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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • ALBANY, NY 12234

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ PHYSICS


2006 Edition
List of Physical Constants
Name Symbol Value
Universal gravitational constant G 6.67 × 10–11 N• m2/kg2
Acceleration due to gravity g 9.81 m/s2
Speed of light in a vacuum c 3.00 × 108 m/s
Speed of sound in air at STP 3.31 × 102 m/s
Mass of Earth 5.98 × 1024 kg
Mass of the Moon 7.35 × 1022 kg
Mean radius of Earth 6.37 × 106 m
Mean radius of the Moon 1.74 × 106 m
Mean distance—Earth to the Moon 3.84 × 108 m
Mean distance—Earth to the Sun 1.50 × 1011 m
Electrostatic constant k 8.99 × 109 N• m2/C2
1 elementary charge e 1.60 × 10–19 C
1 coulomb (C) 6.25 × 1018 elementary charges
1 electronvolt (eV) 1.60 × 10–19 J
Planck’s constant h 6.63 × 10–34 J• s
1 universal mass unit (u) 9.31 × 102 MeV
Rest mass of the electron me 9.11 × 10–31 kg
Rest mass of the proton mp 1.67 × 10–27 kg
Rest mass of the neutron mn 1.67 × 10–27 kg

Prefixes for Powers of 10 Approximate Coefficients of Friction


Prefix Symbol Notation Kinetic Static
tera T 1012 Rubber on concrete (dry) 0.68 0.90
giga G 109 Rubber on concrete (wet) 0.58
mega M 106 Rubber on asphalt (dry) 0.67 0.85
kilo k 103 Rubber on asphalt (wet) 0.53
deci d 10 –1 Rubber on ice 0.15
centi c 10 –2 Waxed ski on snow 0.05 0.14
milli m 10 –3 Wood on wood 0.30 0.42
micro µ 10 –6 Steel on steel 0.57 0.74
nano n 10 –9 Copper on steel 0.36 0.53
Teflon on Teflon 0.04
pico p 10 –12
The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Wavelength in a vacuum (m)

10–13 10–12 10–11 10–10 10–9 10–8 10–7 10–6 10–5 10–4 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 101 102 103 104

X rays Microwaves Long Radio Waves

TV,
Gamma Rays Ultraviolet Infrared FM AM

Radio Waves

1021 1020 1019 1018 1017 1016 1015 1014 1013 1012 1011 1010 109 108 107 106 105

Frequency (Hz)

Visible Light
(not to scale)
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
7.69 × 1014

6.59 × 1014

6.10 × 1014

5.20 × 1014

5.03 × 1014

4.82 × 1014

3.84 × 1014

Absolute Indices of Refraction


(f = 5.09 × 1014 Hz)

Air 1.00

Corn oil 1.47

Diamond 2.42

Ethyl alcohol 1.36

Glass, crown 1.52

Glass, flint 1.66

Glycerol 1.47

Lucite 1.50

Quartz, fused 1.46

Sodium chloride 1.54

Water 1.33

Zircon 1.92

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition Page 2


Energy Level Diagrams
Hydrogen Mercury
Level Energy (eV) Level Energy (eV)
Ionization
n=∞ 0.00
n=6 –0.38
n=5 –0.54
n=4 –0.85
n=3 –1.51
Ionization
j 0.00
n=2 –3.40
i –1.56
h –1.57
g –2.48
f –2.68
e –3.71

d –4.95
c –5.52
b –5.74

Ground State Ground State


n=1 –13.60 a –10.38
Energy Levels for the Hydrogen Atom A Few Energy Levels for the Mercury Atom

Classification of Matter Particles of the Standard Model


Quarks
Matter Name up charm top
Symbol u c t
Charge +2 e +2 e +2 e
3 3 3
Hadrons Leptons
down strange bottom
d s b
–1 e –1 e –1 e
3 3 3
Baryons Mesons
Leptons
electron muon tau
e µ τ
three quark and –1e –1e –1e
quarks antiquark
electron muon tau
neutrino neutrino neutrino
νe νµ ντ
0 0 0
Note: For each particle, there is a corresponding antiparticle with a
charge opposite that of its associated particle.
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition Page 3
Electricity
kq1q2
Fe = A = cross-sectional area
r2
E = electric field strength
F
E= e Fe = electrostatic force
q
I = current
V= W k = electrostatic constant
q
L = length of conductor
∆q
I= P = electrical power
t
q = charge
R= V R = resistance
I
Req= equivalent resistance
ρL
R= r = distance between centers
A
t = time
V2
P = VI = I 2R = V = potential difference
R
W = work (electrical energy)
V 2t ∆ = change
W = Pt = VIt = I2Rt =
R
ρ = resistivity

Series Circuits Parallel Circuits


I = I1 = I2 = I3 = . . . I = I1 + I2 + I3 + . . .

V = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . . V = V1 = V2 = V3 = . . .

Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . . 1 1 1 1
Req = R1 + R 2 + R3 + . . .

Circuit Symbols
Resistivities at 20°C
cell
Material Resistivity (Ω• m)
battery Aluminum 2.82 × 10–8
switch Copper 1.72 × 10–8

V voltmeter Gold 2.44 × 10–8


Nichrome 150. × 10–8
A ammeter
Silver 1.59 × 10–8
resistor
Tungsten 5.60 × 10–8
variable resistor

lamp

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition Page 4


Waves
v = fλ c = speed of light in a vacuum
1 f = frequency
T=
f
n = absolute index of refraction
θi = θr T = period
n= c v = velocity or speed
v
λ = wavelength
n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2
θ = angle
n2 v1 λ1 θi = angle of incidence
n1 = v2 = λ θr = angle of reflection
2

Modern Physics
Ephoton = hf = hc c = speed of light in a vacuum
λ
Ephoton = Ei – Ef E = energy
f = frequency
E = mc 2
h = Planck’s constant
m = mass
λ = wavelength

Geometry and Trigonometry


Rectangle A = area
A = bh b = base

Triangle C = circumference

A= 1
bh h = height
2
r = radius
Circle
A = πr 2
C = 2πr

Right Triangle
c 2 = a2 + b 2

sin θ = a c
c a
cos θ = b
c
90° θ
tan θ = a
b b

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition Page 5


Mechanics
d a = acceleration
v = t ac = centripetal acceleration
A = any vector quantity
a = ∆v
t d = displacement or distance
vf = vi + at ET = total energy

d = vit + 1 2
at F = force
2
Fc = centripetal force
vf2 = vi2 + 2ad
Ff = force of friction
Ay = A sin θ Fg = weight or force due to gravity
FN = normal force
Ax = A cos θ
Fnet = net force
F
a = net Fs = force on a spring
m
g = acceleration due to gravity or
Ff = µFN gravitational field strength
Gm1m2 G = universal gravitational constant
Fg =
r2 h = height
Fg J = impulse
g=
m k = spring constant
p = mv KE = kinetic energy

pbefore = pafter m = mass


p = momentum
J = Fnet t = ∆p P = power
Fs = kx PE = potential energy
1 2 PEs = potential energy stored in a spring
PEs = 2
kx
Q = internal energy
Fc = mac r = radius or distance between centers
2 t = time interval
ac = v
r v = velocity or speed
∆PE = mg∆h v = average velocity or average speed
1 W = work
KE = 2
mv2
x = change in spring length from the
W = Fd = ∆ET equilibrium position
∆ = change
ET = PE + KE + Q
θ = angle
P = W = Fd = F v µ = coefficient of friction
t t

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition Page 6


DET 615 96-05540 96-040 CDC