:--



--/01) 23/451W 6 -.57-/) 23.87-/W

Largest city %uaya!uil Official languages )panish95: ;ich<a (.uichua), )huar = others $ecognised are in official use for indigenous regional languages peoples 94: 25,0> ,esti#o 2.?> ,ontubio 2.4> @froecuadorian 2> @merindian Ethnic groups (98:) A.5> White -.4> others Ecuadorian Bnitary presidential constitutional republic $afael 'orrea Jorge %las &ational @ssembly ndependence @ugust 5-, 53-0 ,ay 4?, 5344 ,ay 58, 538February 5A, 538)eptember 43, 4--3 Area 438,74-a km4 (27th) 5-0,?3? s! mi 7 !opulation 57,448,A3-95: (A7th) 5?,?38,?009?: 73.076km4 (575st) 574.A06s! mi 4-54 estimate F578.480 billion97: F5-,-7797: 4-54 estimate F3?.78 billion 9A: (A?th) F7,85-97: ?092: high -.24?93: high # 30th Bnited )tates dollarb (USD) E'E 6 %@+E (BE'G7 6 GA) right H708 E' .ec

Demonym Government C *resident C Dice *resident Legislature C (eclared C from )pain from %ran C 'olombia C $ecogni#ed 'urrent C constitution C Eotal C Water (>) C 4-55 estimate C 4-5- census C (ensity GD! (***) C Eotal C *er capita GD! (nominal) C Eotal C *er capita Gini (4--0) "D (4-55) Currency $ime %one Drives on the Calling code &O '()) code nternet $LD

a. b.

Including %alJpagos. )ucre until 4---, replaced by the B)F and Ecuadorian centavo coins.

Ecuador ( i6k<Kdr6 E-kw-dawr), officially the Republic of Ecuador ()panish: Repblica del Ecuador 9repuLlika Mel ek<aMor:, <hich literally translates as $epublic of the E!uator ) is a representative democratic republic in )outh @merica, bordered by 'olombia on the north, *eru on the east and south, and the *acific Ncean to the <est. Ecuador also includes the %alJpagos Islands in the *acific, about 5,--- kilometres (A4- mi) <est of the mainland. Ehe main spoken language in Ecuador is )panish (0?> of the population). +anguages of official use in native communities include .uichua, )huar, and eleven other languages. Ecuador has a land area of 438,74- km4. Its capital city is .uito, <hich <as declared a World Oeritage )ite by B&E)'N in the 502-s for having the best preserved and least altered historic center in +atin @merica.90: Ehe countryPs largest city is %uaya!uil. Ehe historic center of 'uenca, the thirdClargest city in the country in si#e and economically, 95-: <as also declared a World Oeritage )ite in 5000 as an outstanding eQample of a planned, inland )panishCstyle colonial city in the @mericas.955: Ecuador is home to a great variety of species, many of them endemic, such as those of the %alJpagos Islands. Ehis species diversity makes Ecuador one of the seventeen megadiverse countries in the <orld,954: it is considered the most biodiverse country in the <orld per unit area.958: Ehe ne< constitution of 4--3 is the first in the <orld to recogni#e legally enforceable $ights of &ature, or ecosystem rights.95?: Ecuador is a presidential republic. It became independent in 538- after having been part of the )panish colonial empire and, for a much shorter time, of the republic of %ran 'olombia. It is a mediumCincome country <ith an O(I score of -.24- (4-55).93:


5 Oistory o 5.5 *reCInca era o 5.4 Inca era o 5.8 'oloni#ation o 5.? Independence o 5.7 +iberal $evolution o 5.A +oss of claimed territories since 538 5.A.5 *resident Juan JosR Flores de Jure Eerritorial 'laims for Ecuador 5.A.4 )truggle for Independence 5.A.8 *eruvian occupation of JaRn, Eumbe#, and ;uken 5.A.? Ehe (issolution of %ran 'olombia 5.A.7 )truggle for *ossession of the @ma#on "asin kno<n as ,aynas o 5.2 ,ilitary governments (5024S20) o 5.3 $eturn to democracy 4 %overnment and politics o 4.5 EQecutive branch o 4.4 +egislative branch o 4.8 Judicial branch

4.? Ouman rights 4.7 Electoral branch 4.A Eransparency and social control branch 4.2 Foreign affairs 8 @dministrative divisions o 8.5 $egions and planning areas ? ,ilitary 7 %eography o 7.5 'limate o 7.4 Oydrology o 7.8 "iodiversity A Economy o A.5 Industry o A.4 'urrency 2 Eransport 3 Electrical po<er outlets 0 ,obile (cellular) phone fre!uencies 5- Environment 55 (emographics o 55.5 $eligion o 55.4 &ations o 55.8 *opulation density o 55.? Immigration and emigration 54 'ulture o 54.5 +anguage o 54.4 ,usic o 54.8 'uisine o 54.? +iterature o 54.7 @rt o 54.A )ports 58 Oealth 5? Education 57 )ciences and research 5A )ee also 52 $eferences 53 Further reading 50 EQternal links
o o o o

,ain articles: Oistory of Ecuador and Indigenous peoples of Ecuador

!re, nca era*edit+

Ingapirca ruins northeast of 'aTar canton, 'aTar *rovince "efore the arrival of the Incas, a variety of different families of &ative @merican peoples settled in Ecuador. Ehey had developed different languages, as they emerged as ethnicities in different places. )ome sailed to Ecuador on rafts from 'entral @merica, others came to Ecuador via the @ma#on tributaries, others descended from northern )outh @merica, and others ascended from the southern part of )outh @merica through the @ndes or by sailing on rafts. Eventually these groups developed similar cultures, even though their languages <ere unrelated, because they lived in the same environment. Ehe people of the coast developed a fishing, hunting, and gathering cultureU the people of the highland @ndes developed a sedentary agricultural <ay of lifeU and the people of the @ma#on basin developed a nomadic hunting and gathering <ay of life. Nver time these groups began to interact and intermingle <ith each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, <ith a similar language and culture. ,any civili#ations rose throughout Ecuador, such as the Daldivia 'ulture and ,achalilla 'ulture on the coast, the .uitus (near presentCday .uito), and the 'aTari (near presentCday 'uenca). Each civili#ation developed its o<n distinctive architecture, pottery, and religious interests. In the highland @ndes mountains, <here life <as more sedentary, groups of tribes decided to cooperate and form villagesU thus, the first nations based on agricultural resources and the domestication of animals <ere formed. Eventually, through <ars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations. Nne region <as consolidated under a confederation called the )hyris, <hich eQercised organi#ed trading and bartering bet<een the different regions. Its political and military po<er <as under the rule of the (uchicela blood line.

nca era*edit+

Nne of the main events in the con!uest of the Incan Empire <as the death of @tahualpa, the last )apa Inca on 40 @ugust 5788 When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations <ere so developed that it took the Incas t<o generations of rulers C Eopa Inca Vupan!ui and Ouayna 'apac C to absorb these confederations into the Inca Empire. Ehe native confederations that gave them the most problem <ere deported to far a<ay areas of *eru, "olivia, and north @rgentina. )imilarly, a number of loyal Inca subWects from *eru and "olivia <ere brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Ehus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 5?A8 sharing the same language. In contrast, <hen the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern @ma#on Wungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and natives more hostile. ,oreover, <hen the Incas tried to subdue them, these natives <ithdre< to the interior and resorted to guerrilla tactics. @s a result, Inca eQpansion <as hampered into the @ma#on basin and the *acific coast of Ecuador. Ehe natives of the @ma#on Wungle and coastal Ecuador remained relatively autonomous until the )panish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. Ehe @ma#onian natives and the 'ayapas of 'oastal Ecuador <ere the only groups to resist Inca and )panish domination, maintaining their language and culture <ell into the 45st century. "efore the arrival of the )paniards, the Inca Empire <as involved in a civil <ar. Ehe untimely death of both the heir &inan 'uchi and the Emperor Ouayna 'apac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a po<er vacuum bet<een t<o factions. Ehe northern faction headed by @tahualpa claims that Ouayna 'apac gave a verbal decree before his death about ho< the empire should be divided. Oe gave the territories pertaining to presentCday Ecuador and northern *eru to his favorite son @tahualpa, <ho <as to rule from .uitoU and he gave the rest to OuJscar, <ho <as to rule from 'u#co. Oe <illed that his heart be buried in .uito, his favourite city, and the rest of his body be buried <ith his ancestors in 'u#co. OuJscar did not recogni#e his fatherPs <ill, since it did not follo< Inca traditions of naming an Inca through the priests. OuJscar ordered @tahualpa to attend their fatherPs burial in 'u#co and pay homage to him as the ne< Inca ruler. @tahualpa, <ith a large number of his fatherPs veteran soldiers, decided to ignore OuJscar, and a civil <ar ensued. @ number of bloody battles took place until finally OuJscar <as captured. @tahualpa marched south to 'u#co and massacred the royal family associated <ith his brother. @ small band of )paniards headed by Francisco *i#arro landed in Eumbe# and marched over the @ndes ,ountains until they reached 'aWamarca, <here the ne< Inca @tahualpa <as to hold an intervie< <ith them. Dalverde, the priest, tried to convince @tahualpa that he should Woin the 'atholic 'hurch and declare himself a vassal of )pain. Ehis infuriated @tahualpa so much that he thre< the "ible to the ground. @t this point the enraged )paniards, <ith orders from Dalverde, attacked and massacred unarmed escorts of the Inca and captured @tahualpa. *i#arro promised to release @tahualpa if he made good his promise of filling a room full of gold. "ut, after a mock trial, the )paniards eQecuted @tahualpa by strangulation.


)panish Oistorical 'enter in .uito

)hip<rights from Francisco de NrellanaPs eQpedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro. &e< infectious diseases, endemic to the Europeans, caused high fatalities among the indigenous population during the first decades of )panish rule, as they had no immunity. Ehis <as a time <hen the natives <ere also forced into the encomienda labor system for the )panish. In 57A8, .uito became the seat of a real audiencia (administrative district) of )pain and part of the Diceroyalty of *eru and later the Diceroyalty of &e< %ranada. @fter nearly 8-- years of )panish coloni#ation, .uito <as still a small city numbering 5-,--inhabitants. Nn @ugust 5-, 53-0, the cityPs criollos first called for independence from )pain (among the peoples of +atin @merica). Ehey <ere led by Juan *Xo ,ontYfar, .uiroga, )alinas, and "ishop 'uero y 'aicedo. .uitoPs nickname, Lu de !m"rica ( +ight of @merica ), is based on its leading role in trying to secure an independent and local government. @lthough the ne< government lasted no more than t<o months, it had important repercussions and <as an inspiration for the independence movement of the rest of )panish @merica.


Ehe )tates of Ecuador, 'undinamarca, and Dene#uela formed Ehe $epublic of %reat 'olombia.

@ntonio JosR de )ucre ,ain article: Ecuadorian War of Independence Nn Nctober 0, 534-, %uaya!uil became the first city in Ecuador to gain its independence from )pain. Nn ,ay 4?, 5344, the rest of Ecuador gained its independence after @ntonio JosR de )ucre defeated the )panish $oyalist forces at the "attle of *ichincha, near .uito. Follo<ing the battle, Ecuador Woined )imZn "olXvarPs $epublic of %ran 'olombia S Woining <ith modernCday 'olombia and Dene#uela. In 538- it separated from those nations and became an independent republic. Ehe 50th century for Ecuador <as marked by instability, <ith a rapid succession of rulers. Ehe first president of Ecuador <as the Dene#uelanCborn Juan JosR Flores, <ho <as ultimately deposed, follo<ed by several authoritarian leaders, such as Dicente $ocafuerteU JosR Joa!uXn de NlmedoU JosR ,arXa BrbinaU (iego &oboaU *edro JosR de @rtetaU ,anuel de @scJsubiU and FloresPs o<n son, @ntonio Flores JiWZn, among others. Ehe conservative %abriel %arcia ,oreno unified the country in the 53A-s <ith the support of the $oman 'atholic 'hurch. In the late 50th century, <orld demand for cocoa tied the economy to commodity eQports and led to migrations from the highlands to the agricultural frontier on the coast. Ecuador abolished slavery and freed its black slaves in 5375.957:

Liberal Revolution*edit+

@nti!ue dug out canoes in the courtyard of the Nld ,ilitary Oospital in the Oistoric 'enter of .uito ,ain article: +iberal $evolution of 5307

Ehe +iberal $evolution of 5307 under Eloy @lfaro reduced the po<er of the clergy and the conservative land o<ners. Ehis liberal <ing retained po<er until the military Julian $evolution of 5047. Ehe 508-s and 50?-s <ere marked by instability and emergence of populist politicians, such as fiveCtime *resident JosR ,arXa Delasco Ibarra.

Loss of claimed territories since (-'.*edit+

,ain article: Oistory of the EcuadorianS*eruvian territorial dispute *sho/+

$he Ecuadorian0!eruvian territorial dispute

*residencia of .uito in 52?- in Vello<, according to *resident Juan JosR FloresP territorial claims for Ecuador !resident 1uan 1os2 3lores de 1ure $erritorial Claims for Ecuador*edit+ )ince EcuadorPs separation from 'olombia in ,ay 58, 538-, its first *resident, %eneral Juan JosR de Flores, laid claim to the territory that <as called the $eal @udiencia of .uito, also referred to as the *residencia of .uito. Oe supported his claims <ith )panish $oyal decrees or Real #edulas, that delineated the borders of its former overseas colonies. In the case of Ecuador, Flores based EcuadorPs de $ure claims on the follo<ing cedulas C $eal 'edula of 57A8, 5280, and 52?-U as <ell as the Ereaty of %uaya!uil (5340) <ith *eru, and the Ereaty of Ildefonso (5222) bet<een the )panish Empire and the *ortuguese Empire. +ater after a defeat in a <ar against &e< %ranada (modern 'olombia), Flores <as forced to sign the Ereaty of *asto signed in 5384U he had to reduce his claims to amounted to the 'archi river in the @ndes ,ountains, all the @ma#onian "asin lands bet<een the 'a!ueta and the ,araTonC@ma#on rivers. Nn the *eruvian border area to the south, Ecuador had de $ure claims to a small piece of land beside the *acific Ncean kno<n as Eumbe#, <hich lay bet<een the [arumilla and Eumbe# rivers, <hich *eru had occupied since 5345 and the Wars of Independence. In an area south of ,odern Ecuador and &orthern *eru, around the @ndes ,ountain range <here the ,araTon cuts across, Ecuador had de $ure claims to an area it called JaRn de "racamoros, <hich *eru had occupied since 5345. East of the @ndes ,ountain $ange, Ecuador laid claims to a piece of the @ma#on "asin that stretched to "ra#il, bet<een the 'a!uetJ and the ,aranonC@ma#on rivers, historically kno<n as ,aynas or ,ainas.

"ut, *eru has contested EcuadorPs claims <ith the Real #edula of 53-4, by <hich *eru claims the ;ing of )pain had transferred these lands from the Diceroyalty of &e< %ranada to the Diceroyalty of *eru. Ehis <as to halt the everCeQpanding *ortuguese settlements into )panish domains, <hich <ere left vacant and in disorder after the eQpulsion of Jesuit missionaries from their bases along the @ma#on "asin. Finally, *eru had also laid claims to the (epartment of %uaya!uil, since it <as allegedly transferred to the Diceroyalty of *eru according to the $eal 'edula of 53-8. Ecuador during its long and turbulent history had lost most of its contested territories to each of its more po<erful neighbors, such as 'olombia in 5384 and 505A, "ra#il in 50-? through a series of peaceful treaties, and *eru after a short <ar in <hich the *rotocol of $io de Janeiro <as signed in 50?4. &truggle for ndependence*edit+ (uring the struggle for independence, before *eru or Ecuador became independent nations, a fe< areas of the former Dice $oyalty of &e< %ranada C %uaya!uil, Eumbe#, and JaRn C declared themselves independent from )pain. @ fe< months later, a part of the *eruvian liberation army of )an ,artin decided to occupy Eumbe# and JaRn <ith the intention of using these to<ns as springboards to liberate %uaya!uil and the rest of the @udiencia de .uito (Ecuador). It <as common kno<ledge among the top officers of the liberation army from the south that their leader )an ,artin <ished to liberate presentCday Ecuador and add it to the future republic of *eru, since it had been part of the Inca Empire before the )paniards con!uered it. "ut, "olXvarPs intention <as to form a ne< republic kno<n as the %ran 'olombia, out of the liberated )panish territory of &e< %ranada <hich consisted of 'olombia, Dene#uela, and Ecuador. )an ,artinPs plans <ere th<arted <hen "olXvar, <ith the help of ,arshal @ntonio JosR de )ucre and the %ran 'olombian liberation force, descended upon the @ndes mountains and occupied %uaya!uilU they also anneQed the ne<ly liberated @udiencia de .uito to the $epublic of %ran 'olombia. Ehis happened a fe< days before )an ,artinPs *eruvian forces could arrive and occupy %uaya!uil, <ith the intention of anneQing %uaya!uil to the rest of @udiencia of .uito (Ecuador) and to the future republic of *eru. Oistoric documents repeatedly stated that )an ,artin told "olivar he came to %uaya!uil to liberate the land of the Incas from )pain. "olivar countered by sending a message from %uaya!uil <elcoming )an ,artin and his troops to 'olombian soil. !eruvian occupation of 1a2n4 $umbe%4 and 5u6en*edit+ @fter the last )panish royalist troops <ere defeated in *eru by the liberation armies of "olivar, some *eruvian generals, <ithout any legal titles backing them up, began occupying Eumbe#, JaRn, and %uaya!uil in the early 534-s. Ecuador <as still federated <ith the %ran 'olombia. Ehe intention of these *eruvian %enerals <as to anneQ Ecuador to the $epublic of *eru at the eQpense of the %ran 'olombia. Nne of these *eruvian %enerals <as the Ecuadorian born JosR de +a ,ar, <ho became one of *eruPs presidents. +a ,ar, <ith a *eruvian force, invaded and occupied a fe< cities in southern Ecuador on &ovember 43, 5343. Ehe "attle of Ear!ui on February 42, 5340 <as <on by %ran 'olombia, lead by @ntonio JosR de )ucre. @ccording to the peace negotiations *eru agreed to return %uaya!uil, Eumbe#, and JaRn and set the border in the eastern @ma#on basin as the ,araTon and @ma#on rivers as the most natural border bet<een *eru and the %ran 'olombia. Oo<ever, *eru returned %uaya!uil, but failed to return Eumbe# and JaRn after the %ran 'olombia divided itself into three different nations S Ecuador, 'olombia, and Dene#uela.

$he Dissolution of Gran Colombia*edit+

Ehe %ran 'olombia sho<ing all 'olombian +and 'laims outlined in red

Ecuador in 538@fter EcuadorsP separation from the %ran 'olombian federation of 'olombia, Dene#uela, and Ecuador in ,ay 58, 538-, the (epartment of 'auca voluntarily decided to unite itself <ith Ecuador due to instability in the central government of "ogota. *resident Juan JosR Flores <ith the approval of the Ecuadorian congress anneQed the (epartment of 'auca on (ecember 4-, 538-, since the government of 'auca had called for union <ith the (istrict of the )outh as far back as @pril 538-. ,oreover, the 'auca region throughout its long history had very strong economic and cultural ties <ith the people of Ecuador. @lso, the 'auca region <hich included such cities as *asto, *opayan and "uenaventura had al<ays been dependent on the *residencia or @udiencia of .uito. Fruitless negotiations continued bet<een the governments of "ogota and .uito, <here the government of "ogota didnPt recogni#e the separation of Ecuador or that of 'auca from the %ran 'olombia until <ar broke out in ,ay 5384. In five months, &e< %ranada defeated Ecuador due to the fact that the maWority of the Ecuadorian @rmed Forces <ere composed of rebellious angry unpaid veterans from Dene#uela and 'olombia that did not <ant to fight against their fello< countrymen. )eeing that his officerPs <ere rebelling, mutinying, and changing sides, *resident Flores had no option but to reluctantly make peace <ith &e< %ranada. Ehe Ereaty of *asto of 5384 <as signed by <hich the (epartment of 'auca <as turned over to &e< %ranada (modern 'olombia), the government of "ogota recogni#ed Ecuador as an independent country and the border <as to follo< the +ey de (ivisiZn Eerritorial de la $epYblica de 'olombia (+a< of the (ivision of Eerritory of the %ran 'olombia) passed on June 47, 534?. Ehis la< set the border at the river 'archi and the eastern border that stretched to "ra#il at the 'a!uetJ river. +ater Ecuador contends that the $epublic of 'olombia, <hile reorgani#ing its government unla<fullly made its eastern border provisional and that 'olombia eQtended its claims south to the &apo $iver because it says that the %overnment of *opayan eQtended its control all the <ay to the &apo $iver.

&truggle for !ossession of the Ama%on 7asin 6no/n as Maynas*edit+

)outh @merica (5320): @ll land claims by *eru, Ecuador, 'olombia, "ra#il, 'hile, and "olivia in 5320 *eru began its de facto occupation of disputed @ma#onian territories, after it signed a secret 5375 peace treaty in favor of "ra#il. Ehis treaty disregarded )panish rights that <ere confirmed during colonial times by a )panishC*ortuguese treaty over the @ma#on regarding territories held by illegal *ortuguese settlers. (uring its negotiations <ith "ra#il, *eru stated that based on the royal cedula of 53-4, it claimed @ma#onian "asin territories up to 'a!ueta $iver in the north and to<ard the @ndes ,ountain range, depriving Ecuador and 'olombia of all their claims to the @ma#on "asin. 'olombia protested stating that its claims eQtended south to<ard the &apo and @ma#on $ivers. Ecuador protested that it claimed the @ma#on "asin bet<een the 'a!ueta river and the ,araTonC@ma#on river. *eru ignored these protests and created the (epartment of +oreto in 5378 <ith its capital in I!uitos <hich it had recently invaded and systematically began to occupy using the river systems in all the territories claimed by both 'olombia and Ecuador. *eru briefly occupied %uaya!uil again in 53A-, since *eru thought that Ecuador <as selling some of the disputed land for development to "ritish bond holders, but returned %uaya!uil after a fe< months. Ehe border dispute <as then submitted to )pain for arbitration from 533- to 505-, but to no avail. In the early part of the 4-th century Ecuador made an effort to peacefully define its eastern @ma#onian borders <ith its neighbors through negotiation. Nn ,ay A, 50-?, Ecuador signed the Eobar C $io "ranco Ereaty recogni#ing "ra#ils claims to the @ma#on in recognition of EcuadorPs claim to be an @ma#onian country to counter *eruPs earlier Ereaty <ith "ra#il back in Nctober 48, 5375. Ehen after a fe< meetings <ith the 'olombian governmentPs representatives an agreement <as reached and the ,uTo# Derna#aC)uare# Ereaty <as signed July 57, 505A, in <hich 'olombian rights to the *utumayo river <ere recogni#ed as <ell as EcuadorPs rights to the &apo river and the ne< border <as a line that ran midpoint bet<een those to rivers. In this <ay Ecuador gave up the claims it had to the @ma#onian territories

bet<een the 'a!uetJ $iver and &apo $iver to 'olombia, thus cutting itself off from "ra#il. +ater a brief <ar erupted bet<een 'olombia and *eru, over *eruPs claims to the 'a!uetJ region, <hich ended <ith the *eru reluctantly signing the )alomonC+o#ano Ereaty on ,arch 4?, 5044. Ecuador protested this secret treaty, since 'olombia gave a<ay Ecuadorian claimed land to *eru that Ecuador had given to 'olombia in 505A. In July 45, 504? the *onceC'astro Nyanguren *rotocol <as signed bet<een Ecuador and *eru <here both agreed to hold direct negotiations and to resolve the dispute in an e!uitable manner and to submit the differing points of the dispute to the Bnited )tates for arbitration. &egotiations bet<een the Ecuadorian and *eruvian representatives began in Washington on )eptember 8-, 5087. Ehese negotiations <ere long and tiresome. "oth sides logically presented their cases, but no one seemed to give up their claims. Ehen on February A, 5082, Ecuador presented a transactional line <hich *eru reWected the neQt day. Ehe negotiations turned into intense arguments during the neQt 2 months and finally on )eptember 40, 5082 the *eruvian representatives decided to break off the negotiations <ithout submitting the dispute to arbitration because the direct negotiations <ere going no<here. Four years later in 50?5, amid fastCgro<ing tensions <ithin disputed territories around the [arumilla $iver, <ar broke out <ith *eru. *eru claimed that EcuadorPs military presence in *eruvianCclaimed territory <as an invasionU Ecuador, for its part, claimed that *eru had recently invaded Ecuador around the [arumilla $iver and that *eru since EcuadorPs independence from )pain has systematically occupied Eumbe#, Jaen, and most of the disputed territories in the @ma#onian "asin bet<een the *utomayo and ,araTon $ivers. In July 50?5, troops <ere mobili#ed in both countries. *eru had an army of 55,A35 troops <ho faced a poorly supplied and inade!uately armed Ecuadorian force of 4,8--, of <hich only 5,8-- <ere deployed in the southern provinces. Oostilities erupted on July 7, 50?5, <hen *eruvian forces crossed the [arumilla river at several locations, testing the strength and resolve of the Ecuadorian border troops. Finally, on July 48, 50?5, the *eruvians launched a maWor invasion, crossing the [arumilla river in force and advancing into the Ecuadorian province of El Nro.

,ap of Ecuadorian +and 'laims after 505A (uring the course of the EcuadorianS*eruvian War, *eru gained control over part of the disputed territory and some parts of the province of El Nro, and some parts of the province of +oWa, demanding that the Ecuadorian government give up its territorial claims. Ehe *eruvian &avy blocked the port of %uaya!uil, almost cutting all supplies to the Ecuadorian troops. @fter a fe< <eeks of <ar and under pressure by the Bnited )tates and several +atin @merican nations, all fighting came to a stop. Ecuador and *eru came to an accord formali#ed in the $io *rotocol, signed on January 40, 50?4, in favor of hemispheric unity against the @Qis *o<ers in World War II favoring *eru <ith the territory they occupied at the time the <ar came to an end.

Ehe 50?? %lorious ,ay $evolution follo<ed a militaryCcivilian rebellion and a subse!uent civic strike <hich successfully removed 'arlos @rroyo del $Xo as a dictator from EcuadorPs government. Oo<ever a postC)econd World War recession and popular unrest led to a return to populist politics and domestic military interventions in the 50A-s, <hile foreign companies developed oil resources in the Ecuadorian @ma#on. In 5024, construction of the @ndean pipeline <as completed. Ehe pipeline brought oil from the east side of the @ndes to the coast, making Ecuador )outh @mericaPs second largest oil eQporter. Ehe pipeline in southern Ecuador did nothing to resolve tensions bet<een Ecuador and *eru, ho<ever.

Ecuadorian troops during the 'enepa War

Ehe ,irage F.5J@ (F@EC3-A) <as one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting do<n of t<o *eruvian )ukhoi )uC44 on February 5-, 5007. Ehe $io *rotocol failed to precisely resolve the border along a little river in the remote #ordillera del #%ndor region in southern Ecuador. Ehis caused a longCsimmering dispute bet<een Ecuador and *eru, <hich ultimately led to fighting bet<een the t<o countriesU first a border skirmish in JanuarySFebruary 5035 kno<n as the *a!uisha Incident, and ultimately fullCscale <arfare in January 5007 <here the Ecuadorian military shot do<n *eruvian aircraft and helicopters and *eruvian infantry marched into southern Ecuador. Each country blamed the other for the onset of hostilities, kno<n as the 'enepa War. )iQto (urJn "allRn, the Ecuadorian president, famously declared that he <ould not give up a single centimeter of Ecuador. *opular sentiment in Ecuador became strongly nationalistic against *eru: graffiti could be seen on the <alls of .uito referring to *eru as the #ain de Latinoam"rica , a reference to the murder of @bel by his brother 'ain in the "ook of %enesis.95A: Ecuador and *eru signed the "rasilia *residential @ct peace agreement on Nctober 4A, 5003, <hich ended hostilities, and effectively put an end to the Western OemispherePs longest running territorial dispute.952: Ehe %uarantors of the $io *rotocol (@rgentina, "ra#il, 'hile, and the Bnited )tates of @merica) ruled that the border of the undelineated #one <as to be set at the line of the #ordillera del #%ndor. While Ecuador had to give up its decadesCold territorial claims to the eastern slopes of the 'ordillera, as <ell as to the entire <estern area of 'enepa head<aters, *eru <as compelled to give to Ecuador, in perpetual lease but <ithout sovereignty, one s!uare kilometre of its territory, in the area <here the Ecuadorian base of Ei<in#a S focal point of the <ar S had been located <ithin *eruvian soil and <hich the Ecuadorian @rmy held during the conflict. Ehe final border demarcation came into effect on ,ay 58, 5000 and the multiCnational ,N,E* (,ilitary Nbserver ,ission for Ecuador and *eru) troop deployment <ithdre< on 52 June 5000.952:

Military governments 8(9:;0:9<*edit+

In 5024, a revolutionary and nationalist military Wunta overthre< the government of Delasco Ibarra. Ehe coup dPRtat <as led by %eneral %uillermo $odrXgue# and eQecuted by navy commander Jorge .ueirolo %. Ehe ne< president eQiled JosR ,arXa Delasco to @rgentina. Oe remained in po<er until 502A, <hen he <as removed by another military government. Ehat military Wunta <as led by @dmiral @lfredo *oveda, <ho <as declared chairman of the )upreme 'ouncil. Ehe )upreme 'ouncil included t<o other members:%eneral %uillermo (urJn @rcentales and %eneral +uis +eoro Franco. Ehe civil society more and more insistently called for democratic elections. 'olonel $ichelieu +evoyer, %overnment ,inister, proposed and implemented a *lan to return to the constitutional system through universal elections. Ehis *lan enabled the ne< democratically elected president to assume the duties of the eQecutive office.

Return to democracy*edit+
Elections <ere held on @pril 40, 5020, under a ne< constitution. Jaime $oldZs @guilera <as elected president, garnering over one million votes, the most in Ecuadorian history. Oe took office on @ugust 5-, as the first constitutionally elected president after nearly a decade of civilian and military dictatorships. In 503-, he founded the Partido Pueblo, #ambio & 'emocracia (*eople, 'hange, and (emocracy *arty) after <ithdra<ing from the #oncentraci%n de (uer as Populares (*opular Forces 'oncentration) and governed until ,ay 4?, 5035, <hen he died along <ith his <ife and the minister of defense, ,arco )ubia ,artine#, <hen his @ir Force plane crashed in heavy rain near the *eruvian border. ,any people believe that he <as assassinated,9citation needed: given the multiple death threats leveled against him because of his reformist agenda, deaths in automobile crashes of t<o key <itnesses before they could testify during the investigation, and the sometimes contradictory accounts of the incident. $oldos <as immediately succeeded by Dice *resident Nsvaldo Ourtado, <ho <as follo<ed in 503? by +eZn Febres 'ordero from the )ocial 'hristian *arty. $odrigo "orWa 'evallos of the (emocratic +eft (I#!uierda (emocrJtica, or I() party <on the presidency in 5033, running in the runoff election against @bdalJ "ucaram (brother in la< of Jaime $oldos and founder of the Ecuadorian $oldosist *arty). Ois government <as committed to improving human rights protection and carried out some reforms, notably an opening of Ecuador to foreign trade. Ehe "orWa government concluded an accord leading to the disbanding of the small terrorist group, \@lfaro Dive, 'araWo] ( @lfaro +ives, (ammit] ), named after Eloy @lfaro. Oo<ever, continuing economic problems undermined the popularity of the I(, and opposition parties gained control of 'ongress in 5000. Ehe emergence of the indigenous population (approQimately 47>) as an active constituency has added to the democratic volatility of the country in recent years. Ehe population has been motivated by government failures to deliver on promises of land reform, lo<er unemployment and provision of social services, and historical eQploitation by the landCholding elite. Eheir movement, along <ith the continuing destabili#ing efforts by both the elite and leftist movements, has led to a deterioration of the eQecutive office. Ehe populace and the other branches of government give the president very little political capital, as illustrated by the most recent removal of *resident +ucio %utiRrre# from office by 'ongress in @pril 4--7. Dice *resident @lfredo *alacio took his place and remained in office until the presidential election of 4--A, in <hich $afael 'orrea gained the presidency.953:

Nn )eptember 8-, 4-5-, in a police revolt, several police officers <ere killed after a military intervention in a police hospital. *resident $afael 'orrea alleged that he <as taken hostage in the hospital by police officers as part of a series of protests against cuts to the benefits of public service <orkers that <ere part of a financial austerity package. What angered police and elements of the army <as a la< to end the practice of giving medals and bonuses <ith each promotion. It <ould also eQtend from five to seven years the usual period re!uired for promotions. Ehe government called the revolt a coup and declared a oneC<eek state of emergency that put the military in charge of public order and suspended civil liberties. *eru shut its border <ith Ecuador.953:

Government and politics*edit+

,ain article: *olitics of Ecuador

Ehe current *resident $afael 'orrea assumed office on January 57, 4--2 Ehe current state of Ecuador consists of five state functions: the E)ecutive (unction, the Le*islative (unction, the +udicial (unction, the Electoral (unction and the ,ransparenc& and Social #ontrolEcuador is governed by a democratically elected *resident, for a fourCyear term. Ehe current president of Ecuador, $afael 'orrea, eQercises his po<er from the presidential *alacio de 'arondelet in .uito. Ehe current constitution <as <ritten by the Ecuadorian 'onstituent @ssembly elected in 4--2, and <as approved by referendum in 4--3. )ince 508A, voting is compulsory for all literate persons aged 53SA7, optional for all other citi#ens.950: Ehe eQecutive branch includes 47 ministries. *rovincial governors and councilors (mayors, aldermen, and parish boards) are directly elected. Ehe &ational @ssembly of Ecuador meets throughout the year eQcept for recesses in July and (ecember. Ehere are thirteen permanent committees. ,embers of the &ational 'ourt of Justice are appointed by the &ational Judicial 'ouncil for nineCyear terms.

E=ecutive branch*edit+
,ain article: +ist of heads of state of Ecuador

*alacio de 'arondelet, the eQecutive branch of the Ecuadorian %overnment Ehe EQecutive Function is delegated to the *resident, currently eQercised by $afael 'orrea. It is accompanied by his vice president, currently Jorge %las, elected for four years (<ith the ability to be reCelected only once). @s Oead of )tate and Oead of %overnment, he is responsible for public administration including the appointing of &ational 'oordinators, ,inisters, ,inisters of )tate and *ublic )ervants. Ehe eQecutive branch defines foreign policy, appoints the 'hancellor of the $epublic, as <ell as @mbassadors and 'onsuls, being the ultimate authority over the @rmed Forces of Ecuador, &ational *olice of Ecuador, and appointing authorities. Ehe acting presidentPs <ife receives the title of First +ady of Ecuador.

Legislative branch*edit+
,ain article: &ational @ssembly (Ecuador)

Ehe &ational @ssembly (Ecuador) branch of the Ecuadorian %overnment Ehe legislative function is eQercised by the &ational @ssembly, <hich is head!uartered in the city of .uito in the +egislative *alace, and consists of 58- @ssemblymen, divided into ten committees, elected for a fourCyear period. Fifteen national constituency elected assembly, t<o @ssembly members elected from each province and one for every hundred thousand inhabitants or fraction eQceeding one hundred fifty thousand, according to the latest national census of population. In addition, the la< <ill determine the election of assembly of regions, and metropolitan districts.

1udicial branch*edit+

Ehe Wudicial branch of the Ecuadorian %overnment Ehe Wudiciary system of the country is made by the Judicial 'ouncil as its main body, and the &ational 'ourt of Justice, *rovincial 'ourts, and tribunes. +egal representation is made by the Judicial 'ouncil. Ehe &ational 'ourt of Justice is composed of 45 Wudges elected for a term of nine years. Judges are rene<ed by thirds every three years, as stipulated in the Nrganic 'ode of the Judiciary )ystem. Ehese are elected by the Judicial 'ouncil pursuant to opposition proceedings and merits. @s independent organisms of the Wudiciary system are the @ttorney %eneral and the *ublic (efender. @uQiliary organi#ations are as follo<s: the notarial service, the Wudicial auctioneer, and the receivers. @lso there is a special regime of indigenous Wustice.

"uman rights*edit+
B&^s Ouman $ights 'ouncil^s (O$') Bniversal *eriodic $evie< (B*$) has treated the restrictions on freedom of eQpression and efforts to control &%Ns and recommended that Ecuador should stop the criminal sanctions for the eQpression of opinions, and delay in implementing Wudicial reforms. Ecuador reWected the recommendation on decriminali#ation of libel.94-: While O$W has critici#ed the current government, criticism of the &%N has mounted,945: citing the close political agenda it maintains <ith Bnited )tates Foreign *olicy in +atin @merica.944: @ccording to Ouman $ights Watch (O$W) *resident 'orrea has intimidated Wournalists and subWected them to public denunciation and retaliatory litigation . Ehe sentences to Wournalists have been years of imprisonment and millions of dollars of compensation, even though defendants have been pardoned.94-: 'orrea has stated he <as only seeking a retraction for slanderous statements.948: @ccording to O$W, 'orreaPs government has <eakened the freedom of press and independence of the Wudicial system. In EcuadorPs current Wudicial system, Wudges are selected in a contest of merits, rather than government appointments. Oo<ever, the process of selection has been critici#ed as biased and subWective. In particular, the final intervie< is said to be given eQcessive <eighing. Judges and prosecutors that have made decisions in favor of 'orrea in his la<suits have received permanent posts, <hile others <ith better assessment grades have been reWected.94-:94?: Ehe la<s also forbid articles and media messages that could favor or disfavor some political message or candidate. In the first half of 4-54, t<enty private ED or radio stations <ere closed do<n.94-: In July 4-54 the officials <arned the Wudges that they <ould be sanctioned and possibly dismissed if they allo<ed the citi#ens to appeal to the protection of their constitutional rights against the state.94-: *eople engaging in public protests against environmental and other issues are prosecuted for terrorism and sabotage , <hich may lead to an eightCyear prison sentence.94-:

Electoral branch*edit+

Ehe Electoral system functions by authorities <hich enter only every four years or <hen elections or referendums occur. Its main functions are to organi#e, control elections, and punish the infringement of electoral rules. Its main body is the &ational Electoral 'ouncil, <hich is based in the city of .uito, and consists of seven members of the political parties most voted, enWoying complete financial and administrative autonomy. Ehis body neQt to Electoral Eribunal, forms the Electoral (unction <hich is one of the five branches of government Ecuador.

$ransparency and social control branch*edit+

Ehe Eransparency and )ocial 'ontrol consists of the 'ouncil of 'iti#en *articipation and )ocial 'ontrol, an ombudsman, the %eneral 'omptroller of the )tate, and the superintendents. Its authorities shall eQercise their posts for five years. Ehis po<er is responsible for promoting transparency and control plans publicly, as <ell as plans to design mechanisms to combat corruption, as also designate certain authorities, and be the regulatory mechanism of accountability in the country.

3oreign affairs*edit+
,ain article: Foreign relations of Ecuador

Ecuadorian passport EcuadorPs principal foreign policy obWectives have traditionally included defense of its territory from eQternal aggression and support for the obWectives of the Bnited &ations and the N@). EcuadorPs membership in the N*E' in the 502-s and 503-s allo<ed Ecuadorian leaders to eQercise some<hat greater foreign policy autonomy. In @ntarctica, Ecuador has maintained a peaceful research station for scientific study as a member nation of the @ntarctica Ereaty. Ecuador has often placed great emphasis on multilateral approaches to international issues. Ecuador is a member of the Bnited &ations (and most of its speciali#ed agencies) and a member of many regional groups, including the $io %roup, the +atin @merican Economic )ystem, the +atin @merican Energy Nrgani#ation, the +atin @merican Integration @ssociation, the "olivarian @lliance for the *eoples of Nur @merica, the @ndean 'ommunity of &ations, the Bnion of )outh @merican &ations (B&@)B$), and Ehe "ank of the )outh ()panish: "anco del )ur or "anco)ur).

Administrative divisions*edit+

,ain articles: *rovinces of Ecuador and 'antons of Ecuador Ecuador is divided into 4? provinces ()panish: provincias), each <ith its o<n administrative capital:

,ap of Ecuador

Administrative divisions of Ecuador

5 4 8 ? 7 A 2 3 0 555 54 58 5? 57 5A 52 53 50 445 44 48 4? &urface 86m>< @#uay 3,A80 "olivar 8,47? 'aTar 8,0-3 'archi 8,A00 'himbora#o 7,432 'otopaQi A,7A0 El Nro 7,033 Esmeraldas 57,45A %alJpagos 3,-5%uayas 52,580 Imbabura ?,700 +oWa 55,-42 +os $Xos A,47? ,anabX 53,?-,oronaC)antiago 47,A0&apo 58,425 Nrellana 4-,228 *asta#a 40,74*ichincha 0,?0? )anta Elena 8,2A8 )anto (omingo de los EsJchilas 8,372 )ucumbXos 53,A54 Eungurahua 8,88? [amoraC'hinchipe 5-,77A !rovince !opulation Capital 8;.(.<*;?+ 2-4,308 'uenca 534,2?? %uaranda 448,?A8 @#ogues 5A7,A70 EulcJn ?74,874 $iobamba ?-A,203 +atacunga 733,7?A ,achala 74-,255 Esmeraldas 44,22*uerto "a!ueri#o ,oreno 8,728,--8 %uaya!uil ?--,870 Ibarra ??A,2?8 +oWa 2A7,42? "abahoyo 5,8?7,220 *ortovieWo 5?2,33A ,acas 5-?,-?2 Eena 582,3?3 *uerto Francisco de Nrellana 3?,840 *uyo 4,72-,4-5 .uito 8-5,5A3 )anta Elena 8A7,0A7 )anto (omingo 52?,744 &ueva +oWa 7--,227 @mbato 05,450 [amora

Ehe provinces are divided into cantons and further subdivided into parishes (parro.uias).

Regions and planning areas*edit+

$egionali#ation, or #oning, is the union of t<o or more adWoining provinces in order to decentrali#e the administrative functions of the capital .uito. In Ecuador there are seven regions or #ones, each shaped by the follo<ing provinces:

$egion 5 (?4,54A km_, or 5A,4A7 mi4): Esmeraldas, 'archi, Imbabura, and )ucumbios. @dministrative city: Ibarra $egion 4 (?8,?03 km_, or 5A,207 mi4): *ichincha, &apo, and Nrellana. @dministrative city: Eena $egion 8 (??,25- km_, or 52,4A8 mi4): 'himbora#o, Eungurahua, *asta#a, and 'otopaQi. @dministrative city: $iobamba $egion ? (44,472 km_, or 3,70? mi4): ,anabX and )anto (omingo de los Esachilas. @dministrative city: 'iudad @lfaro $egion 7 (83,?4- km_, or 5?,38? mi4): )anta Elena, %uayas, +os $Xos, %alJpagos, and "olXvar. @dministrative city: ,ilagro $egion A (83,482 km_, or 5?,2A8 mi4): 'aTar, @#uay, and ,orona )antiago. @dministrative city: 'uenca $egion 2 (42,725 km_, or 5-,A?7 mi4): El Nro, +oWa, and [amora 'hinchipe. @dministrative city: +oWa

.uito and %uaya!uil are ,etropolitan (istricts. %alJpagos, despite being included <ithin $egion ?, is also under a special unit.94A:

,ain article: ,ilitary of Ecuador

@ *uma helicopter from the @rmyPs @viation "ranch

Ecuadorian @ir Force (F@E)

"@E )hyri ())C5-5) from the Ecuadorian &avy. Ehe Ecuadorian @rmed Forces (Fuer#as @rmadas del Ecuador), consists of the @rmy, @ir Force, and &avy and have the stated responsibility for the preservation of the integrity and national sovereignty of the national territory. Ehe military tradition starts in %ran 'olombia, <here a si#able army <as stationed in Ecuador due to border disputes <ith *eru, <hich claimed territories under its political control <hen it <as a )panish vicerroyalty. Nnce %ran 'olombia <as dissolved after the death of )imZn "olXvar in 538-, Ecuador inherited the same border disputes and had the need of creating its o<n professional military force. )o influential <as the military in Ecuador in the early republican period that its first decade <as under the control of %eneral Juan Jose Flores, first president of Ecuador of Dene#uelan origin. %eneral Jose ,a. Brbina and %eneral $obles are eQamples of military figures <ho became presidents of the country in the early republican period. (ue to the continuous border disputes <ith *eru, finally settled in the early 4---s, and due to the ongoing problem <ith the 'olombian guerrilla insurgency infiltrating @ma#onian provinces, the Ecuadorian @rmed Forces has gone through a series of changes. In 4--0, the ne< administration at the (efense ,inistry launched a deep restructuring <ithin the forces, increasing spending budget to F5,A05,22A,3-8, an increase of 47>.942: Ehe icons of the Ecuadorian military forces are the ,arshall @ntonio JosR de )ucre and %eneral Eloy @lfaro. Ehe ,ilitary @cademy %eneral Eloy @lfaro (c. 5383) graduates the army officers and is located in .uito.943: Ehe Ecuadorian &avy @cademy (c. 5382), located in )alinas graduates the navy officers,940: and the @ir @cademy 'osme $ennella (c. 504-), also located in )alinas, graduates the air force officers.98-: Nther training academies for different military specialties are found across the country.

,ain article: %eography of Ecuador Ecuador has a total area of 438,74- km4 (5-0,?A3 s! mi), including the %alJpagos Islands. Nf this, 438,74- km4 (5-0,?A3 s! mi) is land and A,24- km4 (4,707 s! mi) <ater. Ecuador is bigger than Bruguay, )urinam, %uyana and French %uyana in )outh @merica.

'himbora#o volcano, the farthest point from the centre of the Earth985:984: Ecuador lies bet<een latitudes 4/& and 7/), bounded on the <est by the *acific Ncean, and has 4,882 km (5,?74 mi) of coastline. It has 4,-5- km (5,47- mi) of land boundaries, <ith 'olombia in the north (70- km, or 82- mi, border) and *eru in the east and south (5,?4- km, or 334 mi, border). Ehe country has four main geographic regions:

La Costa, or the coast , comprises the lo<Clying land in the <estern part of the country, including the *acific coastline. La &ierra, or the highlands , is the highCaltitude belt running northSsouth along the centre of the country, its mountainous terrain dominated by the @ndes mountain range. La Ama%on@a, also kno<n as El Oriente, or the east , comprises the @ma#on rainforest areas in the eastern part of the country, accounting for Wust under half of the countryPs total surface area, though populated by less than 7> of the population. La RegiAn nsular is the region comprising the %alJpagos Islands, some 5,--kilometres (A4- mi) <est of the mainland in the *acific Ncean.

EcuadorPs capital is .uito, <hich is in the province of *ichincha in the )ierra region. Its largest city is %uaya!uil, in the %uayas *rovince. 'otopaQi, <hich is Wust south of .uito, features one of the <orldPs highest active volcanoes. Ehe top of ,ount 'himbora#o (A,4A3 m, or 4-,7A- ft, above sea level) is considered to be the most distant point of the EarthPs surface from the center of the Earth, given the approQimately ellipsoid shape of the planet.95:


,ain article: 'limate of Ecuador Ehere is great variety in the climate, largely determined by altitude. It is mild yearCround in the mountain valleys, <ith a humid subtropical climate in coastal areas and rainforest in lo<lands. Ehe *acific coastal area has a tropical climate <ith a severe rainy season. Ehe climate in the @ndean highlands is temperate and relatively dry, and the @ma#on basin on the eastern side of the mountains shares the climate of other rainforest #ones. "ecause of its location at the e!uator, Ecuador eQperiences little variation in daylight hours during the course of a year. "oth sunrise and sunset occur each day at the t<o siQ oPclock hours.95:

,ain article: $ivers of Ecuador

*asta#a $iver Ehe @ndes is the watershed divisor bet<een the @ma#on <atershed, <hich runs to the east, and the *acific, including the northSsouth rivers ,ataWe, )antiago, Esmeraldas, 'hone, %uayas, Jubones, and *uyangoCEumbes. @lmost all of the rivers in Ecuador form in the +a )ierra region and flo< east to<ard the @ma#on $iver or <est to<ard the *acific Ncean. Ehe rivers rise from sno<melt at the edges of the sno<capped peaks or from the abundant precipitation that falls at higher elevations. In the +a )ierra region, the streams and rivers are narro< and flo< rapidly over precipitous slopes. $ivers may slo< and <iden as they cross the hoyas yet become rapid again as they flo< from the heights of the @ndes to the lo<er elevations of the other regions. Ehe highland rivers broaden as they enter the more level areas of the 'osta and the Nriente. In the 'osta, the eQternal coast has mostly intermittent rivers that are fed by constant rains from (ecember through ,ay and become empty riverbeds during the dry season. Ehe fe< eQceptions are the longer, perennial rivers that flo< throughout the eQternal coast from the internal coast and +a )ierra on their <ay to the *acific Ncean. Ehe internal '`coast, by

contrast, is crossed by perennial rivers that may flood during the rainy season, sometimes forming s<amps. ,aWor rivers in the Nriente include the *asta#a, &apo, and *utumayo. Ehe *asta#a is formed by the confluence of the 'hambo and the *atate rivers, both of <hich rise in the )ierra. Ehe *asta#a includes the @goyan <aterfall, <hich at siQtyCone meters (4-- feet) is the highest <aterfall in Ecuador. Ehe &apo rises near ,ount 'otopaQi and is the maWor river used for transport in the eastern lo<lands. Ehe &apo ranges in <idth from 7-- to 5,3-- m (5,A-- to 7,0-- ft). In its upper reaches, the &apo flo<s rapidly until the confluence <ith one of its maWor tributaries, the 'oca $iver, <here it slo<s and levels off. Ehe *utumayo forms part of the border <ith 'olombia. @ll of these rivers flo< into the @ma#on $iver. Ehe %alJpagos Islands have no significant rivers. )everal of the larger islands, ho<ever, have fresh<ater springs although they are surrounded by the *acific Ncean.


%alJpagos tortoise

"lueCfooted booby

Oammerhead sharks Ecuador is one of seventeen megadiverse countries in the <orld according to 'onservation International,954: and it has the most biodiversity per s!uare kilometer of any nation.988:98?: Ecuador has 5,A-- bird species (57> of the <orldPs kno<n bird species) in the continental area and 83 more endemic in the %alJpagos. In addition to over 5A,--- species of plants, the country has 5-A endemic reptiles, 583 endemic amphibians, and A,--- species of butterfly.

Ehe %alJpagos Islands are <ell kno<n as a region of distinct fauna, famous as the place of birth of (ar<inPs Eheory of Evolution and a B&E)'N World Oeritage )ite.987: Ecuador has the first constitution to recogni#e the rights of nature.98A: Ehe protection of the nationPs biodiversity is an eQplicit national priority as stated in the &ational *lan of "uen Divir , or good living, NbWective ?, %uarantee the rights of nature , *olicy 5: )ustainably conserve and manage the natural heritage, including its land and marine biodiversity, <hich is considered a strategic sector .982: @s of the <riting of the *lan in 4--3, 50> of EcuadorPs land area <as in a protected areaU ho<ever, the *lan also states that 84> of the land must be protected in order to truly preserve the nationPs biodiversity.988: 'urrent protected areas include eleven national parks, ten <ildlife refuges, nine ecological reserves, and other areas.983: @ program begun in 4--3, )ociobos!ue, is preserving another 4.8> of total land area (A,407 km_, or A40,7-- ha) by paying private lando<ners or community lando<ners (such as indigenous tribes) incentives to maintain their land as native ecosystems such as native forests or grasslands. Eligibility and subsidy rates for this program are determined based on the poverty in the region, the number of hectares that <ill be protected, and the type of ecosystem of the land to be protected, among other factors.980: (espite being on the B&E)'N list, the %alJpagos are endangered by a range of negative environmental effects, threatening the eQistence of this eQotic ecosystem.9?-: @dditionally, oil eQploitation of the @ma#on rainforest has led to the release of billions of gallons of untreated <astes, gas, and crude oil into the environment, contaminating ecosystems and causing detrimental health effects to indigenous peoples.9?5:

,ain article: Economy of Ecuador

%raphical depiction of EcuadorPs product eQports in 43 colorCcoded categories. EcuadorPs economy is the eighth largest in +atin @merica and eQperienced an average gro<th of ?.A> bet<een 4--- and 4--A.9?4: From 4--2 to 4-54 EcuadorPs %(* gre< at an annual average of ?.8 percent, above the average for +atin @merica and the 'aribbean, <hich <as 8.7 percent, according to the Bnited &ationsP Economic 'ommission for +atin @merican and the 'aribbean (E'+@').9?8: Ecuador <as able to maintain relatively superior gro<th during the crisis. In January 4--0 the 'entral "ank of Ecuador ("'E) put the 4-5- gro<th forecast at

A.33>.9??: In 4-55 its %(* gre< at 2.3 percent and ranked third highest in +atin @merica, behind @rgentina (4nd) and *anama (5st).9?7: "et<een 5000 and 4--2, %(* doubled, reaching FA7,?0- million according to "'E.9?A: Inflation rate up to January 4--3 <as located about 5.5?>, the highest recorded in the last year, according to the government.9?2:9?3: Ehe monthly unemployment rate remained at about A and 3 percent from (ecember 4--2 until )eptember 4--3U ho<ever, it <ent up to about 0 percent in Nctober and dropped again in &ovember 4--3 to 3 percent.9?0: Bnemployment mean annual rate for 4--0 in Ecuador <as 3.7 percent because the global economic crisis continued to affect the +atin @merican economies. From this point unemployment rates started a do<n<ard trend: 2.A percent in 4-5-, A.- percent in 4-55, and ?.3 percent in 4-54.97-: Ehe eQtreme poverty rate has declined significantly bet<een 5000 and 4-5-.975: In 4--5 it <as estimated at ?-> of the population, <hile by 4-55 the figure dropped to 52.?> of the total population.974: Ehis is eQplained to an eQtent by emigration and economic stability achieved after adopting the B) dollar as official means of transaction. Oo<ever, starting in 4--3 <ith the bad economic performance of the nations <here most Ecuadorian emigrants <ork, the reduction of poverty has been reali#ed through social spending mainly in education and health.978:

$efineries in Esmeraldas Nil accounts for ?-> of eQports and contributes to maintaining a positive trade balance.97?: )ince the late 50A-s, the eQploitation of oil increased production, and proven reserves are estimated at A.75 billion barrels as of 4-55.977: Ehe overall trade balance for @ugust 4-54 <as a surplus of almost F80- million for the first siQ months of 4-54, a huge figure compared <ith that of 4--2, <hich reached only F7.2 millionU the surplus had risen by about F?47 million compared to 4--A.974: Ehe oil trade balance positive had revenues of F8.407 million in 4--3, <hile nonCoil <as negative, amounting to F4.3?4 million.9citation needed: Ehe trade balance <ith the Bnited )tates, 'hile, the European Bnion, "olivia, *eru, "ra#il, and ,eQico is positive.9citation needed: Ehe trade balance <ith @rgentina, 'olombia, and @sia is negative.97A: In the agricultural sector, Ecuador is a maWor eQporter of bananas (first place <orld<ide in production and eQport), flo<ers, and the seventh largest producer of cocoa.972: Ehe shrimp, sugar cane, rice, cotton, corn, palm, and coffee productions are also significant.9citation needed: Ehe countryPs vast resources include large amounts of timber across the country, like eucalyptus and mangroves.973: *ines and cedars are planted in the region of +a )ierra and <alnuts, rosemary, and balsa <ood in the %uayas $iver "asin.970: Ehe industry is concentrated mainly in %uaya!uil, the largest industrial center, and in .uito, <here in recent years the industry has gro<n considerably. Ehis city is also the largest business center of the country.9A-: Industrial production is directed primarily to the domestic market.9citation needed: (espite this, there is limited eQport of products produced or processed industrially.9citation needed: Ehese include canned foods,

li!uor, We<elry, furniture, and more.9citation needed: @ minor industrial activity is also concentrated in 'uenca.9A5:

World Erade 'enter head!uarters in %uaya!uil Ecuador has negotiated bilateral treaties <ith other countries, besides belonging to the @ndean 'ommunity of &ations,9A4: and an associate member of ,ercosur.9A8: It also serves on the World Erade Nrgani#ation (WEN), in addition to the Interamerican (evelopment "ank (I("), World "ank, International ,onetary Fund (I,F), 'orporaciZn @ndina de Fomento ('@F,) and other multilateral agencies.9A?:9A7:9AA: In @pril 4--2, Ecuador paid off its debt to the I,F, thus ending an era of interventionism of the @gency in the country. 9citation needed: Ehe public finance of Ecuador consists of the 'entral "ank of Ecuador ("'E), the &ational (evelopment "ank ("&F), the )tate "ank, the &ational Finance 'orporation, the Ecuadorian Oousing "ank ("ED,) and the Ecuadorian Educational +oans and %rants.9A2: "et<een 4--A and 4--0, the government increased social spending on social <elfare and education from 4.A> to 7.4> of its %(*.9A3: )tarting in 4--2, <ith an economy surpassed by the economic crisis, Ecuador <as subWect to a number of economic policy reforms by the government that have helped steer the Ecuadorian economy to a sustained, substantial, and focused financial stability and social policy.9A3:9va*ue: )uch policies <ere eQpansionary fiscal policies, of access to housing finance, stimulus packs, and limiting the amount of money reserves banks could keep abroad.9A3: Ehe Ecuadorian %overnment has made huge investments in education and infrastructure throughout the nation, <hich have improved the lives of the poor.9A0: In 4---, Ecuador changed its currency from the sucre to the B) dollar follo<ing a banking crisis.92-: Nn 54 (ecember 4--3, president 'orrea announced that Ecuador <ould not pay F8-.A million in interest to lenders of a F75-Cmillion loan, claiming that they <ere monsters.92-: In addition, it claimed that F8.3 billion in foreign debt negotiated by previous administrations <as illegitimate because it <as authorised <ithout eQecutive decree.92-: @t the time of the announcement, the country had F7.A7 billion in cash reserves.92-:

Ehe country has potential for the industry in a variety of sectors, including domestic production of ra< materials and manufactured teQtiles, mining, chemical, petrochemical, and oil refinement. *o<er generation is also a potential sector that is starting to be developed due to EcuadorPs high <ater potential in various sectors of the countryU the development of products based on the melting or glass materials, production and agroCprocessed foods, and pharmaceutical production, among others. Ehe most relevant proWect currently under

development is the *acific refinery, located in ,anta, <hich <ill be one of the largest in the region.


'incuenta (7-) centavos, *resident Eloy @lfaro

Ehe B.). dollar, current currency of the $epublic of Ecuador. ,ain article: 'urrency of Ecuador )ee also: Ecuadorian real In its infancy, Ecuador <as part of %ran 'olombia until 538- as (epartamento del )ur. %ran 'olombiaPs monetary regulations retained the old )panish colonial system. Ecuador officially began its o<n monetary unit on June 43, 5387, <hen the inscription (rev.) E+ E'B@(N$ E& 'N+N,"I@ <as changed to $E*a"+I'@ (E+ E'B@(N$ . ,any regional coins from neighboring *eru, 'olombia, "olivia, etc., as <ell as international units, <ere in circulation and accepted <hile .uito fought counterfeiting and tried to unify its currency. 'ounterfeiting had reached alarming proportions during 53?4. @t this time, Ecuador <as on the verge of bankruptcy, and, since legitimate coins had such imperfections, it <as impossible to tell them from the bad coins. Nn (ecember 40, 53?7, *resident Dicente $amZn $oca authori#ed a coin to compete <ith the /uertes (fullCbodied coin) of other countries. Ehis <as the peso fuerte. Ehe standard of 0-8 fineness for silver, ho<ever, resulted in a heavy eQport of the coin. It disappeared as soon as it entered circulation (%reshamPs la<), grabbed up by the merchants of %uaya!uil. "y the 537-s, the .uito mint <as not receiving enough precious metals to Wustify its operation. It had to coin a minimum of A,--- pesos a year Wust to meet overhead. Ehe mint <as shut do<n temporarily during 5378 <hile the government considered the options of keeping it open or shutting it do<n permanently. Ehe mint e!uipment <as <orn and could not produce coins in sufficient !uantity to compete <ith the foreign coin that entered Ecuador. 'ongress passed a ne< monetary la< on (ecember 7, 537A, adopting the French decimal system, a standard of -.0-- for silver, and the Ecuadorian Franco. Ehe peso remained a unit of

account e!ual to 7 francos. *aper money <as first issued in 5370 by the 0anco de #irculaci%n & 'escuento de 1anuel !ntonio de Lu arra*a in %uaya!uil, <ith banknote denominations of 5, ?, 7, 5-, and 4- pesos. EcuadorPs monetary unit, the peso, <as renamed sucre (decree of ,arch 44, 533?, effective @pril 5). Ehe 533? monetary la< permitted free circulation of the gold coins of France, Italy, )<it#erland, 'olombia, etc. @s for silver, the la< permitted the import of 7Cfranc pieces of France, Italy, "elgium, and )<it#erland etc. opper (vell%n) <as made legal tender to 7 dRcimos. "ank reserves <ere in silver coins, and banknotes <ere convertible solely into silver. Ecuador <as on a de /acto silver standard and did not coin any gold bet<een 533? and 5304. *resident @ntonio Flores JiWZn announced that from @ugust 57, 530-, only national coins <ere allo<ed to circulate in Ecuador, and EcuadorPs monetary system <as unified. Follo<ing the financial banking crisis of 5000, the B) dollar became legal tender in Ecuador on ,arch 58, 4---, and sucre notes ceased being legal tender on )eptember 55, 4--5. )ucre notes remained eQchangeable at "anco 'entral until ,arch 8-, 4--5, at 47,--- sucres per dollar. Ecuador no< only issues its o<n centavo coins.


Ehe ErolebYs bus rapid transit system that runs through .uito. It is the principal "$E in Ecuador.

$ail<ays in Ecuador (interactive map) ,ain article: Eransport in Ecuador

Ehe rehabilitation and reopening of the Ecuadorian railroad and use of it as a tourist attraction is one of the recent developments in transportation matter.925: Ehe roads of Ecuador in recent years have undergone important improvement. Ehe maWor routes are *an @merican (under enhancement from four to siQ lanes from $umichaca to @mbato, the conclusion of ? lanes on the entire stretch of @mbato and $iobamba and running via $iobamba to +oWa). In the absence of the section bet<een +oWa and the border <ith *eru, there are the $oute Espondilus and6or $uta del )ol (oriented to travel along the Ecuadorian coastline) and the @ma#on backbone (<hich crosses from north to south along the Ecuadorian @ma#on, linking most and more maWor cities of it). @nother maWor proWect is developing the road ,anta S Eena, the high<ay %uaya!uil S )alinas Oigh<ay @loag )anto (omingo, $iobamba S ,acas (<hich crosses )angay &ational *ark). Nther ne< developments include the &ational Bnity bridge compleQ in %uaya!uil, the bridge over the &apo river in Francisco de Nrellana, the Esmeraldas $iver "ridge in the city of the same name, and, perhaps the most remarkable of all, the "ahia S )an Dincente "ridge, being the largest on the +atin @merican *acific coast. Ehe international airports of .uito and %uaya!uil have eQperienced a high increase in demand and have re!uired moderni#ation. In the case of %uaya!uil it involved a ne< air terminal, once considered the best in )outh @merica and the best in +atin @merica924: and in .uito <here an entire ne< airport is being built in Eababela and <as inaugurated by February 4-58, <ith 'anadian assistance. Oo<ever, the main road leading from the .uito city center to the ne< airport <ill only be finished in 4-5?, making current travelling from the airport to do<nto<n .uito as long as 4 hours during rush hour.928:

Electrical po/er outlets*edit+

Electrical po<er outlets in Ecuador are the same as in the B) (55-v).

Mobile 8cellular< phone freBuencies*edit+

,obile (cellular) phone fre!uencies in Ecuador are 37-,O#, 50--,O#, and 45--,O#.92?:

,ain article: Environment of Ecuador Ecuador is the 3th most biodiverse country on the planet. Ecuador contains almost 4-,--species of plants, 5,7-- species of birds, 8?5 species of mammals and more than 3?- species of reptiles and amphibians.927: +ogging and oil eQploitation is eQpected to destroy a great deal of this natural <ealth.

,ain article: Ecuadorian people

EcuadorPs population is ethnically diverse and the 4-55 estimates put EcuadorPs population at 57,--2,8?8.95: Ehe largest ethnic group (as of 4-5-) is the 1esti os, <ho are the descendants of )panish colonists that interbred <ith indigenous peoples, and constitute A7>of the population. Ehe White Ecuadorians (White +atin @merican) account for 50> of the population of Ecuador and can be found throughout all of Ecuador primarily around the urban areas. Even though EcuadorPs <hite population during its colonial era <ere mainly descendants from )pain, today EcuadorPs <hite population is a result of a miQture of European immigrants, predominantly from )pain <ith people from Italy, France, %ermany, and )<it#erland <ho have settled in the early 4-th century. Ecuador also has people of middle eastern eQtraction that have also Woined the ranks of the <hite minority. Ehese include economically <ell off immigrants of +ebanese and *alestinian descent, <ho are either 'hristian or ,uslim (Islam in Ecuador). In addition, there is a small European Je<ish (Ecuadorian We<s) population, <hich is based mainly in %uaya!uil and to a lesser eQtent in .uito.98:@merindians account for 58> of the current population. Ehe mostly rural ,ontubio population of the coastal provinces of Ecuador, <ho might be classified as *ardo account for 2.?> of the population. Ehe @froCEcuadorians is a minority population (2>) in Ecuador, that includes the ,ulattos and ambos, and are largely based in the Esmeraldas province and to a lesser degree in the predominantely ,esti#o provinces of 'oastal Ecuador C %uayas and ,anabi. In the Oighland @ndes <here a predominantely ,esti#o, <hite and @merindian population eQist, the @frican presence is almost non eQistent eQcept for a small community in the province of Imbabura called 'hota Dalley.

"asXlica del Doto &acional in old do<nto<n .uito

,ain article: $eligion in Ecuador @ccording to the Ecuadorian &ational Institute of )tatistics and 'ensus, 05.07> of the countryPs population have a religion, 2.0?> are atheists and -.55> are agnostics. @mong the people that have a religion, 3-.??> are $oman 'atholic +atin $ite (see +ist of $oman 'atholic dioceses in Ecuador), 55.8-> are *rotestants, 5.40> are JehovahPs Witnesses and A.02> other (mainly Je<ish, "uddhists and ,ormons).92A:922:

'hurch of )an Francisco In the rural parts of Ecuador, indigenous beliefs and 'atholicism are sometimes syncreti#ed. ,ost festivals and annual parades are based on religious celebrations, many incorporating a miQture of rites and icons.9citation needed: Ehere is a small number of Eastern NrthodoQ 'hristians, indigenous religions, ,uslims (see Islam in Ecuador), "uddhists and "ahJPX. Ecuador has a number of members of Ehe 'hurch of Jesus 'hrist of +atterCday )aints, about 5.?> of the population, or 455,5A7 members at the end of 4-54.923: In 4-54, there <ere 22,848 JehovahPs Witnesses in the country.920: Ehe Je<ish 'ommunity of Ecuador ('omunidad JudXa del Ecuador) has its seat in .uito and has approQimately 4-- members. &evertheless, this number is declining because young people leave the country for the Bnited )tates or Israel.93-: Ehe 'ommunity has a Je<ish 'enter <ith a synagogue, a country club, and a cemetery. It supports the @lbert Einstein )chool , <here Je<ish history, religion, and Oebre< classes are offered. Ehere are very small communities in 'uenca. Ehe 'omunidad de 'ulto Israelita reunites the Je<s of %uaya!uil. Ehis community <orks independently from the Je<ish 'ommunity of Ecuador and is composed of only 8- people.935: Je<ish visitors to Ecuador can also take advantage of Je<ish resources as they travel934: and keep kosher there, even in the @ma#on $ainforest.938: Ehe city also has a synagogue of ,essianic Judaism.93?:

,ain article: Indigenous peoples in Ecuador Ehe Ecuadorian constitution recogni#es the pluriCnationality of those <ho <ant to eQercise their affiliation <ith their native ethnic groups. Ehus, in addition to criollos, mesti os, and @froCEcuadorians, some people belong to the indigenous nations scattered in a fe< places in the coast, .uechua @ndean villages, and the @ma#onian Wungle.

!opulation density*edit+
Ehe maWority of Ecuadorians live in the central provinces, the @ndes mountains, or along the *acific coast. Ehe tropical forest region to the east of the mountains (El Nriente) remains sparsely populated and contains only about 8> of the population. *opulation cities (4-5-)947:
Largest cities of Ecuador City !rovince !opulation

5 4 8 ? GuayaBuil 7 A 2 3 0 5-

%uaya!uil .uito 'uenca )anto (omingo ,achala (urJn *ortovieWo ,anta +oWa @mbato

%uayas *ichincha @#uay )anto (omingo de los EsJchilas El Nro %uayas ,anabX ,anabX +oWa Eungurahua

4 87- 057 4 480 505 7-7 737 8A3 -58 4?5 A-A 487 2A0 448 -3A 445 544 53- A52 523 783 &anto Domingo




)tatus @ccording to the 4-5- 'ensus937:

mmigration and emigration*edit+

Ehis section re!uires eQpansion. 2!u*ust 34536 )ee also: Emigration from Ecuador @ small east @sian +atino community, estimated at 4,7--, mainly consists of those of Japanese and 'hinese descent, <hose ancestors arrived as miners, farmhands and fishermen in the late 50th century.95: In the early years of World War II, Ecuador still admitted a certain number of immigrants, and in 5080, <hen several )outh @merican countries refused to accept 5A7 Je<ish refugees from %ermany aboard the ship 7oeni*stein, Ecuador granted them entry permits.93A:


@ mesti#o <oman in Ecuadorian garment participating in the 4-5- 'arnaval del *ueblo ,ain article: 'ulture of Ecuador EcuadorPs mainstream culture is defined by its Oispanic mesti o maWority, and, like their ancestry, it is traditionally of )panish heritage, influenced in different degrees by @merindian traditions and in some cases by @frican elements. Ehe first and most substantial <ave of modern immigration to Ecuador consisted of )panish colonists, follo<ing the arrival of Europeans in 5?00. @ lo<er number of other Europeans and &orth @mericans migrated to the

country in the late 50th and early t<entieth centuries and, in smaller numbers, *oles, +ithuanians, English, Irish, and 'roats during and after the )econd World War.

@lpaca teQtile at the Ntavalo @rtisan ,arket in the @ndes ,ountains, Ecuador

Oand *ainted Oandcrafts at the Ntavalo @rtisan ,arket )ince @frican slavery <as not the <orkforce of the )panish colonies in the @ndes ,ountains of )outh @merica, given the subWugation of the indigenous people through evangelism and encomiendas, the minority population of @frican descent is mostly found in the coastal northern province of Esmeraldas. Ehis is largely o<ing to the 52thCcentury ship<reck of a slaveCtrading galleon off the northern coast of Ecuador. Ehe fe< black @frican survivors s<am to the shore and penetrated the thenCthick Wungle under the leadership of @nton, the chief of the group, <here they remained as free men maintaining their original culture, not influenced by the typical elements found in other provinces of the coast or in the @ndean region. @ little later, runa<ay slaves from 'olombia kno<n as cimarrones Woined them. In the small 'hota Dalley of the province of Imbabura eQist a small community of @fricans among the provincePs predominantly mesti#o population. Ehese blacks are descendants of @fricans, <ho <ere brought over from 'olombia by Jesuits to <ork their colonial sugar plantations as slaves. @s a general rule, small elements of #ambos and mulattoes coeQisted among the over<helming mesti#o population of coastal Ecuador throughout its history as gold miners in +oWa, [aruma, and [amora and as shipbuilders and plantation <orkers around the city of %uaya!uil. Eoday you can find a small community of @fricans in the 'atamayo valley of the predominantly mesti#o population of +oWa. EcuadorPs indigenous communities are integrated into the mainstream culture to varying degrees,932: but some may also practice their o<n indigenous cultures, particularly the more remote indigenous communities of the @ma#on basin. )panish is spoken as the first language by more than 0-> of the population and as a first or second language by more than 03>. *art of EcuadorPs population can speak @merindian languages, in some cases as a second language. E<o percent of the population speak only @merindian languages.

,ain article: +anguages of Ecuador ,ost Ecuadorians speak )panish, though many speak @merindian languages, such as ;ich<a (also kno<n as .uichua), <hich is one of the .uechuan languages and is spoken by approQimately 4.7 million people in Ecuador, 'olombia, and *eru.933: Nther @merindian languages spoken in Ecuador include @<apit (spoken by the @<J), @Pingae (spoken by the 'ofan), )huar 'hicham (spoken by the )huar), @chuarC)hi<iar (spoken by the @chuar and the )hi<iar), 'haPpalaachi (spoken by the 'hachi), EsaPfiki (spoken by the EsJchila), *aicoca (spoken by the )iona and )ecoya), and Wao Eededeo (spoken by the Waorani). Ehough most features of Ecuadorian )panish are those universal to the )panishCspeaking <orld, there are several idiosyncrasies.

,ain article: ,usic of Ecuador

Julio Jaramillo is an icon of music. Ehe music of Ecuador has a long history. *asillo is a genre of indigenous +atin music. In Ecuador it is the national genre of music . Ehrough the years, many cultures have brought their influences together to create ne< types of music. Ehere are also different kinds of traditional music like alba#o, pasacalle, foQ incaico, tonada, capishca, "omba (highly established in afroCEcuadorian societies), and so on. Eecnocumbia and $ockola are clear eQamples of the influence of foreign cultures. Nne of the most traditional forms of dancing in Ecuador is )anWuanito. ItPs originally from northern Ecuador (NtavaloCImbabura). )anWuanito is a danceable music used in the festivities of the mesti#o and indigenous cultures. @ccording to the Ecuadorian musicologist )egundo +uis ,oreno, )anWuanito <as danced by indigenous people during )an Juan "autistaPs birthday. Ehis important date <as established by the )paniards on June 4?, coincidentally the same date <hen indigenous people celebrated their rituals of Inti $aymi.


Ecuadorian ceviche, made of shrimp, lemon, onions, and some herbs. Eomato sauce and orange are used at some places but do not form a part of the basic recipe Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying <ith the altitude and associated agricultural conditions. ,ost regions in Ecuador follo< the traditional three course meal of soup, a course that includes rice and a protein, and then dessert and coffee to finish. )upper is usually lighter and sometimes consists only of coffee or herbal tea <ith bread. In the highland region, pork, chicken, beef, and cu& (guinea pig) are popular and are served <ith a variety of grains (especially rice and corn) or potatoes. In the coastal region, seafood is very popular, <ith fish, shrimp, and ceviche being key parts of the diet. %enerally, ceviches are served <ith fried plantain (chifles y patacones), popcorn, or tostado.9disambi*uation needed: *lantainC and peanutCbased dishes are the basis of most coastal meals. Encocados (dishes that contain a coconut sauce) are also very popular. #hurrasco is a staple food of the coastal region, especially %uaya!uil. !rro con menestra & carne asada (rice <ith beans and grilled beef) is one of the traditional dishes of %uaya!uil, as is fried plantain, <hich is often served <ith it. Ehis region is a leading producer of bananas, cacao beans (to make chocolate), shrimp, tilapia, mangos, and passion fruit, among other products. In the @ma#on region, a dietary staple is the &uca, else<here called cassava. ,any fruits are available in this region, including bananas, tree grapes, and peach palms.


Juan ,ontalvo

Early literature in colonial Ecuador, as in the rest of )panish @merica, <as influenced by the )panish %olden @ge. Nne of the earliest eQamples is Jacinto 'ollahua#o,930: an indigenous chief of a northern village in todayPs Ibarra, born in the late 5A--s. (espite the early repression and discrimination of the native people by the )panish, 'ollahua#o learned to read and <rite in 'astilian, but his <ork <as <ritten in .uechua. Ehe use of .uipu <as banned by the )panish,90-: and in order to preserve their <ork, many Inca poets had to resort to the use of the +atin alphabet to <rite in their native .uechua language. Ehe history behind the Inca drama Nllantay , the oldest literary piece in eQistence for any indigenous language in @merica,905: shares some similarities <ith the <ork of 'ollahua#o. 'ollahua#o <as imprisoned and all of his <ork burned. Ehe eQistence of his literary <ork came to light many centuries later, <hen a cre< of masons <as restoring the <alls of a colonial church in .uito and found a hidden manuscript. Ehe salvaged fragment is a )panish translation from .uechua of the Elegy to the (ead of @tahualpa ,930: a poem <ritten by 'ollahua#o, <hich describes the sadness and impotence of the Inca people of having lost their king @tahualpa. Nther early Ecuadorian <riters include the Jesuits Juan "autista @guirre, born in (aule in 5247, and Father Juan de Delasco, born in $iobamba in 5242. (e Delasco <rote about the nations and chiefdoms that had eQisted in the 7in*dom o/ 8uito (today Ecuador) before the arrival of the )panish. Ois historical accounts are nationalistic, featuring a romantic perspective of precolonial history. Famous authors from the late colonial and early republic period include Eugenio EspeWo, a printer and main author of the first ne<spaper in Ecuadorian colonial timesU Jose Joa!uin de Nlmedo (born in %uaya!uil), famous for his ode to )imZn "olXvar titled 9ictoria de +uninU Juan ,ontalvo, a prominent essayist and novelistU Juan +eon ,era, famous for his <ork 'umanda or Eragedy among )avages and the Ecuadorian &ational @nthemU Juan @. ,artine# <ith ! la #osta:;, 'olores 9eintimilla;<=3> and others'ontemporary Ecuadorian <riters include the novelist Jorge Enri!ue @doumU the poet Jorge 'arrera @ndradeU the essayist "enWamXn 'arriZnU the poets ,edardo @ngel )ilva, Jorge 'arrera @ndrade, and +uis @lberto 'ostalesU the novelist Enri!ue %il %ilbertU the novelist Jorge Ica#a (author of the novel Huasipun*o, translated to many languages)U the short story author *ablo *alacioU and the novelist @licia Vane# 'ossio.

Ehe best kno<n art styles from Ecuador belonged to the Escuela 8uite?a, <hich developed from the 5Ath to 53th centuries, eQamples of <hich are on display in various old churches in .uito. Ecuadorian painters include Eduardo ;ingman, Ns<aldo %uayasamXn, and 'amilo Egas from the Indiginist ,ovementU ,anuel $endon, Jaime [apata, Enri!ue EJbara, @nXbal DillacXs, Eheo 'onstantR, +eZn $icaurte, +uis ,olinari, @raceli %ilbert, Judith %utierre#, FeliQ @rau#, and Estuardo ,aldonado from the Informalist ,ovementU and +uis "urgos Flor <ith his abstract, futuristic style. Ehe indigenous people of Eigua, Ecuador, are also <orldC reno<ned for their traditional paintings.

,ain article: )port in Ecuador

Jefferson *Rre#, Nlympian %old ,edalist

Estadio ,onumental of %uaya!uil. Ehe most popular sport in Ecuador, as in most )outh @merican countries, is soccer. Its best kno<n professional teams include "arcelona and Emelec from %uaya!uilU +(B .uito, (eportivo .uito, and El &acional from .uitoU Nlmedo from $iobambaU and (eportivo 'uenca from 'uenca. 'urrently the most successful soccer team in Ecuador is +(B .uito, and it is the only Ecuadorian team that has <on the #opa Libertadores, the #opa Sudamericana, and the Recopa SudamericanaU they <ere also runnersCup in the 4--3 FIF@ 'lub World 'up. Ehe matches of the Ecuadorian national team are the mostC<atched sporting events in the country. Ecuador has !ualified for the final rounds of the 4--4, the 4--A, = the 4-5? FIF@ World 'ups. Ehe 4--4 FIF@ World 'up !ualifying campaign <as considered a huge success for the country and its inhabitants. Ecuador finished in 4nd place on the !ualifiers behind @rgentina and above the team that <ould become World 'hampion, "ra#il. In the 4--A FIF@ World 'up, Ecuador finished ahead of *oland and 'osta $ica to come in second to %ermany in %roup @ in the 4--A World 'up. Futsal, often referred to as @ndor, is particularly popular for mass participation. Ehere is considerable interest in tennis in the middle and upper classes of Ecuadorian society, and several Ecuadorian professional players have attained international fame. "asketball has a high profile, <hile EcuadorPs specialties include Ecua-volle&, a threeCperson variation of volleyball. "ullfighting is practiced at a professional level in .uito, during the annual festivities that commemorate the )panish founding of the city, and it also features in festivals in many smaller to<ns. $ugby union is found to some eQtent in Ecuador, <ith teams in %uaya!uil, .uito, and 'uenca. Ecuador has <on only t<o medals in the Nlympic %ames, both gained by 4-Ckm (54 mi) race<alker Jefferson *Rre#, <ho took gold in the 500A games and silver 54 years later. *Rre# also set a <orld best in the 4--8 World 'hampionships of 5:52:45 for the 4-Ckm (54 mi) distance.908:


,ain article: Oealth in Ecuador

IE)) Oospital in +atacunga. Ehe current structure of the Ecuadorian public health care system dates back to 50A2.90?:907: Ehe ,inistry of the *ublic Oealth (,inisterio de )alud *Yblica del Ecuador) is the responsible entity of the regulation and creation of the public health policies and health care plans. Ehe ,inister of *ublic Oealth is appointed directly by the *resident of the $epublic. Ehe current minister, or Ecuadorian general surgeon, is 'arina Dance. Ehe philosophy of the ,inistry of *ublic Oealth is the social support and service to the most vulnerable population,90A: and its main plan of action lies around communitarian health and preventive medicine.90A: Ehe public healthcare system allo<s patients to be treated <ithout an appointment in public general hospitals by general practitioners and specialists in the outpatient clinic (#onsulta E)terna) at no cost. Ehis is done in the four basic specialties of pediatric, gynecology, clinic medicine, and surgery.902: Ehere are also public hospitals speciali#ed to treat chronic diseases, target a particular group of the population, or provide better treatment in some medical specialties. )ome eQamples in this group are the %ynecologic Oospitals, or ,aternities, 'hildren Oospitals, %eriatric Oospitals, and Nncology Institutes. @lthough <ellCe!uipped general hospitals are found in the maWor cities or capitals of provinces, there are basic hospitals in the smaller to<ns and canton cities for family care consultation and treatments in pediatrics, gynecology, clinical medicine, and surgery.902: 'ommunity health care centers ('entros de )alud) are found inside metropolitan areas of cities and in rural areas. Ehese are day hospitals that provide treatment to patients <hose hospitali#ation is under 4? hours.902: Ehe doctors assigned to rural communities, <here the population of indigenous people can be substantial, have small clinics under their responsibility for the treatment of patients in the same fashion as the day hospitals in the maWor cities. Ehe treatment in this case respects the culture of the community. 902: Ehe public healthcare system should not be confused <ith the Ecuadorian )ocial )ecurity healthcare service, <hich is dedicated to individuals <ith formal employment and <ho are affiliated obligatorily through their employers. 'iti#ens <ith no formal employment may still contribute to the social security system voluntarily and have access to the medical services rendered by the social security system. Ehe Ecuadorian Institute of )ocial )ecurity (IE))) has several maWor hospitals and medical subCcenters under its administration across the nation.903: Ecuador currently ranks 4-, in most efficient health care countries, compared to 555 back in the year 4---.900: Ecuadorians have a life eQpectancy of 27.A years.95--: Ehe infant mortality rate is 58 per 5,--- live births,95-5: a maWor improvement from approQimately 2A in the early

503-s and 5?- in 507-.95-4: 48> of children under five are chronically malnourished.95-5: *opulation in some rural areas have no access to potable <ater, and its supply is provided by mean of <ater tankers. Ehere are A3A malaria cases per 5--,--- people.95-8: "asic health care, including doctorPs visits, basic surgeries, and basic medications, has been provided free since 4--3.95-5: Oo<ever, some public hospitals are in poor condition and often lack necessary supplies to attend the high demand of patients. *rivate hospitals and clinics are <ell e!uipped but still eQpensive for the maWority of the population.


E)*N+ S %uaya!uil ,ain article: Education in Ecuador Ehe Ecuadorian 'onstitution re!uires that all children attend school until they achieve a basic level of education , <hich is estimated at nine school years.95-?: In 500A, the net primary enrollment rate <as 0A.0>, and 25.3> of children stayed in school until the fifth grade.95-?: Ehe cost of primary and secondary education is borne by the government, but families often face significant additional eQpenses such as fees and transportation costs.95-?: *rovision of public schools falls far belo< the levels needed, and class si#es are often very large, and families of limited means often find it necessary to pay for education.9citation needed: In rural areas, only 5-> of the children go on to high school.9citation needed: Ehe ,inistry of Education states that the mean number of years completed is A.2.9citation needed:

,aldonadoPs Oigh )chool $iobamba Ecuador has A5 universities, many of <hich still confer terminal degrees according to the traditional )panish education system,95-7: honoring a long tradition of having some of the oldest universities in the @mericas: Bniversity of )an Fulgencio, founded in 573A by the @ugustinesU )an %regorio ,agno Bniversity, founded in 5A75 by the JesuitsU and Bniversity of )anto EomJs of @!uino, founded in 5A35 by the (ominican order.

@mong the traditional conferred terminal degrees can be noted the doctorate for medicine and la< schools or engineering, physics, chemistry, or mathematics for polytechnic or technology institutes. Ehese terminal degrees, as in the case of the *h( in other countries, <ere the main re!uirement for an individual to be accepted in academia as a professor or researcher. In the professional realm, a terminal degree granted by an accredited institution automatically provides a professional license to the individual. Oo<ever, in 4--?, the &ational 'ouncil of Oigher Education ('N&E)B*), started the reorgani#ation of all the degreeCgranting schemes of the accredited universities in order to pair them <ith foreign counterparts. Ehe ne< structure of some careers caused the dropping of subWects, credits, or even the name of the previously conferred diplomas. Ehe terminal degree in la<, previously kno<n as J( Juris (octor ((octor en Jurisprudencia) <as replaced by the one of abo*ado (attorney) <ith the eQception of the modification of the number of credits to e!uate it to an undergraduate degree. In the same fashion for medical school, the re!uired time of education <as considerably reduced from nine years (the minimum needed to obtain the title of ,( in ,edicine and )urgery) to almost five, <ith the provision that the diploma is not terminal anymore, and it is given <ith the title of m"dico (medic). Eherefore, an ,( or *h( in medicine is only to be obtained overseas until the universities adWust themselves to granting schemes and curriculum as in foreign counterparts. &onetheless, a mRdico can start a career as family practitioner or general medicine physician.

"iblioteca ,unicipal de %uaya!uil Ehis ne< reorgani#ation, although very ambitious, lacked the proper path to the homologation of diplomas for highly educated professionals graduated in the country or even for the ones graduated in foreign institutions. Nne of the points of conflict <as the imposition of obtaining foreign degrees to current academicians. @s today, a ,asterPs degree is a re!uirement to keep an academic position and at least a foreign *h( to attain or retain the status of rector (president of a university) or d"cano (dean). For Ecuadorian researchers and many academicians trained in the country, these regulations sounded illogical, disappointing, and unla<ful since it appeared a !uestion of a title name conflict rather than speciali#ation or science advancement. @ debate to modify this and other reforms, specially the one <hich granted control of the Oigher Education )ystem by the government, <as practically passed <ith consensus by the multiCpartisan &ational @ssembly on @ugust ?, 4-5-, but vetoed by *resident $afael 'orrea, <ho <anted to keep the la< strictly as it <as originally redacted by his political party and )E&*+@(E) (&ational )ecretary of *lanning and (evelopment). (ue to this change, there are many highly educated professionals and academicians under the old structure but estimated that only 32> of the faculty in public universities have already obtained a ,asterPs

degree, and fe<er than 7> have a *h( (although many of them already have EcuadorianC granted doctorate degrees). @bout 8-- institutes of higher education offer t<o to three years of postCsecondary vocational or technical training.

&ciences and research*edit+

Eb@Ps first satellite, &EEC-5 *egasus Ecuador is currently placed in 0Ath position, of innovation in technology. 95-A: Ehe most notable icons in Ecuadorian sciences are the mathematician and cartographer *edro Dicente ,aldonado, born in $iobamba in 52-2, and the printer, independence precursor, and medical pioneer Eugenio EspeWo, born in 52?2 in .uito. @mong other notable Ecuadorian scientists and engineers are +ieutenant Jose $odrigue# +avandera,95-2: a pioneer <ho built the first submarine in +atin @merica in 5382U $einaldo Espinosa @guilar (5303S507-), a botanist and biologist of @ndean floraU and JosR @urelio (ueTas (533-S50A5), a chemist and inventor of a method of teQtile serigraphy. Ehe maWor areas of scientific research in Ecuador have been in the medical fields, tropical and infectious diseases treatments, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical research, and bioengineering. "eing a small country and a consumer of foreign technology, Ecuador has favored research supported by entrepreneurship in information technology. Ehe antivirus program #heckpro*ram, banking protection system 1dLock, and 'ore "anking )oft<are #obis are products of Ecuadorian development.95-3: Ehe scientific production in hard sciences has been limited due to lack of funding but focused around physics, statistics, and partial differential e!uations in mathematics.9citation needed: In the case of engineering fields, the maWority of scientific production comes from the top three polytechnic institutions: Escuela )uperior *olitRcnica del +itoral C ESPOL, Bniversidad de +as Fuer#as @rmadas C ESPE, and Escuela *olitRcnica &acional EPA . 'ontemporary Ecuadorian scientists <ho have been recogni#ed by international institutions are Eugenia del *ino (born 50?7), the first Ecuadorian to be elected to the Bnited )tates &ational @cademy of )cience, and @rturo Dillavicencio, <ho <as part of the <orking group of the I*'', <hich shared the 4--2 &obel *eace *ri#e <ith @l %ore for their dissemination of the effects of climate change. 'urrently, the politics of research and investigation are managed by the &ational )ecretary of Oigher Education, )cience, and Eechnology (Senesc&t).95-0:

&ee also*edit+

Nutline of Ecuador IndeQ of EcuadorCrelated articles French %eodesic ,ission Ingapirca International rankings of Ecuador +ist of Ecuadorians +ist of mountains in Ecuador +ist of national parks in Ecuador +ost *yramid of *uTay &ational symbols of Ecuador Ecuador portal Latin America portal Geography portal

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c Jump up to: a b c d e f Ecuador . #B! Corld (actbook. $etrieved 4-55C-3C53. 1ump up E 'onstituciZn *olXtica de la $epYblica del Ecuador. 8. c Jump up to: a b *oblaciZn del paXs es Woven y mesti#a, dice censo del I&E'. (ata from the national census 4-5- (4-55C-0C-4) ?. 1ump up E Ecuadorian census held on &ovember 43, 4-5-. 7. c Jump up to: a b c Ecuador . International ,onetary Fund. $etrieved 4-58C-?C 53. A. 1ump up E http:66data.<orldbank.org6country6ecuadordcpe<di World "ank (ata 2. 1ump up E %ini IndeQ . World "ank. $etrieved ,arch 4, 4-55. 3. c Jump up to: a b Ouman (evelopment $eport 4-55 . Bnited &ations. 4-55. $etrieved &ovember 7, 4-55. 0. 1ump up E 'ity of .uito . $etrieved 4-5-C-AC4A. 5-. 1ump up E )tatistics of income taQ for Ecuador 'ities . <<< 4--3C54C85. $etrieved 4--3C54C85. 55. 1ump up E Oistoric 'entre of )anta @na de los $Xos de 'uenca . 5000C54C-4. $etrieved 4-5-C-AC4A. 54. c Jump up to: a b )outh @merica "anks on $egional )trategy to )afeguard .uarter of EarthPs "iodiversity , ' (4--8C-0C5A). 58. 1ump up E http:66<<< ecuadorCesCelCpaaCsCdeClasCor!uaCdeas6 5?. 1ump up E Ecuador @dopts &e< 'onstitution S With 'E+(F $I%OE) of &@EB$E +anguage, 'ommunity Environmental +egal (efense Fund. $etrieved 4--0C-0C-2. 57. 1ump up E @ssessment for "lacks in Ecuador . 'I(',. 5A. 1ump up E $oos, Wilma and van $enterghem, Nmer Ecuador, &e< Vork, 4---, p.7. 5. 4.

c Jump up to: a b Bppsala 'onflict (ata *rogram 'onflict Encyclopedia, %eneral 'onflict Information, 'onflict name: Ecuador C *eru, In depth, "ackground to the 5007 fighting and Ecuador and *eru engage in armed conflict, vi<ed on 4-58C-2C 57, http:66<<<.ucdp.uu.se6gpdatabase6gpcountry.phpfid`54A=region)elect`7C )outherne@mericasd 53. c Jump up to: a b $ory 'arroll, +atin @merica correspondent (4-5-C5-C-5). EcuadorPs president attacked by police g World ne<s . ,he Duardian (+ondon). $etrieved 4-55C-0C54. 50. 1ump up E 'ompulsory Doting . $etrieved 4-54C-3C53. 4-. c Jump up to: a b c d e f Ecuador, WN$+( $E*N$E 4-58, Ouman $ights Watch, pages 5 C 8. 45. 1ump up E "ias on Ecuador, "olivia, and Dene#uela 44. 1ump up E of bias for or against particular nations 48. 1ump up E (emocracy in Ecuador . Aew Eork ,imes. February 7, 4-54. 4?. 1ump up E 95:, Judicial $eform, 47. c Jump up to: a b 'enso de 4-5-. 4A. 1ump up E $egiZn ? S )anto (omingo, ,anabX y %alJpagos . ,inistry of *roduction, Employment and 'ompetitiveness 'oordination. $etrieved 4-54C-4C 4-.9dead link: 42. 1ump up E Ecuador: @ 'omparative @tlas of (efence in +atin @merica 6 4--3 Edition . ccmr-or*. @rchived from the original on 4--0C-7C-A. $etrieved 4-5-C -AC4A. 43. 1ump up E Oistory of the Escuela )uperior ,ilitar Eloy @lfaro 9dead link: 40. 1ump up E Oistory of the Escuela )uperior &aval del Ecuador 9dead link: 8-. 1ump up E Oistory of the Escuela )uperior ,ilitar de @viacion 'osme $ennella . $etrieved 4-54C-4C4?. 85. 1ump up E Ehe POighestP )pot on Earth . & 4--2C-?C-2. $etrieved 4-54C-4C4?. 84. 1ump up E Dideo 'himbora#o D) Everest 8( . Eoutube. $etrieved 4-54C-4C 4?. 88. c Jump up to: a b *lan &acional del "uen Divir, NbWective ?, (iagnostic, )ection +a "iodiversidad y *atrimonio &atural , 4--3 ()panish) 8?. 1ump up E Ecuador S "iodiversity 'onservation (*(F). @rchived from the original on 4--AC-8C48. $etrieved 4-5-C-AC4A. 87. 1ump up E Bnesco World Oeritage . $etrieved 4-5-C-AC4A. 8A. 1ump up E EcuadorPs 'onstitution . *dba.georgeto< $etrieved 4-54C -4C4?. 82. 1ump up E *lan &acional del "uen Divir, NbWective &o. ?, 4--3 ()panish) 83. 1ump up E ,inistry of the environment of Ecuador, *rotected @reas9dead link: 80. 1ump up E ,inistry of the environment, )ociobos!ue *rogram9dead link: ?-. 1ump up E +emonick, ,ichael (. (5007C5-C8-). Eime ,aga#ine $eport . ,ime. $etrieved 4-5-C-AC4A. ?5. 1ump up E )an )ebastian, ,.U Ourtig, @. ;. (4--?). Nil EQploitation in the @ma#on "asin of Ecuador: @ *ublic Oealth Emergency . Pan !merican +ournal o/ Public Health (? (8). doi:5-.570-6)5-4-C?0304--?---8---5?. ?4. 1ump up E Vahoo] &oticias EspaTa S +os titulares de hoy. (4-55C-?C4-). $etrieved on 4-54C-2C42. ?8. 1ump up E 94:. &@, &e<s &et<ork (&&&) (4-58C-4C5?). $etrieved on 4-58C-?C4?. 52.


1ump up E El "anco 'entral de Ecuador sitYa el crecimiento del 4--3 en mJs del A>. (4--0C-5C5A). $etrieved on 4-54C-2C4A. ?7. 1ump up E 98:. $etrieved on 4-58C-5C43. ?A. 1ump up E "anco 'entral del Ecuador S $esumen de pib. " (4-54C -2C55). $etrieved on 4-54C-2C4A. ?2. 1ump up E Ecuador Inflation rate (consumer prices) S Economy. (4-54C-2C4A). $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. ?3. 1ump up E %ill, &athan. (4-54C-5C-A) Ecuadorian Inflation @ccelerated to EhreeCVear Oigh in 4-55. "loomberg. $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. ?0. 1ump up E Ecuador en 'ifras. Ecuador en 'ifras. $etrieved on 4-54C-2C4A. 7-. 1ump up E 9?:. 'omisiZn EconZmica para @mRrica +atina y el 'aribe, 'E*@+, "ases de (atos y *ublicaciones EstadXsticas Easa de desempleo. $etrieved on 4-58C-5C43. 75. 1ump up E &e< *aper EQamines EcuadorPs )uccess in Emerging from Economic $ecessionU $educing *overty and Bnemployment g *ress $eleases. ' (4-54C-7C-4). $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. 74. c Jump up to: a b $ebeca, $ay and )ara, ;o#ameh. (,ay 4-54) Ecuador^s Economy )ince 4--2. p. 57. 78. 1ump up E Ecuador. Web.< (4-54C-7C55). $etrieved on 4-54C -2C4A. 7?. 1ump up E Ecuador firstChalf trade surplus rises to F80- mln g Energy = Nilg $euters. (4-54C-3C58). $etrieved on 4-54C-0C5?. 77. 1ump up E Nil $eserves. indeQmundi $etrieved on 4-58C-8C5?. 7A. 1ump up E Ecuador: Evolucion de la "alan#a 'omercial. "anco 'entral del Ecuador (JanuarySFebruary 4--3). 72. 1ump up E (o<nloads g )tatistics S *roductiong$elated (ocuments. $etrieved on 4-54C-0C5?. 73. 1ump up E ,apping for $esults S Ecuador, +atin @merica = 'aribbean. maps.< 70. 1ump up E Ecuador Facts, information, pictures g articles about Ecuador. $etrieved on 4-54C-0C5?. A-. 1ump up E $anking 4-5- S $anking completo. $ $etrieved on 4-54C-2C4A. A5. 1ump up E Industrias en 'BE&'@. $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. A4. 1ump up E )outh @merican 'ommunity &ations S @ndean 'ommunity C'@&. ' $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. A8. 1ump up E *rofile: ,ercosur S 'ommon ,arket of the )outh. ""' &e<s (4-54C-4C57). $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. A?. 1ump up E Which are its member countriesf A7. 1ump up E B&@)B$ ()outh @merican organi#ation) S "ritannica Nnline Encyclopedia. " (4--3C-7C48). $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. AA. 1ump up E Bnion of )outh @merican &ations. Internationaldemocracy< $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. A2. 1ump up E Ecuador student loan program increases funding for overseas study. " (500-C-5C-A). $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. A3. c Jump up to: a b c Ecuador^s Economy )ince 4--2 g $eports. ' $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. A0. 1ump up E @mRrica +atina y el 'aribe S Ecuador S (atos destacados. Web.< (4--7C-7C52). $etrieved on 4-54C-2C4A.

c Jump up to: a b c d ,apstone, (4--3C54C58). Ecuador defaults on sovereign bonds. Financial Eimes 25. 1ump up E &e<s @nd Bpdates. $etrieved on 4-54C-2C4A. 24. 1ump up E "est airport in the <orld S 4S7 million passengers g @). @<ards. @irportservice!ualitya< $etrieved on 4-54C-2C4A. 28. 1ump up E .uito, EcuadorPs &e< @irport S %ate<ay to the %alapagos. @dventure 'ruise &e<s (4-54C-8C58). $etrieved on 4-54C-2C4A. 2?. 1ump up E<orldlive.com6net<ork.phpf cid`454=cname`Ecuador 27. 1ump up E ,ongabay article on the environment of Ecuador 2A. 1ump up E 8&panish< El 3-> de ecuatorianos es catZlico 22. 1ump up E 8&panish< El 3-> de los ecuatorianos afirma ser catZlico, segYn el I&E' 23. 1ump up E +() &e<sroom, Facts and )tatistics, Ecuador 20. 1ump up E 4-58 Vearbook of JehovahPs Witnesses 3-. 1ump up E Ecuadorian Je<ish 'ommunity9dead link: 35. 1ump up E 'ongreso JudXo9dead link: 34. 1ump up E Eraveling $abbi %uide to Ecuador. (4-54C-3C 5A). $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. 38. 1ump up E ;eeping ;osher in the @ma#on $ainforest. (4-55C-7C-?). $etrieved on 4-54C-3C45. 3?. 1ump up E ,ishkJn VeshYa ,essianic Judaism )ynagoge 37. 1ump up E $esultados &acionales 'enso de *oblaciZn y Divienda . $etrieved 4-54C-4C4?. 3A. 1ump up E Ecuador: Dirtual Je<ish Oistory Eour . @mericanCIsraeli 'ooperative Enterprise. 4--?. $etrieved 4-58C-AC48. 32. 1ump up E ) Photos Bndi*enous people o/ Ecuador 33. 1ump up E ;ich<a ;ich<a language page 30. c Jump up to: a b "orWa, *iedad. "oceto de *oesXa Ecuatoriana,PJournal de la @cademia de +iteratura OispanoamericanaP, 5024 0-. 1ump up E $obertson, W.)., Histor& o/ the Latin-!merican Aations, 5074 05. 1ump up E ;arnis, Survivin* Pre-#olumbian 'rama, Ehe Johns Oopkins Bniversity *ress, 5074 04. 1ump up E (olores Deintimilla "rief biography 08. 1ump up E Ehe pride of Ecuador . ) 500AC-3C5?. $etrieved 4-5-C54C44. 0?. 1ump up E +arrea, Julio. 47 @Tos de Dida Institucional , Imprenta del ,inisterio de )alud *ublica, .uito 4--3. 07. 1ump up E Oistory of the ,inistry of *ublic Oealth . , $etrieved 4-54C-4C4?. 0A. c Jump up to: a b *rogram of the ,inistry of *ublic Oealth S Ecuador . , $etrieved 4-54C-4C4?. 02. c Jump up to: a b c d *ublic health care net<ork S ,inistry of *ublic Oealth S Ecuador . , $etrieved 4-54C-4C4?. 03. 1ump up E ,edical )ervices S Instituto Ecuatoriano de )eguridad )ocial . 4-5-C-4C50. $etrieved 4-54C-4C4?. 00. 1ump up E http:66<<<.bloomberg.com6visualCdata6bestCandC<orst6mostC efficientChealthCcareCcountries 2-.

5--. 1ump up E 'I@ S Ehe World Factbook S $ank Nrder S +ife EQpectancy @t "irth 5-5. c Jump up to: a b c Nlsont, (avid (4--0C-0C50). )till in its infancy, EcuadorPs free health care has gro<ing pains g Ecuador g )pecial $eports . * @rchived from the original on 4-5-C54C47. $etrieved 4-5-C-AC4A. 5-4. 1ump up E $eQ @. Oudson. +abor . EcuadorF ! countr& stud& ((ennis ,. Oanratty, ed.). +ibrary of 'ongress Federal $esearch (ivision (5030). ,his article incorporates te)t /rom this source, which is in the public domain5-8. 1ump up E Ecuador. 5-?. c Jump up to: a b c Ecuador . ,he 'epartment o/ Labor:s 3445 (indin*s on the Corst (orms o/ #hild Labor. "ureau of International +abor @ffairs, B.). (epartment of +abor. 4--4. 5-7. 1ump up E )panish Education )ystem, )panish Education )ystem (EeQt in )panish) 5-A. 1ump up E h)panishihttp:66elcomercio.com6sociedad6EecnologiaCinnovacionC emprendimientoCemprendedoresCEcuadorCdesarrolloC nuevasEecnologiase-e0070--?44.html 5-2. 1ump up E +avandera, J.$. (4--0C54C42). JosR rodrXgue# lavandera, el inventor. 5-3. 1ump up E 'heckprogram press release . $etrieved 4-54C -4C4?. 5-0. 1ump up E )ecretaria &acional de Educacion )uperior, 'iencia y Eecnologia. ) $etrieved on 4-54C-7C52.

3urther reading*edit+

@des, O. and %raham, ,. (4-5-) ,he Rou*h Duide to Ecuador, $ough %uides "ecker, ,. (4--3) Bndians and Le/tists in the 1akin* o/ Ecuador:s 1odern Bndi*enous 1ovements, (uke Bniversity *ress "ooks "ecker, ,. and 'lark, @. ;. (4--2) Hi*hland Bndians and the State in 1odern Ecuador, Bniversity of *ittsburgh *ress "lakenship, J. (4--7) #a?arF ! Eear in the Hi*hlands o/ Ecuador, Bniversity of EeQas *ress "ro<n, J. and )mith, J. (4--0) 1oon DuidebookF Ecuador and the DalGpa*os Bslands, @valon Eravel *ublishing 'ro<der, &. (4--0) #ulture ShockH EcuadorF ! Survival Duide to #ustoms and Eti.uette, ,arshall 'avendish 'orporation %erlach, @. (4--8) Bndians, Oil, and PoliticsF ! Recent Histor& o/ Ecuador, )$ "ooks Oandelsman, ,. O. (4--3) #ulture and #ustoms o/ Ecuador, %reen<ood Ourtado, N. (4-5-) Portrait o/ a AationF #ulture and Pro*ress in Ecuador, ,adison "ooks NP'onnor, E. (4--2) Dender, Bndian, AationF ,he #ontradictions o/ 1akin* Ecuador, 5IJ4K5=3L, Bniversity of @ri#ona *ress *ineo, $. (4--2) Ecuador and the Mnited StatesF Mse/ul Stran*ers, Bniversity of %eorgia *ress $oos, W. and Dan $enterghem, N. (4---) Ecuador in (ocusF ! Duide to the People, Politics, and #ulture, +atin @merica "ureau )a<yer, ). (4--?) #rude #hroniclesF Bndi*enous Politics, 1ultinational Oil, and Aeoliberalism in Ecuador, (uke Bniversity *ress "ooks

)triffler, ). (4--5) Bn the Shadows o/ State and #apitalF ,he Mnited (ruit #ompan&, Popular Stru**le, and !*rarian Restructurin* in Ecuador K 5=44K5==L, (uke Bniversity *ress "ooks Eorre, '. de la and )triffler, ). (4--3) ,he Ecuador ReaderF Histor&, #ulture, Politics, (uke Bniversity *ress "ooks Darious (4-5-) Bnsi*ht DuidebookF Ecuador N DalGpa*os, Insight %uides Darious (4--0) Lonel& Planet DuideF Ecuador N the DalGpa*os Bslands, +onely *lanet Whitten, &. E. (4-55) Histories o/ the PresentF People and Power in Ecuador, Bniversity of Illinois *ress Whitten, &. E. (4--8) 1illennial EcuadorF #ritical Essa&s on #ultural ,rans/ormations and Social '&namics, Bniversity Nf Io<a *ress

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