Cultural Anthropology

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157.

"Coffee Talk" in northern Nigeria

2.

Anthropology v. Sociology

Anthropology focuses on nonindustrial societies, uses ethnographies (them). Sociology focuses on industrial west, uses statistics and questionnaires (us). uses four fields to define and solve problems Material remains; prehistory; cultural transformation; patterns of adoption; excavation immediate expectation of something in return; short-duration transactions; reciprocity completed Never completely get rid of them. We need to minimize them as much as possible. Phrenology - used to support biases against dark skinned immigrants. refers to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a problem Physiological, genetic dimensions; Human evolution; Human genetics; Growth and development; Biological plasticity; Biology, evolution, behavior, and social life of monkeys, apes and other nonhuman primates; Charles Darwin Idea that everyone has equivalent capacities to culture and intelligence. Do not deny differences among populations. William labov, the way that African Americans speak; ebonics

23.

applied anthropology Archaeological

18.

people drop in unannounced; stay around and chat; meals are NOT for talking; sex segregated
155.

142.

2 sides of economics 4 sections of Economics Acculturation

production and consumption production, distribution, consumption, systems of exchange exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses and forces master category for studying economics; basic need for subsistence actions that individuals take, both alone and in groups, in forming and transforming cultural identities
16. 103.

Balanced Reciprocity Bias

123.

5.

89.

98.

adaptation adaptive strategies Agency

Bicultural

112.

70.

Biological Anthropology

119.

Agriculture

11.

Biopsychological equality Black English Vernacular (BEV)

188.

intensive cultivation of permanently occupied land; elaborate investment in equipment; terracing; requires more labor than horticulture;
137.

Alienation in Industrial Economies Anthropology

work is separate from personal life; I have no idea who physically made the sweater I am wearing Studies origins and social relationships of human beings. Comparative science that examines all societies, ancient and modern, simple and complex. Human species and ancestors. Compares customs of societies.

1.

107.

Bronislaw Malinowski

162.

Commerce; Policies that affect private life Commerce; Serve the public and corporate interests Consumption Conversation Core values Creole Language Cultural Anthropology

construction of public roads, homeowner's tax breaks

163.

real estate developers, corporate retailers; car manufacturers; oil companies

126. 28.

buy, use, eat, etc; social status method of ethnography ask questions; interviews key, basic, central values more syntax. A developed Pidgin language. Human culture/society Ethnographies/Ethnologies Similarities/differences between groups Large/small groups; far/close what people use/make what people do process by which a society adapts with its environment reason why particularities are becoming less common sharing beliefs and customs through inheritance What people Know Tacit, Explicit the perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by the standards of a home culture and that a behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context groups. Ability to preserve its culture, raise kids, language, not be deprived of economic base by its home nation cultural transmission of a communication system through learning is a fundamental attribute of language Traditions and customs, through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them; we all have a capacity for culture, we can learn any culture regardless of genes or physical apperance we need to eat by nature but culture tells us when and what

Intensive field work and participant observation in Melanesia; Get into head of the natives - Grasp their POV; Challenged the universality of Freud's Oeduipus complex
165.

58. 193.

15.

Call Systems

natural communication systems of other primates; limited number of calls, can be produced under particular environmental stimuli; vocal tract of apes is not suitable for speech "High Tech and High Heels"; discussing the idea that moving up in society means leaving your social circle; Barbados and desk jobs "The Flatts"; swapping ceremonies and rituals citizen's compliance with legal systems, participation in formal elections, membership in voluntary and faith based organizations

48.

Cultural Artifacts Cultural Behavior Cultural ecology Cultural Inheritance

154.

Carla Freeman Carol Stack Ceremonial fund Civic Culture Clifford Geertz

44.

111.

152. 132.

66.

73.

45.

109.

Cultural Knowledge cultural relativism

13.

84.

Cultural Rights Cultural transmission Culture

Culture is abstract, searching for meaning; Humanities → literary theory; Man is the symbol using animal; Culture is learned; Historically transmitted → changed, evolved; Analysis of culture is not experimental (as in law) but interpretive (as in meaning); Concrete elements of culture but culture does not mean things, culture means meanings;
113.

166.

51.

closed systems Cognitive Map

system operates inside of boundaries. not true anymore because of governmental systems Our culture gives us a map as to how we should act.
55.

9.

Culture and Nature

60.

Culture is adaptive Culture is allencompassing Culture is contested Culture is Instrumental

if it helps individuals cope with environmental stresses culture encompasses features that are sometimes regarded as trivial or unworthy of serious study different groups in a society struggle with another over whose ideas, values, goals and beliefs will prevail used to fulfill biological needs for food, drink, shelter, comfort and reproduction; used to fulfill psychological and emotional needs: friendship, companionship, approval, desired sexually when one part changes, others change; what would happen if religion disappeared overnight Geertz

108.

EB Tylor

56.

69.

Culture is concrete and measurable; Anthropology → Science; Acquired as a member of society; Scientific data collection: scientific methods can describe culture; Measurements, experiments, systematic Humanistic, concrete, holistic interrelations between living things and the environment economics in a comparative aspect environmental; technological; social; cultural; organisms and environment together in patterned arrangement of energy flows and exchanges Phonemic Meaning Subjective Insider Native's perspective Among the founders of sociology and anthropology Studied Native Australians process by which children learn traditions; school is an enculturation machine tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to apply one ones own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures period before westernization present an accurate, objective, scientific account of a different way of life; written by someone who knew it first hand process of discovering and describing a particular culture; good for societies with less social differentiation and greater cultural uniformity; refers to the method and product; ask people what they really think examines, interprets, analyzes and compares results of ethnographies; makes generalizations; Phonetic Noise Objective Outsider Scientist's observations culture we can talk about

19.

ecology Economic Anthropology Economic decision making factors ecosystem

59.

121.

128.

57.

Culture is integrated Culture is Learned Culture is maladaptive Culture is Shared

20.

52.

31.

Emic

61.

if they threaten a group's continued existence attributes of groups; shared beliefs, values, memories and expectations link people who grow up in the same culture Geertz, Leslie White
92.

54.

110.

Emilie Durkheim Enculturation Ethnocentrism

53.

Culture is Symbolic Culture v. Biology Daughter languages Deborah Tannen Descriptive linguistics dialogic ethnography Diffusion

95.

culture is not biological, but the two are interactive language that descend from the same parent language and that have been changing separately for many years

82.

189.

38. 169.

looked at communication similarities between men and women
34.

ethnographic present ethnographic realism Ethnography

171.

scientific study of spoken language how anthropologists/ readers connect with the cultures reason why particularities are becoming less common cultural borrowing Direct, Indirect, Forced high and low variants of the same language borrowing of traits between cultures how things get around reason why particularities are becoming less common; customs/procedures are imposed on one's culture by another that is more powerful
32. 25.

36.

24.

65.

186. 86.

Diglossia Direct Diffusion Distribution Domination (colonial rule)

Ethnology

Etic

125. 67.

47.

Explicit Knowledge

182.

Focal vocabulary Foraging

lexicon influences perception; specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups Hunting and Gathering; marginal locations; land is threatened by nationstates; ex. San of Southern Africa (Sara Baartman's tribe); low accumulation; high reward; egalitarian; rely on nature to make a living; modern foragers depend on government assistance; when one culture subjugates another and imposes its customs on the dominated group Late 19th century anthropologist; Father of anthropology → First USA department of anthropology at Columbia University; German Jew/ immigrant; Proponent of the 4 fields; Didn't racially classify culture helps individual meet their needs rather than society as a whole common to several but not all human groups ex. nuclear family (parents and family) reciprocity over time; always incomplete; people we're really close to; no immediate expectation of something in return Biological Adaptation over generations ex. larger barrel chests of native highlanders genes processes that work transnationally to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent

115.

Horticulture

slash and burn; crops for subsistence not markets; permanent settlements; depletes soil quickly; shifting cultivation; ecosystems with people individual. Right to speak freely, hold religions beliefs, etc. See Study Guide what people say they should do/what they do things that do not translate literally Openness and Disclosure; Do not harm; Anonymity of people; Keep qualities and relations the same, names are not important; Voluntary informed consent; Right to refuse participation; Think about the future of the discipline for other researchers; Open dissemination of findings innovation, solutions to cultural problems items/traits move from A to C through B without contact between A and C attempt to conserve each society's cultural base → core beliefs, knowledge, practices extends beyond and across national boundaries describing/interpreting what is meaningful to the natives method of ethnography a form an ethnographer completes as he or she visits a series of households; same questions for everyone=collect quantitative information

114.

21.

human ecology Human rights Humans and Primates Ideal Culture Idioms Important points of AAA Code of Ethics

83.

104.

88.

Forced Diffusion Franz Boas

78. 181. 49.

106.

93.

Functionalism Generality

63.

90.

Independent Innovation Indirect Diffusion Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) International Culture interpretive ethnography Interview Schedules

141.

Generalized Reciprocity Genetic Adaptation genotype Globalization

87.

85.

100.

76.

96. 91.

35.

29.

158.

History of Coffeehouses

first was in the middle easy in 16th century; many more in Europe in 17th century; typically for men to discuss important issues; many companies started as two men in coffeehouses
3.

Holism

All-encompassing. Study of human condition in the past, present and future focusing on biology, society, language and culture.

192.

K. David Harrison

105.

Lewis Henry Morgan

h 3 stages of civilization = Savage, barbaric, civilized
174.

Lexicon Linguistic

studied what happens when languages disappear; cultural diversity reduced; colonial languages are expanded at the expense of indigenous ones
144.

dictionary of morphemes and its meanings; essentially all the words in our vocabulary Language change over time; Social context/pressures; Linguistic variations and uses of language humans can talk about things that are not present occurs during growth and development of individual organisms; more efficient respiratory system research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period "The Gift" talked about the obligation to reciprocate, to give and receive and the significance of gifts dominates in capitalistic societies; governs the distribution of the means of production classic economies assume profit motive; quantify cost-benefit models; assume actors are rational left things to be traded in a certain area; if the goods were insufficient, they would be left as a symbol to leave more (specific reciprocity) ways of organizing production sound combinations; morphemes (words and their meaningful parts) through multiple places through time the belief that people everywhere see the world in the same way as we do Cultural, Biological, Linguistic, Archaeological Universal grammar; all languages have a set of underlying conditions and rules that remain constant through all languages of the world

17.

Karl Polany key consultants Kinesics

comparative study of exchange; market principle, redistribution, reciprocity informants who by accident, experience, talent or training who can provide the most useful information on parts of life study of communication through body movement, stances, gestures, and expressions; culture teaches us that certain manners and styles should accompany certain kinds of speech trobrian islands; trade cycle that circulated showcase items; these goods needed to be returned to original owner; not good to keep these things; giver > receiver arbitrary connections between words and what they stand for

168.

Linguistic Displacement Long Term Physiological Adaptation Longitudinal Study Marcel Mauss

30.

101.

170.

39.

145.

150.

Kula Ring

146.

The Market Principle Maximization strategies Mbuti Silent Trade

135.

164.

Language Larger context of "coffee talk"

151. 159.

122.

Mode of production Morphology multisited multitimed Naive Realism Name the 4 fields of anthropology Naom Chomsky

173.

42.

class structures and time constraints; gender expectations; commercialization of public space; consumption and identity
147.

41. 12.

Law of supply and demand

things cost more if they are more scarce and people want them

14.

179.

75.

National Culture Negative Reciprocity

embodies those beliefs, learned behavior patterns, values and institutions that are shared by citizens of the same nation dealing with people outside or on the fringe of their social system; purely economic, no relationship over time; hostile relationship; theft ecosystems of the past method of ethnography taking part in the event that one is observing, describing and analyzing unique to certain cultures; becoming less and less prominent

172.

Phonology Pidgin Language Pierre Bourdieu

study of speech sounds; which sounds are meaningful and present in a given language Terms from both languages, not fully grammatical sentences, used for trade

194.

143.

187.

22. 26.

paleoecology participant observation Particularities Pastoral Nomadism

64.

117.

linguistic practices are symbolic capital that properly trained people may convert into economic and social capitol; my fair lady; better language = higher society
72.

Popular Culture Potlach

images, info, narratives, products, events, celebrations that have meaning for many people within some national culture

149.

entire group moves with herd during the year
116.

Pastoralism

herding of domesticated animals for food/leather etc; transhumance and nomadism
120.

Native Americans threw a party and gave gifts; used this mechanism to enhance social status
71.

Practice Theory Prestige Principles of Mapmaking Private Culture Production Production in nonindustrial societies

Peasant Systems Peasants

in agriculture societies; Economy: system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources small scale agriculturists who live in nonindustrial states and have rent fund obligations body, not passed down sound contrast that makes a difference; comparing minimal parts study of the significant phonemes of each language study of speech sounds in general

individuals within a society have diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence impression of wealth, social status Culture gives us an idea of what our map looks like, but we do not have to follow the maps. not observable, must be asked about it → beliefs, values, expectations food, clothing, etc intimate; land as a means of production; specialization

138. 10.

134.

97. 176.

phenotype Phoneme Phonemics Phonetics

81.

124. 136.

178.

177.

167.

Productivity

using rules of language to produce entirely new expressions that are comprehensible to other native speakers original language from which daughter languages diverge generally accepted social behaviors, dress code, speech , etc. can be observed → rituals, clothing, behavior, pledge of allegiance, speech forms method of ethnography good friendly working relationship that is based on personal contact with hosts actual behavior exchange between social equals; central division of economic and social systems; generalized, balanced, negative range of reciprocity when goods, services, or equivalents more from the local level to a center; flow of products should reverse direction ethnographer puts his/her own feelings/reactions to the field situations right in the text Consciousness of researcher of who he is and his biases. Stating this explicitly in your work. resources that people must render to an individual or agency that is superior politically or economically maintain technology

131. 43.

Social fund social predictors Society Sociolinguistics Structuralism Style shifts Subculture

help relatives, friends, and neighbors variables that affect social identities, experiences and activities Organized life in groups. investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation culture helps society meet their needs when we vary our speech in different contexts different symbol based patterns and traditions associated with a particular group in the same complex society languages within a taxonomy of related languages that are most closely related work to eat, to replace the calories burned trying to work low income black single moms would swap things around (children included) in order to make survival possible under great scarcity (general reciprocity) Humans act toward things on the basis of meaning that those things have for them. Ex. Boulder -> obstacle? Meanings are handled and dealt with trough an interpretive process. Leslie White Signs that have no neceessary or natural connection to the things they stand for; meanings are arbitrary. arrangement/order of words in phrases and sentences culture, society, social relations human beings make up the system constrained by roles and others who gives what to whom culture we don't even see coordinated research by multiple ethnographers Cultural adaptation ex. pressurized airplane cabin with oxygen masks

190.

Protolanguage Public Culture Public Culture

4. 184.

74.

80.

94. 185.

27.

rapport

77.

79. 139.

Real Culture Reciprocity

191.

Subgroups Subsistence fund Swapping

129.

140.

Reciprocity continuum Redistribution

153.

148.

8.

37.

reflexive ethnography Reflexivity

Symbolic Interactionism

6.

7.

Symbols

133.

Rent fund

175.

Syntax System

130.

Replacement fund Rudolf Gaudio Salvage Ethnography Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

68.

156. 33.

"coffee talk"; analysis of going out for coffee study and record the cultural diversity threatened by westernization different languages produce different types of thinking; our mother tongue restrains our minds and prevents us from being able to think certain thoughts (Edward Sapir, Benjamin Lee Whorf) Hopi v. English status message; making people think we > them because we are busier a language's meaning system occurs spontaneously when an individual organism enters a new environment ex. increased heart rate, hyperventilation Answers that make you sound better; With time, these answers will fade because you will become close with these people
127.

Systems of exchange Tacit Knowledge team research Technology Adaptation

180.

46.

40.

160.

Scheduling Semantics Short Term Physiological Adaptation Social Desirability

99.

183. 102.

50.

118.

Transhumance

parts of the group go with the herds while the others stay in the village
62.

Universality

found in every culture ex. long period of infant dependency ex. year long sexuality

161.

Why coffee shops?

Less social inequality - Contrast with home, where social inequality is a key factor; we need to be "free" and unencumbered to have casual conversation