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PHYSICS 61A WINTER 2012 Midterm Exam: Feb 7, 2012, 11-12:20pm

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NOTE: THIS IS A CLOSED BOOK, CLOSED NOTES EXAM. NO PAPER ALLOWED ON YOUR DESK EXCEPT THE EXAM BOOK AND THE ONE-SIDED EQUATION SHEET. TO RECEIVE CREDIT, YOU MUST TURN IN YOUR EQUATION SHEET WITH YOUR NAME ON IT ALONG WITH THE EXAM. ONLY APPROVED CALCULATORS MAY BE USED. PLEASE WRITE LEGIBLY!! TO GET FULL CREDITS, YOU NEED TO SHOW YOUR WORK AND PUT A BOX AROUND THE ANSWERS. Total number of pages: 7

NAME:

1. (20pt) 2. (15pt) 2. (15pt) 3. (15pt) 4. (15pt) 5. (20pt)

TOTAL: (100pt)

1. Electrons of energy 12.2 eV are red at the hydrogen atoms in a gas discharge tube. Determine the wavelengths of the lines that can be emitted by the hydrogen. [20 points]

Solution: Maximum energy that can be absorbed by a hydrogen atom is equal to electron energy, 12.2 eV. Absorption of this energy could excite atom into an energy state En , assuming atom initially at the ground state.

En = E1 + 12.2 eV = 13.6 ev + 12.2 eV , E1 En = 2 . n Therefore, 14.4 eV = or n = 3.12 . 13.6 eV n2

(1) (2)

(3) (4)

Since n must be an integer, n = 3. There are three possible wavelengths, corresponding to three dierent transitions. 32 21 31 : : : 1 1 1 =R 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 =R 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 =R 2 2 1 3 = (0.011 nm)1 (1/4 1/9) , = (0.011 nm)1 (1/1 1/4) , = (0.011 nm)1 (1/1 1/9) . (5) (6) (7)

2. If the maximum energy imparted to an electron in Compton scattering is 60 keV, what is the wavelength of the incident photon? [15 pt]

Solution: Suppose the incident photon has wavelength 0 and energy E0 , while the scattered photon has wavelength and energy E . The maximum energy goes to the electron when = 180o . In this case, 0 = = The electron gains maximum kinetic energy, E = E0 E = hc hc . 0 0 + (9) 2h = 0.00486 nm . mc (8)

Solve for unknown 0 in the quadratic equation in 2 0 + 0 There are two solutions to the equation: 0 = 2 2
2

hc =0. E

(10)

hc . E

(11)

Only the plus sign gives the physical solution. Thus, 0 = 0.00788 nm . (12)

3. Consider a proton conned to a region of typical nuclear dimensions, about 5 fm. (a) Use the uncertainty principle to estimate its minimum possible kinetic energyin MeV, assuming that it moves only in one dimension. [9 pt] (b) How would your result be modied if the proton were conned in a three-dimensional cube of side 5 fm? [6 pt]

Solution: (a) Kmin = ( hc)2 ( hc)2 = 2ma2 (2mc2 a2 ) (197 MeV fm)2 = 2 (938 MeV) (5 fm)2 = 0.85 MeV . (13) (14) (15)

(b) K= Thus Kmin = 3 0.85 MeV = 2.5 MeV . (17)

2 2 p2 x + py + pz 2m

(16)

4. A surface has light of wavelength 1 = 550 nm incident on it, causing the ejection of photoelectrons for which the stopping potential is Vs1 = 0.2 eV. Suppose the radiation of wavelength 2 = 200 nm were incident on the surface. Calculate (a) the stopping potential Vs2 , [7 points] (b) the work function of the surface, and [4 points] (c) the threshold frequency for the surface. [4 points]

Solution: (a) eV = KEmax = hf W (18) (19) (20) (21)

e(Vs2 Vs1 ) = h(f2 f1 ) h hc 1 1 Vs2 = Vs1 + (f2 f1 ) = Vs1 + e e 2 1 = 0.20 + 1240(1/200 1/550) = 4.15 V

(b) W = hc 1240 eVs1 = 0.2 = 2.05 eV . 1 550 (22)

(c) hf = W f = W 2.07 (1.602 1019 ) = = 500 THz . h 6.63 1034 (23) (24)

5. A photon ( = 0.200 nm) strikes an electron at rest and rebounds at an angle of 120o to its original direction. (a) Find the speed of the photon after the collision. [5 points] (b) Find the wavelength of the photon after the collision. [10 points]

Solution: (a) speed of light in vacuum = c

(b) = + h (1 cos ) mc 6.63 1034 J s (1 cos 120o ) (9.1 1031 Kg)(3 108 m/s) (25) (26) (27)

= 2 1010 m + = 0.2036 nm .

6. An unusually long-lived unstable atomic state has a lifetime of 1 ms. (a) Roughly what is the minimum in its energy? [10 pt] (b) Assuming that the photon emitted when this state decays is visible ( 550 nm), what are the uncerntainty and fractional uncerntainty in its wavelength? [10 pt]

Solution: (a) E (b) = Therefore = 8 1011 nm , and = 1.5 1013 . (30) (31) hc = E hc E = E2 2 E . hc (29) h 6.58 1016 eV s = = 3.3 1013 eV . 2t 2 103 s (28)