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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • ALBANY, NY 12234

2006 Edition

List of Physical Constants

Name Symbol Value

Universal gravitational constant G 6.67 × 10–11 N• m2/kg2

Acceleration due to gravity g 9.81 m/s2

Speed of light in a vacuum c 3.00 × 108 m/s

Speed of sound in air at STP 3.31 × 102 m/s

Mass of Earth 5.98 × 1024 kg

Mass of the Moon 7.35 × 1022 kg

Mean radius of Earth 6.37 × 106 m

Mean radius of the Moon 1.74 × 106 m

Mean distance—Earth to the Moon 3.84 × 108 m

Mean distance—Earth to the Sun 1.50 × 1011 m

Electrostatic constant k 8.99 × 109 N• m2/C2

1 elementary charge e 1.60 × 10–19 C

1 coulomb (C) 6.25 × 1018 elementary charges

1 electronvolt (eV) 1.60 × 10–19 J

Planck’s constant h 6.63 × 10–34 J• s

1 universal mass unit (u) 9.31 × 102 MeV

Rest mass of the electron me 9.11 × 10–31 kg

Rest mass of the proton mp 1.67 × 10–27 kg

Rest mass of the neutron mn 1.67 × 10–27 kg

Prefix Symbol Notation Kinetic Static

tera T 1012 Rubber on concrete (dry) 0.68 0.90

giga G 109 Rubber on concrete (wet) 0.58

mega M 106 Rubber on asphalt (dry) 0.67 0.85

kilo k 103 Rubber on asphalt (wet) 0.53

deci d 10 –1 Rubber on ice 0.15

centi c 10 –2 Waxed ski on snow 0.05 0.14

milli m 10 –3 Wood on wood 0.30 0.42

micro µ 10 –6 Steel on steel 0.57 0.74

nano n 10 –9 Copper on steel 0.36 0.53

Teflon on Teflon 0.04

pico p 10 –12

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

10–13 10–12 10–11 10–10 10–9 10–8 10–7 10–6 10–5 10–4 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 101 102 103 104

TV,

Gamma Rays Ultraviolet Infrared FM AM

Radio Waves

1021 1020 1019 1018 1017 1016 1015 1014 1013 1012 1011 1010 109 108 107 106 105

Frequency (Hz)

Visible Light

(not to scale)

Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

7.69 × 1014

6.59 × 1014

6.10 × 1014

5.20 × 1014

5.03 × 1014

4.82 × 1014

3.84 × 1014

(f = 5.09 × 1014 Hz)

Air 1.00

Diamond 2.42

Glycerol 1.47

Lucite 1.50

Water 1.33

Zircon 1.92

Energy Level Diagrams

Hydrogen Mercury

Level Energy (eV) Level Energy (eV)

Ionization

n=∞ 0.00

n=6 –0.38

n=5 –0.54

n=4 –0.85

n=3 –1.51

Ionization

j 0.00

n=2 –3.40

i –1.56

h –1.57

g –2.48

f –2.68

e –3.71

d –4.95

c –5.52

b –5.74

n=1 –13.60 a –10.38

Energy Levels for the Hydrogen Atom A Few Energy Levels for the Mercury Atom

Quarks

Matter Name up charm top

Symbol u c t

Charge +2 e +2 e +2 e

3 3 3

Hadrons Leptons

down strange bottom

d s b

–1 e –1 e –1 e

3 3 3

Baryons Mesons

Leptons

electron muon tau

e µ τ

three quark and –1e –1e –1e

quarks antiquark

electron muon tau

neutrino neutrino neutrino

νe νµ ντ

0 0 0

Note: For each particle, there is a corresponding antiparticle with a

charge opposite that of its associated particle.

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics 2006 Edition Page 3

Electricity

kq1q2

Fe = A = cross-sectional area

r2

E = electric field strength

F

E= e Fe = electrostatic force

q

I = current

V= W k = electrostatic constant

q

L = length of conductor

∆q

I= P = electrical power

t

q = charge

R= V R = resistance

I

Req= equivalent resistance

ρL

R= r = distance between centers

A

t = time

V2

P = VI = I 2R = V = potential difference

R

W = work (electrical energy)

V 2t ∆ = change

W = Pt = VIt = I2Rt =

R

ρ = resistivity

I = I1 = I2 = I3 = . . . I = I1 + I2 + I3 + . . .

V = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . . V = V1 = V2 = V3 = . . .

Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . . 1 1 1 1

Req = R1 + R 2 + R3 + . . .

Circuit Symbols

Resistivities at 20°C

cell

Material Resistivity (Ω• m)

battery Aluminum 2.82 × 10–8

switch Copper 1.72 × 10–8

Nichrome 150. × 10–8

A ammeter

Silver 1.59 × 10–8

resistor

Tungsten 5.60 × 10–8

variable resistor

lamp

Waves

v = fλ c = speed of light in a vacuum

1 f = frequency

T=

f

n = absolute index of refraction

θi = θr T = period

n= c v = velocity or speed

v

λ = wavelength

n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2

θ = angle

n2 v1 λ1 θi = angle of incidence

n1 = v2 = λ θr = angle of reflection

2

Modern Physics

Ephoton = hf = hc c = speed of light in a vacuum

λ

Ephoton = Ei – Ef E = energy

f = frequency

E = mc 2

h = Planck’s constant

m = mass

λ = wavelength

Rectangle A = area

A = bh b = base

Triangle C = circumference

A= 1

bh h = height

2

r = radius

Circle

A = πr 2

C = 2πr

Right Triangle

c 2 = a2 + b 2

sin θ = a c

c a

cos θ = b

c

90° θ

tan θ = a

b b

Mechanics

d a = acceleration

v = t ac = centripetal acceleration

A = any vector quantity

a = ∆v

t d = displacement or distance

vf = vi + at ET = total energy

d = vit + 1 2

at F = force

2

Fc = centripetal force

vf2 = vi2 + 2ad

Ff = force of friction

Ay = A sin θ Fg = weight or force due to gravity

FN = normal force

Ax = A cos θ

Fnet = net force

F

a = net Fs = force on a spring

m

g = acceleration due to gravity or

Ff = µFN gravitational field strength

Gm1m2 G = universal gravitational constant

Fg =

r2 h = height

Fg J = impulse

g=

m k = spring constant

p = mv KE = kinetic energy

p = momentum

J = Fnet t = ∆p P = power

Fs = kx PE = potential energy

1 2 PEs = potential energy stored in a spring

PEs = 2

kx

Q = internal energy

Fc = mac r = radius or distance between centers

2 t = time interval

ac = v

r v = velocity or speed

∆PE = mg∆h v = average velocity or average speed

1 W = work

KE = 2

mv2

x = change in spring length from the

W = Fd = ∆ET equilibrium position

∆ = change

ET = PE + KE + Q

θ = angle

P = W = Fd = F v µ = coefficient of friction

t t

DET 615 96-05540 96-040 CDC

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