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Archaeology - Test 3

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400-323 BCE 450-400 BCE 479 BCE 480 BCE

Late Classical Period High Classical Period


black figure


a style in greek pottery decoration composed of black figures against a red background line of words written in alternating directions, an accepted choice in Greek writing used bronze to make things; before the iron age, had greek spoken word and written word, trade and buildings American archaeologist; associated Pylos with Nestar (from the Illiad and Odyssey); therefore naming the palace in Pylos - the Palace of Nestar women statues in place of columns main room in a temple; where cult statue is




year of the last battle of the Persian war that separates Archaic style to early classical year that the persians burned temples in Attica, The battle of salamis (Xerxes watches the defeat of his own fleet) Early Classical Period Early Archaic and High Archaic
73. 95.


bronze age


480-450 BCE 700-480 BCE 1000-700 BCE 1200 BCE 1200-1100 BCE abacus acropolis


Carl Blegan



Protogeometic and Geometric Period


caryatids cella centaur

20. 52.

date Pylos, the Palace of Nestar was destroyed date of destruction of Mycenean Civilization; unclear of who did it on top of echinus; square top of capital, in Doric and Ionic orders, but different sizes literally "top of the city"; the natural citadel of a greek city that served as a fortification or religious center extensive depopulation occurred; number of settlements dropped, poverty, absence of monumental construction, no evidence of trade, no clay tablets with Linear B script city centers where wall paintings were found including the Ship Fresco - inhabitants left before volcanic eruption a shape on pots with narrow mouth and two vertical handles that which turns around evil a style in early Greek art marked by increased naturalism, seen especially in the periods two predominant sculptural types, kouros and kore the father of Agamemnon british; went to Crete and excavated Knossos and found a complex covering 5 acres commons hape in Protocorithian pottery, a tiny tear-shaped or round flask for perfumed oil territory Greece comes to occupy; mountains and huge coastlines, agricultural plains exaggerated motion in reliefs such as the Great Altar, where their movements are telling the story, and no background





the Aegean in the Iron Age agros Akrotri

33. 10.

Greeks invented creatures; half man, half horse

58. 92.

chiton corbel construction corinthian order

linen a relieving triangle that lessens the weight of the stones which would otherwise be right over the door


amphoras apotropaic archaic style Arteus Arthur Evans aryballos Attica baroque style


68. 98.

19. 91.




the most elaborate of the greek architectural orders distinguished by a capital decorated with acanthus leaves


cornice cycladic islands cyclopean masonry

top element of entablature; forms the eaves along the sides of the building island named for bicycle because circular arrangement of islands; no writing here; where cycladic figurines were found style of building, meaning built by big cyclopses; walls made of huge blocks of rough-hewn stone; so called because of myth that a race of monsters known as the Cyclopes built them god of wine the oldest and simplest of the Greek architectural orders characterized by a heavy column that stands directly on a temple's stylobate entranceway round, with flat top above column on the Doric order with abacus on top upper section of a temple rests on columns, part of entablature, left plain in Doric order, carved with horizontal bands in Ionic order leveling course at the base of a temple a type of earthenware ceramic decorated with glazes three progressively projecting horizontal bands on epistyle; Ionic order concave groves on columns with ramp of Troy II: dates to second city of Troy (2400-2100 BCE); find "Priam's treasure" a style of early Greek ceramics characterized by circles, rectangles, and triangles arranged in parallel bands multi-storied, all connected, large open central court, throne room, stone floors and benches, griffins(bird headed felines) painted on the walls English archaeologist; excavated Mycenae after searching to prove his childhood dream that the Trojan War had historical truth; excavated inside the Lion's Gate greek word for greece spread of Greek culture to distant lands son of Hera, disformed and thrown off of olympus, makes Hera a golden throne that she can't get out of. dionysos asks him to drink wine and takes him to olympus to release Hera


heroon hoplites hoyuk

a tomb or shrine commemorating a hero; a man of larger-than-life qualities armies of citizen infantrymen an artificial mound consisting of the remains of successive layers of human habitation; Troy is an example of one columns aligned between the ends of a pair of walls lines are scratched through paint before pottery is fired


29. 21.



in antis incisions Ionic order


96. 71.

dionysos doric order


15. 38.

dromos echinus entablature epistyle

41. 42.

one of the Greek architectural orders characterized by columns either of caryatids or with scrolled capitals

35. 101.

euthynetheria faience fasciae fluting fortification wall of Troy IV geometric style the grand staircase

iron age


used iron to make tools and weapons; extensive depopulation and poverty from the absence of great building, nothing monumental, also no trade, illiteracy, due to a disaster? aka the Dark Age of Greece "beautiful girl"

112. 105.

kace kore

37. 51.




Heinrich Schliemann

a freestanding sculpture of a standing maiden

90. 86. 97.

hellas hellinistic hephaistos





a style in art that seeks to represent forms, including the human body, as they appear in nature sanctuary of zeus, where the olympics started room at back of a temple, making building symmetrical Arthur Evans (british archaeologist) uncovers this huge complex, over 5 acres; name is from legend; seems maze-like in plan (like labyrinth) all the gods as a group


olympia opisthodomos The palace of minos




pantheon pediment

a freestanding sculpture of a nude male youth




pots with perforated bases or bottoms to allow liquid offerings and rainwater to trickle into the ground


The Laocoon

the broad triangular space formed by the sloping roof of a temple


scultptors: hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athanadoros of Rhodes; found in Rome in 1506; priest knows not to trust Greeks, so he throws the spear at the Trojan horse, but two serpents come out of the water and kill him and his two sons (depicted)

The Peloponnesian War peplos Pericles

431-404 BCE; Athens v. Sparta; Athens is finally defeated, marking the end of the high classical period wool statesman that promotes the building program: The Acropolis of Athens The Parthenon The Propylaia The Erechtheion The Temple of Athena Nike mistress of Praxiteles, model of Aphrodite of Knidos if each piece of a bronze sculpture is made separately and then welded together large, clay jars; used to store olive oil, grain and lentils meaning city-state in Greek tyrant of Samos; 535-522 BCE; doesn't want to share power with other royal families; kills one brother, the other flees he built The Aphrodite of Knidos (one naked, one clothed); Phryne is mistress opening of a temple formal gateway on a sanctuary platform where actors would perform; stage

59. 76.

lost wax process

process used to make large bronze statues; used core of clay, cover in wax, put rods in, more clay, furnise - and put bronze where wax was (its lost! ) space sunk below the floor of the main room used as a bathroom new military weapons, including long pike (12-15 ft long), did not need heavy body armor, fought in formation called this; during time of Philip II tomb constructed for ruler of Halikarnassos; meaning any high official's above ground tomb ruler of Halikarnassos word used in Homer to denote the great hall plain spaces on frieze; Doric order half man, half bull; child of Pasiphal (Mino's wife) and bull; consummed 14 girls and boys annually until slayed
69. 31. 81. 79. 80.


lustral basin macedonian phalanx

Phryne piece casting pithoi polis Polykrates






23. 66.

82. 18. 45. 6.

Mausolus megaron metopes Minotaur

Praxiteles pronaos propylon proskene


red figure refinement

a style in greek pottery decoration composed of _____ ______s against a black background upward curvature of steps and stylobate effects columns; intended to over come natural optical illusions triangular space above the lintels is left empty to relieve pressure the technique of making an image in relief by delicately hammering the metal sheet from the back ceremonial drinking cup with pointed bottom located in Delphi; wall located around it, not supposed to enter if bad; believed top of mountain was sacred to Apollo; had theatre and held games; buried but found by French archaeologist




Greek word; in the Mycenean world means round, dome-shaped tombs build of fieldstone or exceptionally well-cut stone, laid in the corbelling effect and buried



relieving triangle repousse

treasury of atreus


12. 72.

rhyton sanctuary of apollo

in Mycenae, not a treasury but a tomb, long walls leading to doorway with relieving stone (used to have relief); enormous circular chamber; corbel vaulting



triglyphs tunnel of euphalinos volute white ground technique Wilhelm Dorpfeld

vertically grooved pieces that project from the surface alternate the metopes; Doric order tunnel with digging through both ends, solid rock - curve where they meet; has channel for water pipe: 16 ft deep, through mountain upside down scroll above column with thin abacus on top; Ionic order type of style; expensive technique, used white paint for background Schliemann's assistant who later took on his work, and clarified the sequences of troy in the 1890s




long, narrow building with long end opened with row of columns; well illuminated, well ventilated, roof provides protection
110. 36.


stylobate stylobate symposium

the top step of the raised platform of a temple three steps above the euthynetheria, uppermost called this in ancient greece, a gathering of men initially for the purpose of sharing poetry, food, and wine temple in Samos; 800-750 BCE; dimensions: 20x110 ft; short end is opened, three support systems; no standing architecture (proved by foundations); supports straight down the middle and at the end replicated the first temple in Samos; 700-650 BCE? found out date through pottery; columns support at side temple in Samos, 600-575 BCE; doesn't last that long, was burnt down; two rows of columns only surviving temple of Hera; three rows of columns blocks broken into squares to use for mosaics volcanic activity caused the center of this island to collapse into the sea



Temple of Hera I


Temple of Hera II Temple of Hera III Temple of Hera IV tesserae Thera



87. 9.