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Engineering Analysis using Scilab and C

Version 0.2 (August 2006)

Engineer On a Disk
Overview: This note set is part of a larger collection of materials available at http://claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu. You are welcome to use the material under the license provided at http://claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu/eod/global/copyrght.html. As always any feedback you can provide will be welcomed. This section last updated: August 14, 2006 Copyright © 1993-2006, Hugh Jack email: jackh@gvsu.edu phone: (616) 331-6755 fax: (616) 331-7215

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1. PREFACE ........................................................................................................................... 12 1.1 Todo - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 1.2 Problems Not Sorted - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 2. NUMERICAL VALUES AND UNITS ............................................................................. 16 2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 2.2 Numerical Values - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 Constants and Other Stuff- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 Factorial - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 Significant Figures - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 Scientific and Engineering Notations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 2.3 Complex Numbers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 2.4 Units and Conversions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 How to Use Units - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 SI Units - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22 A Table - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 2.5 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27 3. ALGEBRA.......................................................................................................................... 29 3.1 The Fundamentals - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29 Basic Operations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29 Exponents - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30 Basic Polynomials - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31 3.2 Special Forms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 33 Completing the Square - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 33 Newton-Raphson to Find Roots - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34 3.3 Complex Numbers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35 3.4 Equality and Inequality - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38 3.5 Functions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 40 3.6 Special Functions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 Logarithms- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 3.7 Solving Systems of Linear Equations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 Substitution - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 43 Addition - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 43 3.8 Simplifying Polynomial Expressions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 44 Partial Fractions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 44 Summation and Series - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 47 3.9 Limits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 49 3.10 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 49 3.11 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 53 4. TRIGONOMETRY ............................................................................................................ 55 4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 55 Functions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 56 Inverse Functions- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 59 Triangles- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 60 Relationships- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 61 Hyperbolic Functions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 63 Special Relationships - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 64

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Planes, Lines, etc. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 65 4.2 Coordinate Systems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 67 Cylindrical Coordinates- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 67 Spherical Coordinates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 68 4.3 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 69 5. VECTORS .......................................................................................................................... 73 5.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 73 Dot (Scalar) Product - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 74 Cross Product - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 79 5.2 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 81 6. MATRICES ........................................................................................................................ 82 6.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 82 Basic Matrix Operations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 83 Determinants - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 85 Transpose - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 86 Adjoint Matrices - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 86 Inverse Matrices - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 87 Identity Matrix - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88 Eigenvalues - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88 Eigenvectors - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88 6.2 Matrix Applications - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88 Solving Linear Equations with Matrices - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88 Gauss-Jordan Row Reduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 91 Cramer’s Rule - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 92 Triple Product - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 94 Gauss-Siedel - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 94 6.3 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 94 7. GRAPHING........................................................................................................................ 97 7.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 97 7.2 Graphing Functions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 98 7.3 LOG Plots - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 99 7.4 Multiple Plots - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 99 7.5 Other Items of Interest - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 100 7.6 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 100 7.7 Challenge Problem - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 101 8. PROGRAMMING ............................................................................................................ 102 8.1 Overview - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 102 8.2 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 102 8.3 Examples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 105 8.4 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 109 8.5 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 109 8.6 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 109 9. PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS .................................................................. 110 9.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 110 9.2 Permutations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 110 9.3 Combinations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 111

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9.4 Probability - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 112 9.5 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 114 10. STATISTICS .................................................................................................................. 117 10.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 117 10.2 Data Distributions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 118 Histograms- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 119 10.3 Discrete Distributions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 121 Normal Distribution - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 121 Hypergeometric Distribution - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 121 Binomial Distribution- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 122 Poisson Distribution - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 125 10.4 Other Distributions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 127 Polynomial Expansions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 127 Discrete and Continuous Probability Distributions - - - - - - - - - - - 127 10.5 Continuous Distributions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 128 Describing Distribution Centers With Numbers - - - - - - - - - - - - 129 Dispersion As A Measure of Distribution - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 130 The Shape of the Distribution - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 132 Kurtosis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 133 Generalizing From a Few to Many - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 134 The Normal Curve - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 135 Probability plots - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 136 10.6 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 138 10.7 Challenege Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 139 11. RELIABILITY................................................................................................................ 140 11.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 140 11.2 Component Failure Rates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 141 11.3 Serial System Reliabilty - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 147 11.4 Parallel System Reliability - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 148 11.5 Formal Analysis Techniques - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 150 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) - - - - - - - - - - - - - 150 11.6 References and Bibliography - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 152 11.7 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 152 12. CALCULUS ................................................................................................................... 154 12.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 154 12.2 Derivatives - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 154 12.3 Integrals - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 158 Integration Examples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 163 12.4 Vectors - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 164 12.5 Numerical Tools - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 166 Approximation of Integrals and Derivatives from Sampled Data - - - - 166 Centroids and Moments of Inertia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 167 12.6 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 167 13. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ......................................................... 172 13.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 172 13.2 Explicit Solutions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 173

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13.3 Responses - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 187 First-order - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 188 Second-order - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 194 Other Responses - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 199 13.4 Response Analysis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 202 13.5 Non-Linear Systems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 204 Non-Linear Differential Equations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 205 Non-Linear Equation Terms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 209 Changing Systems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 212 13.6 Case Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 218 13.7 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 222 13.8 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 222 13.9 Problems Solutions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 227 13.10 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 233 14. ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING REVIEW ................................... 234 14.1 Introductions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 234 14.2 Examples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 234 14.3 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 234 14.4 References/Bibliography - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 234 14.5 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 235 14.6 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 235 15. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REVIEW ................................................................. 237 15.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 237 15.2 Examples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 237 15.3 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 237 15.4 References/Bibliography - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 237 15.5 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 237 15.6 Challenege Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 238 16. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING OVERVIEW .............................................................. 240 16.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 240 16.2 Examples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 240 16.3 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 240 16.4 References/Bibliography - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 240 16.5 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 240 17. PRODUCT DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING REVIEW........................................ 242 17.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 242 17.2 Examples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 242 17.3 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 242 17.4 References/Bibliography - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 242 17.5 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 243 17.6 Challenege Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 243 18. BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN ........................................................................................ 245 18.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 245 18.2 Boolean Algebra - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 245 18.3 Logic Design - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 250 Boolean Algebra Techniques - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 256

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18.4 Common Logic Forms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 257 Complex Gate Forms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 257 Multiplexers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 258 18.5 Simple Design Cases - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 259 Basic Logic Functions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 259 Car Safety System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 260 Motor Forward/Reverse- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 261 A Burglar Alarm - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 261 18.6 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 265 18.7 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 266 18.8 Problem Solutions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 271 18.9 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 278 19. NUMBERS AND DATA ............................................................................................... 279 19.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 279 19.2 Numerical Values - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 280 Binary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 280 Boolean Operations 283 Binary Mathematics 284 Other Base Number Systems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 288 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 289 19.3 Data Characterization - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 289 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - - - - - 289 Parity - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 292 Checksums- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 293 Gray Code - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 294 19.4 Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 295 19.5 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 295 19.6 Problems Solutions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 298 19.7 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 301 20. TRANSFORMS.............................................................................................................. 302 20.1 Laplace Transforms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 302 Laplace Transform Tables - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 303 20.2 z-Transforms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 305 20.3 Fourier Series - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 308 20.4 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 308 20.5 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 309 21. GEOMETRY .................................................................................................................. 310 21.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 310 Inertia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 310 21.2 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 329 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 329 22. FINANCIAL ................................................................................................................... 330 22.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 330 22.2 Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 337 22.3 Challenge Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 338 23. OPTIMIZATION............................................................................................................ 339

...3 Applications .2 Data Structures ...........................367 Precedence Identification ..........370 25..........354 Simplex ....................................6 Challenge Problems .......................360 24..........339 Cost Functions and Constraints .........3 Applications ...2 23...............................................356 24......................354 23..............353 Gradient Decent ..1 Introduction ............ DIRECTED GRAPHS .......................374 Precedence Identification ....354 23...........................5 Problems .........4 Summary ............................367 Graph Searching ....363 25.369 25.............344 Example Problem .................................. 362 25....................................................................................2 Gantt Charts ....362 25.......356 24.......7 Problems ...............374 Tree Searching ..340 Single Variable Searches ........1 Introduction ......................5 Summary .........7 Challenge Problems .............377 26......................................................339 System Modeling and Variable Identification ............... 356 24.........................................377 26......................................................................................................................................................................6 Challenge Problems ...........5 Problems ............................................... 371 26................368 25...............354 24.................3 23.350 Algorithms....................377 23..........344 23..........................361 25.....4 Other Topics ......6 Problems .....................................................................................................6 Summary .............................................page 8 Introduction ....................370 26...........................3 Critical Path Method (CPM) ...............................353 Random Walk ...375 26...........................................5 Multivariable Searches ....................372 26..354 23.............................................371 26..4 Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) ......................2 Data Structures .......1 23..357 24................. TREE DATA STRUCTURES.........................1 Introduction ..............................................359 24.........8 Challenge Problems ...............370 25...........................................................................................4 ................... PROJECT SCHEDULING .................................

. Semester Project: Students will work individually on a semester project that explores an advanced area of engineering analysis. The project report will emphasize the need for the clear communication of mathematical concepts including a written report and an oral presentation. The course will focus on solving problems such as project management. Pre-requisite:Admission to MSE or permission of instructor Texts: Software: Instructor: Office: E-mail addresses: Phone: Office hours: Class time: Jack. and system modeling. however Matlab may also be used.edu 331-6755 5:00-6:00pm Mondays 6:00-8:50pm Mondays Instruction Methods: Lecture. Engineering Analysis. Scilab (www. economic justification. discussion. Exams: A midterm and comprehensive final will be used to assess student learning. Computer Use: Students will be expected to use computers to analyze engineering problems. modeling random processes. H.scilab. 2006. Homework: Weekly homework problems will be assigned to reinforce concepts. Hugh Jack EC 718 jackh@gvsu. The course will make extensive use of computers in an active learning environment.page 9 EGR 600 – Analysis Summer 2006 Description: Undergraduate mathematics topics are reviewed and then extended to solve advanced engineering problems. Grading Policies: .org) or Matlab C/C++ compiler Dr. Quizzes: Quizzes will be given frequently to assess pre-lecture reading and topic mastery. Scilab will be the preferred computational platform. assignments. risk analysis. Students may be required to write programs in C or C++. In some cases students will be assigned alternate homework problems specific to their discipline.

(by discipline) Chapter .Projects Directed graphs Chapter .Reliability Project scheduling Chapter . 11. 9. 8. 10.Optimization System reliability Chapter .Transforms Optimization Chapter .Boolean Chapter . 7.Trees .Financial General emphasis specific review Chapter . 6.page 11 5.Differential Equations Economics Chapter .Graphs Chapter . Differential equations Chapter .

short chapters.add a symbolic algebra package Topics to Add/expand ??--------------------------------------------------analysis of constrained path systems Discrete math Algebra power series and Taylor series Data graphing data error estimation linear regression curve fitting with splines data representation graphs. or working professionals looking for review/topical introduction. . . . This allows review material to be reviewed without having it dominate the book .the book is designed for use for entry level graduate students.page 12 27. 27. as a review it is done in the interests of brevity.written from an engineers perspective . .1 Todo . tables and accuracy .chapters begin and end with summaries .asides and notes are given as appropriate .example programs are boxed .using mathematics as a tool .create a map of techniques for solving specific problems. Scilab has been used because it is available freely.computer based solutions are used liberally throughout the book with a bias towards practical problems. PREFACE . but is very similar to matlab .in some cases topics are presented out of order.the text is written to be very direct and student friendly in tone.programs are written in C and Scilab. Although this would be a major problem if it was a first introduction.review modules are marked with the title review.basic book design . easily used as one or more modules per class .sample problem solutions are boxed .

page 13 statistical analysis of a system Random Processes random number generation prediction of process outcome Quality control System Modeling (ME) state space analysis (ME) Eigenvalues and vectors Advanced Calculus (ME) Partial differential equations (ECE) Laplace transforms Convolution Fast Fourier transforms differential equations. Bessel EM Theory review Feedback Control Theory 3 phase electrical theory .Fourier. state space and numerical integration Optimization (PDM) Searching convex/concave functions (MO) Searching convex/concave functions (MO) Gradient descent (MO) Cost and penalty functions Programming programs .basic structure and execution program entry points syntax Variable names variable/data types input outputs logical expression conditional execution with ifs for loops and conditions functions/subroutines input/output argument lists defining a function calling a function and dealing with return values the difference between calling and defining a function Discipline Specific ECE Frequency domain .

The new equipment costs \$150. Compare the present value of the two options. The decision to purchase the new machine will be based on a 3 year period with a 25% interest rate. ·· + 4 x · + 2x = 3 x x(0) = 1 · (0) = 0 x 12c.J1 . 2 x(t) = 5 Kd3 Ks3 M3 Ks2 R2. A new piece of automated equipment is being considered to replace the manual production line.000 and requires \$30. An existing manual production line costs \$100. 14. Find x(t).000 to operate. For the system pictured below put the equations in state variable form and simulate the system using numerical integration. A mass is hung in the middle of the arrangement with springs and dampers on either side.= ------------------------2 x( s) s + 6s + 9 12b. Assume values to test your program. A pulley system has the bottom pulley anchored.J2. Find y(t). y( s) s + 4s --------.page 14 27.000 to operate per year.2 Problems Not Sorted 12a.M2 x2 x3 F1 θ1 R1. Assume that the cable is always tight.

R3 + Vi R1=R2=R3=R4=1Kohm C=1uF a) V i = 5 sin ( 100 t ) b) c) V i = 5 sin ( 1000000 t ) Vi = 5 + R4 C Vo R1 R2 .page 15 15. Find the steady state outputs for the system using the given input functions.

NUMERICAL VALUES AND UNITS Topics: • Numbers. often represented with a lower case symbol constant .1 Constants and Other Stuff • Some basic definitions. numeric . • greek letters are often used for variables and constants .a symbol used to represent a quantity that will change.1 Introduction 28.letters or numbers below a variable to create new (related) variables. including significant figures • To review the use of units to keep track of numerical magnitudes 28.a literal numerical value variable . often represented with an upper case symbol subscripts .2 Numerical Values 28. Units Objectives: • To review the use of basic numbers.2. Constants.page 16 28.a value that will not change.

page 17 lower case α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ µ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω upper case Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω name alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota kappa lambda mu nu xi omicron pi rho sigma tau upsilon phi chi psi omega • The constants listed are some of the main ones.1415927 … = pi γ = 0. other values can be derived through calculation.29578 ° .7182818 … = lim ⎛ 1 + -n⎠ n → ∞⎝ π = 3. n 1 -⎞ = natural logarithm base e = 2.57721566 = Eulers constant 1 radian = 57.

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• In Scilab // basic variables and constants a = 5; // define a variable with a value of 5 b = %pi; // the value for pi is assigned to b c = %e; // the natural number d = %inf; // infinity e = %nan; // not a number m = %t; // a logical true n = %f; // a logical false p = %i; // the imaginary number q = eps; // a very small positive number, or 0+ abs(x); // returns the magnitude of x int(x); // converts a real to an integer value // getting information who // print all variables help sin // open a help window for the sin function help + // get help on basic operators apropos imaginary // look for functions on imaginary numbers

28.2.2 Factorial
• A compact representation of a series of increasing multiples. n! = 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 ⋅ … ⋅ n 0! = 1

28.2.3 Significant Figures
• Sig figures rules,

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- leading zeroes do not count as significant figures. - trailing zeros will count as significant figures. - when doing multiplying the results should will (generally) have the same number of significant figures as the least significant number. - when adding, the least accurate number determines the accuracy of the result.

123.456 123.45600 0.000345 3 123 ⋅ 456789 = 56185047 = 56.2 × 10 3 0.12 ( 3456 ) = 414.72 = 0.41 × 10 34 + 56.789 = 90.789 = 91

6 significant figures 8 significant figures 3 significant figures 3 significant figures 2 significant figures 2 significant figures

• In computation the standard is to keep all of the digits, but the final answer should be rounded to the correct number of significant figures • Based upon the accuracy of most measuring instruments, and the ability to specify components, most engineering calculations will have 3-6 significant figures. Do not use all of the digits produced by computer/calculator unless all of the digits can be justified.

28.2.4 Scientific and Engineering Notations
• In scientific notation one digit is ahead of the decimal, and all other values follow the decimal. The exponent is adjusted accordingly. a = 1234.56789 = 1.23456789 × 10 = 1.23456789 e 3
3

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• Scilab a = 1234.5678912345678; a // by default 8 digits will be printed format(’v’, 20) // set the number of displayed characters to 20 a // prints 1234.567891234567892 format(’v’, 5) a // prints 1234. format(’e’, 8) // set the display to exponent notation a // prints 1.2D+03 a = 1.23456789123456789e3; // the same value of a entered in exponent format

• Engineering notation is similar to scientific notation, but the exponent is always a multiple of 3 so that it corresponds to magnitude multipliers (i.e., micro, milli, kilo, mega). a = 12345.6789 = 12.3456789 e 3 b = 0.000123456789 = 123.456789 e – 6 • The current version of Scilab does not seem to support engineering notation.

28.3 Complex Numbers
• ‘j’ will be the preferred notation for the complex number, this is to help minimize confusion with the ‘i’ used for current in electrical engineering. • The basic algebraic properties of these numbers are,

The Complex (imaginary) Number: j = –1 j = –1
2

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• Scilab, j = sqrt(-1); // define j as the imaginary number A = 5 + 3*j; // define a complex number B = 7 + 9j; // define another A / B // a complex operation

28.4 Units and Conversions
• Units are essential when describing real things. • Good engineering practice demands that each number should always be accompanied with a unit.

28.4.1 How to Use Units
• This section does not give an exhaustive list of conversion factors, but instead a minimal (but fairly complete) set is given. From the values below most conversion values can be derived. • A simple example of unit conversion is given below,

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**a simple unit conversion example: Given, d x = 10 m Find the distance ‘d’, keep the units in the equation d = ∴d = ∴d = ∴d = ∴d =
2 dx

d y = 5 ft

+

2 dy 2 2

( 10 m ) + ( 5 ft ) 100 m + 25 ft
2 2

multiply by 1

From the tables 1 ft = 0.3048 m 0.3048 m ∴1 = -------------------1 ft

2 2 0.3048 m⎞ 2 100 m + 25 ft ⎛ -------------------⎝ 1 ft ⎠

m 100 m + 25 ft ( 0.092903 ) -----2 ft
2 2

2

∴d = ∴d =

100 m + 25 ( 0.092903 ) m 102.32 m = 10.12 m
2

2

2

cancel out units

28.4.2 SI Units
1. Beware upper/lower case letter in many cases they can change meanings. e.g. m = milli or mega? 2. Try to move prefixes out of the denominator of the units. e.g., N/cm or KN/m 3. Use a slash or exponents. e.g., (kg•m/s2) or (kg•m•s-2) or (kg m s**-2) or (kg m s ^-2) 4. Use a dot in compound units when possible. e.g., N•m 5. Use spaces to divide digits when there are more than 5 figures, commas are avoided because their use is equivalent to decimal points in many places (e.g., Europe).

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• Base and derived units Base units m = length kg = mass s = time A = current K = temerature mol = chemical quantity cd = candela Derived unit examples kg ⋅ m N = -------------2 s J = N⋅m N Pa = -----2 m J W = s W V = ---A C F = --V V Ω = -A Wb = V ⋅ s Wb T = ------2 m Wb H = ------A

• In some cases units are non-standard. There are two major variations US units are marked with ‘US’ and Imperial units (aka English and inch based) are marked with ‘IMP’.

28.4.3 A Table
Distance 1 ft. (feet) = 12 in. (inches) = 0.3048 m (meter) 1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 ft = 1.609km 1 in.(inch) = 2.540 cm 1 yd (yard) = 3 ft. 1 nautical mile = 6080 ft. = 1852 m = 1.150782 mi 1 micron = 10-6 m 1 angstrom = 10-10 m

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1 mil = 10-3 in 1 acre = 43,560 ft. = 0.4047 hectares 1 furlong = 660 ft 1 lightyear = 9.460528e15 m 1 parsec = 3.085678e16 m Area 1 acre = 43,559.66 ft2 1 Hectare (ha) = 10,000 m2 1 Hectare (ha) = 10,000 m2 1 Hectare (ha) = 10,000 m2 1 Hectare (ha) = 10,000 m2 Velocity 1 mph = 0.8689762 knot Angle 1 rev = 2PI radians = 360 degrees = 400 gradians 1 degree = 60 minutes 1 minute = 60 seconds Volume 1 US gallon = 231 in3 1 CC = 1 cm3 1 IMP gallon = 277.274 in3 1 barrel = 31 IMP gal. = 31.5 US gal. 1 US gal. = 3.785 l = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups 1 liter (l) = 0.001 m3 = 2.1 pints (pt) = 1.06 quarts (qt) = 0.26 gallons (gal) 1 qt (quart) = 0.9464 l 1 cup (c) = 0.2365882 l = 8 USoz 1 US oz = 8 US drams = 456.0129 drops = 480 US minim = 1.0408 IMP oz = 2 tablespoons = 6 teaspoons 1 IMP gal. = 1.201 U.S. gal. 1 US pint = 16 US oz 1 IMP pint = 20 IMP oz 1tablespoon = 0.5 oz. 1 bushel = 32 quarts 1 peck = 8 quarts Force/Mass 1 N (newton) = 1 kg•m/s2 = 100,000 dyne 1 dyne = 2.248*10-6 lb. (pound) 1 kg = 9.81 N (on earth surface) = 2.2046 lb

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1lbf = 16 oz. (ounce) = 4.448N 1 oz. = 28.35 g (gram) = 0.2780N 1 lb = 0.03108 slug 1 kip = 1000 lb. 1 slug = 14.59 kg 1 imperial ton = 2000 lb = 907.2 kg 1 metric tonne = 1000 kg 1 troy oz = 480 grain (gr) 1 g = 5 carat 1 pennyweight = 24 grain 1 stone = 14 lb 1 long ton = 2240 lb 1 short ton = 2000 lb Pressure 1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m2 = 6.895 kPa 1 atm (metric atmos.) =760 mmHg at 0°C=14.223 lb/in2=1.0132*105 N/m2 1 psi = 2.0355 in. Hg at 32F = 2.0416 in. Hg at 62F 1 microbar = 0.1 N/m2 Scale/Magnitude atto (a) = 10-18 femto (f) = 10-15 pico (p) = 10-12 nano (n) = 10-9 micro (µ) = 10-6 milli (m) = 10-3 centi (c) 10-2 deci (d) = 10-1 deka (da) = 10 hecto (h) = 102 kilo (K) = 103 mega (M) = 106 giga (G) = 109 tera (T) = 1012 peta (P) = 1015 exa (E) = 1018 Power 1 h.p. (horsepower) = 745.7 W (watts) = 2.545 BTU/hr. = 550 ft.lb./sec. 1 ft•lb/s = 1.356 W 1 J (joule) = 1 N•m = 107 ergs = 0.2389 cal.

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1 W = 1 J/s 1 ev = 1.60219*10-19 J 1 erg = 10-7 J Temperature °F = [(°C*9)/5]+32, °C = Celsius (Centigrade), F = Fahrenheit K = Kelvin Rankine (R) = F - 459.666 0.252 calories = 1 BTU (British Thermal Unit) -273.2 °C = -459.7 °F = 0 K = 0 R = absolute zero 0 °C = 32 °F = 273.3 K = 491.7 R = Water Freezes 100°C = 212°F = 373.3 K = 671.7 R = Water Boils (1 atm. pressure) 1 therm = 100,000 BTU Mathematical π radians = 3.1416 radians = 180 degrees = 0.5 cycles 1 Hz = 1 cycle/sec. 1 rpm (revolutions per minute) = 60 RPS (Revolutions per second) = 60Hz 1 fps (foot per second) = 1 ft/sec 1 mph (miles per hour) = 1 mi./hr. 1 cfm (cubic foot per minute) = 1 ft3/min. e = 2.718 1 Hz (hertz) = 1 s-1 1 year = 365 days = 52 weeks = 12 months 1 leap year = 366 days 1 day = 24 hours 1 fortnight = 14 days 1 hour = 60 min. 1 min = 60 seconds 1 millenium = 1000 years 1 century = 100 years 1 decade = 10 years Physical Constants R = 1.987 cal/mole K = ideal gas law constant K = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.3x10-16 erg/K = 1.3x10-23 J/K h = Planck’s constant = 6.62x10-27 erg-sec = 6.62x10-34 J.sec Avagadro’s number = 6.02x1023 atoms/atomic weight density of water = 1 g/cm3 electron charge = 1.60x10-19 coul. electron rest mass = 9.11*10**-31 Kg

Time

page 27

proton rest mass = 1.67*10**-27 Kg speed of light (c) = 3.00x1010 cm/sec speed of sound in dry air 25 C = 331 m/s gravitational constant = 6.67*10**-11 Nm**2/Kg**2 permittivity of free space = 8.85*10**-12 farad/m permeability of free space = 1.26*10**-6 henry/m mean radius of earth = 6370 Km mass of earth = 5.98*10**24 Kg Electromagnetic magnetic flux = weber (We) = 10**8 maxwell inductance = henry magnetic flux density = tesla (T) = 10**4 gauss magnetic intensity = ampere/m = 0.004*PI oersted electric flux density = coulomb/m**2 capacitance = farad permeability = henry/m electric field strength = V/m luminous flux = lumen luminance = candela/m**2 1 flame = 4 foot candles = 43.05564 lux = 43.05564 meter-candles illumination = lux resistance = ohm

28.5 Problems
1. Show the units for Joules in base units. (ans. kg m^2 / s^2) 2. How many kips are in 2.00 metric tonnes. (ans. 4.41 kip) 3. Do the following calculation using significant figures. 0.010 × 1.2345 + 0.0234567 (ans. 35e-3)

page 28

2. Simplify the following expressions.

a)

(6 + 8j)

2

ans.

– 28 + 96 j

b)

8j + 6 -------------------2 ( 4j + 3) 2 + 5!

ans.

6- ----8 ----– -j 25 25

c)

ans.

122

page 29

29. ALGEBRA

Topics: •

Objectives: •

29.1 The Fundamentals 29.1.1 Basic Operations

a=c*d/b a=c+d-b 29.1.page 30 commutative a+b = b+a a+b = c+d ∴a = c + d – b distributive/collective associative a ( b + c ) = ab + ac a ( bc ) = ( ab ) c ab = cd a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c cd ∴a = ----b silly mistakes 1 . d = 7.2 Exponents • The basic properties of exponents are so important they demand some sort of mention . b = 5. c = 6.1 -----------+1 -≠ -a+b a b • Scilab example.

1. m = 4.= -----n y y • Scilab example. n = 2. y = 6. 2 ax + bx + c = 0 = a ( x – r 1 ) ( x – r 2 ) 2 – b ± b – 4 ac r 1. r 2 = -------------------------------------2a . x = 5.page 31 (x )(x ) = x n n m n+m x = 1 .3 Basic Polynomials • The quadratic equation. x^n * x^m x^(n + m) x**(n+m) 29. if x is not 0 x –p 0 x = x m --n 1 -n n x x m (nth root) (x ) 1 n–m ---------= x = -----------m m–n (x ) x (x ) n m 1= ---p x n n n = n = x n⋅m ( xy ) = ( x ) ( y ) ⎛x -⎞ ⎝ y⎠ n n x= ---n y n n x x .

2 2 2 note the signs x + ax + bx + c = 0 = ( x – r 1 ) ( x – r 2 ) ( x – r 3 ) First. – 1 2(2) ∴( x + 1 ) ( x + 1 ) = 0 • Complex roots will occur when..+ --------(S – T) r 2 = ----------2 3 2 S+T a j 3 . a r 1 = S + T – -3 S+T a j 3 .– -.= – 1 ± 0 = – 1.g.page 32 • e. 3b – a Q = ----------------9 2 3 2 9 ab – 27 c – 2 a R = -------------------------------------54 3 S = 3 R+ Q +R 3 2 T = 3 R– Q +R 3 2 Then the roots. This can be done by first reducing the equation to a quadratic.– --------(S – T) r 3 = ----------2 3 2 • On a few occasions a quartic (4th order) equation will also have to be solved. 2x + 4x + 2 = 0 – 4 ± 4 – 4(2)(2) x = -----------------------------------------------.– -. b – 4 ac < 0 • Cubic equations can be solved explicitly. calculate. although this is too much for common memorization. .

’x’. y – by + ( ac – 4 d ) y + ( 4 bd – c – a d ) = 0 Next.2 Special Forms 29. roots(3 * x^2 + 4 * x + 2) q = [2. // evalautes the polynomial at 5 s = (x + 1) / p. ’x’). p = poly(q. // an algebra operation 29. x = poly(0. 2 ⎛ y + y 2 – 4 d⎞ 2 ⎛ a + a – 4 b + 4 y⎞ -⎟ = 0 r 1.1 Completing the Square . // defines a polynomial using a vector roots(p) derivative(p. r 2 = z + ⎜ -------------------------------------------⎟ z + ⎜ ----------------------------2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛ – y 2 – 4 d⎞ 2 ⎛ a – a – 4 b + 4 y⎞ -⎟ z + ⎜ y -----------------------------⎟ = 0 r 3.2. ’x’).page 33 x + ax + bx + cx + d = 0 = ( x – r 1 ) ( x – r 2 ) ( x – r 3 ) ( x – r 4 ) First. r 4 = z + ⎜ -----------------------------------------2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 • In Scilab. 5). 4. find the roots of the 2 equations below. 3]. ’coeff’). solve the equation below to get a real root (call it ‘y’). // finds the derivative of the polynomial horner(p.

f ( xi ) x i + 1 = x i – ---------------------d⎛ ----⎞ f(x ) ⎝ dx i ⎠ • The function f(x) is supplied by the user along with an initial guess. and takes iterative steps towards a solution. 5 x + 50 x + 10 = 5 ( x + 10 x + 2 ) = 5 ( ( x + 5 ) – 23 ) 2 2 2 29.page 34 x + Ax + B = ( x + C ) + D = x + 2 Cx + ( C + D ) A = 2C A C = -2 B = C +D D = B–C 2 2 2 2 2 2 for example. . • This method can become divergent if the function has an inflection point near the root. a numerical solution may be required. given. One simple technique uses an instantaneous slope of the function.2.2 Newton-Raphson to Find Roots • When given an equation where an algebraic solution is not feasible.

• Scilab example. NEWTON RAPHSON ROOT EXAMPLE 29.3 Complex Numbers • Complex values . • This calculation should be repeated until the final solution is found.page 35 • The technique is also sensitive to the initial guess.

If it is not obvious above. a and b are both real numbers –1 j = –1 2 Complex Conjugates (denoted by adding an asterisk ‘*’ to the variable): N = a + bj Basic Properties: ( a + bj ) + ( c + dj ) = ( a + c ) + ( b + d ) j ( a + bj ) – ( c + dj ) = ( a – c ) + ( b – d ) j ( a + bj ) ⋅ ( c + dj ) = ( ac – bd ) + ( ad + bc ) j N + bj N * + bj – dj⎞ + bd bc – ad ---. These representations lead to alternative representations. N * = a – bj .+ ⎛ -----------------⎞ j 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ c + dj⎠ ⎝ c – dj⎠ ⎝ 2 M c + dj M ⎝ N *⎠ c +d c +d • We can also show complex numbers graphically.= ac ----------------. but a polar notation can also be very useful when doing large calculations.= ----⎛N ------⎞ = ⎛ a -------------⎞ ⎛ c -----------. please consider the notation uses a cartesian notation.page 36 The Complex (imaginary) Number: j = Complex Numbers: a + bj where.= a ------------.

= ⎛ ----⎝ A 2⎠ ∠( θ 1 – θ 2 ) ( A 2 ∠θ 2 ) ( A ∠θ ) = ( A ) ∠( n θ ) n n (DeMoivre’s theorem) . whereas cartesian notation is easier for addition and subtraction).page 37 CARTESIAN FORM Ij imaginary (j) N = R + Ij R real A = R +I 2 2 R = A cos θ I = A sin θ I-⎞ θ = atan ⎛ -⎝ R⎠ POLAR FORM Ij imaginary (j) N = A ∠θ θ R real A = amplitude θ = phase angle • We can also do calculations using polar notation (this is well suited to multiplication and division. A ∠θ = A ( cos θ + j sin θ ) = Ae e A + jB jθ = e e A jB = e ( cos θ + j sin θ ) A ( A 1 ∠θ 1 ) ( A 2 ∠θ 2 ) = ( A 1 A 2 ) ∠( θ 1 + θ 2 ) ( A 1 ∠θ 1 ) A 1⎞ -------------------.

The shaded dots indicate that . // the imaginary part of the complex number conj(A). A = (1 + 2 * j) / ( 3 + 4 * j).page 38 • Note that DeMoivre’s theorem can be used to find exponents (including roots) of complex numbers • Euler’s formula: e jθ = cos θ + j sin θ Note: for 0 + 1 j = cos θ + j sin θ π θ = -2 π e j -2 = j • From the above. // the angle of the complex number jθ –j θ jθ –j θ 29. theta] = polar(A). // the magnitude of the complex number real(A). mag.4 Equality and Inequality • Some basic relationships are illustrated below with number lines. the following useful identities arise: e +e cos θ = --------------------2 e –e sin θ = --------------------2j • In Scilab j = sqrt(-1). real(A)). // the real part of the complex number imag(A). // the conjugate of the complex number atan(imag(A). theta // the magnitude and angle of the complex angle A abs(A). A [mag.

or double precision with 14.page 39 the values include the point. the last digit is equality in numerical calculations using a tolerance.rearranging equations with inequalities a+b<5 ∴a < 5 – b . In these . b ] b<x<a b≤x≤a a a b b x x . Consider single precision floating point numbers with 7 digits. Unshaded dots indicate that the values approach but do not equal the value. b ) x ∈ [ a.When doing calculations there is some roundoff error that result in a number that should be zero but has a finite value. x = a x≠a x<a x≤a x>a x≥a a<x<b a≤x≤b a a a a a a a a b b x x x x x x x x x ∈ ( a.

5 Functions • Functions help to identify and organize self contained expressions. else foo = 0. ε = val – target if ( ε < 0.page 40 cases a tolrance is used between the target and actual values to determine equality. if ( x > A ) | (x < B) then // program statement else if x == A then // more program statements end • Another Scilab example. x > 5 function foo = F(x) if (x > 0) & (x <= 5) then foo = 5.000001 ) then ε = 0 • In Scilab. end end_function 29. f(x) (say ’f of x’) . • defining functions encourages reuse of mathematical expresions or program code • terminology. F(x) = 5 = 0 0<x≤5 x ≤ 0.

f(2)). Note: Use indents when writing programs to ensure structure.6. The basic base 10 logarithm: log x = y The basic base n logarithm: log n x = y ln x = log e x = y x = n y x = 10 y The basic natural logarithm (e is a constant with a value found near the start of this section: x = e y • All logarithms observe a basic set of rules for their application. While these are not necessary they will make debugging much easier. 2 2 29. function foo = f(x) foo = x^2 + 3. Note: Using functions is not necessary in simpler programs.6 Special Functions 29. but larger programs will become very difficult to work with if functions are not used. endfunction mprintf("%f \n".1 Logarithms • Logarithms also have a few basic properties of use. f(x) = x + 3 f(2) = 2 + 3 = 7 • In Scilab the function becomes. .page 41 • an example function is.

natural log log(exp(10)) 29.page 42 log n ( xy ) = log n ( x ) + log n ( y ) x -⎞ = log n ( x ) – log n ( y ) log n ⎛ ⎝ y⎠ log n ( x ) = y log n ( x ) log m ( x ) log n ( x ) = -----------------log m ( n ) ln ( A ∠θ ) = ln ( A ) + ( θ + 2 π k ) j k∈I y log n ( n ) = 1 log n ( 1 ) = 0 e.7 Solving Systems of Linear Equations . solve 5 = 10 n log ( 5 ) = n log ( 10 ) log ( 5 )n = -----------------log ( 10 ) • Note: most computers use the ’log’ function for the natural logarithm. The base 10 logarithm is normally ’log10’. • In Scilab this is log10(3) .base 10 log log(3) ..g.

.page 43 • Systems of linear equations are of the form below.2 Addition • Polynomials can be added to eliminate variables (in a matrix for this is referred to as the GaussJordan row reduction method).7. we substitute the value for y into an earlier equation. ∴x = 5 – y ∴2 ( 5 – y ) + 3 y = 8 ∴y = – 2 To solve for x. Given. we substitute to eliminate x. but it is the least routine. ∴x = 5 – ( – 2 ) = 7 • In Scilab this is EXAMPLE ???????????? 29. In this case we say the equations are singular. • In some cases the equations will not be solvable. 29. x+y = 5 2x + 3y = 8 To solve for y.1 Substitution • Substitution is the most fundamental method for solving linear equations. x+y = 5 2x + 3y = 8 • In general there must be the same number of equations and unknowns to solve the equations.7.

1 Partial Fractions • The next is a flowchart for partial fraction expansions.8.8 Simplifying Polynomial Expressions 29. . ( –2 ) ( x + y = 5 ) 2x + 3y = 8 0 x + 1 y = –2 ∴y = – 2 x = 5 – ( –2 ) = 7 29. x+y = 5 2x + 3y = 8 multiply and add the equations.page 44 Given.

.page 45 start with a function that has a polynomial numerator and denominator is the order of the numerator >= denominator? no yes use long division to reduce the order of the numerator Find roots of the denominator and break the equation into partial fraction form with unknown values OR use limits technique. If there are higher order roots (repeated terms) then derivatives will be required to find solutions use algebra technique Done • The partial fraction expansion for.

as shown below.⎛ ---------1 -⎞ = lim ---⎝ s → 0 ds s + 1⎠ = lim [ – ( s + 1 ) ] = – 1 s→0 –2 d. 5s + 3s + 8s + 6 x ( s ) = ------------------------------------------2 s +4 This cannot be solved using partial fractions because the numerator is 3rd order and the denominator is only 2nd order.+ ---------x ( s ) = -------------------= ---+ -2 2 s s+1 s s (s + 1) 1 -⎞ C = lim ( s + 1 ) ⎛ -------------------2 ⎝ ⎠ s → –1 s (s + 1) 1 -⎞ 2 A = lim s ⎛ -------------------2 ⎝ ⎠ s→0 s (s + 1) = 1 1= lim ---------= 1 s→0 s + 1 d.= -----------+ 2 s + 2j s – 2j s +4 • When the order of the denominator terms is greater than 1 it requires an expanded partial fraction form.-----------B --------------------. 5s + 3 s +4 2 3 2 5s + 3s + 8s + 6 3 5 s + 20 s 3 s – 12 s + 6 2 3 s + 12 2 3 2 – 12 s – 6 This can now be used to write a new function that has a reduced portion that can be solved with partial fractions. Therefore long division can be used to reduce the order of the equation.2 ⎛ 1 -⎞ B = lim ---s -------------------2 ⎝ ⎠ s → 0 ds s (s + 1) • Consider the example below where the order of the numerator is larger than the denominator.page 46 A B 1 C. . – 12 s – 6 x ( s ) = 5 s + 3 + --------------------2 s +4 solve – 12 s – 6 A .

and n.-----------------D .+ -----------------= ---+ -+ + 3 2 3 2 (s + 1) 2 s s (s + 1) (s + 1) s (s + 1) A ( s + 1 ) + Bs ( s + 1 ) + Cs + Ds ( s + 1 ) + Es ( s + 1 ) = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 2 s (s + 1) s ( B + E) + s ( A + 3B + D + 2E) + s ( 3A + 3B + C + D + E) + s( 3A + B) + ( A) = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 2 s (s + 1) 0 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 A 0 B 0 C = 0 D 0 E 5 A 0 1 B 1 3 C = 3 3 D 3 1 E 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 –1 4 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 0 5 0 – 15 0 = 5 0 10 5 15 5 5 – 15 5 .+ -----------------= ---+ -+ + 3 2 3 2 2 s (s + 1) (s + 1) s (s + 1) s (s + 1) • We can solve the previous problem using the algebra technique. The index variable i is an index often replaced with j. • Operations on summations: . k.2 Summation and Series b • The notation ∑ xi i=a is equivalent to x a + x a + 1 + x a + 2 + … + x b assuming a and b are integers and b ≥ a . m.page 47 5 F ( s ) = ----------------------3 2 s (s + 1) 5 A B C .--------------15 --------------------------------.+ -----------------= + + + 3 2 3 2 (s + 1) 2 s s (s + 1) (s + 1) s (s + 1) 29.-----------------D .--------------E ----------------------.8.--------------E ----------------------. 5 A B C .-----------------10 .

α ≠ 1 i for both real and complex α .page 48 b a ∑ xi i=a b = ∑ xi i=b b ∑ α xi i=a b = α ∑ xi b i=a b ∑ xi + ∑ yj i=a b j=a c = ∑ ( xi + yi ) i=a c ∑ xi + ∑ i=a i = b+1 xi = ∑ xi i=a b d ⎛ b ⎞⎛ d ⎞ ⎜ x ⎟⎜ y⎟ = ⎜ ∑ i⎟ ⎜ ∑ j⎟ ⎝i = a ⎠ ⎝j = c ⎠ ∑ ∑ xi yj i=a j=c • Some common summations: N ∑i i=1 N–1 1 -N(N + 1) = -2 ⎧ 1 – αN ⎪ ---------------. the summation does not 1–α converge. α = 1 ⎩ ∞ ∑α i=0 i 1 = ------------. For α ≥ 1 . α < 1 for both real and complex α . 1–α ∑α = ⎨ ⎪ i=0 N. .

29. -2 .. x= -2. Solve the following equation to find ‘x’. Rearrange the following equation so that only ‘y’ is on the left hand side..page 49 • In Scilab LOOP EXAMPLE 29.9 Limits • Limits stuff goes here..10 Problems 1. y +x ---------. 2 x + 8 x = –8 2 ans..= x+2 y+z 2. – x + xz + 2 z y = -----------------------------–x–1 ans.

– ----x 3x 5 ----------7 3 – -x 5(x + 3) – 9(x – 6) 5 6 ---------.page 50 3. Simplify the following expressions. x=-7. x + 2y + 3z = 5 x + 4y + 8z = 0 4x + 2y + z = 1 4. 10 x + 23 x + 12 10 x + 23 x + 32 x + 16 3 2 2 . a) n log ( x ) + m log ( y ) – log ( z ) ans.z=-8. Solve the following system of equations using substitution.5 5.= ----------x–2 x+3 2 2 ans. Multiply. (2x + 3 )( 5x + 4 ) (2x + 3x + 4)(5x + 4) 2 ans. ( 5x + 3y) – ( 2x – 7y) (5x + 3y) – (2x – 7y) x + 5x + 6 ----------------------------2 x + 7 x + 12 5 7 -. 3 x + 10 y 5x – 2x + 4y x +2 ----------x+4 22 ----3x 8----3x 5x -------------3x – 7 – 4 x + 69 x = 27 2 6. y=18.+ ----x 3x 5 7-. Simplify.75. x y -⎞ log ⎛ ---------⎝ z ⎠ n m ans.

log 63 14. Find x. 5 x + 3 y = 10 x–y = 0 ans. log A + log B ----------------------------C log D ans.25 11. 0.613 = 1372 = 1372 ans. solve for x.826 12 + x 15. y. Simplify. x 5 12 4 2 2 ans. x=y=1. x = 1. 1 --. x + 2 x + 100 = 0 x + 2 x + 100 = 0 13. – 396 – 1 ± --------------4 – 396 x = ± – 1 ± --------------4 ans. Convert the following log to base 10.log ( AB – D ) C . x –4 x – 4y 2 2 2 2 ans. Find roots. Factor.page 51 7. (x + 2)(x – 2) ( x + 2y)( x – 2y) (x – 2)(x – 2) (x + 2)(x + 3) x – 4x + 4 x + 5x + 6 2 10.

Find the cartesian complex value for. 924.415 – 1. 5 + 6j 17. 10 ∠0. ( 10 ∠0.268 j x – 12 x + 52 2 8 – 3j⎞ ⎛ ------------⎝ 4 + 5 j⎠ (x – 6 – 4j)(x – 6 + 4j) . 9.page 52 16.81 ∠0. Find the polar form for. Solve.9 + 380.30 j ans. – 4 – 7j – 9 – 40 j 0.13 rad 18. 7.92 + 1.75 x >6 x> 20. Find the cartesian complex value for. ( 8 – 3 j ) – ( 12 + 4 j ) (4 + 5j) 2 ans. – 5x – 2 > 3x + 4 x – 36 > 0 x + 36 > – 12 x 2 2 3 ans.876 rad ans.2 j ans. x < – 0. Solve.13 rad ) 19.

Reduce the following expression to partial fraction form.--------------------13 . a) ⎛ t3 + 5 ⎞ lim ⎜ ----------------⎟ t → 0⎝ 5 t 3 + 1⎠ ⎛ t3 + 5 ⎞ lim ⎜ ----------------⎟ t → ∞⎝ 5 t 3 + 1⎠ ans. x +4 ------------------------------3 2 x + 6x + 9x 2 ans.page 53 21. Evaluate the limits.----------------------– + 2 9(x + 3) 9x 3(x + 3) 29. 5 b) ans. 5 4. sin ( t ) lim ------------t→∞ t sin ( t ) lim ------------t→0 t t→∞ ans.11 Challenge Problems . 1/5 22. lim sin ( t ) t→0 lim sin ( t ) lim te –t t→∞ t→0 lim te –t 23. Find the limits below.

Develop a program to fit a polynomial to set set of points. The program should use the Newton-Raphson method to find the zeros of an arbitrary function. a least squares method should be used to obtain the best fit. The functions below should be used for testing the program. n y(x) = ∑ (x + i) i=1 2 2. Write a program (in Scilab. etc. C. Write a program in Scilab (ask if you would prefer to use another platform). The final program should be structured.) that will perform the following calculation. x +x+5 = 0 – 5 x + x + 10 = 0 3 2 2 . 3. In the case where the order of the polynomial does not allow an exact fit.page 54 1. The final program will be tested for robustness.

1 Introduction • Angles degrees and radians 360 ° = 2 π radians 380 ° = 20 ° = – 340 ° 60minutes = 60' = 1 ° 60seconds = 60'' = 1' • Most computers do calculations in radians . TRIGONOMETRY Topics: • Objectives: • 30.page 55 30.

1 Functions • The basic trigonometry functions are. quadrant 1 2 θ 3 4 30.= ---------.1.= ---------cos θ = r sec θ y 1 sin θ .page 56 • Angle quadrants. .= ----------tan θ = x cot θ cos θ Pythagorean Formula: r = x +y 2 2 2 r y θ x • Graphs of these functions are given below.= ---------sin θ = r csc θ x 1. 1 y .

cos 1 -270° -180° -90° 0° -1 90° 180° 270° 360° 450° Tangent .page 57 Sine .tan 1 -270° -180° -90° 0° -1 90° 180° 270° 360° 450° .sin 1 -270° -180° -90° 0° -1 90° 180° 270° 360° 450° Cosine .

csc 1 -270° -180° -90° 0° -1 90° 180° 270° 360° 450° Secant .page 58 Cosecant .sec 1 -270° -180° -90° 0° -1 90° 180° 270° 360° 450° .

= acos ⎛ x -⎞ = θ cos ⎛ ⎝ r⎠ ⎝ r⎠ .= asin ⎛ y -⎞ = θ sin ⎛ ⎝ r⎠ ⎝ r⎠ – 1 x⎞ .page 59 Cotangent -cot 1 -270° -180° -90° 0° -1 90° 180° 270° 360° 450° 30.2 Inverse Functions • Inverse Functions – 1 y⎞ ⎛y -⎞ tan ⎛ ⎝ x⎠ = atan ⎝ x⎠ = θ – 1 y⎞ .1.

may need additions of ±90° or ±180°.page 60 Re . imaginary +/+/+ real -/- -/+ • Note: trig calculations can take a while and should be minimized or avoided in programs. • Scilab example. .5) 30. that any value that does not lie in the right hand quadrants of cartesian space.5) atan(1.3 Triangles • NOTE: Keep in mind when finding these trig values.14159) atan(0.14159) asin(0.but the atan θ function in Note: recall that tan θ = ----Im calculators and software only returns values between 90 to 90 degrees. sin(3.0. 0. To compensate for this the sign of the real and imaginary components must be considered to determine where the angle lies.5) cos(3.5) tan(3. If it lies beyond the -90 to 90 degree range the correct angle can be obtained by adding or subtracting 180 degrees.14159) acos(0.1.

These are often best used when attempting to manipulate equations.page 61 Cosine Law: c = a + b – 2 ab cos θ c c Sine Law: b c a ------------= ------------= ------------sin θ A sin θ B sin θ C θB θC θA b 2 2 2 a 30.4 Relationships • Now a group of trigonometric relationships will be given.1. .

= -------------------1 + cos θ sin θ 2 ( cos θ ) + ( sin θ ) = 1 2 2 OR OR sin ( 2 θ ) = 2 sin θ cos θ cos ( 2 θ ) = ( cos θ ) – ( sin θ ) 2 2 2 2 1 + ( tan θ ) = ( sec θ ) 2 1 + ( cot θ ) = ( csc θ ) -ve if in left hand quadrants 2 • Scilab for trig identities.= ± 1 -------------------2 2 sin θ 1 – cos θ θ . EXAMPLES OF TRIG IDENTITIES .page 62 sin ( θ ) = sin ( θ ± 360 n ) sin ( – θ ) = – sin θ n∈I cos ( – θ ) = cos θ tan ( – θ ) = – tan θ sin θ = cos ( θ – 90 ° ) = cos ( 90 ° – θ ) = etc. sin ( θ 1 ± θ 2 ) = sin θ 1 cos θ 2 ± cos θ 1 sin θ 2 cos ( θ 1 ± θ 2 ) = cos θ 1 cos θ 2 − + sin θ 1 sin θ 2 tan θ 1 ± tan θ 2 tan ( θ 1 ± θ 2 ) = -----------------------------------1− + tan θ 1 tan θ 2 cot θ 1 cot θ 2 − +1 cot ( θ 1 ± θ 2 ) = -----------------------------------tan θ 2 ± tan θ 1 – cos θ sin θ -.= ± 1 -------------------2 2 + cos θ cos θ -.= -------------------tan -.

e –e .= ----------------= hyperbolic cotangent of x coth ( x ) = -----------------x –x sinh ( x ) e –e • some of the basic relationships are. x –x x –x x –x x –x .page 63 • These can also be related to complex exponents.= hyperbolic cosine of x cosh ( x ) = ----------------2 sinh ( x ) e –e .1. e +e cos θ = --------------------2 jθ –j θ e –e sin θ = --------------------2j jθ –j θ 30.= hyperbolic sine of x sinh ( x ) = ----------------2 e +e .5 Hyperbolic Functions • The basic definitions are given below.= ----------------tanh ( x ) = -----------------= hyperbolic tangent of x x –x cosh ( x ) e +e 1 2 = ----------------= hyperbolic cosecant of x csch ( x ) = ----------------x –x sinh ( x ) e –e 1 2 = ----------------= hyperbolic secant of x sech ( x ) = -----------------x –x cosh ( x ) e +e cosh ( x ) e +e .

page 64

sinh ( – x ) = – sinh ( x ) cosh ( – x ) = cosh ( x ) tanh ( – x ) = – tanh ( x ) csch ( – x ) = – csch ( x ) sech ( – x ) = sech ( x ) coth ( – x ) = – coth ( x )

• Some of the more advanced relationships are, ( cosh x ) – ( sinh x ) = ( sech x ) + ( tanh x ) = ( coth x ) – ( csch x ) = 1 sinh ( x ± y ) = sinh ( x ) cosh ( y ) ± cosh ( x ) sinh ( y ) cosh ( x ± y ) = cosh ( x ) cosh ( y ) ± sinh ( x ) sinh ( y ) tanh ( x ) ± tanh ( y )tanh ( x ± y ) = ---------------------------------------------1 ± tanh ( x ) tanh ( y ) • Some of the relationships between the hyperbolic, and normal trigonometry functions are,
2 2 2 2 2 2

sin ( jx ) = j sinh ( x ) cos ( jx ) = cosh ( x ) tan ( jx ) = j tanh ( x )

j sin ( x ) = sinh ( jx ) cos ( x ) = cosh ( jx ) j tan ( x ) = tanh ( jx )

30.1.6 Special Relationships
• The Small Angle Approximation sin θ = θ when θ≈0

page 65

30.1.7 Planes, Lines, etc.
• The most fundamental mathematical geometry is a line. The basic relationships are given below,

y = mx + b 1 m perpendicular = --m y2 – y1 m = --------------x2 – x1 x y -- + -- = 1 a b

defined with a slope and intercept a slope perpendicular to a line the slope using two points as defined by two intercepts

• If we assume a line is between two points in space, and that at one end we have a local reference frame, there are some basic relationships that can be derived.

page 66

y θβ ( x 1, y 1, z 1 ) d = ( x2 – x1 ) + ( y2 – y1 ) + ( z2 – z1 )
2 2 2

d

( x 2, y 2, z 2 )

θγ

θα x

z The direction cosines of the angles are, x 2 – x 1⎞ θ α = acos ⎛ --------------⎝ d ⎠
2 2

( x 0, y 0, z 0 )

y 2 – y 1⎞ θ β = acos ⎛ --------------⎝ d ⎠
2

z 2 – z 1⎞ θ γ = acos ⎛ -------------⎝ d ⎠

( cos θ α ) + ( cos θ β ) + ( cos θ γ ) = 1 The equation of the line is, x – x1 y – y1 z – z1 --------------- = --------------- = -------------x2 – x1 y2 – y1 z2 – z1 ( x, y, z ) = ( x 1, y 1, z 1 ) + t ( ( x 2, y 2, z 2 ) – ( x 1, y 1, z 1 ) ) • The relationships for a plane are, Explicit

Parametric t=[0,1]

page 67

y The explicit equation for a plane is, Ax + By + Cy + D = 0 P 1 = ( x 1, y 1, z 1 ) where the coefficients defined by the intercepts are, 1 A = -a 1 B = -b 1 C = -c D = –1 N P 2 = ( x 2, y 2, z 2 ) P 3 = ( x 3, y 3, z 3 ) z The determinant can also be used, x – x1 y – y1 z – z1 det x – x 2 y – y 2 z – z 2 = 0 x – x3 y – y3 z – z3 ∴det y2 – y1 z2 – z1 y3 – y1 z3 – z1 ( x – x 1 ) + det z2 – z1 x2 – x1 z3 – z1 x3 – x1 ( y – y1 ) c a x b

+ det

x2 – x1 y2 – y1 x3 – x1 y3 – y1

( z – z1 ) = 0

The normal to the plane (through the origin) is, ( x, y, z ) = t ( A, B, C )

30.2 Coordinate Systems

30.2.1 Cylindrical Coordinates

page 68

• Basically, these coordinates appear as if the cartesian box has been replaced with a cylinder, z ( x, y, z ) ↔ ( r, θ , z ) z

z z y x x y θ r = x +y
2 2

r

x = r cos θ y = r sin θ

y -⎞ θ = atan ⎛ ⎝ x⎠

30.2.2 Spherical Coordinates
• This system replaces the cartesian box with a sphere,

page 69

z ( x, y, z ) ↔ ( r, θ, φ )

z φ

r z

y x x y
2

θ r = x +y +z
2 2

x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ z = r cos θ

y -⎞ θ = atan ⎛ ⎝ x⎠ z φ = acos ⎛ - ⎞ ⎝ r⎠

30.3 Problems
1. For the following angles, i) indicate the quadrants, ii) write the sine, cosine, and tangent values, iii) write an expression for all equivalent angles. a) b) c) d) 20 ° 2 rad – 2 rad 2000 °

2. Find all of the missing side lengths and corner angles on the two triangles below,

page 70

5 3 10° ans. 2.11 155.7 ° 3 10° 5 36.9 ° 14.3 °

5

3

53.1 ° 5 3

4

3. A line that passes through the point (1, 2) and has a slope of 2. Find the equation for the line, and for a line perpendicular to it passing through the given point. (ans. y = 2x + a, y = -0.5x+b) 4. Convert the following angles to/from degrees or radians. to rad.: to deg.: 30 °, 280 °, 192 ° 5'30'' 5 π π · 7 ----- rad - rad , ----36 12 ans. π -- rad, 14 ----- π rad, 1.067 π rad 6 9 25 °, 105 °

5. On a circle with a diameter of 0.5in. what is, a) the arc length for a 1 rad angle b) the arc length for a 20 degree angle c) the circumference. d) the angle resulting in a 0.5m arc.

(ans. 0.25in, PI/36 in, 0.5 PI in., 78.7rad.)

6. – 4 ) (ans. 53 ° 126 ° – 53 ° – 126 ° 8.28m/s. – sin ( 20 ° ) tan ( 10 ° ) cos ( 35 ° ) cos ( 90 ° ) or sin ( 0 ° ) 9. how fast is a point at the outside moving? What angular velocity is required for an outside speed of 2m/s? (ans.67 rad/s) 7. find the angle a) b) c) d) ( 3. – 4 ) ( – 3.5 π rad ) (ans. y) points below. 6.page 71 6. 4 ) ( – 3. If a 30cm radius rotating mass has a rotational rate of 200rpm.Convert the following to a function with the smallest positive angle possible a) b) c) d) sin ( 200 ° ) tan ( – 170 ° ) cos ( 325 ° ) cos ( 3. 4 ) ( 3.Given a triangle ABC find the missing side lengths or angles θA θA θA LA LB LC .Given the (x.

Solve the equation. 46 ° 1 km 57 ° (ans. ( cos 2 θ ) + sin 2 θ⎞ sin 2 θ ⎛ --------------------⎝ sin 2 θ ⎠ 2 (ans. ( cos θ ) + 2 sin θ – 2 = 0 2 (ans. Two observers measure the height of a rocket by angle.= ( ------------------------------------------2 tan θ 1 – ( tan θ ) ( cos θ ) sin θ = 1 – -----------------------1 + ( sin θ ) ( 1 + ( tan θ ) ) ( 1 – ( sin θ ) ) = 1 sin ( θ 1 + θ 2 ) – sin ( θ 1 – θ 2 ) = 2 cos θ 1 sin θ 2 sin ( θ 1 + θ 2 ) ( – sin ( θ 1 – θ 2 ) ) = ( sin ( θ1 ) ) – ( sin ( θ 2 ) ) tan θ sin 2 θ = 2 ( sin θ ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 12. θ = 13. 3162m) . Calculate the height of the rocket.Prove the following a) b) c) d) e) f) sin θ cos θ cos θ ) – ( sin θ ) ---------------------. Simplify the following expressions.page 72 10. = 1) 11.

page 73 31. as shown below.1 Introduction • Vectors are often drawn with arrows. origin tail • Cartesian notation is also a common form of usage. head terminus A vector is said to have magnitude (length or strength) and direction. VECTORS Topics: • Objectives: • 31. .

4 ) B = ( 7.5 ° θ F1 = 2 i + 4 j F2 = 5 i + 3 j x . A = ( 2. 4 – 9 ) B A+B A B A Parallelogram Law 31. 3 – 8.47 ) ( 6 )⎠ = 32. 8.page 74 y x z becomes y k j i j z x k i • Vectors can be added and subtracted. 3. 3 + 8.1. numerically and graphically. 9 ) A + B = ( 2 + 7. 4 + 9 ) A – B = ( 2 – 7.1 Dot (Scalar) Product • We can use a dot product to find the angle between two vectors y F1 • F2 cos θ = ----------------F1 F2 ⎛ (2)(5) + (4)(3 ) ⎞ -⎟ ∴θ = acos ⎜ -----------------------------------------⎝ 2 2 + 4 2 5 2 + 3 2⎠ 22 ⎞ ---------------------∴θ = acos ⎛ ⎝ ( 4.

707 k λ V = ----= -------------------V 2 2 1 +1 F 1V = λ V • F 1 = ( 0. To do this we first convert V to a unit vector. the component we find will be multiplied by the magnitude of V.707 j + 0.page 75 • We can use a dot product to project one vector onto another vector.= 0.707 j + 0. z We want to find the component of force F1 that projects onto the vector V.707 k ) • ( – 3 i + 4 j + 5 k ) N ∴F 1 V = ( 0 ) ( – 3 ) + ( 0. if we do not.707 ) ( 4 ) + ( 0.707 ) ( 5 ) = 6 N V F1 F1 = ( – 3 i + 4 j + 5 k ) N V = 1j + 1k y F 1V • We can consider the basic properties of the dot product and units vectors. . x 1j + 1k V.

if we find the equivalent vectors with a magnitude of one we can simplify many tasks. and the displaced x-y axes shown below as x’-y’. λ x = 1 i + 0 j (unit vector for the x-axis) F x = λ x • F = ( 1 i + 0 j ) • [ ( 10 cos 60 ° ) i + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) j ] ∴ = ( 1 ) ( 10 cos 60 ° ) + ( 0 ) ( 10 sin 60 ° ) = 10 N cos 60 ° This result is obvious. . x axis = 2 i y axis = 3 j x‘ axis = 1 i + 1 j y‘ axis = – 1 i + 1 j F = 10 N ∠60 ° = ( 10 cos 60 ° ) i + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) j None of these vectors has a magnitude of 1.page 76 Unit vectors are useful when breaking up vector magnitudes and direction. y y’ F = 10 N x’ 45° 60° x We could write out 5 vectors here. But. relative to the x-y axis. In particular if we want to find the x and y components of F relative to the x-y axis we can use the dot product. but consider the other obvious case where we want to project a vector onto itself. As an example consider the vector. and hence they are not unit vectors.

Again. = 10 ( ( cos 60 ° ) + ( sin 60 ° ) ) = 10 2 2 2 2 . Now finally consider the more general case.page 77 10 cos 60 ° i + 10 sin 60 ° j F. u x' = cos 45 ° i + sin 45 ° j F x' = F • λ x' = ( ( 10 cos 60 ° ) i + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) j ) • ( ( cos 45 ° ) i + ( sin 45 ° ) j ) = ( 10 cos 60 ° ) ( cos 45 ° ) + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) ( sin 45 ° ) = 10 ( cos 60 ° cos 45 ° + sin 60 ° sin 45 ° ) = 10 ( cos ( 60 ° – 45 ° ) ) Here we see a few cases where the dot product has been applied to find the vector projected onto a unit vector.= cos 60 ° i + sin 60 ° j λ F = ----= -------------------------------------------------------F 10 Incorrect . this can be done using the dot product to project F onto a unit vector.Not using a unit vector FF = F • F = ( ( 10 cos 60 ° ) i + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) j ) • ( ( 10 cos 60 ° ) i + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) j ) = ( 10 cos 60 ° ) ( 10 cos 60 ° ) + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) ( 10 sin 60 ° ) = 100 ( ( cos 60 ° ) + ( sin 60 ° ) ) = 100 Using a unit vector FF = F • λF = ( ( 10 cos 60 ° ) i + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) j ) • ( ( cos 60 ° ) i + ( sin 60 ° ) j ) = ( 10 cos 60 ° ) ( cos 60 ° ) + ( 10 sin 60 ° ) ( sin 60 ° ) Correct Now consider the case where we find the component of F in the x’ direction.

by inspection.= V 2 ----------------. = V 2 ( cos θ 1 cos θ 2 + sin θ 1 sin θ 2 ) = V 2 [ ( cos θ 1 i + sin θ 1 j ) • ( cos θ 2 i + sin θ 2 j ) ] V1 V2 V1 • V2 V1 • V2 .• -------.= V2 • λV = V 2 -------1 V1 V2 V1 V1 V2 Or more generally. V 2 V 1 = V 2 cos ( θ 2 – θ 1 ) Next.page 78 y V2 V1 θ2 θ1 V2V1 x First.= ----------------. we can see that the component of V2 (projected) in the direction of V1 will be. and similar proofs are used. . we can manipulate this expression into the dot product form. V1 • V2 V 2V 1 = V 2 cos ( θ 2 – θ 1 ) = V 2 ----------------V1 V2 V1 • V2 ∴ V 2 cos ( θ 2 – θ 1 ) = V 2 ----------------V1 V2 V1 • V2 ∴ cos ( θ 2 – θ 1 ) = ----------------V1 V2 *Note that the dot product also works in 3D.

Second. First. Here there is only a z component because this vector points out of the page.66 j + 0 k ) N d = (2i + 0j + 0k)m i M = d×F = j k NOTE: note that the cross product here is for the right hand rule coordinates. F = ( – 6. this result is positive. and a rotation about this vector would rotate on the plane of the page.43 N ) ) j + ( 2 m ( 7.page 79 • In Scilab.66 N ) ) i – ( 2 m 0 N – 0 m ( – 6.1. If the left handed coordinate system is used F and d should be reversed.3 k ( mN ) NOTE: there are two things to note about the solution. 31. it is a vector. In this right handed system find the positive rotation by pointing your right hand thumb towards the positive axis (the ‘k’ means that the vector is about the z-axis here).2 Cross Product • First.43 N 7.66 N ) – 0 m ( – 6. consider an example. A = [1 2 3]. that is the positive direction. because the positive sense is defined by the vector system. • The basic properties of the cross product are. B = [4 5 6].66 N 0 N ∴M = ( 0 m 0 N – 0 m ( 7. .43 N ) ) k = 15.43 i + 7. 2m 0m 0m – 6. and curl your fingers. dot = A’*B.

with a magnitude that is a product of the two magnitudes. . The positive orientation of angles and moments about an axis can be determined by pointing the thumb of the right hand along the axis of rotation. divided by the magnitude. y x z x + z y + z + x y • The properties of the cross products are.page 80 The cross (or vector) product of two vectors will yield a new vector perpendicular to both vectors. V1 × V2 λ n = -------------------V1 × V2 • When using a left/right handed coordinate system. The fingers curl in the positive direction. V1 × V2 V1 V1 × V2 = ( x1 i + y1 j + z1 k ) × ( x2 i + y2 j + z2 k ) i j k V1 × V2 = x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 V1 × V2 = ( y1 z2 – z1 y2 ) i + ( z1 x2 – x1 z2 ) j + ( x1 y2 – y1 x2 ) k V2 We can also find a unit vector normal ‘n’ to the vectors ‘V1’ and ‘V2’ using a cross product.

This allows us to collect terms in a cross product operation. but we cannot change the order of the cross product. endfunction DISTRIBUTIVE NOT ASSOCIATIVE 31. B) // No function is defined so use the following val = [A(2) * B(3) . .2 Problems 1.A(3) * B(2) . A(3) * B(1) . r1 × F + r2 × F = ( r1 + r2 ) × F r×F≠F×r but r × F = –( F × r ) • In Scilab. function val=crossproduct(A.A(2) * B(1)].page 81 The cross product is distributive.A(1) * B(3) A(1) * B(2) . but not associative.

n columns a 11 a 21 … a n 1 a 12 a 22 … a n 2 … … … … a 1 m a 2 m … a nm m rows If n=m then the matrix is said to be square. • A matrix has the form seen below.page 82 32. MATRICES Topics: • Objectives: • 32. . Many applications require square matrices. We may also represent a matrix as a 1-by-3 for a vector.1 Introduction • Matrices allow simple equations that drive a large number of repetitive calculations .as a result they are found in many computer applications.

columns. :) A(2. 3 ]. D = 1:0. // creates a 5x5 identity matrix diag(A). // . // the rows in C G = A(2:3 . \$) // means last row or column A(\$. // same as B*B K = B. // fills the matrix with 0s eye(5.please use help to explore these size(A).page 83 • In Scilab. 5). 2) // other commands .1:3.1 Basic Matrix Operations • Matrix operations are available for many of the basic algebraic expressions. 4 5 6 . 4 ]. examples are given . E = [ B 4 ]. // add a row to C to make F length(C). C = [1 . // adds a column to B to make E F = [ C . 2) A(2.1. a 3x3 results J = B^2. means next element A(1:2. // element wise operation. 2 . // fills the matrix with 1s zeros(A). 123 A = 456 789 A = [ 1 2 3 . 3) // . * C.^2. 7 8 9 ]. // extracts a 2x2 from A H = B. etc of A ones(A). 2:3) // : means a range A(:. // gets the diagonal of matrix A rand() max() rank() cond() spec() trace() // also try B = [ 1 2 3 ]. // each element is squared 32. 1:2). // returns the rows. means next row A(2.

etc = not allowed (see inverse) C D B Note: To multiply matrices.many of these are indicated. A = 2 3 4 5 B = 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 C = 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 D = 22 23 E = 24 25 26 Addition/Subtraction 3+2 4+2 5+2 A+B = 6+2 7+2 8+2 9 + 2 10 + 2 11 + 2 B + D = not valid 3–2 4–2 5–2 B–A = 6–2 7–2 8–2 9 – 2 10 – 2 11 – 2 B – D = not valid 3 + 12 4 + 13 5 + 14 B + C = 6 + 15 7 + 16 8 + 17 9 + 18 10 + 19 11 + 20 3 – 12 4 – 13 5 – 14 B + C = 6 – 15 7 – 16 8 – 17 9 – 18 10 – 19 11 – 20 3( 2) 4( 2) 5(2 ) A ⋅ B = 6( 2) 7( 2) 8(2 ) 9 ( 2 ) 10 ( 2 ) 11 ( 2 ) B⋅D = ( 3 ⋅ 21 + 4 ⋅ 22 + 5 ⋅ 23 ) ( 6 ⋅ 21 + 7 ⋅ 22 + 8 ⋅ 23 ) ( 9 ⋅ 21 + 10 ⋅ 22 + 11 ⋅ 23 ) 3 -2 B -. D ---.page 84 below. There are also many restrictions .= 6 -A 2 9 -2 4 -2 7 -2 10 ----2 5 -2 8 -2 11 ----2 D ⋅ E = 21 ⋅ 24 + 22 ⋅ 25 + 23 ⋅ 26 ( 3 ⋅ 12 + 4 ⋅ 15 + 5 ⋅ 18 ) ( 3 ⋅ 13 + 4 ⋅ 16 + 5 ⋅ 19 ) ( 3 ⋅ 14 + 4 ⋅ 17 + 5 ⋅ 20 ) B ⋅ C = ( 6 ⋅ 12 + 7 ⋅ 15 + 8 ⋅ 18 ) ( 6 ⋅ 13 + 7 ⋅ 16 + 8 ⋅ 19 ) ( 6 ⋅ 14 + 7 ⋅ 17 + 8 ⋅ 20 ) ( 9 ⋅ 12 + 10 ⋅ 15 + 11 ⋅ 18 ) ( 9 ⋅ 13 + 10 ⋅ 16 + 11 ⋅ 19 ) ( 9 ⋅ 14 + 10 ⋅ 17 + 11 ⋅ 20 ) B B ---. ---. the first matrix must have the same number of columns as the second matrix has rows. .

Determinant B = 3⋅ 7 8 10 11 6 8 9 11 6 7 9 10 7 8 –4⋅ 6 8 +5⋅ 6 7 10 11 9 11 9 10 = ( 7 ⋅ 11 ) – ( 8 ⋅ 10 ) = – 3 = 3 ⋅ ( –3 ) – 4 ⋅ ( –6 ) + 5 ⋅ ( –3 ) = 0 = ( 6 ⋅ 11 ) – ( 8 ⋅ 9 ) = – 6 = ( 6 ⋅ 10 ) – ( 7 ⋅ 9 ) = – 3 D .1.2 Determinants • Determinants give a ’magnitude product’ of a matrix. • • For a 2 by 2 matrix. For example a 4th order matrix has the pattern.page 85 32. This can be though of as a general magnitude of the matrix. E = not valid (matrices not square) • For a 3 by 3 matrix a b c d e f g h i = a e f –b d f +c d e hi gi g h = a ( ei – fh ) – b ( di – fg ) + c ( dh – eg ) • Higher order matrices follow a similar pattern. a e i m b f j n c g k o d h l p f gh e gh e f h e f g = a j k l –b i k l +c i j l –d i j k nop mop mnp mno . • To find a determinant the matrix must must be square.

4 Adjoint Matrices T 7 8 10 11 B = – 4 5 10 11 4 5 7 8 – 6 8 10 11 3 5 9 11 – 3 5 6 8 6 7 9 10 – 3 4 9 10 3 4 6 7 The matrix of determinant to the left is made up by getting rid of the row and column of the element.1. Note the sign changes on alternating elements.1. D = invalid (must be square) . and then finding the determinant of what is left.page 86 32.3 Transpose 3 6 9 B = 4 7 10 5 8 11 T D = 21 22 23 T 24 E = 25 26 T 32.

4 5 6 . X] = bdiag(A) linsolve(A. and the matrix is indeterminate.5 Inverse Matrices x D = B⋅ y z To solve this equation for x.y. To do this we use the inverse. 11 . A’ // transpose det(A) // determinant inv(A) // inverse A^-1 // also inverse spec(A) [D. B) A*B B*A A + B // will not work . –1 = invalid (must be square) A = [ 1 2 3 . B = [ 10 .z we need to move B to the left hand side. D • Some Scilab. so the inverse is undetermined. 12 ]. 7 8 9 ].1.page 87 32. B D = B –1 –1 x ⋅B⋅ y z x x –1 B D = I⋅ y = y z z –1 B B= -------B In this case B is singular.

2 Matrix Applications 32.8 Eigenvectors 32. etc=I 0 1 0 0 1 32.1. B⋅I = I⋅B = B D⋅I = I⋅D = D B –1 ⋅B = I 1 0 0 1 0.1. A – λI = 0 32.6 Identity Matrix This is a square matrix that is the matrix equivalent to ‘1’.7 Eigenvalues • The eigenvalue of a matrix is found using.2. the matrix is singular and there is no solution for the linear equations .page 88 32.1 Solving Linear Equations with Matrices • Note: if the determinant of a matrix is 0.1. 1 0 1 0 . .

page 89 Given. –1 x = 1 1 y 2 3 • In Scilab. 1 1 x = 5 2 3 y 8 The solution is found using the inverse. X = inv(A) * B X = A \ B. 2 3]. .A * x. B = [5. 3 –1 15 – 8 –2 1 5 – 10 + 8 5 = -----------------.= 7 = ----------------------3 – 2 8 –2 1 1 8 2 3 A = [1 1 . // another way to solve linear equations r = B . // The residual should be 0 • We can solve systems of equations using the inverse matrix. 8]. x+y = 5 2x + 3y = 8 The equations can be written in matrix form.

then rearrange. 2⋅x+4⋅y+3⋅z = 5 9⋅x+6⋅y+8⋅z = 7 11 ⋅ x + 13 ⋅ y + 10 ⋅ z = 12 Write down the matrix. 2 4 3 x 5 = 9 6 8 y 7 11 13 10 z 12 x 2 4 3 ∴ y = 9 6 8 z 11 13 10 –1 5 7 = 12 • We can solve systems of equations using Cramer’s rule (with determinants). and solve.page 90 Given. .

= z = ----------------------------A 32. and calculate the determinants for matrices below.2 Gauss-Jordan Row Reduction • In many ways Gauss-Jordan is a form of substitution based upon rearranging equations into an upper-right triangular form..= y = ----------------------------A 2 4 5 9 6 7 11 13 12 .page 91 Given.= x = ----------------------------A 2 5 3 9 7 8 11 12 10 . Note: when trying to find the first parameter ‘x’ we replace the first column in A with B.. 2⋅x+4⋅y+3⋅z = 5 9⋅x+6⋅y+8⋅z = 7 11 ⋅ x + 13 ⋅ y + 10 ⋅ z = 12 Write down the coefficient and parameter matrices. • The general method works top to bottom ..2. . 5 4 3 7 6 8 12 13 10 .. 2 4 3 9 6 8 11 13 10 5 7 12 A = B = Calculate the determinant for A (this will be reused)..

3 Cramer’s Rule . 1 1 x = 5 1 8 . x+y = 5 2x + 3y = 8 The equations can be written in matrix form. solve for the values starting with the last row and work towards the top row.2 3 y – -2 1 1 5 x = 1 1 -2 1 – 1 --3 y -8 1 – -5 – -2 2 2 1 1 x = 5 0 – 0. – 0.5 y = 1 1 x + 1 ( –2 ) = 5 y = –2 x = 7 32. 1 1 x = 5 2 3 y 8 eliminate values in the first column by multiplying by a factor and subtracting from the first row.5 y 1 Finally.page 92 Given.2.

= -------------. 5 1 8 3 –8 .= 7 x = --------------3–2 1 1 2 3 To find y. 1 5 2 8 8 – 10 . 2 3]) y = det([1 5 . 8 3]) / det([1 1 . 2 8]) / det([1 1 . x+y = 5 2x + 3y = 8 The equations can be written in matrix form. 1 1 x = 5 2 3 y 8 To find x.= –2 y = --------------3–2 1 1 2 3 x = det([5 1 . 2 3]) .= 15 -------------.page 93 Given.

a) a b c T d e f g h k mnp ans. Perform the following matrix calculations.3 Problems 1. 1 A = 2 3 6 B = 2 1 Cross Product Dot Product A×B = A•B = ANS. ux uy uz (d × F) • u = dx dy dz Fx Fy Fz 32.page 94 32. A × B = ( – 4. – 10 ) A • B = 13 2. 17. and then the moment component twisting the pipe is found using the dot product. Perform the vector operations below.2. An example of a problem that would use this shortcut is when a moment is found about one point on a pipe.2.5 Gauss-Siedel 32. we can do both steps in one operation by finding the determinant of the following.4 Triple Product When we want to do a cross product. not solvable b) a b c d a b c d –1 ad – bc d –b –c a -----------------ad – bc c) . followed by a dot product (called the mixed triple product).

167 0. 2 0 –6 3 2 1 –6 3 2 –1 –6 3 ans.167 – 0. Solve the following equations using matrices.627 . x= 0.273 y= -0. =6 =12 =0 Multiply 1 2 3 10 4 5 6 11 = 7 8 9 12 Determinant 12 3 42 6 78 9 Inverse 123 426 789 –1 ANS.167 4. 1 2 3 10 68 4 5 6 11 = 167 7 8 9 12 266 1 2 3 4 2 6 7 8 9 = = 36 = 1 2 3 4 2 6 7 8 9 –1 = – 0.167 – 0.page 95 3.5 0.167 0.333 0. 5 x – 2 y + 4 z = –1 6 x + 7 y + 5 z = –2 2 x – 3 y + 6 z = –3 ANS.072 z= -0.167 0.833 0. Perform the matrix operations below.

page 96 5. and the cross product. A • B = xp + yq + zr A×B = yr – qz zp – xr xq – py .5 6. x = –7 y = 18. Solve the following system of equations using a) substitution. Find the dot product. x A = y z p B = q r ans. of the vectors A and B below. b) matrices.75 z = – 8. x + 2y + 3z = 5 x + 4y + 8z = 0 4x + 2y + z = 1 ans.

line. data • SCILAB examples . GRAPHING Topics: • Objectives: • 33. chart • curves vs. x-y. bar.1 Introduction • coordinates • types .page 97 33. scatter.

style=-1. • Scilab graph styles. // clears the screen plot2d(t. f = [ 1 4 9 16 25 ]. f).page 98 • With Scilab. f. // pause here and look at the graph xbasc(). leg=’test graph’) xtitle(’time (min)’).2 Graphing Functions . -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 33. t = [ 1 2 3 4 5 ]. plot2d(t.

f = [1. 33.1:10). G. // OR t = (0:0.1:10). 33. f). 100. fplot2d(t. 100. style=-1). [y=%e^(-5*t)’]). G = [10. 1000.3 LOG Plots • In Scilab. 10. 20. // OR plot2d(f.page 99 • In Scilab. f). deff(’[y]=f(t)’. 1000]. 10. style=-1. f(2) t = (0:0. 10000]. log10(G).4 Multiple Plots . y=%e^(-5*t). plot2d(log10(f). plot2d(t. logflag=’11’).

0). plot(t. xbasimg(0. ’filename. y). xset(’window’.eps). y(t) = e –5 t sin ( 3 t ) .5 Other Items of Interest • In Scilab.6 Problems 1. z). Plot the following function using 20 datapoints in Scilab from -10 to 10. t = [0: 0. y = sin(t) + sin(3 * t). plot(t. z = sin(t) + cos(t). 1).page 100 • In Scilab. 33.1: 6]. 33. xset(’window’.

(1. 3. 4. 5. 5. y) data. 1. 3) (2. 7) (5. 2. 4. 9. 2.1) (2. 9. 3.page 101 2.7 Challenge Problem 1. Draw a scatter plot in Scilab for the following (x. 3. 1. 1. 5. Draw a histogram (bar chart) for the following raw data. 8) 33. 6. 3. 7. 4. 7. 7. 2. 3. 5. 4. 8 . 7. 5) (1.

brief summary of topic(s) .’getf(’functionfile’) .’chdir’ changes a working directory .’xbasc() .category: review / fundamental / application / research 34.clears a graphics window .returns the current working directory .gets a function from a working directory . .1 Overview . PROGRAMMING Topics: • Objectives: • 34.’exec’ executes a file as a script.pwd .2 Introduction • Some useful program elements .’clear’ empties the screen .page 102 34.

|. for i=0:0. i end i • If-then in Scilab. ==. <.1:6].1 steps // loop code goes here end // OR using vectors V=[0:0. // some code else // other code end // >. for i=V // loop code goes here end • While-loops in Scilab. while(i <= 5). i = 0. >=. if(__logical__). i = i + 1. <=.1:6 // 0 to 6 in 0. ~= Basic comparisons // &.page 103 • For-loops in Scilab. ~ Basic Boolean operators .

returnval = 0. case 0. arg_float) // %d . arg_int. mprintf("format string goes here %d %f \n".end of line . arg2) returnval = arg1 + arg2.integer // %f . However when the function is called it will be interpreted. return end endfunction functionname(5. function returnval = functionname(arg1. // more code else break end • Printing in Scilab. if(returnval < 0). • Cases in Scilab. 3) • Note that when a function is defined in Scilab it is not actually run.page 104 • Functions in Scilab. // code case 1. select val.float // \n .

page 105 • Inputting values in Scilab. a = input("input a value for a").3 Examples . 34.

grid lines for the graph xtitle('Time (s)').5*acc*delta_t^2]. end // Dump the values to the screen //[t vel pos] // Graph the values plot2d(t.page 106 • A simple Scilab Program. // Loop to integrate the motion for i=1:steps. [-2. // Write values to a file (delete the existing file first) unix("del c:\temp\data. . // // by: H. -5]. i * delta_t]. acc=9.the legend titles // style . vel=[0]. vel = [vel. t=[0]. write("c:\temp\data. t_end = 10. t = [t. vel(\$) + acc]. [pos vel]. pos(\$) + vel(\$)*delta_t + 0. Jack Aug 27.81.txt".sce // // A simple program to integrate an accelerating mass // // To run this in Scilab use 'File' then 'Exec'. // leg . leg="position@velocity"). pos = [pos.txt"). [t vel pos]). // // test. // Initial conditions for the motion pos=[0]. 2002 // // Set the time length and step size steps = 100.draw lines with marks // nax . delta_t = t_end / steps.

i*h)]. x0 = 8. // d/dt x = v.. h = (t_end . endfunction function v=velocity(v0. // Explicit equation function x=position(x0. t_start = 1. v] function foo=f(state.. v) = (%f. force = 100. v0].. 2002 // System component values mass = 10. v0 = 12. v0. a0. end printf("The value at the end of first order integration is (x. X=[x0. 16.:) + h*f(X.5 * a0 * t^2) + (v0 * t) + x0. force/mass]. %f)\n".page 107 • A simple numerical integration of the equations of motion (ME/PDM).. // initial conditions // define the state matrix function // the values returned are [x. d/dt v = F/M endfunction // Set the time length and step size for the integration steps = 100. X = [X . X(\$. X(\$. Jack Sept. // first_order. t) x = (0. . // Loop for integration for i=1:steps. . t) v = (a0 * t) + v0.2))..sce // A first order integration of an accelerating mass // To run this in Scilab use 'File' then 'Exec'. 2).t) foo = [ state(\$.t_start) / steps. endfunction . X(\$. a0. // by: H.1). t_end = 100.

t_end)). %f)\n". // // Note: increasing the number of steps increases the accuracy // . This is relatively small.. force/mass. 1002) // explicit = (51208. velocity(v0. . force/mass. printf("The value with integration is (x. v) = (%f..page 108 • Integration continued. .. t_end). position(x0. v0. 1012) // // The difference is 1498 for position and 10 for velocity. but // shows a clear case of the innacuracy of the numerical solutions.. // // The results should be // first order integration = (49710.

endfunction fd = mopen("data.// convert to dB phasedeg = 180 * phase / %pi.// calculate the next frequency w = f * (2 * %pi). "w"). end mclose(fd). h=syslin('c'. 'Sample Transfer Function'). foo = (D + 5) / (D^2 + 100*D + 10000). 34.4 Summary 34.// convert to degrees mfprintf(fd.page 109 • A simple Bode plot example Program (for electricals). %f \n". // The transfer function function foo=G(w) D = %i * w.5 Problems 1. start_freq = 0.'D'). phasedeg). gaindb. phase] = polar(G(w)).1. bode(h.1. f = start_freq * 10 ^ (step/steps_per_dec). (D + 5) / (D^2 + 100*D + 10000) ). 0. 34. 1000. f. A user will then have to guess the value. decades = 6.// get the result and convert to magnitude/angle gaindb = 20*log10(gain). Write a program that chooses a random number between 1 and 100. // convert the frequency to radians [gain. %f. At the end the game should report the number of guesses required. for step = 0:(steps_per_dec * decades). "%f. // To graph it directly D=poly(0.txt". Each guess will be given a hint for higher/lower.6 Challenge Problems . steps_per_dec = 6.

.a count of the number of selections • Probability .The chance something will happen.a count of the variety of sequences • Combinations .2 Permutations • the possible arrangements of objects given. 35. PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS Topics: • Objectives: • 35.1 Introduction • Permutations .for exact definitions of not only possibilities. n = number of source objects r = number of arranged objects • Permutations .page 110 35. but also order.

= 52 × 51 ( 52 – 2 )! 50 × 49 × … • permutations for n unique objects arranged into r spots n! ----------------( n – r )! For example 5 objects in 3 spots 5! 5⋅4⋅3⋅2⋅1 -----------------.similar to before except order does not mater. How many permutations picking 2 cards off a deck (52) ( 52 )! 52 × 51 × 50 × … --------------------= -----------------------------------------.g.= ----------------2! ( 52 – 2 )! ( 2 × 1 ) ( 50 × 49 × … ) 2 .g.= 90 = -------------= --------------------------------------2!2!2! 8 d 1! d 2! d 3! 35.3 Combinations • Combinations .page 111 n! n P r = ----------------( n – r )! e.= 60 = -------------------------------( 5 – 3 )! 2⋅1 • permutations for non-unique objects (using all) For example consider 3 pairs of objects that will fill 6 spots 6! 6⋅5⋅4⋅3⋅2⋅1 n! ---------------------. How many combinations of the first 2 cards can be picked off the deck ( 52 )! 52 × 51 × 50 × … 52 × 51 -------------------------= ---------------------------------------------------. n! n C r = ---------------------(n choose r) r! ( n – r ) ! e.

4 Probability • The chance ’P(A)’ some event ’A’ will happen.= n -------------------------------------------------------------------nCr = -------r! r! For example consider 2 cars chosen from a set of 4 4 ⋅3 --------. . nPr ( n – 1 ) ( n – 2 )… ( n – r + 1 ) .Probable events can only happen as one or the other.page 112 • Possible outcomes if ’r’ objects are taken from a group of ’n’. • A way to figure out how chances interact • Venn diagrams can be useful for describing interactions.= 6 2⋅1 35. U A B U A B • Mutually Exclusive .

Two dice are rolled to get a number from 2 to 12..Probable events can occur simultaneously e.1/36 P(A ∪ B) A B • Independent Probabilities .Events will happen separately . Only one number from 1 to 6 will come up when rolling a die.P(A and B) = 1/6 + 1/6 . P(A) + P(B) + . P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) ..page 113 e. the chance that a 4 will come up is...g. = 1 A B • Not Mutually Exclusive .g.

216) . The marketing department has asked how many product permutations are possible for a new product. P(A and B) = P(A) * P(B) = (4/6)*(2/6) = 8/36 P(A ∩ B) A B • Dependant Probabilities . The chance of rolling a number >= 3 then <3 on a 6 sided die. and ball colors can be used more than once how many permutations are possible? (ans. The chance a student will pass an exam if they show up (99/100) and they know the material (7/10) P(A and B) = P(A) * P(B when A) = (99/100)*(7/10) • empirical probability . If balls must be used in all spots. # of outcomes P = --------------------------------# of trials • Probability Density Function P ( x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 ) = ∫x f ( x ) dx 1 x2 35.g.g. The product will hold three colored balls.5 Problems 1. In total there are 6 ball colors available.page 114 e.experimentally determine the probability with.The outcome of one event effects the outcome of another event e.

60) 8. d) Repeat b) for one red and 2 green. = 35 = 6 r = 2 10. How many prize layouts are possible? (ans. c) 14/55. There is a 3% chance that part A is bad. 120) 5.880 b) 1680) 7. (ans. but not both? d) If 2 trucks are loaded with 4 machines. There are 8 machines (A to H) waiting to be shipped. c) 30. d) 28/165) . How many ways could 8 operators be assigned to 5 workstations? (ans. a) 362. An electronics company will assemble circuit boards with interchangeable components. a) How many combinations are possible? b) How many of those combinations contain machine C? c) How many combinations contain A or H.page 115 2. a) 56. 4 are red and 8 are green. each a different color. An assembly operation places two parts a board. a) How many unique package arrangements are possible? b) How many different combinations of packaged products are possible if the position does not matter? (ans. b) 1/55. 10) 9. Each component type may only be used once. e) 15) 11. They are to be put into 3 boxes each holding 3 products. 6720) 6. but can only place 8 in the larger box. a) Find the probability that the first part removed is green. What is the chance the board contains a bad part? (ans. and a 2% chance that part B is bad. d) 70. A toy is being manufactured to have prizes in 2 of 5 slots. 45) 3. How many ways could 5 operators be assigned to 5 workstations? (ans. A carton contains 12 parts. If the worker is picking from a set of 10 different cereal boxes. How many different outcomes are possible? (ans. how many distributions are possible? e) Resolve part d) if machine A and B are in the same truck. 4. 3 of these will be tested. (ans. Calculate the following values. A worker is packing small cereal boxes into a larger box. There are 3 places to mount the components and there are 5 types of components. a) b) c) 7C3 4C2 7Cr = = = 21 (ans.94%) 4. how many combinations are possible? (ans. b) If 3 parts are removed what is the probability that all are red? c) Repeat b) for all green. There are nine product. a) 2/3. b) 21.

page 116 12. . Write routines to implement basic functions.

1 Introduction • Descriptive vs. .Deductive .Attempt to classify differences that exist within a group (i. • Two type of statistics .We want to sample as little data as possible to draw the most accurate conclusions about the distribution of the values. .e.Inductive . STATISTICS Topics: • Objectives: • 36.e. • What is the objective? . assume all of group should conform ***WE USE THIS TYPE . predictive statistics • Why? . no two parts will be the same.Because no matter what we do.Because we can sample a few and draw conclusions about the whole group.page 117 36.Try to get overall variance within group.Because we can’t sample every part.Because differences between parts are hard (assignable causes) or impossible (chance causes) to predict.Because we define a product to meet specifications and we can measure how well it conforms. i. election polls). . . .

page 118 36.2 Data Distributions • Showing Differences . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 III III III III I I IIII I I 3 3 3 3 1 1 4 1 1 .consider Dominos pizza that delivered < 30minutes by tolerance Delivery times for one night GROUPED to nearest value 20 16 28 21 23 26 26 27 27 17 23 29 23 29 26 17 26 26 31 27 because data is grouped.7 minutes becomes 21 Pizzas with black olives for 20 days UNGROUPED data 1 2 8 3 4 4 2 7 5 4 3 9 2 7 3 7 1 1 6 7 We can draw all with a tally sheet # count freq. 20.

// the minimum value in D max(D). 8 . 6 .2. 2 .. 7 . // the average value for the samples find(. 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . D = [ 3 ..1 Histograms • Histograms can be used to show these distributions graphically. 2 . 5 . // the median value in D mean(D). 8 ]. 9 . // the maximum value in D median(D). 5 . 3 . // the sum of all elements in D 36.page 119 • In Scilab.). 4 . // a data set min(D). // a function for looking for logical conditions sum(D).

if in the graph above we want to know how many pizzas are delivered within 25 minutes. so it is best used for the delivery times 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 or or polygon graph • Cumulative distributions can be used to estimate the probability of an event.page 120 4 3 2 1 1 4 3 2 1 1 # of pizzas 20 per week 15 10 5 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 delivery time or cumulative *this is continuous.) every week off the graph. . we could read 10 (approx. • there are typically 10 to 20 divisions in a histogram • percentages can be used on the right axis. For example. in place of counts.

3.number in sample D .3.1 Normal Distribution • Symbolically 1 f ( x ) = -------------.2 Hypergeometric Distribution Hypergeometric Cd Cn – d P ( d ) = ---------------------N Cn D N–D (probability of d nonconforming in sample n) basic combinatorial formula N .number in lot n .3 Discrete Distributions Pick from a finite sample (and not replace) Continuous stream with sample removal HYPERGEOMETRIC In terms of probability of failure In terms of failures in time BINOMIAL POISSON 36.page 121 36.number nonconforming in lot d .number nonconforming in sample .e σ 2π P(x) = – ( x – µ )--------------------2 2σ 2 36.

3 Binomial Distribution Binomial n! d n–d ( p ) ( q0 ) P ( d ) = ----------------------d! ( n – d )! 0 (probability of d nonconforming) n .number nonconforming in sample p0 .number in sample d .p0) .page 122 36.(1 .fraction nonconforming in sample q0 .3.

page 123 The binomial distribution is based on a simple principle of probability. we are looking at all possible mutually exclusive outcomes (add the probabilities) of the independent probabilities (multiply).p0 that it will pass. there is a probability q0 = 1 . second passes first passes. Therefore. outcome # 1 2 possible outcome failure pass 1 probability p0 q0 ∴∑ P = p 0 + q 0 = ( p 0 + q 0 ) = p 0 + ( 1 – p 0 ) = 1 To take this a step farther. second fails both pass 2 2 probability p0*p0=p02 p0*q0 q0*p0 q0*q0=q02 2 2(p0q0) ∴∑ P = p 0 + 2 p 0 q 0 + q 0 = ( p 0 + q 0 ) = ( p 0 + ( 1 – p 0 ) ) = ( 1 ) = 1 2 . outcome # 1 2 3 4 2 possible outcome both fail first fails. if there are 2 (=n) samples. In statistical terms. If we consider that there is a probability p0 that something will fail. for a sample size of 1 (=n).

n( n – 1) n – 2 2 n( n – 1)( n – 2) n – 3 3 . therefor n=4 1 = ( 1 ) p0 + ( 4 ) p0 q0 + ( 6 ) p0 q0 + ( 4 ) p0 q0 + ( 1 ) q0 Now that we have the binomial function. Say we have a sequence of 4 events.p0 q0 + … + qn q 0 + ------------------0 2! 3! ( p 0 + q 0 ) = p 0 + np 0 n n n–1 The coefficients for this method can also be found using pascals triangle. we can estimate the probability of various outcomes. This can be written as a general equation.page 124 We can continue in this way. A table is given for clarity below. These coefficients replace the terms in front of the p0 and q0 terms. n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 6 1 5 15 1 4 10 20 1 3 6 10 15 1 2 1 1 + 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 This triangle is constructed by adding the two factors above We can then use this chart to construct a binomial equation. and it will eventually show a pattern emerge in the form. term # 0 1 2 3 4 meaning all four of the cases fail three of the cases fail two of the cases fail one of the cases fail none of the cases fail probability ( 1 ) p0 ( 4 ) p0 q0 ( 6 ) p0 q0 ( 4 ) p0 q0 ( 1 ) q0 4 3 2 2 3 4 4 3 2 2 3 4 .p 0 q 0 + -----------------------------------.

c (probability of d nonconforming) ...page 125 36.718281828.4 Poisson Distribution Poisson ( np 0 ) –np 0 P ( c ) = --------------.3.count of nonconforming np0 .e c! c ..total count in sample e = 2.

+ -----.e + -----.+ -----.+ -----. m m m m = 1 + m + -----.page 126 Poisson’s distribution can be used to predict non-related events.+ -----. ∑P = 1 = e ×e m –m We can use a power factor expansion of one of the terms.+ …⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 2! 3! 4! 5! + me –m 2 3 4 5 –m m –m m –m m –m m –m + -----.+ -----. .e + … 2! 3! 4! 5! 2 3 4 5 We can now relate this back to the probability discussed before. It’s general form is. ∴∑ P = 1 = P ( 0 ) + P ( 1 ) + P ( 2 ) + P ( 3 ) + … m –m ∴P ( n ) = -----.e + -----. ∴1 = e ∴1 = e –m ⎛ m m m m 1 + m + -----.e n! P(n) = the probability of ‘n’ occurrences n = the number of occurrences being considered for a probability m = the expected number of occurrences n where.+ -----.+ … 2! 3! 4! 5! 2 3 4 5 e m Substitution leads to the final distribution function. and into a general form.e + -----.

p ∈ [ 0.4.4 Other Distributions 36. If the typical number found is 2 per hour (m=2).2 Discrete and Continuous Probability Distributions • The Binomial distribution is.1 Polynomial Expansions • Binomial expansion for polynomials.an – 2 x2 + … + xn x + ------------------2! 36.4. .page 127 Next. ( a + x ) = a + na n n n–1 n(n – 1) . P(m) = t≤m ∑ λe -----------t! t –λ λ>0 • The Hypergeometric distribution is. ⎞p q ∑⎛ ⎝ t⎠ n t n–t P(m) = q = 1–p q. 1 ] t≤m • The Poisson distribution is. what is the probability that less than 4 will occur in one hour (n<4)? P( < 4) = P(0) + P(1) + P(2) + P(3) ∴P ( < 4 ) = e –2 + 2e –2 2 –2 2 –2 . let us consider an example of a soft drink manufacturer that inspects outgoing bottles to see if the labels are right side up.e + ----e = + ---2! 3! 2 3 36.

∫ e dt 2 π –∞ 36.the area under the graph = 1.page 128 ⎛ r⎞ ⎛ s ⎞ ⎝ t⎠ ⎝ n – t⎠ P ( m ) = ∑ ----------------------r + s⎞ ⎛ t≤m ⎝ n ⎠ • The Normal distribution is. 1 x –t2 P ( x ) = ---------.00000. but in the cases where the data is continuous. the average or mean) • More on distribution later .the graphs often stretch (asymptotically) to infinity • In specific.. we use distributions of probability.. symmetrical skewed bimodal leptokurtic platykurtic • In addition the centre of the distribution can vary (i..e. .5 Continuous Distributions • Histograms are useful for grouped data. • In general .... some of the distribution properties are.

4 1+2+3+4 .g.page 129 36. 2 1 5 8 2(1 ) + 1( 3) + 5( 5) . ungrouped 1.1 Describing Distribution Centers With Numbers • The best known method is the average.75 X = --------------------------------------------8 8 • Another good measure is the median .5.5 X = -----------------------------4 e. grouped central value 1 3 5 freq.= 3.= 30 ----.g.= 2. 3. This gives the centre of a distribution n ∑ Xi for ungrouped numbers where =1 ------------X = i n X = average Xi = a data point n = number of points h for grouped numbers where X = i=1 ∑ ------n fi Xi X = average fi = the number of matches in range i Xi = the central value for the range i h = the number of ranges n = the number of matches for all ranges e. 2.

e.g.g. .a mode is a repeated value that occurs the most.= 3 2 median • If the numbers are grouped the median becomes n . Multiple modes are possible.2 Dispersion As A Measure of Distribution • The range of values covered by a distribution are important .if an even number of samples. it is the average of the left and right bounding numbers e.5.If odd number of samples it is the middle number .page 130 .– cf m⎞ ⎛ -2 ⎜ ----------------⎟ i = + Md Lm ⎜ fm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Md = median Lm = lower bound of the range of the median n = number of samples overall cfm = cumulative frequency of all cells below Lm fm = frequency of median cell i = cell interval • Mode can be useful for identifying repeated patterns . 1 3 2 9 3 7 6 3 4 4 5 mode = 3 36. odd 1 2 3 median even 1 2 4 7 2 +4 ----------.Range is the difference between the highest and lowest numbers.

page 131 e.1 = 7 • Standard deviation is a classical measure of grouping (for normal distributions??????????) . n ∑ ( Xi – X ) s = 2 i=1 -----------------------------n–1 s = standard deviation Xi= observed value X = average n = number of values e.666 = 2.8) will contain 68. e.8 therefore. we can estimate the distribution of the samples. the range 4-2. 1 2 7 6 5 0 7 1+2+7+6+5+0+7 .g X=4 s = 2.8 (1. . the percentage of samples included are.8 to 4+2.g 7831562 range = 8 .2 to 6.the equation is.8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 • When we use a standard deviation.= 4 X = ---------------------------------------------------------7 7 s = = ( 1 – 4) + (2 – 4) + (7 – 4) + (6 – 4) + (5 – 4) + (0 – 4) + (7 – 4)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7–1 8.= 27 ----.g.26% of the samples • By adding standard deviations to increase the range size.

page 132 X ± s → 68..3 The Shape of the Distribution • Skewed functions . s = ⎛ n ⎞ n∑ – ⎜ ∑ X i⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ i=1 i=1 ⎠ ----------------------------------------------n(n – 1) 2 Xi n 2 s = ⎛ h ⎞ 2 n ∑ ( f i X i ) – ⎜ ∑ f i X i⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝i = 1 ⎠ i=1 ---------------------------------------------------------n( n – 1) h 2 h = number of cells fi = frequency of values in a cell 36.46% X ± 3 s → 99...73% etc.5.26% X ± 2 s → 95. Assuming a normal distribution • Other formulas for standard deviation are.

5. skewed left normal skewed right • this lack of symmetry tends to indicate a bias in the data (and hence in the real world) • a skew factor can be calculated fi ( Xi – X ) ∑ -----------------------n =1 ---------------------------------a3 = i 3 s if a3 = 0 then the distribution is symmetrical (normal) a3 > 0 then skewed to the right a3 < 0 then skewed to the left a3 is not 0 indicates the distribution is not normal.4 Kurtosis • This is a peaking in the data .page 133 Note: the distribution points to the right hand side. h 3 36.

Randomly collect some data 2.5 Generalizing From a Few to Many 1.number of samples increases . Repeat steps 1. and standard sample deviation s 4. 36. Find average X. i. 2 & 3 until no longer interested.page 134 Platykurtic Mesokurtic (normal) fi ( Xi – X ) ∑ -----------------------n =1 ---------------------------------a4 = i 4 s a4 = 3 mesokurtic a4 > 3 leptokurtic a4 < 3 platykurtic h 4 Leptokurtic • This is best used for comparison to other values.5.e. Plot data in histogram sample very rough and full of possible inaccuracies . you can watch the trends in the values of a4. Put together data from earlier samples to get much better distributions population 6.uncertainty decreases 3. Calculate population mean µ and standard deviation σ . 5.

s) frequency f(Xi) or f(Z) Xi or Z Xi – µ Z = ------------σ 1 f ( Z ) = ---------. and therefore will enclose 100% of the population. or for samples (X.e 2π – Z -------2 2 • The area under the curve is 1. σ).6 The Normal Curve • this is a good curve that tends to represent distributions of things in nature (also called Gaussian) • This distribution can be fitted for populations (µ.page 135 36. • the parameters vary the shape of the distribution σ or s varies µ or X varies • The area under the curve indicates the cumulative probability of some event .5.

7 Probability plots . etc.2σ = 95.6826 µ+/. ******* ADD IN MORE TO FIND AREA UNDER DISTRIBUTION • When applied to quality ±3σ are used to define a typical “process variability” for the product.86 2 2 of the values are found.= 81.5. and UNL.page 136 -3σ -2σ -σ µ or X +1σ +2σ +3σ the area bounded by range indicates the cumulative probability. UCL. In this case the area = .26 -----------.+ 95.26% of the values bounded µ+/.46% of the values bounded between µ+1σ and µ-2σ 68. *Table A in text gives integrated area under the curve so that probability may be found. 36.46 -----------. LNL. LCL. This is also known as the upper and lower natural limits (UNL & LNL) ******************* LOOK INTO USE OF SYMBOLS.1σ = 68.

5 ) -% pp = ---------------------------n total # samples Select probability paper for the distribution type (Normal in this case) Label the vertical axis Plot the points and fit a line Conformance to straight line determines normality. then up rank Determine percentile for plotting 100 ( i – 0.page 137 • Procedure Data List the data in order Add rank numbers from 1 for the smallest. etc .

0.0.5/7*100% etc. 3.0 are within +/.5 value 5 Points side by side occur twice in data 2.page 138 10 7.6 Problems 1.3 standard deviations.5 0 0 1 10 30 50 % data 1 2 4 4 5 7 9 70 90 99 100 data 1 9 4 5 7 2 4 rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 % .. 2. 36. Write a Scilab program to compute the mean and standard deviation for the data below. .. It should then check to see if the values 1..

4 2. The second machine takes 4 minutes with a standard deviation of 15 seconds.page 139 x 1. If the first machine finishes before the second machine.4 1.5 1. Use Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the average cycle time. 2. Use the subroutine to simulate the system described below.1 1. The first machine takes 3 minutes for an operation with a standard deviation of 10 seconds.5 0.7 Challenege Problems 1. A production process consists of two machines.6 1.1 0.9 1. .6 1. Verify the routine. it will have to wait for the second machine to finish before the job moves on.8 36.0 1.2 1. Write a function that generates random numbers that follow a gaussian distribution for an arbitrary mean and standard deviation.0 1.9 1.7 2.

being able to predict this allows us to determine the useable life. . 37.the probability that a system operates through a given operation specification. system availability • FMEA Objectives: • To be able to estimate the reliability of a multicomponent system.reliability . MTTF.1 Introduction • This chapter will assume that a system or component is functional. but we will consider failure to be when they cease being functional.availability .page 140 37.the probability that the system will be available at any instant required. or not. • No system is perfect and will fail eventually. RELIABILITY Topics: • Reliability of series and parallel system components • MTBF. • Dependability is a combination of. In practice systems fail slowly. MTTR. . .

page 141 • Typical failures follow the following curve. with the units of failures per hour. and is shown with the constant (lambda).2 Component Failure Rates • Failure rate is the expected number of failures per unit time. . 100% failed operating t burn in failures wear out failures 37. • Basically.

This also suggests a . N ( t ) = the number operating at time t R ( t ) = the reliability. Q ( t ) = unreliability • Failures tend (but do not have to) follow exponential failure rate curves.page 142 N(t) R ( t ) = ----------N(0) where. the portion surviving over the time [ t 0. t ] Q( t) = 1 – R( t) where.

When this is the the case the failure rate is also the Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF).----------N(t) N(t) .----------N(t) . Note that the reliability is also the probability R(t ) = e – ft .page 143 failure function.= – f ----------∴---dt N ( 0 ) N(0) d∴---N ( t ) = – fN ( t ) dt – N ( t )∴f ( t ) = --------------d ---. d– ft ---R ( t ) = – fe dt d.N(t) dt where.= – fR ( t ) ∴---dt N ( 0 ) d. R(t) R(t) ≈ e – ft t Assume a function. f ( t ) = the failure rate • A constant failure rate is the most commonly assumed.

. 1 1 ."pot holes" . MTBF = Mean Time Before Failure t – --------------MTBF • Even when the e-to-the-t function is a good model for system failure a system MTBF can be varied during system life by variations in product usage.etc.page 144 that the system will be operational.= --------------f ( t ) = -λ MTBF R(t) = e where.= ------------------z ( t ) = – --------------1 – Q(t) R(t) where.excessive stresses .large loads . Example of these include. dd------R(t ) Q(t) dt dt --------------------------------= f(t) = – 1 – Q(t) R(t) dd------Q(t) R(t) dt dt . z ( t ) = the failure rate • The bathtub curve shows typical values for the failure rate.high heat levels . .

as reflected by the relation below. we can approximate the failure rate as linear.page 145 z( t) constant failure rate early failure stage useful life worn out t t0 • The basic reliability equation can be rearranged. eventually leading to a compact expression.this is the expected time before a failure. ∫ z ( t ) dt ≈ λ t ∴R ( t ) = e –λ t = The Exponential Failure Law • MTTF (Mean Time To Failure) . d---R(t) dt --------------z(t) = – R(t) d∴---R ( t ) = –z ( t ) R ( t ) dt ∴R ( t ) = e – z ( t ) dt ∫ During the useful life of the product. .

∫ xf ( x ) dx –∞ X = a random variable E [ X ] = expected value f ( x ) = a probability density function MTTF = ∫0 tf ( t ) dt ∞ Given the probability density function. 1 MTTR = -µ where. and the time the system is down for repairs. This is not simple to determine and often is based on experimental estimates. . df ( t ) = ---Q(t) dt ∴MTTF = ∫0 ∞ ∞ d d. and using integration by parts we can find the relationship between the MTTF. and reliability. MTBF = MTTF + MTTR • The difference between MTBF and MTTR is often small.page 146 ∞ E[X] = where. number of repairs µ = the repair rate = -----------------------------------------------------------time period for all repairs • The MTTF and MTTR both measure the time that the system is running between repairs. But.R ( t ) dt = [ – tR ( t ) + ∫ R ( t ) dt ] t ---Q ( t ) dt = – ∫ t ---dt 0 dt ∞ 0 = ∫0 R ( t ) dt ∞ • The MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) for a system is the average time to repair a system. but when critical the difference must be observed. they must be combined for the more useful measure MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure).

and often unpredictable phenomenon. a system designer must have an intuitive understanding of the concept of series/parallel functions. The two main categories of systems are series. • In terms of design. Note that at the beginning. . and will not be reliable. this value will be changing. this can be a good measure.= -----------A ( t ) = ------------to + tr MTTF + MTTR MTBF λ 1 + -µ where.3 Serial System Reliabilty • Fault Coverage is the probability that a system will recover from a failure. This number will be difficult to determine exactly because it is based on real. This can be derived approximately by examining the design. or estimated. then the system becomes inoperative.page 147 • availability is the chance that at any time a system will be operational. This can be determined experimentally. and end of its life. Here the reliabilities of each of the system components is chained (ANDed) together. • Reliability can be determined with individual system components as a function of probabilities. A ( t ) = probability that a system will be available at any time t o = hours in operation over a time period t r = hours in repair over a time period 37. and parallel (redundant).= -------------------------------------.= --------------. In the best case a high reliability system would have many parallel systems in series. For a system that is into it’s useful lifetime. • We can consider a series system where if any of the units fails. to MTTF MTTF 1 . and making reliable estimates.

electronic brakes. 37. λ 1 R 2 ( t ).page 148 Module 1 Module 2 Module n R 1 ( t ). . • This type of reliability adds cost.4 Parallel System Reliability • When a ’parallel’ component fails the reliability of the overall system is reduced. ∏ Ri ( t ) i=1 R s ( t ) = the reliability of a series system at time t R i ( t ) = the reliability of a unit at time t Now. but the system remains completely or partially functional. then we can get an exact value of reliability.in dark places multiple bulbs are used so a failed bulb does not leave it dark. consider the exponential failure law presented before. n Rs ( t ) = ( e –λ1 t )(e –λ2 t )… ( e –λn t n – –λi t ) = ∏e i=1 ∑λ t i i=1 = e Note: this form is very nice. If each element in a system observes this law. λ 2 R n ( t ).lights . Here we are concerned with complements of the chained unreliabilities. λ n n R s ( t ) = ( R 1 ( t ) ) ( R 2 ( t ) )… ( R n ( t ) ) = where. • Examples of systems using parallel reliability include. . so it is normally only used in critical systems where failure is not acceptable. • If any of the units fails the system will continue to operate. Failure will only come when all of the modules fail.brakes on a car . also have mechanical backups .4 brakes .

∏ ( 1 – Ri ( t ) ) i=1 Note: The parallel form will not result in a simple closed form as it did with the series case. . λ 1 Module 2 R 2 ( t ). Q s ( t ) = the unreliability of a parallel system at time t Q i ( t ) = the unreliability of a module at time t R p ( t ) = the reliability of a parallel system at time t R i ( t ) = the unreliability of a module at time t • also consider the case of a parallel system that requires ‘m’ of ‘n’ identical modules to be functional. The student will consider the binomial form of the probabilities. such as a hybrid system. λ 2 Module n R n ( t ). or a voting system that needs two out of three functional units. λ n n Q p ( t ) = ( Q 1 ( t ) ) ( Q 2 ( t ) )… ( Q n ( t ) ) = n ∏ Qi ( t ) i=1 Rp ( t ) = 1 – Qp ( t ) = 1 – where.page 149 Module 1 R 1 ( t ).

• the following is a reasonable FMEA chart. and the effects of each failure is considered.page 150 n–m R m . to find the total reliability. replacing the parallel units with their grouped reliability. 37.5 Formal Analysis Techniques 37. calculate the reliability of the parallel units first. and then calculate the series reliability.5. ⎞ (R(t)) ∑⎛ ⎝ i⎠ i=0 n (n – i) (1 – R(t)) i R m . the effects of these failures on other parts of the system is considered.n ( t ) = where.1 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) • Estimates overall reliability of a detailed or existing product design in terms of probability of failure • basically. .n ( t ) = reliability of a system that contains m of n parallel modules R ( t ) = the reliability of the modules at time t n! ⎛ n⎞ = -------------------= the binomial operator (we can also use Pascal‘s triangle) ⎝ i⎠ ( n – i )! i! • keep in mind that many systems are a combination of series and parallel units. In turn. each component is examined for failure modes.

analyze single units or failures to target reliability problems. estimate failure probability based on sources such as those listed below. 1. consider all critical components in a system. and in the event of critical failures the probabilities are listed and combined to get the overall system reliability. . • Suitable applications include. Therefore. 5.etc. 4.historical data for similar components in similar conditions .testing . The failures in a particular operation mode can take a number of forms. . . These figures are entered in the “Failure Probability” column. 3. These are listed in the critical items column.experienced estimates . The effects are considered. 2. . In this case the table shows failures divided into critical/non-critical (others are possible).published values . If a component has more than one operation mode.page 151 Critical Components Failure Probability Failure Mode Number of Failures by Mode 10 5 85 40 30 30 EFFECTS Critical Non critical car brakes (car in motion) car brakes (car parked) 10^-4 disengage engage weaken disengage engage weaken 1x10^-5 5x10^-6 X 4x10^-7 X X 10^-6 • the basic steps to filling one out is. each of these should be considered individually.redundant and fail-safe design requirements . Error bounds may also be included in the FMEA figures when numbers are unsure.identify. each mode of failure for a system is considered and its % of total failures is broken down.

1987. Write a program that will accept test data to determine the Exponential Failure Equation coefficient.. The Electrical Engineering Handbook. a modern approach. Safety/Failure Tolerance Failure Management”. J.7 Problems 1. A set of 4 production machines are running in parallel. 1993. part of a set of course note for a course offered previously at the University of Toronto. Dorf. R.. Engineering Design. This should then be used to calculate the MTTF. 1997. 37. McGraw-Hill. What is the total MTTF for the system? 3. 199?.. Series reliability means that a failure of any unit will cause the entire group to fail. but also time consuming. Brimley.S. Parallel reliability means that there is some redundancy. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. Irwin. B. 2.inspection and maintenance requirements . Rasmussen. Dhillon. New Technology and Human Error. 37. Ullman. Duncan. “Spacecraft Systems.6 References and Bibliography American Institute of Chemical Engineers. and Leplat. Leveson..components for redesign • This technique is very complete. 1995. How are series and parallel reliability different? ans. 1996.single item failure modes . 1992. .. • not suited to complex systems where cascaded errors may occur.. pp. W. Guidelines for hazard evaluation procedures: with worked examples. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.C.G. Safeware: system safety and computers. K. 2nd edition. IEEE Press/CRC Press. The first two machines have a MTBF of 100 hours and a MTTR of 3 hours.. USA... N. 2020-2031. (editor).page 152 . The Mechanical Design Process. The second two machines have a MTBF of 150 hours and a MTTR of 15 hours. D. J.

.page 153 4. or parallel. and then calculate the combined MTTF for the system. Write a program that will accept MTTF for multiple components in series.

CALCULUS Topics: • Objectives: • 38.page 154 38.2 Derivatives • The basic definition of a derivative is. When this is zero the function may . d(x + ∆x) – f(x) ---f ( x ) = lim f ------------------------------------dt ∆x ∆x → 0 • First derivatives are often used to get the slope of a function.1 Introduction 38.

maxima • Notations.page 155 be at a minimum/maximum. . d----y = y' dx d· ---y = y dt minima inflection • The basic principles of differentiation are.

n n–1 d -----(u) ( u ) = ( nu ) ----dx dx ddd----( uv ) = ( u ) ----( v ) + ( v ) ----(u) dx dx dx product rule ddv ----( u ) – u ----(v) d u v d u d dx dx ----.page 156 Both u.( y ) = ------------dx d -----(x) du . d -----(C) = 0 dx dd----( Cu ) = ( C ) ----(u) dx dx ddd----( u + v + … ) = ----( u ) + ----(v) + … dx dx dx d.( v ) = ---------------------------------------2 ⎝ 2⎠ dx ⎝ 2⎠ dx dx ⎝ v⎠ v v v dddd----( uvw ) = ( uv ) ----( w ) + ( uw ) ----( v ) + ( vw ) ----(u) dx dx dx dx dd. Also note that C is used as a constant. and all angles are in radians. but this is not shown for brevity.⎛ --⎞ = ⎛ ----⎞ ----.( u ) – ⎛ ----⎞ ----.----d ----( y ) = ----(y) -(u) dx du dx d1 ----( u ) = ------------dx d -----(x) du chain rule d----(y) d du ----. v and w are functions of x.

g ( x )⎟ . dd----( sin u ) = ( cos u ) ----(u) dx dx dd----( cos u ) = ( – sin u ) ----(u) dx dx d1 2 d----(u) ( tan u ) = ⎛ -----------⎞ ----⎝ cos u⎠ dx dx d.2 ---(t + t + 3) = 2t + 1 dt d. d.⎛ t +t+3 2t + 1 +t+3 -----------------------⎞ = -------------–t -------------------2 ⎝ ⎠ dt t + 2 t+2 (t + 2) 2 2 • Differentiation rules specific to basic trigonometry and logarithm functions d2 d -----(u) ( cot u ) = ( – csc u ) ----dx dx dd----( sec u ) = ( tan u sec u ) ----(u) dx dx dd----( csc u ) = ( – csc u cot u ) ----(u) dx dx dd----( sinh u ) = ( cosh u ) ----(u) dx dx dd----( cosh u ) = ( sinh u ) ----(u) dx dx d2 d -(u) ----( tanh u ) = ( sech u ) ----dx dx • L’Hospital’s rule can be used when evaluating limits that go to infinity.g ( x )⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ---⎝ ⎝ ---⎠ dt⎠ dt⎠ • Some techniques used for finding derivatives are. d-⎞ d-⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎛ ---⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ---⎞ f ( x ) ⎝ dt⎠ ⎝ dt⎠ f ( x ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ f ( x ) -⎟ = … lim ⎛ ----------⎞ = lim ⎜ ---------------------⎟ = lim ⎜ ----------------------x → a⎝ g ( x )⎠ x → a⎜ ⎛ d ⎞ x → a⎜ ⎛ d ⎞ 2 ⎟ .( ln x ) = -x dx .page 157 • Examples.u u d -(u) ----( e ) = ( e ) ----dx dx d 1 ----.

(notice the form is similar to the binomial equation) can be used for finding the derivatives of multiplied functions. y f(x) dx x dA = width ⋅ height = dx ⋅ f ( x ) A = ∫ f ( x ) dx • Some basic properties of indefinite integrals (no given start and end limits) include.page 158 Leibnitz’s Rule. Indefinitie integrals do not have boundaries defines and a constant must be added to the result. • To set up integrals use integration elements (aka slices). d-⎞ n d-⎞ 0 ⎛ ----d n d n–1 n d-⎞ 1 ⎛ ----⎛ ----( uv ) = ⎛ ----( u ) -⎞ ( v ) + ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ----( u ) -⎞ (v) ⎝ dx⎠ ⎝ dx⎠ ⎝ dx⎠ ⎝ dx⎠ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ dx⎠ d n–2 d 0 d-⎞ 2 ⎛ ----n d-⎞ n ⎛ ----⎛ n⎞ ⎛ ----( u ) -⎞ ( v ) + … + ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ----( u ) -⎞ ( v ) ⎝ dx⎠ ⎝ dx⎠ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ dx⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ dx⎠ 38. .3 Integrals • Integrals are often referred to as anti-derivatives • definite integrals have boundaries defines.

∫ C dx = ax + C = C ∫ f ( x ) dx = ∫ Cf ( x ) dx ∫ u dv ∫ ( u + v + w + … ) dx ∫ f ( Cx ) dx ∫ u dx + ∫ v dx + ∫ w dx + … = uv – ∫ v du = integration by parts 1 . in addition to this. and w are functions of x. . u.dx ∫ -x 1 = ln x + C x ∫ e dx x = e +C • Some of the trigonometric integrals are. and all angles are radians.du ∫ F ( f ( x ) ) dx = ∫ F ( u ) ----f' ( x ) du x n +C ∫ x dx = ----------n+1 a+C ∫ a dx = ------ln a x x n+1 u = f(x) . v.page 159 In the following expressions.f ( u ) du = --u = Cx C∫ F( u) d( x ) du = ∫ ----------. C is a constant.

+ ------------dx = ----+ +C 8 4 32 n+1 ( sin x ) n -----------------------∫ cos x ( sin x ) dx = n + 1 + C ∫ ( cos x ) 4 ∫ sinh x dx ∫ cosh x dx ∫ tanh x dx = cosh x + C = sinh x + C = ln ( cosh x ) + C ∫ ( cos x ) 2 cos x ( ( sin x ) + 2 ) 3 -+C ∫ ( sin x ) dx = – ------------------------------------------3 sin x ( ( cos x ) + 2 ) -+C ∫ ( cos x ) dx = ------------------------------------------3 3 2 ∫ x cos ( ax ) dx cos ( ax ) -x = ------------------+ .page 160 ∫ sin x dx ∫ cos x dx ∫ ( sin x ) 2 = – cos x + C = sin x + C sin x cos x + x -+C dx = – -----------------------------2 sin x cos x + x -+C dx = -----------------------------2 2 3x sin 2 x ------------sin 4 x .sin ( ax ) + C 2 a a 2 2 2 x cos ( ax ) x –2 2 -+a ------------------sin ( ax ) + C ∫ x cos ( ax ) dx = ------------------------2 3 a a • Some other integrals of use that are basically functions of x are. .

⎛ a +x 2 –1 -⎞ + C. c < 0 ( a + bx + cx ) dx = --------∫ 2 –c b – 4 ac . c > 0 2 c 2 2 ± a ) dx = 2 1 – -2 1 2 –1 ( a + bx + cx ) dx = -----.page 161 x n +C ∫ x dx = ----------n+1 n+1 ∫ ( a + bx ) ∫ ( a + bx –1 ln ( a + bx ) dx = ------------------------. a 2 > x 2 – x ) dx = ----ln ----------⎝ 2a a – x⎠ –1 ∫ ( a + bx ) ∫ x(x 2 2 a + bx dx = ---------------------.⎛ -------------------------a + 2 –b -⎞ + C.+ C b x ±a +C b2 a + bx + cx + x c + --------+ C.ln ∫ c 1– 2 cx – b2 –1 asin -----------------------+ C.– -------------⎞ + C ( a + bx ) dx = -atan ⎛ -----------⎝ a ⎠ b b ab 2 ∫ (a 1. a > 0. b < 0 ) dx = --------------------ln ⎝ 2 ( –b ) a a – x –b⎠ 2 –1 2 ln ( bx + a ) -+C ∫ x ( a + bx ) dx = --------------------------2b ∫x 2 x a x ab 2 –1 .+ C b 2 –1 1 .

ln x + ⎛ ---+x ⎞ ∫ ( 1 + a x ) dx = -2 ⎝ ⎠ a a 2 2 1 – -2 1 -- ∫ (1 – a 2 2 1 1 .acos ( ax ) x ) dx = -a a 1 – -2 .asin ( ax ) = – -.⎛ ---–x ⎞ ∫ x ( 1 – a x ) dx = – -2 ⎠ 3⎝a x 2 2 2 1 x⎞ 2 2 2 2 ---x ( a – x ) d x = – ( a – x ) + x ( a – x ) + a asin ⎛ ∫ ⎝ 4 8 a⎠ 2 2 1 -2 2 3 -1 -1 -2 2 2 3 -- 1 -2 2 2 1 -- 1 12 2 .page 162 22 ( a + bx ) ∫ ( a + bx ) dx = ----3b 22 ( a + bx ) ∫ ( a + bx ) dx = ----3b 1 -2 3 -- 1 -2 3 -- ∫ x ( a + bx ) 1 -2 2 ( 2 a – 3 bx ) ( a + bx ) dx = – ---------------------------------------------------2 15 b 1 3 -2 --⎞ ⎛ 1 2⎞ 2⎟ ⎜ ⎛ -+x ln x + ---1 ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎟ -a 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 1 -x ( 1 + a x ) + -------------------------------------------2 a 2 2 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------∫ ( 1 + a x ) dx = 2 1---x a⎛ ⎝ 2+ ⎠ a ∫ x ( 1 + a x ) dx = --------------------------3 1 -2 2 2 --⎞ ⎛ 1 2⎞ 2⎟ ⎜ ⎛ ---3 1 1 ln ⎜ x + ⎝ 2 + x ⎠ ⎟ ---a ⎝ ⎠ ax 18 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .⎛ ---x ( 1 + a x ) – -------------------------------------------+ x ⎞ – -------∫ x ( 1 + a x ) dx = ----2 2 3 ⎠ 4 ⎝a 8a 8a 1 3 -2⎞ 2 1 asin ( ax ) 2 2 2 -( – x ) d x = x ( 1 – a x ) + -------------------1 a ∫ 2 a a 12 2 .

∫x 2 sin 4 x dx u = v = .3.1 Integration Examples • Integration by parts .page 163 • Integrals using the natural logarithm base ‘e’. e ax +C ∫ e dx = -----a e ax ( ax – 1 ) + C ∫ xe dx = -----2 a ax ax 38.It is normal to have to do the integration by parts more than once to solve a problem.

w = t +1 d---w = 2t dt dw = 2 tdt ∫ te t +1 2 dt = ∫e t +1 2 t dt = 2 1 1 w1 w t +1 ---e d w = e + C = e +C ∫ 2 2 2 • Partial fractions can be used to reduce complex polynomials to simple to integrate forms.4 Vectors • When dealing with large and/or time varying objects or phenomenon we must be able to describe the state at locations. --------------------------⎞ dx ∫⎛ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x + 3x + 2 5 x + 10 = 38.page 164 • Substitution. . ∫ te t +1 2 dt 2 guess. To do this vectors are a very useful tool. • Consider a basic function and how it may be represented with partial derivatives. and as a whole.

page 165 y = f ( x . This is very useful for dealing with magnetic fields. ∇ = ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂z ∇ • F = the divergence of function F ∇ × F = the curl of function F F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k • Gauss’s or Green’s or divergence theorem is given below. z ) ⎝ ∂ x⎠ ⎝ ∂ y⎠ ⎝ ∂ z⎠ ∂ ∂ ∂ ( d ) y = ⎛ i + j + k⎞ • ( dxi + dyj + dzk ) f ( x. ∂ ∂ ∂ ( d ) y = ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ f ( x. and divide it into two vectors. ( d ) y = [ ∇ • dX ] f ( x. This is very useful for dealing with magnetic fields. z ) dX cos θ In summary. but the right hand side must contain partial derivatives. Both sides give the flux across a surface. y. . Both sides give the flux across a surface. V. A = a volume V enclosed by a surface area A F = a field or vector value over a volume • Stoke’s theorem is given below. z ) • dX ( d ) y = ∇ f ( x. y. z )⎞ dz ⎝ ⎝ ∂ x⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ∂ y⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ∂ z⎠ ⎠ ∂ ∂ ∂ ( d ) y = ⎛ ⎞ dx + ⎛ ⎞ dy + ⎛ ⎞ dz f ( x. y. or out of a volume. V ∫ ( ∇ • F ) dV = ∫ FdA ° A where. y. z ) ( d ) y = ∇ f ( x. or out of a volume. we get a simpler form. y. We can then look at them as the result of a dot product. y. y. z ) ⎝∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ We then replace these vectors with the operators below. y. z )⎞ dy + ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ f ( x. y. In this form we can manipulate the equation easily (whereas the previous form was very awkward). If we separate the operators from the function. z )⎞ dx + ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ f ( x. z ) We can write this in differential form.

5. with a bounding parimeter of length L F = a field or vector value over a volume 38. A. Numerical techniques are not as elegant as solving differential equations.this means by doing repeated calculations to solve the equation. • This method uses forward/backward differences to estimate derivatives or integrals from measured data. and will result in small errors. .page 166 A ∫ ( ∇ × F ) dA = ∫ FdL ° L where. But these techniques make it possible to solve complex problems much faster.5 Numerical Tools 38.1 Approximation of Integrals and Derivatives from Sampled Data • This form of integration is done numerically . L = A surface area A.

–1 -----------------2 (x + 1) – e sin ( 2 t – 4 ) + 2 e cos ( 2 t – 4 ) –t –t b) .⎛ ----------1 -⎞ ----⎝ dx x + 1⎠ d.page 167 y(t) yi + 1 yi yi – 1 ti – 1 T ti T ti + 1 ∫t ti y i + y i – 1⎞ T .6 Problems 1.= -. a) d.( t i – t i – 1 ) = -.( y i + 1 – y i ) – -.( yi – yi – 1 ) 2 –2 yi + yi – 1 + yi + 1 d T T ⎛ ---⎞ .y ( t i ) ≈ ----------------------------------------------------------------.– t ---( e sin ( 2 t – 4 ) ) dt ans.= ⎛ -------------------.( y + yi – 1 ) y ( t i ) ≈ ⎛ -------------------⎝ ⎠ 2 2 i i–1 y i – y i – 1⎞ y i + 1 – y i⎞ d1 1 ---.5.= -------------------------------------------2 ⎝ dt⎠ T T 38. Find the following derivatives.2 Centroids and Moments of Inertia 38.( y i – y i – 1 ) = --(y y ( t i ) ≈ ⎛ -------------------–y) ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ dt ti – ti – 1 ti + 1 – ti T T i+1 i 1 1 -.

z y b x a (ans.page 168 2. The .e2t + C 2 1 . Solve the following integrals.sin 3 θ + C – cos θ + -3 b) ∫ ( sin θ + cos 3 θ ) dθ 3. Write a program that integrates the following function using the trapezoidal rule and Simpson’s rule. c c a a abc -------+b --------⎞ + -------V = π⎛ ⎝ 3 3 3 ⎠ 2 2 (move later) 4. The period of integration should range from 0 to 10 seconds. Set up an integral and solve it to find the area inside the volume below. 1 -. a) ∫e 2t dt ans. The shape is basically a cone with the top cut off.

y ( x ) = sin ( sin ( 5 x ) + cos ( 20 x ) – 5 x ) + ( x – 10 ) 2 2 2 // sample program function foo = y(x) foo = sin(sin(5 * x * x) + cos(20 * x) . y_min = y(x). y_min . end end x_min. Write a program that finds the location of the minimum value for the function given below. // the value should be 1667 approximately (move later . y ( t ) = 5 t + sin ( 20 t ) // sample program function foo = y(t) foo = 5 * t ^ 2 + sin ( 20 * t ). mprintf("integral value numerical = %f.10) ^ 2.also the accuracy for x = -100:h:100 if (y(x) < y_min). actual = (5 / 3) * t ^ 3 . // this value doesn’t matter h = 0. // something big to start x_min = 0. endfunction y_min = 100000000000. // look for the smallest value x_min = x.page 169 program should compare the numerical results to the exact result. actual). // step size for t = 0:h:10 sum = sum + h * (f(t+h) + f(t)) / 2. // uses the trapezoid rule end t = 10. // step size .001. sum.1. h = 0. actual = %f \n".near end) 5.5*x) + (x .05 * cos(20 * t). endfunction sum = 0.0.

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) (x + 4) (x + 4) ln ( x ) ln ( x + x ) e e x 3 3 3 4 (ans.page 170 8. Differentiate. 4(3 )x (x + 4) 2 3 2 3 3 –4 –4 ( 3 ) x ( x + 4 ) 1 -x 3 x +1 ----------------3 x +x e x 2 2 –5 x+x –x 2 3 ( – 3x + 2x + 1)e –x +5 --------------------2 2 (x + 5) –x +5 --------------------2 2 (x + 5) 2 xe x +5 2 x+x –x 2 3 x + 5x e x +5 2 x ------------2 x +5 2 x ---------------3 2 2 sin ( x ) e sin ( x ) sin x --------x x 2 2 2 x cos x x 2 2 x 2 2 xe sin ( x ) + e cos ( x ) x cos x – sin x -----------------------------2 x .

ln ( x ) + C x – 5 ln ( x + 5 ) + C – 1------+C 2 2x 2 4 2 3 -x + C 1. a) b) c) ∫0 e ∫0 ∫0 10 4π ∞ –t dt 3 (ans –1 12833. Solve the following integrals. Write a Scilab program that numerically intergrates the following functions.ex + C 2 x ----------x+5 1---3 x 5x + 2x xe x 2 3 cos x ( cos x ) 2 sin x + C sin x cos x + x ------------------------------+C 2 10. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 1 -x (ans. Integrate the following indefinite functions with respect to x.25 x + -3 2 1 -. a) b) ∫0 ∫0 10 4π ( t + 5 t ) dt cos ( t ) dt 2 3 .33 0 ( t + 5 t ) dt cos ( t ) dt 2 11.page 171 9.

Inputs to the system would be the mass of human riders and desired elevator height. that the system to be analyzed is an elevator. 1. and then solve the differential equation. etc. A basic test would involve assuming that the elevator starts at the ground floor and must travel to the top floor. Figure 1. These equations can be used to analyze the behavior of the system and make design decisions. the system model could be developed using differential equations for the motor. This output response can then be used as a guide to modify design choices (parameters). The most basic method is to select a standard input type (a forcing function) and initial conditions. many of the assumptions and tests are mandated by law or by groups such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL). elastic lift cable. In practice.1 Introduction In the previous chapter we derived differential equations of motion for translating systems. For analysis.1 shows an abstract description of a system. It is also possible to estimate the system response without solving the differential equation as will be discussed later. The output response of the system would be the actual height of the elevator. The basic concept is that the system changes the inputs to outputs. Say. for example.page 172 1. Using assumed initial values and input functions the differential equation could be solved to get an explicit equation for elevator height. mass of the car. Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the European Commission (CE). . • To recognize first and second-order equation forms. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Topics: • First and second-order homogeneous differential equations • Non-homogeneous differential equations • First and second-order responses • Non-linear system elements • Design case Objectives: • To develop explicit equations that describe a system response.

a cyclic input that varies continuously. Non-homogeneous differential equations will also be reviewed. • parabolic . The most fundamental technique is to integrate the differential equation(s) for the system. such as a motor speed that is 2Hz at 1 second. After the system has been modeled. then the equation is homogeneous.2 Explicit Solutions Solving a differential equation results in an explicit solution. The basic types of differential equations are shown in Figure 1.a continuously increasing input. such as a motor speed that increases constantly at 10Hz per minute. This equation provides the general response as a function of time. and outputs are on the right. • sinusoidal .1 A system with and input and output response There are several standard input types used to test a system. This section will review techniques used to integrate first and second-order homogenous differential equations. If the right hand side is zero. etc. Each of these equations is linear because each of the terms on the left hand side is simply multiplied by a linear coefficient. such as very rapidly changing a desired speed from 0Hz to 50Hz. also called unforced systems. 8rad/s at 3 seconds. • ramp .a sudden change of input. and the initial conditions have been selected. an input type has been chosen. These equations correspond to systems without inputs. On the left hand side is the integration variable ’x’. the system can be analyzed to determine its behavior.an exponentially increasing input. such as wave height that is continually oscillating at 1Hz. but it can also be used to find frequencies and other characteristics of interest. . Figure 1. Each of these equations is linear.2. 4rad/s at 2 seconds.page 173 inputs forcing function system differential equations outputs response function Note: By convention inputs are on the left. 1. • step . These are listed below in order of relative popularity with brief explanations.

but approach zero as time goes to infinity. .page 174 · + Bx = 0 Ax · + Bx = Cf ( t ) Ax ·· + Bx · + Cx = 0 Ax ·· + Bx · + Cx = Df ( t ) Ax first-order homogeneous first-order non-homogeneous second-order homogeneous second-order non-homogeneous Figure 1. The solution begins with the solution of the homogeneous equation where a general form is ’guessed’.3.2 Standard equation forms A general solution for a first-order homogeneous differential equation is given in Figure 1. Notice that the final equation will begin at the initial displacement. the initial conditions for the equation are used to find the value of the coefficient ’X’. Substitution leads to finding the value of the coefficient ’Y’. The e-to-the-x behavior is characteristic for a firstorder response. Following this.

x ( 0 ) = x0 and · + Bx = 0 Ax Guess a solution form and solve. –B --t A x h = Xe Note: The general form below is useful for finding almost all homogeneous equations x h ( t ) = Xe – Yt Next. –B --t A x h = Xe –B --0 A x 0 = Xe x0 = X Therefore the final equation is.3 General solution of a first-order homogeneous equation . x ( t ) = x0 e B -t – -A Figure 1.page 175 Given the general form of a first-order homogeneous equation. use the initial conditions to find the remaining unknowns. – Yt · = – YX e – Yt x = Xe x A ( – YX e – Yt ) + B ( Xe – Yt ) = 0 initial condition A ( –Y ) + B = 0 Y = B -A Therefore the general form is.

The three cases result in three different forms of solutions. and the solution of a quadratic equation.page 176 Solve the following differential equation given the initial condition.4 Drill Problem: First order homogeneous differential equation The general solution to a second-order homogeneous equation is shown in Figure 1. or two complex roots. There are three possible cases that result from the solution of the quadratic equation: different but real roots. It is not shown. . as shown. The solution begins with a guess of the homogeneous solution.5. The complex result is the most notable because it results in sinusoidal oscillations. the initial conditions need to be used to find the remaining coefficient values. x(t) = 3e –2 t Figure 1. x(0) = 3 · + 2x = 0 x ans. but after the homogeneous solution has been found. two identical real roots.

and identical. a complex solution when solving the homogeneous equation results in a sinusoidal oscillation. R1 t R1 t xh = X1 e + X 2 te The initial conditions are then used to find the values for X1 and X2. Y = R 1. Y = σ ± ωj σt x h = X 3 e cos ( ω t + X 4 ) The initial conditions are then used to find the values of X3 and X4. . or two complex roots. This form is very useful for analyzing the frequency response of a system. as proven in Figure 1. If the values for Y are both real.5 As mentioned above. Therefore there are three fundamentally different results. the general form is. the general form is. Solution of a second-order homogeneous equation Figure 1.6. as will be seen in a later chapter. the general form is. but different.= -----------------------------------------2A 2A Note: There are three possible outcomes of finding the roots of the equations: two different real roots. R 2 R1 t R2 t xh = X1 e + X2 e Note: The initial conditions are then used to find the values for X1 and X2. ·· + Bx · + Cx = 0 Ax x ( 0 ) = x0 and · (0) = v x 0 Guess a general equation form and substitute it into the differential equation.page 177 Given. The most notable part of the solution is that there is both a frequency of oscillation and a phase shift. Yt · = YXe Yt ·· = Y 2 Xe Yt x h = Xe x x h h 2 Yt Yt Yt A ( Y Xe ) + B ( YXe ) + C ( Xe ) = 0 2 A(Y ) + B(Y) + C = 0 2 2 – B ± ( B ) – 4 ( AC ) – B ± B – 4AC Y = --------------------------------------------------. R 1 If the values for Y are complex. Y = R 1. If the values for Y are both real. two identical real roots.

X = 3 4X 1 X 2 ⎛ ( X1 – X2 ) ⎞ -⎟ X 4 = atan ⎜ -----------------------⎝ ( X 1 + X 2 )⎠ frequency Figure 1.sin ( Ct )⎟ ⎝ 4X X ⎠ 4X 1 X 2 1 2 ⎛ ⎛ ( X1 – X2 ) ⎞ ⎞ Rt -⎟ ⎟ x = e 4X 1 X 2 cos ⎜ Ct + atan ⎜ -----------------------⎝ ⎝ ( X 1 + X 2 )⎠ ⎠ x = e x = e Rt X 3 cos ( Ct + X 4 ) phase shift where.page 178 Consider the situation where the results of a homogeneous solution are the complex conjugate pair.cos ( Ct ) + j ----------------------.( ( X 1 + X 2 ) cos ( Ct ) + j ( X 1 – X 2 ) sin ( Ct ) ) 4X 1 X 2 ( X1 – X2 ) ⎛ ( X1 + X2 ) ⎞ Rt x = e 4X 1 X 2 ⎜ -----------------------. as shown below: (R + Cj)t ( R – Cj ) t x = X1 e + X2 e Rt Cjt Rt – Cjt x = X1 e e + X2 e e Rt Cjt – Cjt⎞ x = e ⎛ + X2 e ⎝ X1 e ⎠ Rt x = e ( X 1 ( cos ( Ct ) + j sin ( Ct ) ) + X 2 ( cos ( – C t ) + j sin ( – C t ) ) ) Rt x = e ( X 1 ( cos ( Ct ) + j sin ( Ct ) ) + X 2 ( cos ( ( Ct ) – j sin ( Ct ) ) ) ) Rt x = e ( ( X 1 + X 2 ) cos ( Ct ) + j ( X 1 – X 2 ) sin ( Ct ) ) Rt x = e ( ( X 1 + X 2 ) cos ( Ct ) + j ( X 1 – X 2 ) sin ( Ct ) ) 2 2 2 Rt ( X 1 + X 2 ) + j ( X 1 – X 2 ) x = e -----------------------------------------------------------------------.( ( X 1 + X 2 ) cos ( Ct ) + j ( X 1 – X 2 ) sin ( Ct ) ) 2 2 2 ( X1 + X2 ) + j ( X1 – X2 ) 2 2 2 2⎞ X 1 + 2X 1 X 2 + X 2 – ⎛ X + – 2 X X + X 1 2 2⎠ ⎝ 1 Rt x = e -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.( ( X 1 + X 2 ) cos ( Ct ) + j ( X 1 – X 2 ) sin ( C 2 2 ⎛ 2 2⎞ X 1 + 2X 1 X 2 + X 2 – X 1 + – 2 X 1 X 2 + X 2 ⎝ ⎠ Rt 4X 1 X 2 -------------------.6 Phase shift solution for a second-order homogeneous differential equation . Y = R ± Cj This gives the general result.

page 179 Note: Occasionally a problem solution might consist of both a sine and cosine term with the same frequency.7 Phase shift solution form . A ( sin ω t cos θ + sin θ cos ω t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) A cos θ sin ω t + A sin θ cos ω t = A sin ( ω t + θ ) B sin ω t + C cos ω t = A sin ( ω t + θ ) where. sin ( ω t + θ ) = sin ω t cos θ + sin θ cos ω t This can be written in a more common form. 3 sin 5 t + 4 cos 5 t = 2 2 ⎛4 --⎞ ⎞ 3 + 4 sin ⎛ ⎝ 5 t + atan ⎝ 3⎠ ⎠ = 5 sin ( 5 t + 0. Recall the double angle formula. CB= ---------A = ----------sin θ cos θ sin θ ----------.927 ) Figure 1. These should normally be combined to a single term with a phase shift as shown below.= C --cos θ B 2 2 B = A cos θ C = A sin θ C -⎞ θ = atan ⎛ --⎝ B⎠ A = B +C Consider the example.

· (0) = 2 x(0) = 1 x ·· + 2 x ·+x = 0 x ans. To find the particular solution the final . x ( t ) = e + 3 te –t –t Figure 1. This process adds a step to find the particular solution of the equation. An example of the solution of a first-order nonhomogeneous equation is shown in Figure 1.page 180 Solve the following differential equation given the initial condition. To find the homogeneous solution the nonhomogeneous part of the equation is set to zero.9.8 Drill Problem: Second order homogeneous differential equation The methods for solving non-homogeneous differential equations builds upon the methods used for the solution of homogeneous equations.

10. This step is highly subjective. The homogeneous equation deals with the response to initial conditions. in Figure 1. it will be unsolvable. In the case below the guess should be similar to the exponential forcing function. –6 --t 4t 2 5 . so the particular result should also be sinusoidal. For example. find the homogeneous solution as before. When this happens. guess the particular solution by looking at the form of ’f(t)’. Generally. · + Bx = Cf ( t ) Ax x ( 0 ) = x0 First. –B --t A xh = x0 e Next.9 Solution of a first-order non-homogeneous equation The method for finding a particular solution for a second-order non-homogeneous differential equation is shown in Figure 1. An example is given below. if we are given · + 2x = 5e 4t 6x A reasonable guess for the particular solution is. and the values of the coefficients are found.3. In this example the forcing function is sinusoidal. This is then substituted into the equation. 4t 4t 4t 6 ⎛ 4C 1 e ⎞ + 2 ⎛ C 1 e ⎞ = 5e ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 524C 1 + 2C 1 = 5 ∴C 1 = ----26 Combine the particular and homogeneous solutions. just make another guess and repeat the process.page 181 form must be guessed. and if an incorrect guess is made. . and the principle of superposition applies. The overall response of the system can be obtained by adding the homogeneous and particular parts.e + x0 e x = x p + x h = ----26 Figure 1. 4t · = 4C e 4t xp = C1 e \x p 1 Substitute these into the differential equation and solve for A. This is acceptable because the equations are linear. and the particular solution deals with the response to forced inputs. Finally the homogeneous and particular solutions are added to get the final equation. The final result is converted into a phase shift form.

For the purpose of illustration an example is given below.0823 cos ( 3t ) –1 Generally.307 = – 0.0823 Figure 1. 0. In the case below it should be similar to the sine function. ·· + Bx · + Cx = Df ( t ) Ax – 1. and if an incorrect guess is made it will be unsolvable. σt x h = X 3 e cos ( ω t + X 4 ) or σt σt x h = X 1 e + X 2 te or σ1 t σ2 t xh = X1 e + X2 e 2. just make another guess and repeat the process. Use the initial conditions to determine the coefficients in the homogeneous solution. For example.514 0.0823 sin ⎛ 3 t + atan ⎛ -----------------+ -⎝ ⎝ – 0.0109 + 0. Guess the particular solution by looking at the form of ’f(t)’. 2 ( – 9 A sin ( 3 t ) – 9 B cos ( 3 t ) ) + 6 ( 3 A cos ( 3 t ) – 3 B sin ( 3 t ) ) + 2 ( A sin ( 3 t ) + B cos ( 3 t ) ) = 2 sin ( 3 t + 4 ) ( – 18 A – 18 B + 2A ) sin ( 3t ) + ( – 18 B + 18 A + 2B ) cos ( 3t ) = 2 sin ( 3t + 4 ) ( – 16 A – 18 B ) sin ( 3t ) + ( 18 A – 16 B ) cos ( 3t ) = 2 ( sin 3t cos 4 + cos 3t sin 4 ) ( – 16 A – 18 B ) sin ( 3t ) + ( 18 A – 16 B ) cos ( 3t ) = ( 2 cos 4 ) sin ( 3t ) + ( 2 sin 4 ) cos ( 3t ) 18 A – 16 B = 2 sin 4 – 16 A – 18 B = 2 cos 4 – 16 – 18 A = 2 cos 4 A = – 16 – 18 18 – 16 18 – 16 B 2 sin 4 B Next. This step is highly subjective. x p = A sin ( 3t ) + B cos ( 3t ) · = 3 A cos ( 3t ) – 3 B sin ( 3t ) x p ·· = – 9 A sin ( 3t ) – 9 B cos ( 3t ) x p Substitute these into the differential equation ans solve for A and B.0109⎠ 2⎠ 3.0823-⎞ π 2 2 -⎞ – 0. Find the homogeneous solution as before. rearrange the equation to phase shift form.page 182 · (0) = v x ( 0 ) = x0 and x 0 1.0109 – 1. xp = x p = – 0.0109 sin ( 3t ) + 0.10 Solution of a second-order non-homogeneous equation . if we are given ·· + 6x · + 2x = 2 sin ( 3t + 4 ) 2x A reasonable guess is. When this happens.

page 183 When guessing particular solutions.11 can be helpful. Forcing Function A Ax + B Ax e B sin ( Ax ) or B cos ( Ax ) Guess C Cx + D Ax or Ax Ce Cxe C sin ( Ax ) + D cos ( Ax ) or Cx sin ( Ax ) + xD cos ( Ax ) Figure 1. the forms in Figure 1.11 General forms for particular solutions .

· (0) = 0 x(0) = 0 x ·· + 2x ·+x = 1 x ans. As expected. This is followed with the general solution of . x ( t ) = – e – te + 1 –t –t Figure 1.13. it begins with a FBD and summation of forces.12 Drill Problem: Second order non-homogeneous differential equation An example of a second-order system is shown in Figure 1.page 184 Solve the following differential equation given the initial condition.

Thus. with no oscillation. Kd and Ks lead to the case of two different positive roots. M Assume the system illustrated to the right starts from rest at a height ’h’. The final result is a secondorder system that is overdamped.14.page 185 the homogeneous equation.14. At At · = Ae At ·· = A 2 e yh = e y y h h ·· · My + K d y + K s y = 0 2 At⎞ At At M⎛ A ⎝ e ⎠ + K d ( Ae ) + K s ( e ) = 0 2 MA + K d A + K s = 0 2 – K d ± K d – 4MK s A = ------------------------------------------------2M Let us assume that the values of M. This would occur if the damper value was much larger than the spring and mass values.13 Second-order system example The solution continues by assuming a particular solution and calculating values for the coefficients using the initial conditions in Figure 1. R 2 R1 t R2 t yh = C1 e + C2 e Figure 1. . A = R 1. Real roots are assumed thus allowing the problem solution to continue in Figure 1. At time ’t=0’ the system is released and allowed to move. Ks Mg ·· My + Ks y · Kd y Fg Kd y ∑ Fy · = –M y ·· = – Mg + K s y + K d y ·· + K y · My d + K s y = Mg Find the homogeneous solution.

+ ⎛ ---------------------. add the homogeneous and particular solutions and solve for the unknowns using the initial conditions.e + ---------------------.page 186 Next.+ C1 e0 + C2 e0 h = ------Ks Mg C 1 + C 2 = h – ------Ks y' ( t ) = R 1 C 1 e 0 R1 t + R2 C2 e 0 R2t 0 = R1 C1 e + R2 C2 e 0 = R1 C1 + R2 C2 R2 .---------------------. yp = C · = 0 y h ·· = 0 y h M ( 0 ) + K d ( 0 ) + K s ( C ) = Mg Mg C = ------Ks Now.----------------. combine the solutions and solve for the unknowns using the initial conditions.----------------C 2 = ⎛ ---------------------⎝ K s ⎠ ⎝ R 1 – R 2⎠ –R2 -C C 1 = -------R1 2 – R 2 ⎛ K s h – Mg⎞ ⎛ – R 1 ⎞ . R t R t Mg .---------------------.e y ( t ) = ------⎝ K s ⎠ ⎝ R 1 – R 2⎠ K s ⎠ ⎝ R 1 – R 2⎠ Ks ⎝ Figure 1.C + C 2 = h – Mg ------– ----R1 2 Ks K s h – Mg⎞ ⎛ – R 1 ⎞ .----------------y ( t ) = ------R1 ⎝ Ks ⎝ K s ⎠ ⎝ R 1 – R 2⎠ K s ⎠ ⎝ R 1 – R 2⎠ K s h – Mg⎞ ⎛ – R 1 ⎞ R1 t ⎛ K s h – Mg⎞ ⎛ R 2 ⎞ R2 t Mg .e + -------.----------------. K s h – Mg⎞ ⎛ – R 1 ⎞ R1 t – R 2 ⎛ K s h – Mg⎞ ⎛ – R 1 ⎞ R 2 t Mg .+ ⎛ ---------------------. find the particular solution.14 Second-order system example (continued) .+ C1 e 1 + C2 e 2 y ( t ) = y p + y h = ------Ks y(0) = h y' ( 0 ) = 0 Mg .----------------.----------------C 1 = -------R1 ⎝ K s ⎠ ⎝ R 1 – R 2⎠ Now.e .

3 cos 5t + 4 sin 5t 2 2 3 + 4 sin ⎛ 5t + atan 3 --⎞ ⎝ 4⎠ 5 sin ( 5t + 0.= --------------. (method #1) B .= tan θ C A cos θ ---⎞ θ = atan ⎛ ⎝ C⎠ To find A.6435 ) B Figure 1. and only oscillate if forced to do so. (method #2) 2 2 A = B +C For example. The second-order forms may . B = A sin θ C = A cos θ (the desired final form) (the form we start with) To find theta.= ----------CA = ---------sin θ cos θ To find A. B A sin θ --. The e-to-the-negative-t forms are the first-order responses and slowly decay over time.page 187 Given.15 Proof for conversion to phase form 1. A sin ( ω t + θ ) A ( cos ω t sin θ + sin ω t cos θ ) ( A sin θ ) cos ω t + ( A cos θ ) sin ω t B cos ω t + C sin ω t where. They never naturally oscillate.3 Responses Solving differential equations tends to yield one of two basic equation forms.

The initial and final values of the function can be determined algebraically to find the first-order response with little effort.3.2% of the way from the initial to final values for the system. When an input to a system has changed. It is a measure of how quickly the system responds to a change.page 188 include natural oscillation. . the time at this point corresponds to the time constant. we can calculate the time constant. The time constant can be found two ways.16. If we have experimental results for a system. 1. That time at the intersection is the time constant. Assuming the change started at t=0. one by extending the slope of the first part of the curve until it intersects the final value line. the system output will be approximately 63% of the way to its final value when the elapsed time equals the time constant. initial and final values. The other method is to look for the time when the output value has shifted 63. The time constant for the system can be found directly from the differential equation.1 First-order A first-order system is described with a first-order differential equation. The response function for these systems is natural decay or growth as shown in Figure 1.

368 y ( τ ) = 0. and finding the point where it intercepts the steady-state value. and will be examined in a later chapter. If we consider the steady state when the speed is steady at 1400RPM. The time constant can be found by drawing a line asymptotic to the start of the motor curve. the first derivative will be zero.page 189 y y0 t –y ( t ) = y1 + ( y0 – y1 ) e τ ·+1 y -.368 y ( τ ) = 1 + ( 0 – 1 ) 0.17 calculates the coefficients for a first-order differential equation given a graphical output response to an input.y = f(t) τ y1 time constant τ OR y y1 t Note: The time will be equal to the time constant when the value is 63. t –τ y ( τ ) = y1 + ( y0 – y1 ) e y ( τ ) = y1 + ( y0 – y1 ) e –1 y0 τ t y ( τ ) = y 1 + ( y 0 – y 1 ) 0. This simplifies the equation and allows us to calculate a value for the parameter K in the differential equation.632 Figure 1.8 s. . as shown below.2% of the way to the final value. The differential equation is for a permanent magnet DC motor. Some additional numerical calculation leads to the final differential equation as shown. This gives an approximate time constant of 0.16 Typical first-order responses The example in Figure 1. This can then be used to calculate the remaining coefficient.

8s K.17 Finding an equation using experimental data .page 190 For the motor.8s ⎝ JR ⎠ K-⎞ 1----0.328V ω + -----s 0.0682 1400 RPM τ ª 0.ω = 18.6rads ⎝ dt⎠ ⎛ K 2⎞ K-⎞ -⎟ 146. use the differential equation and the speed curve when Vs=10V is applied: 1400 RPM ⎛ K 2⎞ d-⎞ K-⎞ ⎛ ----⎟ ω = ⎛ ----ω + ⎜ -----V ⎝ dt⎠ ⎝ JR⎠ s ⎝ JR ⎠ 1s 2s 3s For steady-state –1 d-⎞ ⎛ ---ω = 0 ω = 1400RPM = 146.328 ----JR · 1 .0682 ⎛ ⎝ JR⎠ = --------0.8s 1s ⎛ K 2⎞ 1-⎟ = --------⎜ -----0.6 = ⎛ ----0 + ⎜ -----10 ⎝ JR⎠ ⎝ JR⎠ K = 0.8 Figure 1.= 18.

15 ) V s Figure 1.15 ω = 12 ( 0. the particular solution is found. The initial conditions are used to find the remaining unknown coefficients.6s 2 ans.2s 0.page 191 Find the differential equation when a step input of Vs=12V is applied: 1800 RPM K-⎞ d-⎞ K -⎞ ⎛ ---ω = ⎛ ----V ω + ⎛ ----⎝ JR⎠ ⎝ JR⎠ s ⎝ dt⎠ 0. d-⎞ 11800 ⎛ ------------------------------⎝ dt⎠ ω + 0. the homogenous solution is found by setting the nonhomogeneous part to zero and solving. Next.19. The modeling starts with a FBD and a sum of forces. and the two solutions are combined. After this. .18 Drill problem: Find the constants for the equation A simple mechanical example is given in Figure 1.4s 0.

F y ⎛ d-⎞ y = 0 + ∑ F y = – F + K s y + K d ⎝ ---dt⎠ d-⎞ K d ⎛ ---y Ks y ·+K y = F ⎝ dt⎠ Kd y s Find the homogeneous solution.page 192 Find the response to the applied force if the force is applied at t=0s. –Ks --------t Kd Fy ( t ) = y p + y h = Ae + ----Ks y(0) = h 0 F Fh = Ae + ----∴A = h – ----K Ks s The final solution is. and find the remaining unknown.19 First-order system analysis example . F -----⎞ e y(t) = ⎛ h – ⎝ K s⎠ –Ks --------t Kd F + ----Ks Figure 1. Assume the system is initially deflected a height of h. Bt · = ABe Bt y h = Ae y h Bt Bt K d ( ABe ) + K s ( Ae ) = 0 Kd B + Ks = 0 –Ks B = --------Kd Next. yp = C Kd ( 0 ) + Ks ( C ) = F Ks F Kd · = 0 y p F∴C = ----Ks Combine the solutions. find the particular solution.

. · + 10 y = 5 y y ( t ) = y1 + ( y0 – y1 ) e t –τ ans.5 – 19.20 Drill problem: Developing the final equation using the first-order model form A first-order system tends to be passive. Assume the system starts at y=-20. A first-order system will not oscillate unless the input forcing function is also oscillating.19 without solving the differential equation. meaning it doesn’t deliver energy or power. y ( t ) = 0. The output response lags the input and the delay is determined by the system’s time constant.5 e – 10 t Figure 1.page 193 Use the general form given below to solve the problem in Figure 1.

As damping factor approaches 0. The damped frequency will be lower than the natural frequency when the damping coefficient is between 0 and 1. The actual frequency of oscillation .page 194 1. If =1 critically damped.3.If < 1 underdamped. and a typical response to a stepped input.2 Second-order A second-order system response typically contains two first-order responses. and the system will not oscillate because it is overdamped.21 The general form for a second-order system When only the damping coefficient is increased. A second-order system.Approximate frequency of control system oscillations. Notice that the damped frequency of oscillation is the actual frequency of oscillation. Notice that the coefficients of the differential equation include a damping coefficient and a natural frequency. or a first-order response and a sinusoidal component. given the initial conditions and forcing function. Damping factor of system . and overall response time will slow. the frequency of oscillation. Critical damping occurs when the damping coeffi- . If the damping coefficient is greater than one the damped frequency becomes negative.21. These can be used to develop the final response. When the damping coefficient is 0 the system will oscillate indefinitely. and never any oscillation (more like a first-order system). A typical sinusoidal second-order response is shown in Figure 1. as seen in Figure 1. and system will oscillate. ·· + 2 ζω y · + ω2 y = f ( t ) y n n σ = ζω n –σ t ωd = ωn 1 – ζ cos ( ω d t ) 2 y ( t ) = y ss + ( y 0 – y ss ) e y ss y0 ωn ξ Natural frequency of system .22. ωd Figure 1. If > 1 overdamped.It is below the natural frequency because of the damping. the first peak becomes infinite in height.

ξ = 0 ξ = 0. Some of these measures are shown in Figure 1. The rise .23.page 195 cient is 1. At this point both roots of the differential equation are equal.= 0.22 The effect of the damping coefficient When observing second-order systems it is more common to use more direct measurements of the response.707 ξ = -----2 ξ = 1 (critical) (overdamped) ξ»1 Figure 1.5 (underdamped) 1. The system will not oscillate if the damping coefficient is greater than or equal to 1.

as half the period.02 ∆ x 0. tp Note: This figure is not to scale to make details near the steady-state value easier to see. The period of oscillation can be measured directly as the time between peaks of the oscillation. The overshoot is the height of the first peak.) ∆ x = total displacement T. f d = period and frequency .damped b = overshoot t p = time to first peak e ss = steady state error 0.23 Characterizing a second-order response (not to scale) σ = ξω n –σ tp .02 ∆ x 0.5 ∆ x where.9 ∆ x tr b ts ∆x 0. 1 f d = -T T e ss 0. and the overshoot the damping coefficient can be found.page 196 time is the time it takes to go from 10% to 90% of the total displacement. the inverse is the damping frequency. The permissible zone shown is 2%. but if it were larger the system would have a shorter settling time.) The damped frequency can also be found using the time to the first peak.+1 ⎝ t p σ⎠ Figure 1. (Note: don’t forget to convert to radians. and is comparable to a first order time constant.= e ----∆x 1 ξ = ----------------------------π ⎞2 ⎛ ------. Using the time to the first peak. The settling time indicates how long it takes for the system to pass within a tolerance band around the final value. t r = rise time (from 10% to 90%) t s = settling time (to within 2-5% typ.1 ∆ x –σ t x = ∆ xe cos ( ω d t ) π ω d ≈ ---- tp (1) (2) (3) (4) b.

= -----+1 2 2 ξ σ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 σω n = ----–ξ (1) ωn 1 – ξ = ωd 2 (2) 1 ξ = ------------------2 ωd -----+1 2 σ (3) The time to the first peak can be used to find the approximate decay constant x ( t ) = C1 e π ω d = --tp b ≈ ∆ xe (1) b-⎞ ln ⎛ ----⎝ ∆ x⎠ σ = – ----------------tp –σ tp –σ t cos ( ω d t + C 2 ) (4) (5) Figure 1.= σ = – ξω n 2 4 ξ ωn – 4 ωn ----------------------------------= j ωd 2 4 ξ ω n – 4 ω n = 4 ( – 1 )ω d ωn – ξ ωn = ωd σ ----. and the generic second order equation form.– ξ2 σ ----.24 Second order relationships between damped and natural frequency .= ω2 d 2 2 ξ ξ ωd 1 ---. A + 2 ξω n A + ω n = 0 – 2 ξω n ± 4 ξ ω n – 4 ω n A = ----------------------------------------------------------.= σ ± j ω d 2 – 2 ξω n --------------.page 197 Note: We can calculate these relationships using the complex homogenous form.

Using the dashed lines determine the settling time.0 t 0 5.page 198 2.2 y(t) 2.0 Write a function of time for the graph.0 4. to get values. t<4 t≥4 y(t) = 0 y(t) = Figure 1. (Note: measure.) Find the natural frequency and damping coefficient to develop the differential equation.25 Drill problem: Find the equation given the response curve . ans. using a ruler.

and a complex pair. There are two sinusoidal functions superimposed. The two real roots result in e-to-the-t terms.3 Other Responses First-order systems have e-to-the-t type responses. A possible higher order system response is seen in Figure 1. while the complex pair results in a damped sinusoid. The particular solution is relatively simple to find in this example because the non-homogeneous term is a constant. The result in this case are two real roots. one with about one period showing. In this case the resulting homogeneous solution yields four roots. As we move to higher order linear systems we typically add more e-to-the-t terms.3. and/or more sinusoidal terms.page 199 1. the other with a much higher frequency. although the solutions will start to become complicated for systems with much higher orders. The underlying function is a firstorder response that drops at the beginning. The example in Figure 1.26. Second-order systems add another e-to-the-t response or a sinusoidal excitation.27 shows a fourth order differential equation. Figure 1. . but levels out.26 An example of a higher order system response The basic techniques used for solving first and second-order differential equations can be applied to higher order differential equations.

d-⎞ 2 d-⎞ 3 d.25 Solution of a higher order differential equation The example is continued in Figure 1. – 10. – 1 + j xh = C1 e –t + C2 e – 10t –t + C 3 e cos ( t + C 4 ) d-⎞ 4 ⎛ ---x = 0 ⎝ dt⎠ p Guess a particular solution.x = 0 ⎛ ---⎛ ---xp = A ---x = 0 x = 0 ⎝ dt⎠ p ⎝ dt⎠ p dt p 0 + 13 ( 0 ) + 34 ( 0 ) + 42 ( 0 ) + 20A = 5 Figure 1. 4 At 3 At 2 At At At A e + 13A e + 34A e + 42Ae + 20e = 0 4 3 2 A + 13A + 34A + 42A + 20 = 0 A = – 1. and the solve for the coefficient. – 1 – j.x = Ae At ⎛ ---xh = A e x = A e ---⎝ dt⎠ ⎝ dt⎠ h dt h 4 At d-⎞ 4 ⎛ ---xh = A e ⎝ dt⎠ Substitute the values into the differential equation and find a value for the unknown. At xh = e 3 At d-⎞ 3 2 At ⎛ ---d-⎞ 2 d.29 where the initial conditions are used to find values for the coefficients in the homogeneous solution.28 and Figure 1.27 A = 0.page 200 Given the homogeneous differential equation d-⎞ 4 d-⎞ 3 d-⎞ 2 d-⎞ ⎛ ---x + 13 ⎛ ---x + 34 ⎛ ---x + 42 ⎛ ---x + 20x = 5 ⎝ dt⎠ ⎝ dt⎠ ⎝ dt⎠ ⎝ dt⎠ Guess a solution for the homogeneous equation. .

x ( t ) = – C e – t – 10C e – 10t – C e – t cos ( t + C ) – C e – t sin ( t + C ) ---1 2 3 4 3 4 dt h (3) 0 = – C 1 – 10C 2 – C 3 cos ( C 4 ) – C 3 sin ( C 4 ) Equations (1) and (3) can be added to get the simplified equation below. –t – 10t –t x ( t ) = C1 e + C2 e + C 3 e cos ( t + C 4 ) + 0.page 201 Solve for the unknowns.25 C 3 sin ( C 4 ) = – 9C 2 + 0.5 (6) –t – 10t –t –t d-⎞ 3 ⎛ ---x ( t ) = – C e + ( – 1000 ) C e – 2C e sin ( t + C ) + 2C e 1 2 3 4 3 cos ( t + C 4 ) ⎝ dt⎠ h (7) 0 = – C 1 + ( – 1000 ) C 2 – 2 C 3 sin ( C 4 ) + 2 C 3 cos ( C 4 ) Figure 1. assuming the system starts at rest and undeflected.28 Solution of a higher order differential equation . 0 = C 1 + 100C 2 + 2 ( – 9C 2 + 0. 0 = – 9C 2 – C 3 sin ( C 4 ) + 0.25 (4) (1) (2) –t – 10t –t –t d-⎞ 2 ⎛ ---x ( t ) = C 1 e + 100C 2 e + C 3 e cos ( t + C 4 ) + C 3 e sin ( t + C 4 ) + ⎝ dt⎠ h –t –t C 3 e sin ( t + C 4 ) – C 3 e cos ( t + C 4 ) 0 = C 1 + 100C 2 + C 3 cos ( C 4 ) + C 3 sin ( C 4 ) + C 3 sin ( C 4 ) – C 3 cos ( C 4 ) (5) 0 = C 1 + 100C 2 + 2C 3 sin ( C 4 ) Equations (4) and (5) can be combined.25 d.25 0 = C 1 + C 2 + C 3 cos ( C 4 ) + 0.25 C 3 cos ( C 4 ) = – C 1 – C 2 – 0.25 ) 0 = – 17C 1 + 100C 2 + 0.

The most critical design consideration is system stability. As an engineer.00109 ) – 0.4 Response Analysis Up to this point we have mostly discussed the process of calculating the system response.1666667 (8) C 2 = – 0.25 – 9 ( – 0.25 C 4 = – 0.377 ) e cos ( t – 0.0242 ) – ( – 0. but evaluating the results is more important.00109 ) + 0. 984 -⎞ C – 1 --⎞ + 100C + 0.5 0 = – 17 ⎛ ⎛ – -------2 ⎝ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2 3⎠ 0 = 5676C 2 + 6.25 Figure 1. obtaining the response is important. C 3 sin ( C 4 ) – 9C 2 + 0. such as numerical integration.25 C 3 = – 0.0242 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 Equations (2) and (4) can be combined.page 202 Equations (2 and (4) are substituted into equation (7).760 ) + 0.377 The final response function is. which will be covered in later chapters.0242e + ( – 0. such as a car "cruise control". –t – 10t –t x ( t ) = 0.25 ) 0 = – 3C 1 + ( – 984 ) C 2 – 1 984 -⎞ C – 1 -C 1 = ⎛ – -------⎝ 3 ⎠ 2 3 Equations (6) and (8) can be combined. In most cases a system should be inherently stable in all situations. or nonlinear terms.29 Solution of a higher order differential equation (cont’d) In some cases we will have systems with multiple differential equations. 1.00109 ) + 0. C 3 sin ( – 0. 0 = – C 1 + ( – 1000 ) C 2 – 2 ( – 9C 2 + 0.00109 ) – 1 -C 1 = ⎛ – -------C 1 = 0.00109 984 -⎞ ( – 0.760 tan ( C 4 ) = --------------------------------------------------------------------------– ( 0.= --------------------------------------C 3 cos ( C 4 ) – C 1 – C 2 – 0.25 --------------------------. In these cases explicit analysis of the equations may not be feasible. In these cases we may use other techniques.25 Equation (4) can be used the find the remaining unknown.00109 ) e + ( – 0. In other .25 ) + 2 ( – C 1 – C 2 – 0.760 ) = – 9 ( – 0.

30 shows a system response. Simple methods for determining the stability of a system are listed below: 1. 3. possibly leading to motion sickness. For example. without overshoot. If it is under damped the elevator will oscillate. The steady-state response settles down to a constant amplitude sine wave. A ramp input might cause the system to go to infinity. . we must also consider general performance. if this is the case. Figure 1.page 203 cases an unstable system may be the objective. The transient effects are closely related to the homogeneous solution to the differential equations and the initial conditions. Engineers distinguish between initial setting effects (transient) and long term effects (steady-state). and will become unstable. or worse. the system might not respond well to constant change. If it is critically damped it will reach the floors quickly. This includes the time constant for a first-order system. or damping coefficient and natural frequency for a second-order system. The transient effects at the beginning include a quick rise time and an overshoot. If the elevator is over damped it will take longer to get to floors. Beyond establishing the stability of a system. such as an explosive device. The steady-state effects occur after some period of time when the system is acting in a repeatable or non-changing form. it will be inherently unstable. If a step input causes the system to go to infinity. If the response to a sinusoidal input grows with each cycle. assume we have designed an elevator that is a second-order system. 2. the system is probably resonating.

31 Examples of non-linear differential equations .page 204 Steady-state Transient Note: the transient response is predicted with the homogeneous solution. The steady state response in mainly predicted with the particular solution.30 A system response with transient and steady-state effects 1. · + x2 = 5 x ·2 + x = 5 x · + log ( x ) = 5 x · + ( 5t ) x = 5 x Note: the sources of nonlinearity are circled. Figure 1.5 Non-Linear Systems Non-linear systems cannot be described with a linear differential equation.31. Examples of non-linear differential equations are shown in Figure 1. such as a non-decaying oscillation. although in some cases the homogeneous solution might have steady state effects. A basic linear differential equation has coefficients that are constant. and the derivatives are all first order. Figure 1.

The velocity squared term makes the equation non-linear.8. (Note: This coefficient is calculated using the drag coefficient and other properties such as the speed of sound and cross sectional area.32. 1. It involves a person ejected from an aircraft with a drag force coefficient of 0. and will typically involve complex solutions for simple problems.page 205 Examples of system conditions that lead to non-linear solutions are. and the resulting differential equation. In this case the terminal velocity is calculated by setting the acceleration to zero. . • aerodynamic drag • forces that are a squared function of distance • devices with non-linear responses Explicitly solving non-linear differential equations can be difficult.) The FBD shows the sum of forces. and so it cannot be analyzed with the previous methods.1 Non-Linear Differential Equations A non-linear differential equation is presented in Figure 1.5. This results in a maximum speed of 126 kph.

0 m · = -----------------------------y --. but contains e-to-t terms.page 206 Consider the differential equation for a 100kg human ejected from an airplane.= ------------------9.8 Ns · ) = 981N 100kgy --------.8 ( y ∑ 2 y m 2 2 N·· + 0.81 .8 Ns --------.= 126 km -----–3 s h –3 – 1 8 × 10 8 × 10 m Figure 1.35.81 ms –2 9.33. –2 –3 – 1 · 2 ( 0 ) + 8 × 10 m ( y ) = 9. therefore making the equation non-linear.( y y 2 Mg m 2 m s -(y m ·· + 0. as we would expect. The term is then integrated in Figure 1.8 Ns · ) = 100kg9.8m ( y ) = 981ms ·· + 8 × 10 –3 m – 1 ( y · ) 2 = 9.( y' ) F = 0.m 2 s – 2 = 35. 2 2 · ) 2 – Mg = – My ·· 0. and time on the right.34 and Figure 1.32 Development of a non-linear differential equation The equation can also be solved using explicit integration.8kg ---· ) 2 = 981kg ---100kgy .81 ms – 2 y The terminal velocity can be found be setting the acceleration to zero. In this case the equation is separated and rearranged to isolate the ’v’ terms on the left.-----2 2 2 m s – 1 s· 2 –2 ·· 100y + 0.81 ----100kgy --------. The final form of the equation is non-trivial. The aerodynamic drag will introduce a squared variable.81 ms . .( y 2 kg m 2 2 ·· + 0. as shown in Figure 1.

dv = t + C 1 ∫ -------------------------------------------2 2 –2 v – 1226.dv = ∫ dt ∫ 981 –2 2 ------------------.ms + v –1 – 0. ·· + 0.02 s ⎠ ⎝ v – 35.dv = dt –2 –1 2 981ms – 0.+ 0.8m –1 ( y · ) 2 = 981ms –2 100y · + 0.8m v 100 ------------------–1 – 0.dv ∫ ----------------------------------------------------------------m m ⎛ ⎞⎛ ⎞ ----⎝ v + 35.8m – 1 v 2 = 981ms –2 100 ----dt dv .page 207 An explicit solution can begin by replacing the position variable with a velocity variable and rewriting the equation as a separable differential equation.8m –1 v 2 = 981ms – 2 100v dv .8m -------------------------------------------.33 Developing an integral .02 s ⎠ – 125m = t + C1 Figure 1.= 981ms – 2 – 0.8m – 125m .8m – 1 v 2 100 ----dt 100 ------------------------------------------------.25m s .

785s A = 1.= t + C –1 ln a + bx.( – A + B ) = – 125m s 125 .785s ∫ 1.785s ln v – 35.02 m ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ --v – 35.02 m --.02 m --.02 m --s t --------------m C 1.dv = t + C -------------------------------1 ⎛ v + 35.785s .02 m ---⎞ ⎝ s⎠ ⎝ s⎠ The integral can then be solved using an identity from the integral table.( – A + B ) = – 125m s A+B = 0 A = –B ∫ 35. In this case the integration constants can be left off because they are redundant with the one on the right hand side.02 m ---⎞ = – 125m ⎝ ⎝ s⎠ s⎠ v ( A + B ) + 35. 1.785s --------------------------v – 35.+ ------------------------------.02 --s t -+C --------------v + 35.02 m --.= t + C1 s s v + 35.02 m --1 s.785s v + 35.02 --s.02 m --s. A B -------------------------------.+ C 1.785s ln --------------------------( a + bx ) dx = ----------------------1 ∫ m b v – 35.+ ------------------------------– 1.page 208 This can be reduced with a partial fraction expansion.02 m --s Figure 1.– 1.02 --⎝ s⎠ ⎝ s⎠ Av – A ⎛ 35.02 m --.dv = t + C 1 m ⎛ v + 35.785s ln v + 35.02 m ---⎞ ⎛ v – 35.= e 1.785s .s ( – ( – B ) + B ) = – -----------35.34 Solution of the integral .02 B = – 1.= e 1 e --------------------------v – 35.02 m ---⎞ + Bv + B ⎛ 35.

02 --+ 35.785s − --v⎜1 − e = 35.785s --------------------------.page 209 m t --------------v + 35.02 --− ⎝ 1 + 1⎠ 2 t s⎝ 1+1 ⎠ s⎜ --------------⎟ 1. Typically the numerical methods discussed in the next chapter are preferred.= C2 e m 0 – 35.02 --s An initial velocity of zero can be assumed to find the value of the integration constant m 0 --------------0 + 35.785s⎞ 1.02 --t s⎜ --------------⎟ ⎝ 1 + e 1.02 --s 1 = C2 This can then be simplified.02 --1.785s − .⎜ ----------------------v = 35. 1.35 Solution of the integral and application of the initial conditions As evident from the example.02 --.02 --⎟ + + s s ⎝ ⎠ t ⎛ --------------⎞ 1.= ⎛ ------------⎞ = 0 -0 = 35.2 Non-Linear Equation Terms If our models include a device that is non-linear and we want to use a linear tech- .785 s⎠ Figure 1.= C e --------------------------2 m v – 35.785s ⎝ 1− ⎠ +e t ⎛ --------------⎞ 1.785 s ⎜ – 1⎟ m e -⎟ .02 --1. non-linear equations are involved and don’t utilize routine methods.02 ----------------s 1.02 e – 35.02 --s s t t t --------------- t --------------- ----------------------------⎛ m m 1. and the absolute value sign eliminated.⎜ ----------------------------⎟ v = 35.= ± ve 1.e 1.785s s --------------------------. m t v + 35.785s v + 35.785s s.5.785s − 1 – 1⎞ ⎜− ⎟ 1–1 m m e – 1 + -⎛+ ---------------.02 --s m m .= ±e m v – 35.

. When this value does. A linearized differential equation can be approximately solved using known techniques as long as the system doesn’t travel too far from the linearized point. 4. This equation will be approximately correct as long as the first derivative doesn’t move too far from 100.page 210 nique to solve the equation. 1. 2. The example in Figure 1. 3. the new velocity can be calculated. Pick an operating point or range for the component. Find a constant value that relates a change in the input to a change in the output.36 shows the linearization of a non-linear equation about a given operating point. Use the linear equation for the analysis. Develop a linear equation. A non-linear system can be approximated with a linear equation using the following method. we will need to linearize the model before we can proceed.

316t y ( t ) = Ce + 50 0 10 = Ce + 50 – 0.65 ( 0 ) + 4A = 200 Initial conditions: – 0.316t y h = Ce Particular: yp = A 12. As long as the system doesn’t vary too much from the given velocity the model should be reasonably accurate.316t y ( t ) = – 40e + 50 A = – 0.65y This system may now be solved as a linear differential equation. · = ± 200 – 4y y · ( 0 ) = ± 200 – 4 ( 10 ) = ± 12. If the velocity (first derivative of y) changes significantly.36 Linearizing a differential equation .65 y · + 4y = 20 12.65y 12. · 2 + 4y = 200 y y ( 0 ) = 10 We can make the equation linear by replacing the velocity squared term with the velocity times the actual velocity. Homogeneous: · + 4y = 0 12. It can be solved by linearizing the value about the operating point Given.page 211 Assume we have the non-linear differential equation below.316 A = 50 C = – 40 Figure 1.65A + 4 = 0 – 0. then the differential equation should be changed to reflect this.

1 ) + 50 = 11.070575 Notice that the values have shifted slightly. For example a system often experiences a static friction force when motion is starting.316 ) e – 0.5.316t y ( t ) = – 35.1 11.y ( 0.25y 12. For example we could decide to recalculate the equation value after 0. A mass is pulled by a springy cable. Consider the example in Figure 1.25y' + 4y = 20 Now recalculate the solution to the differential equation.25 ( 0 ) + 4A = 200 Initial conditions: – 0.25A + 4 = 0 – 0.1s.316 ( 0.327t y ( t ) = Ce + 50 0.327t y h = Ce Particular: yp = A 12. Figure 1.25 ---dt 12.1 ) = – 40 ( – 0. Another example is tension in a cable. then the differential equation should be changed to reflect this.24 = Ce + 50 – 0. but once motion starts it is replaced with a smaller kinetic friction. When in tension a cable acts as a spring. The . the forces at work are continually changing. Higher accuracy can be obtained using smaller steps in time.38. But.page 212 If the velocity (first derivative of y) changes significantly.1 ) = 12. Homogeneous: · + 4y = 0 12. when in compression the force goes to zero.37 Linearizing a differential equation 1.316 ( 0.1 ) = – 40e – 0.327 A = 50 C = – 35.3 Changing Systems In practical systems. y ( 0.24 Note: a small change d.07e + 50 A = – 0. and as the analysis progresses the equations will adjust slowly.

t – FF 100kgx 2 + 1000 --.3 N K s = 1000 --m M = 100kg x 1 = 0.t – x 2⎞ = 100kgx 2 ⎝ ⎠ m s ·· N N --.x 2 = 1000 --. only restricted by friction forces and inertia.1 m m m s FF ·· N -x = 1 ------N -t – -------------x 2 + 10 --------kgm 2 kgs 100kg FF –2 ·· m x 2 + 10s x 2 = 1 ---.page 213 right hand side of the cable is being pulled at a constant rate.38 A differential equation for a mass pulled by a springy cable .1 m --. The friction force will be left as a variable at this point. while the block is free to move. x2 µ k = 0.t – -------------3 100kg s For the cable/spring in compression x1 – x2 < 0 FF ·· M = 100kg ∑ Fx = –FF = Mx2 ·· ·· Mx 2 – F F = 100kgx 2 ·· 100kgx 2 = – F F FF ·· x 2 = – -------------100kg Figure 1.0. For the cable/spring in tension x 1 – x 2 Š 0 FF ·· Ks ( x1 – x2 ) F x = – F F + K s ( x 1 – x 2 ) = Mx 2 M = 100kg ∑ ·· Mx 2 ·· N – F F + 1000 ---⎛ 0. At the beginning all components are at rest and undeflected.1 µ s = 0.1 m ---t s An FBD and equation can be developed for the system.

t – ----------------100kg 3 s m 294. Therefore the block will stay in place until the cable stretches enough to overcome the static friction.39 Friction forces for the mass The analysis of the system begins by assuming the system starts at rest and undeflected. ·· x2 = 0 x2 = 0 F F = 294. and the mass will be experiencing static friction. The friction force will be left as a variable at this point.1N Figure 1.x > 0 m -----dt 2 s F F = µ k N = 98.3N kinetic friction d. N.1 µ s = 0.3kgm 1 ---.943s Therefore the system is static from 0 to 2.3 N K s = 1000 --m M = 100kg x 1 = 0.3N m 0 + 10s 0 = 1 ---.81 ----kg static friction d.t = ----------------------3 2 s 100kgs t = 2.page 214 x2 µ k = 0.t – -------------100kg 3 s –2 294.1 m ---t s An FBD and equation can be developed for the system.3N F –2 ·· Fm x 2 + 10s x 2 = 1 ---. In this case the cable/spring will be undeflected with no force.= 981N N = 100kg9.943s Figure 1.x £ 0 m -----dt 2 s 0N £ F F < µ s N < 294.40 Analysis of the object before motion begins .

t – -------------3 100kg s For the homogeneous. x p = At + B 0 + 10s –2 · xp = A ·· xp = 0 A = ± 3.1N m ( At + B ) = 1 ---.0981m Figure 1. and continue to accelerate until the cable/spring becomes loose in compression.t – -------------3 100kg s –2 m 10s A = 1 ---3 s –2 98. –2 ·· x 2 + 10s x 2 = 0 –2 A + 10s = 0 x h = C 1 sin ( 3. –2 ·· 98.41 .16t + C 2 ) For the particular.16js –1 98.1N m x 2 + 10s x 2 = 1 ---.page 215 After motion begins the object will only experience kinetic friction.1 m --s B = – 0.1N 10s B = – -------------100kg Analysis of the object after motion begins A = 0. This stage of motion requires the solution of a differential equation.

1 m --.29988 + C 2 ) – 0.1962 C 1 = --------------------------------------------------= – 0.29988 + C 2 ) = – 0.0316 C 1 sin ( 9.x ( t ) = 3.1 m --s C 1 cos ( 9.199 m sin ( 3.16C cos ( 3.0316 tan ( 9.1 --dt s Figure 1.199m sin ( 9.29988 + C 2 ) = 6.943s ) + C 2 ) + 0.943s ) = 0m d.29988 – 7.943 ) + C 2 ) + 0. x ( 2.1 m --.1962 C 2 = ( – 7.889 ) x ( t ) = – 0.199 ( 3.t – 0.( 2.943s ) – 0.943s ) = 0 m -----dt s x ( t ) = C 1 sin ( 3.16t + C ) + 0.= – -----------------C 1 cos ( 9.16t – 7.209 C 1 sin ( 9.0981m s d.16 ( 2.42 Analysis of the object after motion begins .889rad ) + 0.page 216 For the initial conditions.16 ( 2.16C 1 cos ( 3.29988 + C 2 ) = – 0.1 m -----1 2 dt s 0 = 3.1 m --.889 + π n ) rad nŒI – 0.x ( 2.16t + C 2 ) + 0.29988 + C 2 ) 0.0981m s m d---x ( t ) = – 0.1962 -----------------------------------------------------.16 ) m cos ( 3.t – 0.0981m s 0 = C 1 sin ( 3.16t – 7.889rad ) + 0.

= – 0.913 --0 = ⎛ – 0. considering when to switch the analysis conditions.---.199 m sin ( 3.333 ) = 0.0981m 0.981 ---( 3.981 m⎞ m 2 .-----.328s ) + 3.453m t + 3.328s ) + C 2 0.t – 0.981 ---2⎠ ⎝ s s t = 3.137m = ⎛ – -----------( 3.981 m⎞ 2 m .t – 7.( 3.889 + π n = – 0.137m dm ---x ( 2.648 --2⎠ ⎝ s s m C 1 = 3. m m⎞ t + 3.913 --x 2 = ⎛ – -----------⎝ 2 s 2⎠ s 0.t + C2 t + 3.43 Determining when the cable become slack .913 ⎝ 2 s 2⎠ s C 2 = – 7.981 ---x 2'' = – -------------2 100kg s · m⎞ x 2 = ⎛ – 0.1 m --.16t – 7. This point in time can be determined when the displacement of the block equals the displacement of the cable/spring end.981 m⎞ 2 m . m .913 --s 0.16t – 7.328s ) + C 1 0.453m 0.1N m .t = – 0.913 --x 2 ( t ) = ⎛ – -----------2 ⎝ 2 s ⎠ s This motion continues until the block stops moving.889rad ) + 0.328 ) = 0.0981m t = 3.199 m sin ( 3.51549413 x ( 3.989s The solution can continue.648 --dt s After this the differential equation without the cable/spring is used.889rad ) = 0.328s 3.16t – 7. 98.page 217 The equation of motion changes after the cable becomes slack.= ⎛ – 0.1 --s s – 0. Figure 1.---.981 ---t + C1 2⎠ ⎝ s m⎞ m .

the oscillations while the machine is running cannot be more than 2cm total. The mass of the equipment is 10000kg. and 25cm when loaded with the mass. In addition. but as usual the best place to begin is by developing a free body diagram. and a differential equation. In total there will be four mounts mounted around the machine. F M y The model to the left describes a piece of reciprocating industrial equipment. Each isolator will be composed of a spring and a damper.45. The criteria we are given is that the mounts should be 30cm high when unloaded.6 Case Study A typical vibration control system design is described in Figure 1. The equipment operates such that a force of 1000N with a frequency of 2Hz is exerted on the mass.44 A vibration control system There are a number of elements to the design and analysis of this system. We have been asked to design a vibration isolation mounting system. . This is done in Figure 1.page 218 1.44. Figure 1.

81ms 9.1ms sin ( 4 π t ) + 9.0004 ( 0.0004Kg K s y = 9.81ms –1 –2 Now we can consider that when unloaded the spring is 0.05m.0004Kg K s y = 0.81ms Figure 1. This simplifies the differential equation by eliminating several terms.0004Kg – 1 K y · y d + 0. When the system is at rest the equation is simplified. the spring values can be found by assuming the machine is at rest.+ -----------.+ --------------------. At this point we have determined the range of motion of the mass.0004Kg K s ( 0.30m long. This will result in a downward compression of 0. This is done in Figure 1.45 FBD and derivation of equation Using the differential equation.= ----+g 4K s y 4K d y M M M · 4K d y 4K s y 1000N .46.81ms – 2 ·· + --------------------y . the acceleration and velocity terms both become zero.81 –2 –1 K s = ------------------------------Kgms m 0.sin ( 2 ( 2 π ) t ) + 9.46 –1 Calculation of the spring coefficient The remaining unknown is the damping coefficient.page 219 + ∑ Fy · + Mg = My ·· = F – 4K s y – 4K d y F y M · ' + 4K y · + 4K y = F + Mg My d s · 4K d y 4K s y F ·· + -----------· y .05m ) = 9. and after loading the spring is 0.05 ) –1 –2 ∴K s = 491KNm Figure 1. This can be done by developing the particular . in the positive y direction.25m long. 0.= --------------------10000Kg 10000Kg 10000Kg Mg –1 –2 –2 ·· + 0. In addition. we will assume that the cyclic force is not applied for the unloaded/loaded case. 0.

02m.81ms –2 –2 –2 ·· + 0.1 3.0004K d ( 4 π A cos ( 4 π t ) – 4 π B sin ( 4 π t ) ) + 196 ( A sin ( 4 π t ) + B cos ( 4 π t ) + C ) = 0. the same in each term) and will be omitted for brevity.2 × 10 ) + 38.8 × 10 K d + 1.0004Kg – 1 K y · y d + 0. and solving for the coefficients.2 × 10 ) + 38.81 – 16 π B + 0. (Note: The units in the expression are uniform (i.81ms Figure 1.0004Kg – 1 K y · y d + 196s y = 0.8 × 10 K d + 1. –1 –1 –2 –2 ·· + 0.page 220 solution of the differential equation.0004K d 4 π A + 196A = 0 –6 B = A ( 31.1ms sin ( 4 π t ) + 9. and finding the roots of the resulting polynomial.) y = A sin ( 4 π t ) + B cos ( 4 π t ) + C y' = 4 π A cos ( 4 π t ) – 4 π B sin ( 4 π t ) y'' = – 16 π A sin ( 4 π t ) – 16 π B cos ( 4 π t ) 2 2 ∴( – 16 π A sin ( 4 π t ) – 16 π B cos ( 4 π t ) ) + 0.8 × 10 K d + 1. .0 × 10 K d ) = 0.81ms The particular solution can now be found by guessing a value.1 sin ( 4 π t ) + 9. as shown in Figure 1.18 × 10 K d – 0.. as it will contain the steady-state oscillations caused by the forces as shown in Figure 1.0004K d ( – 4 π B ) + 196A = 0.48.1 0.0 × 10 K d ) = 0.24 ) ( – 5.1 2 –6 2 –3 2 2 2 A ( – 16 π + 196 ) + A ( 31.e.1 A ( – 16 π + 196 ) + B ( – 5.47.1 A = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 –9 –3 K d ( – 159 × 10 ) + K d ( – 6.124 B = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------–9 –3 2 K d ( – 159 × 10 ) + K d ( – 6.1 A = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 –6 –3 – 16 π + 196 + ( 31.0004Kg ( 491KNm ) y = 0. In this case Mathcad was used to find the solution.47 –2 –6 –3 Particular solution of the differential equation The particular solution can be used to find a damping coefficient that will give an overall oscillation of 0. although it could have also been found by factoring out the algebra.1ms sin ( 4 π t ) + 9.24 ) ( – 5.1 C = 9.0 × 10 K d ) 0.24 ) 2 – 16 π A + 0.

1 The design requirements call for a maximum oscillation of 0.18 ⋅ 10 ) K d – 0.2 ⋅ 10 ) ) + 38.124⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 0.page 221 In the previous particular solution the values were split into cosine and sine components.48 Determining the damping coefficient The values of the spring and damping coefficients can be used to select actual components. or a magnitude of 0. Some companies will design and build their own components. . 2 2 –6 ( 0.01m.18 ⋅ 10 ) K – 0.1 ) + ⎛ ( 3.02m.2 ⋅ 10 ) ) + 38. The magnitude of oscillation can be calculated with the Pythagorean formula. magnitude = sK d = 3411N --m Aside: the Mathcad solution Figure 1.1 ) + ⎛ ( 3.124 d ⎝ ⎠ magnitude = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 –9 –3 K d ( – 159 ⋅ 10 ) + K d ( – ( 6. Components can also be acquired by searching catalogs. 2 2 A +B 2 2 –6 ⎞ ( 0.1 A given-find block was used in Mathcad to obtain a damper value of.01 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 –9 –3 K d ( – 159 ⋅ 10 ) + K d ( – ( 6. or requesting custom designs from other companies.

x M B F 2. Leave the results in variable form.8 Problems 1.page 222 1. Initially the system starts at rest. • The topic of analysis was discussed. M. • First and second-order responses were examined. when a constant force.81 ms –2 y y0 = 0 m · = 0 ms – 1 y 0 FBD: M Ks y Mg 3. Solve the following differential equation with the three given cases. • A case study looked at a second-order system. F. and solve the differential equation.81 Kgm ----------( 1 Kg ) y 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ s ms ·· + ( 100 s – 2 ) y = 9.81 N ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ m s ·· + ⎛ 100 Kgm -----------⎞ y = 9. The mass. Write the differential equation for the mass. Solve the differential equation to find the motion as a function of time. All of the systems have a .7 Summary • First and second-order differential equations were analyzed explicitly. It can slide across a surface. The following differential equation was derived for a mass suspended with a spring. 1.81 -----= ( – 1 Kg ) y ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ m Kg⎠ N ⎛ 1 Nm ·· + ⎛ 100 ---------⎞ y -⎞ y = 9. • Non-linear systems can be analyzed by making them linear. + N K s = 100 --m M = 1 Kg y ∑ Fy ·· = K s y – Mg = – My N N-⎞ ⎛ 100 --·· -⎞ y – ( 1 Kg ) ⎛ 9. but the motion is opposed by viscous friction (damping) with the coefficient B. It then oscillates. At time 0s the system is released and allowed to drop. is applied. illustrated below starts at rest.

page 223

step input ’y’ and start undeflected and at rest.
2 ·· + 2 ξω x · x n + ωn x = y

initial conditions

case 1: case 2: case 3:

ξ = 0.5 ξ = 1 ξ = 2

ω n = 10 ω n = 10 ω n = 10

· = 0 x x = 0 y = 1

4. Solve the following differential equation with the given initial conditions and draw a sketch of the first 5 seconds. The input is a step function that turns on at t=0. ·· · initial conditions V i = 5 0.5 V o + 0.6 V o + 2.1 V o = 3 V i + 2 Vo = 0 · Vo = 0 5. Solve the following differential equation with the given initial conditions and draw a sketch of the first 5 seconds. The input is a step function that turns on at t=0. ·· · 0.5 V o + 0.6 V o + 2.1 V o = 3 V i + 2 initial conditions V i = 5 Vo = 0 · Vo = 1 6. a) Write the differential equations for the system below. Solve the equations for x assuming that

page 224

the system is at rest and undeflected before t=0. Also assume that gravity is present.

Kd1 = 1 Ns/m Ks1 = 1 N/m Kd = 1 Ns/m

Kd2 = 1Ns/m

x1 Ks2 = 1 N/m F=1N

M = 1 kg

x

x2 F=1N

Ks = 1 N/m

b) State whether each system is first or second-order. If the system if first-order find the time constant. If it is second-order find the natural frequency and damping ratio. 7. Solve the following differential equation with the three given cases. All of the systems have a sinusoidal input ’y’ and start undeflected and at rest.
2 · ·· + 2 ξω x x n + ωn x = y

initial conditions

case 1: case 2: case 3:

ξ = 0.5 ξ = 1 ξ = 2

ω n = 10 ω n = 10 ω n = 10

· = 0 x x = 0 y = sin ( t )

8. A spring damper system supports a mass of 34N. If it has a spring constant of 20.6N/cm, what is the systems natural frequency? 9. Using a standard lumped parameter model the weight is 36N, stiffness is 2.06*103 N/m and damping is 100Ns/m. What are the natural frequency (Hz) and damping ratio?

page 225

10. What is the differential equation for a second-order system that responds to a step input with an overshoot of 20%, with a delay of 0.4 seconds to the first peak? 11. A system is to be approximated with a mass-spring-damper model using the following parameters: weight 28N, viscous damping 6Ns/m, and stiffness 36N/m. Calculate the undamped natural frequency (Hz) of the system, the damping ratio and describe the type of response you would expect if the mass were displaced and released. What additional damping would be required to make the system critically damped? ·· + K x · Mx d + Ks x = F 12. Solve the differential equation below using homogeneous and particular solutions. Assume the system starts undeflected and at rest. ··· ·· · θ + 40 θ + 20 θ + 2 θ = 4 13. What would the displacement amplitude after 100ms for a system having a natural frequency of 13 rads/sec and a damping ratio of 0.20. Assume an initial displacement of 50mm, and a steady state displacement of 0mm. (Hint: Find the response as a function of time.) 14. Determine the first order differential equation given the graphical response shown below. Assume the input is a step function. x 4

t(s) 0 1 2 3 4

15. Explain with graphs how to develop first and second-order equations using experimental data. 16. The second order response below was obtained experimentally. Determine the parameters of

page 226

the differential equation that resulted in the response assuming the input was a step function. 0.5 s 1s 2

10

0 x (m) 5m

t(s)

17. Develop equations (function of time) for the first and second order responses shown below.

0m 0.1s x (m) 5m 0m 1s 3s t (s) 0.2s 0.3s 0.4s 0.5s 0.6s 0.7s 0.8s t (s)

-10m

page 227

18. A mass-spring-damper system has a mass of 10Kg and a spring coefficient of 1KN/m. Select a damping coefficient so that the system will have an overshoot of 20% for a step input.

1.9 Problems Solutions
1.
– t – FM -e M – F -- t + FM -------x ( t ) = ----------2 2 B B B B ----

page 228

2. homogeneous: guess yh = e
2 At At –2

· At y h = Ae
At

·· 2 At yh = A e

A e + ( 100 s ) e
2 –2

= 0
–1

A = – 100 s A = ± 10 js y h = C 1 cos ( 10 t + C 2 ) particular: guess yp = A
–2

· yp = 0
–2

·· yp = 0

( 0 ) + ( 100 s ) A = 9.81 ms –2 –2 ( 100 s ) A = 9.81 ms –2 9.81 ms = 0.0981 m A = ---------------------–2 100 s y p = 0.0981 m initial conditions: y' = – 10 C 1 sin ( 10 t + C 2 ) for d/dt y0 = 0m:

y = y h + y p = C 1 cos ( 10 t + C 2 ) + 0.0981 m

0 = – 10 C 1 sin ( 10 ( 0 ) + C 2 ) for y0 = 0m: – 0.0981 m = C 1 cos ( 0 ) y ( t ) = ( – 0.0981 m ) cos ( 10 t ) + 0.0981 m 3. case 1: case 2: case 3: x ( t ) = – 0.0115 e x ( t ) = – 0.010 e
–5 t

C2 = 0

0 = C 1 cos ( 10 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) ) + 0.0981 m C 1 = – 0.0981 m

cos ( 8.66 t – 0.524 ) + 0.010 – 0.10 te
– 10 t

– 10 t

+ 0.010
– 2.679 t

x ( t ) = 775 ⋅ 10 e

– 6 – 37.32 t

– 0.0108 e

+ 0.010

4. V o ( t ) = – 8.465 e or V o ( t ) = – 8.465 e
– 0.6 t

sin ( 1.960 t + 1.274 ) + 8.095 cos ( 1.960 t – 0.2971 ) + 8.095

– 0.6 t

page 229

5. V 0 ( t ) = – 8.331 e 6. a) x1 ( t ) = e – 1 x2 ( t ) = 2 e – 2 τ = 1 7. case 1: case 2: case 3: 8. 24.37 rad/sec 9. fn=3.77Hz, damp.=.575 10. ·· + 8.048 x · + 77.88 x = F ( t ) x x ( t ) = – 0.00117 e
–5 t –t –t – 0.6 t

cos ( 1.96 t – 0.238 ) + 8.095

b) x ( t ) = – 12.485 e ζ = 0.5
– 0.5 t

cos ( 0.866 t – 0.524 ) + 10.81

ωn = 1

sin ( 8.66 t – 1.061 ) + 0.0101 sin ( t – 0.101 )
– 10 t

x ( t ) = ( 1.96 ⋅ 10 ) e x ( t ) = ( 3.5 ⋅ 10 ) e
–3

–3

+ ( 9.9 ⋅ 10 ) te – ( 18 ⋅ 10 ) e
–6

–3

– 10 t

+ ( 9.9 ⋅ 10 ) sin ( t + 0.20 ) + ( 9.4 ⋅ 10 ) sin ( t + 0.382 )
–3

–3

– 2.679 t

– 37.32 t

·· + x · ( 2 ζω ) + x ( ω 2 ) = y ( t ) x n n Ks ----. 28 N M = ---------------= 2.00 13.6 Hz = 3.55 -------s sd⎞ ⎛K ----6 N --⎝ M⎠ m .= 0.2. θ ( t ) = – 66 ⋅ 10 e – 6 – 39.3368 t + 2.55 ) -------s rad 2 ω d = ω n 1 – ξ = 3.63 s –2 rad .05 e – 2.81 kg The typical transfer function for a mass-spring-damper systems is.05 e – 2.85 kg N----9.55 ) -------s Ns K d = 20.85 kg 2 ( 3.2 ----m 12. y ( t ) = 0.74 t + -⎝ 2⎠ .00 .= -------------------------------------------. K d⎞ K s⎞ F ·· + x · ⎛ ----.= -------------------------------------------ξ = ----------rad 2 ωn . d⎞ ⎛K ----Kd ⎝ M⎠ .+ x ⎛ ----x = ---⎝ M⎠ ⎝ M⎠ M The second order parameters can be calculated from this.52Hz A critically damped system would require a damping coefficient of.= 2.85 kg 2 ( 3.= 2..page 230 11.1383 t + 1..= 1.39 -------s If pulled and released the system would have a decaying oscillation about 0.6 t π -⎞ sin ⎛ 12.296 ξ = ----------rad 2 ωn .= M N 36 --m ---------------.= 0.85 kg kgm 36 --------2 ms ---------------.74 t ) = 0.2.85 kg Given sK d = 6 N --m N K s = 36 --m ωn = 12.6 t cos ( 12.216 e – 0.216 e 0.50 t – 3..

x 4 t(s) 1 2 τ = 1 Given the equation form. Key points: First-order: find initial final values find time constant with 63% or by slope use these in standard equation Second-order: find damped frequency from graph find time to first peak use these in cosine equation 0 3 4 . 1 A = 4 -4 = A 0 + -1 ·+1 --x = 4 x 1 ·+x = 4 x 15.page 231 14. ·+1 --x = A x τ The values at steady state will be · = 0 x x = 4 So the unknown ‘A’ can be calculated.

059 ) 2 x = F x ·· + 6.219 3.4560 This leads to the final equation using the steady state value of 10 2 ·· + 2 ξω x · x n + ωn x = F ·· + 2 ( 0.438 x · + 49.219⎠ ξ ξ = 1 -----------------------------.219 ω n = -----------ξ 2 π ω d ≈ --tp 1 ξ = ----------------------------π -⎞ 2 ⎛ ------+1 ⎝ t p σ⎠ These values can be used to find the damping coefficient and natural frequency σ = ξω n ωd = ωn 1 – ξ 3.5 ----= e 10 2-⎞ ln ⎛ ----= – σ 0.= 0.219.219⎠ ξ 2 π -⎞ 2 1⎛ -----------+ 1 = ---2 ⎝ 3.219⎠ 3.5 ⎝ 10⎠ 2-⎞ σ = – 2 ln ⎛ ----= 3.219 ⎝ 10⎠ For the damped frequency: 2π .4560 ) ( 7.059 ξ 0.1 – ξ2 2 π = -----------ξ 2 2 π -⎞ 2 1 – ξ⎛ -----------= ------------2 ⎝ 3.4560 2 π -⎞ 2 ⎛ -----------+1 ⎝ 3.page 232 16.059 ) x · + ( 7.= --------------ω n = -----------= 7.3 x F = 498.219 .438 x · + 49.438 ( 0 ) + 49.83 x = 498.83 ( 10 ) = F ·· + 6.= 2π ω d = ----1s 3. For the first peak: –σ t b----= e p ∆x 2– σ 0.83 x = F x ( 0 ) + 6.3 .

page 233 17. Write a Scilab program to solve first and second order differential equations for step inputs.10 Challenge Problems 1.18⎞ x(t) = 5⎜1 – e ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ –t x ( t ) = – 10 e – 0. It should then produce a function of time. . The program should accept coefficients for the differential equations and initial conditions. --------⎛ 0.693 t cos ( π t ) 1.

3 Summary 2. ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING REVIEW Topics: • Objectives: • 2.2 Examples 2.1 Introductions 2.4 References/Bibliography .page 234 2.

The transfer function order should be adjusted to allow the number of points specified. Chapter 46 .page 235 2. Chapter 42 .Problems 1-17 F.Computer Software . Chapter 39 . Write a program that would allow the specification of a transfer function using points on a Bode plot. Chapter 8 . Chapter 41 .E.E.Problems 1-13 F.Complex Numbers and Electrostatics . Chapter 40 .Alternating Current Circuits . Write a Scilab program to solve the circuit as a function of frequency.Problems 1-32 F.E.Problems 1-32 F.Differential Equations . Chapter 44 . .E.5 Problems F.Problems 1-5 1. Use the loop or node voltage method to write equations for the circuit shown.E.Direct Current Circuits .E.Computer Hardware .E. 14 F.E.Problems .Problems 1-5 F. C R2 R1 + Vi + + Vo - 2.Controls .Problems 1-17 F. 6-11.Three-Phase Systems and Electronics .6 Challenge Problems 1. Chapter 43 .

Calculate the output Voltage as a function of the input voltage using Matrices in Scilab. C R2 R1 + Vi + + Vo - . Calculate the output Voltage as a function of the input voltage using State Equations and numerical methods in Scilab.page 236 2. 1K 1uF + Vi - 1mH + Vo - 2K 3.

5 Problems . MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REVIEW Topics: • Objectives: • 3.page 237 3.3 Summary 3.4 References/Bibliography 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Examples 3.

Use a matrix method to solve the problem. Chapter 36 .Problems 1-15 F.E. Enter the equations in a matrix and use Scilab to find the forces.E. Assume that the .Metallurgy . Write equationd for the following truss using the method of joints. Chapter 37 .Problems 1-18 F. Write a program to find the deformation of an array of springs (as pictured below) with a force applied to an internal node. Chapter 13 .Centroids and Momemnts of Inertia .Thermal. 8 KN 4 KN 10 KN 3 KN D B C 1.E.E.Problems 1-10 F. Cables. Chapter 21 .Problems 1-18 F. Chapter 18 .E.E. Chapter 20 .Problems 1-11 F. Hoop and Torsional Stress .Problems 1-18 1.Problems 1-10 F.E.E.page 238 F.E.Beams . Chapter 38 .E.Stress and Strain .Problems 1-18 F.6 Challenege Problems 1. Chapter 10 .Problems 1-23 F. and Friction . Chapter 19 .Trusses .Systems of Forces .Material Testing .E.5 m E A 2m F 2m 3.Crystallography and Atomic Bonding .Columns .Problems 1-12 F. Chapter 11 . Chapter 12 .Problems 1-8 F.Pulleys.

x1 Kd1 Ks1 M1 Ks2 Kd2 M2 F x2 Kd3 Ks 3 . Write the differential equations for one of the following systems. such as Runge-Kutta integration. F 2.page 239 nodes at the four corners are fixed and unable to move. Simulate the system response using a numerical method.

3 Summary 4.5 Problems .page 240 4.1 Introduction 4. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING OVERVIEW Topics: • Objectives: • 4.4 References/Bibliography 4.2 Examples 4.

9943” 0.000” shaft with a tolerance of +/. 12. 2. 1994 Nov.Material Testing .9934” 0.Metallurgy ..Thermal.9974” 0.010”. 1994 Nov.0013” 1. 6.E.0034” 0.9976” 0.0001” 0.0064” 0.Problems 1-18 F.. 13.0001” 1.9982” 0. 5. 14.0093” 0. 1994 Nov. .9992” 0.Problems 1-12 F..9997” 0. Chapter 10 .0054” 1..Crystallography and Atomic Bonding . Write a program to automatically update the X-bar. 1.0086” 0.E.0067” 0.E.E.Beams .9957” 0.0064” 0.0034” 0.9997” 1.Problems 1-18 F.Problems 1-8 F.0009” 0.Problems 1-10 F.0025” 1.Problems 1-11 F.E.9923” 0.9946” 1. 9. Cables..0033” 1.0000” 1.9945” 0. Chapter 13 ...0038” 1.E..page 241 F.0001” 0.0027” 1.Problems 1-18 1. 10.Trusses . Chapter 20 .0045” 1. Chapter 36 . 11. 1994 Nov.9997” 1.. Chapter 38 . 1994 Nov. When a new set of values is entered the program should check to see if the process is in control. 8.9999” 1.. 1994 Nov. Hoop and Torsional Stress .Problems 1-15 F.0079” 1.0. 7. Date Nov.9973” .0011” 0...Pulleys.0031” 1.Centroids and Momemnts of Inertia .. Chapter 37 .E.0000” 1.E. Chapter 11 . Chapter 12 .9912” 1.0011” 1.0002” 0.9986” 1. Chapter 19 .E.Problems 1-23 F. The data set below was obtained over a two week period for a 1.9987” 1.Columns . 1994 Nov. 1994 Nov. 3.Systems of Forces .9935” 1. 1994 Nov.0031” 1. Chapter 18 .9956” 0.9990” 1. 1994 Nov.0101” 1.9993” 0.. 4.9965” 1. 1994 Samples 1.Stress and Strain .9938” 1.0034” 0.Problems 1-10 F.Problems 1-18 F. Chapter 21 .9998” 0. 1994 Nov. and Friction . 1994 Nov.E.E. 1994 Nov. UCL/LCL values given new values.9972” 0.0002” 1.9969” 1.

PRODUCT DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING REVIEW Topics: • Objectives: • 5.3 Summary 5.2 Examples 5.1 Introduction 5.page 242 5.4 References/Bibliography .

Chapter 20 . Chapter 12 . Write a program to find the deformation of an array of springs (as pictured below) with a force applied to an internal node.6 Challenege Problems 1.Columns . Chapter 11 .E.Problems 1-10 F.Centroids and Momemnts of Inertia .E.E.Pulleys. Find the forces using Matrices in Scilab.5 Problems F.E.Trusses .Material Testing .Problems 1-18 F.Problems 1-10 F. and Friction .Beams .Problems 1-18 F. Cables. Chapter 13 . Chapter 18 . Assume that the .Systems of Forces .Crystallography and Atomic Bonding .E. Use a matrix method to solve the problem. 8 KN 3 KN B C 1. Chapter 19 . Chapter 21 . Chapter 37 .E.E.Problems 1-15 F.page 243 5.E.Thermal. Hoop and Torsional Stress .Problems 1-12 F.Metallurgy .Stress and Strain .E. Chapter 36 . Chapter 38 .5 m E 4 KN 10 KN D A 2m F 2m 5. Chapter 10 .E.Problems 1-23 F.Problems 1-18 1.Problems 1-8 F.Problems 1-11 F.E.Problems 1-18 F.

x1 Kd1 Ks1 M1 Ks2 Kd2 M2 F x2 Kd3 Ks 3 . such as Runge-Kutta integration. Write the differential equations for one of the following systems. F 2.page 244 nodes at the four corners are fixed and unable to move. Simulate the system response using a numerical method.

The equation can then be simplified and/or manipulated into new forms. .2 Boolean Algebra Boolean algebra was developed in the 1800’s by James Bool. and it is still heavily used by electrical engineers and computer scientists.245 2. more complex operators include exclusive or (EOR). BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN Topics: • Boolean algebra • Converting between Boolean algebra and logic gates • Logic examples Objectives: • Be able to simplify designs with Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps 2. It was found to be extremely useful for designing digital circuits. not or (NOR). an Irish mathematician.plc boolean . Truth tables are a simple (but bulky) method for showing all of the possible combinations that will turn an output on or off. 2. not and (NAND). Small truth tables for these functions are shown in Figure 2.1. Each operator is shown in a simple equation with the variables A and B being used to calculate a value for X.2. OR and NOT. The same techniques developed for circuit designers adapt very well to circuit and program. The three basic operators are AND. The techniques can model a logical system with a single equation. Boolean equations consist of variables and operations and look very similar to normal algebraic equations.1 Introduction Boolean algebra provides the tools needed to analyze and design logical systems.

2. Note: The EOR function is available in gate form.plc boolean . or 1 for .1 Boolean Operations with Truth Tables and Gates In a Boolean equation the operators will be put in a more complex form as shown in Figure 2. AND A B OR X X 0 0 0 1 A B X NOT A X = A X A 0 1 1 0 X X = A⋅B A B 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 X = A+B A B X 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 NAND A X B X = A⋅B A B 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 NOR A B X EOR A B X X 1 1 1 0 X = A+B A B X 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 X = A⊕B A B X 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 Note: The symbols used in these equations. as shown below. such as + for OR are not universal standards and some authors will use different notations.246 Note: By convention a false state is also called off or 0 (zero). X = A⊕B = A⋅B+A⋅B Figure 2.2. The variable for these equations can only have a value of 0 for false. but it is more often converted to its equivalent. A true state is also called on or 1.

Operations are to be done in the sequence NOT. OR. AND.247 true. When there is a choice the AND operations are done before the OR operations. given X = (A + B ⋅ C) + A ⋅ (B + C) X = (1 + 0 ⋅ 1) + 1 ⋅ (0 + 1) X = (1 + 0) + 1 ⋅ (0 + 0) X = (1) + 1 ⋅ (0) X = 0+0 X = 0 assuming A=1.2 A Boolean Equation The equations can be manipulated using the basic axioms of Boolean shown in Figure 2. C=1 Figure 2. A few of the axioms (associative. distributive. B=0.plc boolean . For the given set of variable values the result of the calculation is false. The solution of the equation follows rules similar to normal algebra. . but the other axioms have subtle differences that must not be ignored. Parts of the equation inside parenthesis are to be solved first.3.2. commutative) behave like normal algebra. but the NOT over the first set of parentheses must wait until a single value is available. In the example the NOT function for C is done first.

3 The Basic Axioms of Boolean Algebra An example of equation manipulation is shown in Figure 2. The resulting equation is equivalent to the original.248 Idempotent A+A = A Associative (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) Commutative A+B = B+A Distributive A + (B ⋅ C) = (A + B) ⋅ (A + C) Identity A+0 = A A⋅0 = 0 Complement A+A = 1 A⋅A = 0 DeMorgan’s (A + B) = A ⋅ B Duality interchange AND and OR operators.plc boolean . Finally the Identity axiom is . The distributive axiom is applied to get equation (1). Equation (3) is obtained by using the distributive axiom to move C outside the parentheses. as well as all Universal. and Null sets. but the identity axiom is used to deal with the lone C.2. (A ⋅ B) = A + B (A) = A 1 = 0 A+1 = 1 A⋅1 = A A ⋅ (B + C) = (A ⋅ B) + (A ⋅ C) A⋅B = B⋅A (A ⋅ B) ⋅ C = A ⋅ (B ⋅ C) A⋅A = A Figure 2.4. The identity axiom is then used to simplify the contents of the parentheses to get equation (4). The idempotent axiom is used to get equation (2).

2.249 used to get the final. X = (A + B ⋅ C) + A ⋅ (B + C) X = (A) + (B ⋅ C) + A ⋅ (B + C) X = (A) ⋅ (B ⋅ C) + A ⋅ (B + C) X = A ⋅ (B + C) + A ⋅ (B + C) X = A⋅B+A⋅C+A⋅B+A⋅C X = A ⋅ B + (A ⋅ C + A ⋅ C) + A ⋅ B X = A ⋅ B + C ⋅ (A + A) + A ⋅ B X = A⋅B+C+A⋅B The higher priority operators are put in parenthases DeMorgan’s theorem is applied DeMorgan’s theorem is applied again The equation is expanded Terms with common terms are collected. OR operators have a lower priority. here it is only NOT C The redundant term is eliminated A Boolean axiom is applied to simplify the equation further . Notice that using Boolean algebra has shown that 3 of the variables are entirely unneeded. NOT operators have the highest priority. Consider the example from before. so they should be manipulated first.4 Note: When simplifying Boolean algebra. so they should be simplified last. A = B ⋅ (C ⋅ (D + E + C) + F ⋅ C) A = B ⋅ (D ⋅ C + E ⋅ C + C ⋅ C + F ⋅ C) A = B ⋅ (D ⋅ C + E ⋅ C + C + F ⋅ C) A = B ⋅ C ⋅ (D + E + 1 + F) A = B ⋅ C ⋅ (1) A = B⋅C (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Simplification of a Boolean Equation Figure 2.plc boolean . simplified equation.

If we can describe how a controller should work in words. we can often convert it directly to a Boolean equation. In actual applications this is obtained by talking to the designer of the mechanical part of the system. making this a ..250 Note: A simplified expression will generally reduce the number of operations required. or with other techniques discussed later. or a circuit. as shown in Figure 2.. In many cases the system does not exist yet. The Boolean equation form can then be simplified or rearranges.5. A + BA = A + B 2. and then converted into ladder logic.2..plc boolean .3 Logic Design Design ideas can be converted to Boolean equations directly. In the example a process description is given first.

. In this case it is written out in a sentence first. which is not available in ladder logic.6. The last equation (3) is fully expanded and the circuit for it is shown in Figure 2..plc boolean . The Boolean expression may then be converted to a desired form. In the conversion the terms that are ANDed are in series.. circuits.. The first equation contains an EOR... so the next line converts this to an equivalent expression (2) using ANDs. ORs and NOTs...251 challenging task. This illustrates the same logical control function can be achieved with different. The next step is to determine how the controller should work..2. and then converted to a Boolean expression. yet equivalent.. The circuit shown is for the second equation.

Consider the traffic directions "Go to main street then turn left or right. Figure 2. or all of the cars are blue." Does this or mean that you can drive either way. Control Description: If the temperature is too high and there is an ingot in only one bay then turn on fan. Does this mean that the cars can be either red or blue.". A good literal way to describe this condition is "one or the other.252 Process Description: A heating oven with two bays can heat one ingot in each bay. or that the person isn’t sure which way to go? Consider the expression "The cars are red or blue. When the heater is on it provides enough heat for two ingots.5 Boolean Algebra Based Design of Ladder Logic . so a fan is used to cool the oven when it passes a set temperature. But.2. Define Inputs and Outputs: B1 = bay 1 ingot present B2 = bay 2 ingot present F = fan T = temperature overheat sensor Boolean Equation: F = T ⋅ ( B1 ⊕ B2 ) F = T ⋅ ( B1 ⋅ B2 + B1 ⋅ B2 ) F = B1 ⋅ B2 ⋅ T + B1 ⋅ B2 ⋅ T Circuit for Equation (2): (2) (3) XXXXXXX Note: the result for conditional logic is a single step in the ladder Warning: in spoken and written english OR and EOR are often not clearly defined. or all of the cars are red. but not both". if only one ingot is present the oven may become too hot.plc boolean .

and then converted back into a (much simpler) circuit diagram.7. nand. so they are put inside parentheses to indicate priority. This circuit can’t be directly converted to ladder logic because there are no equivalents to NAND and NOR gates.253 Circuit for Equation (3): XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Figure 2. This figure can be converted into a boolean equation by starting at the left hand side and working right. In this case we are presented with a circuit that is built with inverters.plc boolean . nor and.6 Alternate Circuit Boolean algebra is often used in the design of digital circuits. Inverters are represented by putting a NOT operator on a variable in the equation. Consider the example in Figure 2. Gates on the left hand side are solved first.2. . and gates. After the circuit is converted to a Boolean equation it is simplified.

Eliminate NOTs that are for more than one variable.2.254 A B C B A C The circuit is converted to a Boolean equation and simplified. When simplifying Boolean equations that are to be implemented in circuits there are a few basic rules.7 Reverse Engineering of a Digital Circuit To summarize. .plc boolean . 1. The equation can be manipulated using the axioms of Boolean algebra. we will obtain Boolean equations from a verbal description or existing circuit or ladder diagram. Circuits can behave the same even though they are in different forms. after simplification the equation can be converted back into a circuit diagram. The most nested terms in the equation are on the left hand side of the diagram. X X = ((A ⋅ B ⋅ C) + B) ⋅ B ⋅ (A + C) X = (A + B + C + B) ⋅ B ⋅ (A ⋅ C) X = A⋅B⋅A⋅C+B⋅B⋅A⋅C+C⋅B⋅A⋅C+B⋅B⋅A⋅C X = B⋅A⋅C+B⋅A⋅C+0+B⋅A⋅C X = B⋅A⋅C This simplified equation is converted back into a circuit. B A C X Figure 2. This normally includes replacing NAND and NOR functions with simpler ones using DeMorgan’s theorem.

A = B ⋅ (C ⋅ (D + E + C) + F ⋅ C) The circuit is given below.255 2.plc boolean . It is possible to simplify the equation to the form seen in Figure 2. Eliminate complex functions such as EORs with their equivalent.8. and equivalent ladder logic is shown. This equation can be converted into both a circuit diagram and ladder logic. The circuit diagram contains about two dollars worth of integrated circuits.2.8. Given the controller equation. If the design was mass produced the final cost for the entire controller would be under \$50. D E C A F B The gates can be purchased for about \$0. The prototype of the controller would cost thousands of dollars. These principles are reinforced with another design that begins in Figure 2. .25 each in bulk. Assume that the Boolean equation that describes the controller is already known.8 A Boolean Equation and Derived Circuit The initial equation is not the simplest. Inputs and outputs are typically 5V Figure 2.

For example.3.9 The Simplified Form of the Example The equation can also be manipulated to other forms that are more routine but less efficient as shown in Figure 2.plc boolean . The equation shown is in disjunctive normal form . and therefore becomes harder to rework without starting from the beginning.in simpler terms this means a standard form. it may not look like the original design intention.256 A = B ⋅ C ⋅ (D + E + F) D E F C B A Figure 2.1 Boolean Algebra Techniques There are some common Boolean algebra techniques that are used when simplifying equations. Recognizing these forms are important to simplifying Boolean Algebra .in simpler words this is ANDed terms ORed together.10 A Canonical Logic Form 2. This is also an example of a canonical form .10. This form is more important for digital logic.2. A = (B ⋅ C ⋅ D) + (B ⋅ C ⋅ E) + (B ⋅ C ⋅ F) B C D A E F Figure 2. when an equation is simplified.

plc boolean . as shown in Figure 2. . 2.257 with ease.1 Complex Gate Forms In total there are 16 different possible types of 2-input logic gates.12. These are itemized.11.2.4. The three popular complex gates that have been discussed before are NAND. or provide ideas when designing.4 Common Logic Forms Knowing a simple set of logic forms will support a designer when categorizing control problems.11 Common Boolean Algebra Techniques 2. A + CA = A + C proof: A + CA (A + C)(A + A) (A + C)(1) A+C AB + A AB + A 1 A(B + 1) A(1) A A+B+C (A + B) + C (A + B)C ( AB ) C ABC AB + A = A proof: A + B + C = ABC proof: Figure 2. The following forms are provided to be used directly. NOR and EOR. The simplest are AND and OR. with proofs in Figure 2. the other gates we will refer to as complex to differentiate. All of these can be reduced to simpler forms with only ANDs and ORs.

but to digital voice signals.2.13 a multiplexer is shown that will take one of four inputs bits D1. A1 and A2. D3 or D4 and make it the output X. In older telephone switch boards. These are very popular for telephone systems.12 Conversion of Complex Logic Functions 2. In Figure 2.2 Multiplexers Multiplexers allow multiple devices to be connected to a single device. A telephone switch is used to determine which telephone will be connected to a limited number of lines to other telephone switches.plc boolean .4.258 NAND X = A⋅B X = A+B NOR X = A+B X = A⋅B EOR X = A⊕B X = A⋅B+A⋅B Figure 2. . depending upon the values of the address bits. operators physically connected wires by plugging them in. D2. In modern computerized telephone switches the same thing is done. This allows telephone calls to be made to somebody far away without a dedicated wire to the other telephone.

.2.259 D1 D2 D3 D4 A1 multiplexer X 0 0 1 1 A2 0 1 0 1 X X=D1 X=D2 X=D3 X=D4 A1 A2 Figure 2.5 Simple Design Cases The following cases are presented to illustrate various combinatorial logic problems.1 Basic Logic Functions Problem: Develop a program that will cause output D to go true when switch A and switch B are closed or when switch C is closed.13 A Multiplexer 2. and possible solutions. 2. It is recommended that you try to satisfy the description before looking at the solution.5.plc boolean .

. If all is safe then the key will start the engine. Solution: D = A + (B ⊕ C) Figure 2. or either B or C are on. and the seatbelt is not done up.2.5.plc boolean . When the car door is open. the ignition power must not be applied.15 Sample Solution for Logic Case Study B 2.260 Solution: D = (A ⋅ B) + C Figure 2.2 Car Safety System Problem: Develop a circuit for a car door/seat belt safety system.14 Sample Solution for Logic Case Study A Problem: Develop a program that will cause output D to be on when push button A is on.

16 Solution to Car Safety System Case 2. When activated an alarm and . The motor forward and reverse outputs will only be on when one of the buttons is pushed. When both buttons are pushed the motor will not work.17 Motor Forward.3 Motor Forward/Reverse Problem: Design a motor controller that has a forward and a reverse button.plc boolean . Solution: F = BF ⋅ BR R = BF ⋅ BR where.261 Solution: Figure 2.5. Reverse Case Study 2.2.4 A Burglar Alarm Consider the design of a burglar alarm for a house.5. F = motor forward R = motor reverse BF = forward button BR = reverse button Figure 2.

check sensors.plc boolean . and the inputs and outputs of the controller are itemized in Figure 2. the foil breaks breaking the conductor. This behaves like a normally closed switch. If window/door sensor is broken (turns off). A Boolean equation can then be written using the truth table in Figure 2. The window sensor is effectively a loop of wire that is a piece of thin metal foil that encircles the window. Most companies will use wire numbering schemes on their diagrams.2. and give them simple names so that they are easy to refer to. If alarm is on. It is important to develop a good list of inputs and outputs. The inputs and outputs are chosen to be. only three lead to alarm conditions. 2. The basic operation of the alarm system. As with any alarm an activate/deactivate switch is also needed. A = Alarm and lights switch (1 = on) W = Window/Door sensor (1 = OK) M = Motion Sensor (0 = OK) S = Alarm Active switch (1 = on) The basic operation of the alarm can be described with rules.262 lights will be activated to encourage the unwanted guest to leave. and a single output. Of the eight possible combinations of alarm inputs.18 Controller Requirements List for Alarm The next step is to define the controller equation.18. The motion sensor is designed so that when a person is detected the output will go on. it is your responsibility to define these items before starting the work. so a truth table is a reasonable approach to formalizing the system. This alarm be activated if an unauthorized intruder is detected by window sensor and a motion detector. If you do not do this first you are guaranteed to produce a poor design. In this case the controller has 3 different inputs. sound alarm and turn on lights Note: As the engineer. If the window is broken.19. 1. Figure 2. .

plc boolean .263 Inputs S M 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 W 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output A 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 alarm off alarm on/no thief alarm on/thief detected note the binary sequence Figure 2. There are three possible alarm conditions that can be represented by the conditions of all three inputs. it is simplified.19. For example take the last line in the truth table where when all three inputs are on the alarm should be one. After the equation has been written.2. The other two terms are developed the same way.20 is written by examining the truth table in Figure 2. This leads to the last term in the equation.19 Truth Table for the Alarm The Boolean equation in Figure 2. .

as shown in Figure 2.264 A = (S ⋅ M ⋅ W) + (S ⋅ M ⋅ W) + (S ⋅ M ⋅ W) ∴A = S ⋅ ( M ⋅ W + M ⋅ W + M ⋅ W ) ∴A = S ⋅ ( ( M ⋅ W + M ⋅ W ) + ( M ⋅ W + M ⋅ W ) ) ∴A = ( S ⋅ W ) + ( S ⋅ M ) = S ⋅ ( W + M ) W W (S*W) (S*W)+(S*M) S A M (S*M) Figure 2.20 A Boolean Equation and Implementation for the Alarm The equation and circuits shown in Figure can also be further simplified.2. .21.plc boolean .

parallaxinc. The program below is for a Basic Stamp II chip.plc boolean . goto loop ‘alarm off on: high a. . s = 2. • Boolean equations can be simplified. goto loop ‘alarm on Figure 2. m = 3.2. (www.6 Summary • Logic can be represented with Boolean equations. a = 4 input m.265 W M S W (M+W) S * (M+W) = (S*W)+(S*M) A Figure 2. • Common logic forms exist and can be used to understand logic. • Different controllers can behave the same way.com) w = 1. • Boolean equations can be converted to (and from) digital circuits.21 The Simplest Circuit and Ladder Diagram Aside: The alarm could also be implemented in programming languages.22 Alarm Implementation Using A High Level Programming Language 2. input s output a loop: if (in2 = 1) and (in1 = 0 or in3 = 1) then on low a. input w.

Y. 3. Make a simple circuit that will turn on the outputs with the binary patterns when the corresponding buttons are pushed. . Convert the following Boolean equation to the simplest possible circuit.plc boolean . a) c) A ( B + AB ) A ( B + AB ) b) d) A ( B + AB ) A ( B + AB ) 7. Simplify the following boolean equations.transmission in park (P) . 2. Draw a circuit that will cause output D to be on when push button A is on.keys in ignition (K) . X = A ⋅ (A + A ⋅ B) 6.motor running (M) . OUTPUTS INPUTS H G F E D C B A 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Input X on Input Y on Input Z on 5.doors opened/closed (D) . Also add a second output that uses any outputs not used for motor control. Draw a circuit that will cause output D to go true when switch A and switch B are closed or when switch C is closed.ignition start (I) 4. Inputs X. Design a circuit for a car that considers the variables below to control the motor M. 2.7 Problems 1. Simplify the following Boolean equations. or either B or C are on. and Z will never be on at the same time.2. .266 • Truth tables can represent all of the possible state of a system.

12. b) Simplify the equation. Given the Boolean expression a) draw a digital circuit and b) simplify the expression. c) Write the circuit for the simplified equation. a) Write a Boolean equation for the following truth table.2. Simplify the following Boolean equation and write a corresponding circuit.267 a) b) (A + B) ⋅ (A + B) ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD 8.plc boolean . For the following Boolean equation. Simplify the Boolean expression below. X = A + B ( A + CB + DAC ) + ABCD a) Write the logic circuit for the unsimplified equation. Y = ( ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD ) + D 11. (Hint: do this by writing an expres- . ((A ⋅ B) + (B + A)) ⋅ C + (B ⋅ C + B ⋅ C) 9. X = A ⋅ B ⋅ C + (C + B) 10.

c) Simplify the Boolean equation in b) 13.2. a) Develop the Boolean expression for the circuit below. b) Simplify the Boolean expression. and create the simplest circuit.) A B C D Result 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 b) Write the results in a) in a Boolean equation.268 sion for each line with a true output.plc boolean . X = ( A + B ⋅ A ) + ( C + D + EC ) 15. and then ORing them together. . Simplify the following boolean equation with Boolean algebra and write the corresponding circuit. Simplify the following Boolean equation. ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ ⎜ Y = C A + ⎜ A + ( BC ( A + BC ) )⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 14.

Use Boolean equations to develop simplified circuit for the following truth table where A. A B C B A C X 16. Simplify the following Boolean equation and implement it in a circuit.269 c) Draw a simpler circuit for the equation in b). 17. Simplify the following and implement the original and simplified equations with gates.plc boolean . . and X and Y are outputs. X = A + (B ⋅ (A + C) + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (D + E) a) Simplify the equation using Boolean Algebra. b) Implement the original and then the simplified equation with a digital circuit. B. X = A + BA + BC + D + C 19. Given a system that is described with the following equation.2. C and D are inputs. A + (B + C + D) ⋅ (B + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (C + D) 18.

2. B. Convert both the unsimplified and simplified equa- .270 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 X 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Y 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 20. The output is X and the inputs are A. and then simplify it. A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 X 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 21.plc boolean . Convert the truth table below to a Boolean equation. C and D. Simplify the following Boolean equation.

2.8 Problem Solutions 1. A B C D 2.271 tions to a circuit. X = ( ABC ) ( A + BC ) 2. I M P K D M B . ABC D 3.plc boolean .

a) ( A + B ) ⋅ ( A + B ) = ( AB ) ( AB ) = 0 b) A+B c) AB d) A+B b) ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD = BCD + ABD = B ( CD + AD ) 8.plc boolean . A X F E 6. X Y Z X H G Y X Z 5. C 9. X = B ⋅ (A ⋅ C + C) .2. a) AB 7.272 4.

a) b) c) X = A + DCB A B C D X .273 10.plc boolean . Y = ( ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD ) + D Y = ( ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD ) D Y = ( 0 + ABCD + 0 + 0 ) D Y = ABCD A B C D Y 11.2.

ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD BCD + ACD + BCD + ABD + BCD + ACD + ABC BCD + CD ( A + A ) + CD ( B + B ) + ABD + ABC BCD + D ( C + AB ) + ABC 13.plc boolean .2. ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ ⎜ Y = C A + ⎜ A + ( BC ( A + BC ) )⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ Y = C ⎜ A + ⎛ A + ( BC ( A + B + C ) )⎞ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Y = C ⎛ A + ( A + ( BCABC ) )⎞ ⎝ ⎠ Y = C ⎛ A + ( A + 0 )⎞ ⎝ ⎠ Y = C(A + (A + 1)) Y = C(A + (1)) Y = C(A + 0) Y = CA Y = C+A C A Y .274 12.

plc boolean . X = ( A + B ⋅ A ) + ( C + D + EC ) OR X = ( A + B ⋅ A ) ( C + D + EC ) X = ( A ) ( B ⋅ A ) ( C + D + EC ) X = ( A ) ( B ⋅ A ) ( C + D + EC ) X = AB ( C + D + EC ) X = AB ( C + D + E ) 15.275 14.2. CAB C A B X X = ( A + B ⋅ A ) + ( C + D + EC ) X = A + B ⋅ A + CD ( E + C ) X = A + B + CDE X = AB ( CDE ) X = AB ( C + D + E ) .

A + (B + C + D) ⋅ (B + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (C + D) A ⋅ (1 + B ⋅ (C + D)) + (B + C + D) ⋅ B + (B + C + D) ⋅ C A + (C + D) ⋅ B + C A+C⋅B+D⋅B+C A+D⋅B+C . a) X = A + (B ⋅ (A + C) + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (D + E) X = A + (B ⋅ A + B ⋅ C + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ D + A ⋅ B ⋅ E X = A ⋅ (1 + B ⋅ D + B ⋅ E) + B ⋅ A + C ⋅ (B + 1) X = A+B⋅A+C b) ABCD E X X 17.2.plc boolean .276 16.

277 A+D⋅B+C A B C D B C C D A B D B A C .2.plc boolean .

plc boolean .278 2. Write a program that implements the following Boolean expression in Scilab or C. The user should be able input values and the results should be printed.9 Challenge Problems 1.2. A + (B + C + D) ⋅ (B + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (C + D) .

279 3. • To be aware of basic error detection techniques. A list of numbering systems is give in Figure 3. giving a base 2 numbering system.1. NUMBERS AND DATA Topics: • Number bases. An example of counting in these different numbering systems is shown in Figure 3. Now consider logical systems that only have wires that can be on or off. 8. decimal. Base 2 8 10 16 Figure 3. subtraction and Boolean operations • Encoded values. 16 and 32 are commonly used. octal. 2s compliments. BCD and ASCII • Error detection. gray code and checksums Objectives: • To be familiar with binary. parity.1 Introduction Base 10 (decimal) numbers developed naturally because the original developers (probably) had ten fingers. hexadecimal • Binary calculations. 3.3.2. or 10 digits. • To understand 2s compliment negative numbers. addition.1 Name Binary Octal Decimal Hexadecimal Data Unit Bit Nibble Digit Byte Numbering Systems . • To be able to convert between different numbering systems. binary.plc numbers . octal and hexadecimal numbering systems. • To be able to convert ASCII and BCD values. When counting with a wire the only digits are 0 and 1. Numbering systems for computers are often based on base 2 numbers. but base 4.

The least significant digit is 1. 3. and is . These will include the basic number systems. This chapter will cover basic topics that are needed to use more complex programming instructions later in the book. If two or more wires are used then each new wire adds another significant digit.plc numbers .2 Numerical Values 3. If the voltage on the wire is true the bit value is 1. and some data oriented topics. Consider the digits.2. conversion between different number bases. The basic rules of mathematics still apply. only how it is written. but many beginners will feel disoriented. starting at the right. Binary.2 Numbers in Decimal. If the voltage is off the bit value is 0.3.1 Binary Binary numbers are the most fundamental numbering system in all computers. A single binary digit (a bit) corresponds to the condition of a single wire. Figure 3. Each binary number will have an equivalent digital value.3 shows how to convert a binary number to a decimal equivalent. least significant digits are at right.280 decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 binary 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 10000 10001 10010 10011 10100 octal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 23 24 hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f 10 11 12 13 14 Note: As with all numbering systems most significant digits are at left. Figure 3. Octal and Hexadecimal The effect of changing the base of a number does not change the actual value.

plc numbers . and multiplied by the digit. with a value of 1 in the 6th position. 26 = 64 25 = 32 24 = 16 23 = 8 22 = 4 21 = 2 20 = 1 1110001 1(26) = 1(25) = 1(24) = 0(23) = 0(22) = 0(21) = 1(20) = 64 32 16 0 0 0 1 113 Figure 3. This technique begins by dividing the decimal number by the base of the new number.3 Conversion of a Binary Number to a Decimal Number Decimal numbers can be converted to binary numbers using division.281 in the 0th position. as shown in Figure 3. This process continues until the whole number is zero. The fraction after the decimal gives the least significant digit of the new number when it is multiplied by the number base. To convert this to a decimal equivalent the number base (2) is raised to the position of the digit.4. The whole part of the number is now divided again. Consider the most significant digit. This method will also work for conversion to other number bases. In this case the least significant digit is a trivial conversion. This is converted by the number base to the exponent 6 and multiplying by the digit value of 1. This method can also be used for converting the other number system to decimal. .3.

= 3.5) = 1 2(0.0) = 0 2(0.a bit.5) = 1 multiply places after decimal by division base. a byte and a word.0 2 233 -------.0) = 0 2(0.282 start with decimal number 932 932 -------. a byte is eight binary digits.0 2 7 -.= 116. Figure 3.= 29.0) = 0 2(0. when used frequently enough the conversions can be done in your head.= 0.= 466.5 2 3 -. in this case it is 2 because of the binary. and a word is 16 digits.= 58.3.= 7. it is important to understand the conversions between number bases.0) = 0 2(0.5) = 1 2(0.0) = 0 2(0.5) = 1 2(0. And.5 2 116 -------. Binary numbers come in three basic forms . the divisor and multipliers should be changed to the new number bases. 1110100100 for binary (base 2) * This method works for other number bases also.5) = 1 2(0. A bit is a single binary digit.0 2 58 ----.= 233.0 2 466 -------.plc numbers .= 14. Words and bytes are . But.4 Conversion from Decimal to Binary Most scientific calculators will convert between number bases.5 2 done 2(0.5 2 1 -.5 2 14 ----.0 2 29 ----.= 1.

The conversion to and from binary is identical to the previous techniques. as shown in Figure 3. and the right hand one is the least significant byte.1.2.5 Bytes and Words Binary numbers can also represent fractions.plc numbers .283 shown in Figure 3.6. in the word there are two bytes.Boolean Operations In the next chapter you will learn that entire blocks of inputs and outputs can be used as a single binary number (typically a word).375 decimal = 4 + 0 + 1 + 0 + -4 8 Figure 3.3.1 . Notice that on both numbers the least significant digit is on the right hand side of the numbers. except that for values to the right of the decimal the equivalents are fractions.7. binary: 101. BYTE MSB LSB MSB WORD LSB 0110 1011 0110 1011 0100 0010 most significant byte least significant byte Figure 3.011 1(2 ) = 4 2 0(2 ) = 0 1 1(2 ) = 1 0 0( 2 ) = 0 –1 1 –2 1 ( 2 ) = -4 1 –3 1 ( 2 ) = -8 1 -+1 -. Each bit of the number would correspond to an output or input as shown in Figure 3.5. .= 5. And.6 A Binary Decimal Number 3.

When any bit is on the corresponding motor is on. but it is the same for multiple bits. but the maximum positive values is reduced by half. 100 = Motor 1 is the only one on 111 = All three motors are on in total there are 2n or 23 possible combinations of motors on. .3. Boolean algebra has been discussed before for variables with single values. Name AND OR NOT EOR NAND shift left shift right etc. All three types of numbers will be found in PLCs. Both signed and 2s compliment numbers allow positive and negative values.284 There are three motors M1. Figure 3.8 Example 0010 * 1010 0010 + 1010 0010 0010 eor 1010 0010 * 1010 111000 111000 Result 0010 1010 1101 1000 1101 110001 (other results are possible) 011100 (other results are possible) Boolean Operations on Binary Numbers 3.Binary Mathematics Negative numbers are a particular problem with binary numbers. but they can only be used for positive values.plc numbers . 2s compliment numbers are very popular because the hardware and software to add and subtract is simpler and faster. Common operations that use multiple bits in numbers are shown in Figure 3. except the shift instructions that move all the bits one place left or right. Figure 3.2 .2. As a result there are three common numbering systems used as shown in Figure 3.1.8. These operations compare only one bit at a time in the number. Unsigned binary numbers are common.7 Motor Outputs Represented with a Binary Number We can then manipulate the inputs or outputs using Boolean operations.9. M2 and M3 represented with three bits in a binary number.

If the number is to be negative.11.10 Signed Binary Numbers An example of 2s compliment numbers are shown in Figure 3.3. Figure 3. These numbers use the most significant bit to indicate when a number is negative. we start the positive number. then the most significant bit is set. it will be a regular binary number. negative numbers are represented by complimenting -128 to 127 the binary number and then adding 1.9 Binary (Integer) Number Types Examples of signed binary numbers are shown in Figure 3. . then add 1. if the number is positive. Basically when these numbers are negative.285 Type unsigned signed 2s compliment Description binary numbers can only have positive values. Range for Byte 0 to 255 the most significant bit (MSB) of the binary number -127 to 127 is used to indicate positive/negative. and then invert the number. subtract 1. decimal 2 1 0 -0 -1 -2 binary byte 00000010 00000001 00000000 10000000 10000001 10000010 Note: there are two zeros Figure 3.10.plc numbers . To convert from a negative 2s compliment number. Basically. compliment it (reverse all the bits).

The three operations result in zero. If the calculation started with a positive and negative value.12 shows the addition of numbers using 2s compliment numbers. . If doing the calculation on a calculator you will see the carry bit. And. we apply the twos compliment to the value to be subtracted. this is important for considering the results of the calculations. we don’t need to pay special attention to negative values.plc numbers .when dealing with 8 bit numbers we call this bit the carry C.286 decimal 2 1 0 -1 -2 binary byte 00000010 00000001 00000000 11111111 11111110 METHOD FOR MAKING A NEGATIVE NUMBER 1. When adding 2s compliment numbers. there is no problem. As a result most of the integer operations in a PLC will do addition and subtraction using 2s compliment numbers. write the binary number for the positive for -30 we write 30 = 00011110 2.3.11 2s Compliment Numbers Using 2s compliments for negative numbers eliminates the redundant zeros of signed binaries. and then apply it to the other value. Invert (compliment) the number 00011110 becomes 11100001 3. positive and negative values. and ended up with a carry bit. Figure 3. if we want to subtract one number from another. and makes the hardware and software easier to implement. Notice that in all three operation the top number is positive. and the carry bit should be ignored. Add 1 11100001 + 00000001 = 11100010 Figure 3. In the left and right hand calculations the additions result in a 9th bit . but when using a PLC you must look elsewhere to find it. while the bottom operation is negative (this is easy to see because the MSB of the numbers is set). All three of the additions are using bytes.

(Note: an overflow condition is a major error. or the other way. When this happens the result goes from positive to negative. and the PLC will probably halt when this happens. This can be seen in Figure 3. and the Overflow O bit will be set.3. . 01111111 = 127 + 00000011 = 3 10000010 = -126 C=0 O = 1 (error) 10000001 = -127 + 11111111 = -1 10000000 = -128 C=1 O = 0 (no error) 10000001 = -127 + 11111110 = -2 01111111 = 127 C=1 O = 1 (error) Note: If an overflow bit is set this indicates that a calculation is outside and acceptable range.767.13 Carry and Overflow Bits These bits also apply to multiplication and division operations.13 where the numbers two of the three calculations are outside the range. Here the 2s compliment byte can have values from -128 to 127. When the signs of the numbers are opposite an overflow cannot occur. In some cases calculations will give results outside this range.plc numbers . Figure 3. but some additional logic is required to make sure that the number has not overflowed and moved outside of the range of the numbers. Figure 3.768 to 32. but the sign of the result is opposite.287 00000001 = 1 + 11111111 = -1 C+00000000 = 0 ignore the carry bits 00000001 = 1 + 11111110 = -2 11111111 = -1 00000010 = 2 + 11111111 = -1 C+00000001 = 1 Note: Normally the carry bit is ignored during the operation. In addition the PLC will also have bits to indicate when the result of an operation is zero Z and negative N. Do not ignore the limitations of the numbers.) For an addition operation the Overflow bit will be set when the sign of both numbers is the same.12 Adding 2s Compliment Numbers The integers have limited value ranges. When this error occurs the PLC will halt. for example a 16 bit word ranges from 32.

15.15 16(0. 163 = 4096 162 = 256 161 = 16 160 = 1 f8a3 15(163) = 61440 8(162) = 2048 10(161) = 160 0 3(16 ) = 3 63651 Figure 3. inputs and outputs are in counts of eight.= 1.plc numbers .75) = 12 ’c’ 16(0. Hexadecimal numbers are popular for representing binary values because they are quite compact compared to binary.2 Other Base Number Systems Other number bases are typically converted to and from binary for storage and mathematical operations.14 and Figure 3. and the same techniques extend to octal numbers also.375 16 1----= 0.) Octal numbers are also popular for inputs and outputs because they work in counts of eight.3125 16 22 ----.375) = 6 16(0. Note that both of these conversions are identical to the methods used for binary numbers. An example of conversion to.0625) = 1 165c Conversion from Decimal to Hexadecimal . and from.75 16 357 -------.288 3.3125) = 5 16(0.= 357.14 Conversion of a Hexadecimal Number to a Decimal Number 5724 ----------.0625 16 Figure 3.3.2. (Note: large binary numbers with a long string of 1s and 0s are next to impossible to read.= 22. hexadecimal is shown in Figure 3.

An example of a BCD number is shown in Figure 3.1 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) When dealing with non-numerical values or data we can use plain text characters and strings.plc numbers . Each one is given a unique number. Note that the most significant digit and bits are both on the left hand side. 1263 0001 0010 0110 0011 decimal BCD Note: this example shows four digits in two bytes.16. Try to be aware when your numbers are BCD values and convert them to integer or binary value before doing any calculations. The table includes the basic written characters.2. whereas in binary it could hold from 0 to 255.3 Data Characterization 3. The hex values would also be 1263. Figure 3. Consider the letter A. . therefore 16 bits are required. and when necessary most PLCs have functions to do the calculations. In the example there are four digits. allowing values between 0000 and 9999. Each character is given a unique identifier and we can use these to store and interpret data. as well as some special characters. The ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a very common character encryption system is shown in Figure 3. 3.289 3. when doing calculations you should probably avoid BCD and use integer mathematics instead. it is readily recognized by most computers world-wide when they see the number 65.) This means that one byte can hold two digits from 00 to 99. It is also possible to calculations with BCD numbers. This method is very popular when numbers are to be output or input to the computer. and some control codes. They also provide functions to convert to and from BCD. The BCD number is the binary equivalent of each digit. A separate bit must be assigned for negative numbers.17 and Figure 3. (Note: this is not a base number system.3 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) numbers use four binary bits (a nibble) for each digit. but it only represents decimal digits. But. but this is uncommon.3.16 A BCD Encoded Number Most PLCs store BCD numbers in words.3.18.

290 hexadecimal hexadecimal decimal decimal ASCII 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 00000101 00000110 00000111 00001000 00001001 00001010 00001011 00001100 00001101 00001110 00001111 00010000 00010001 00010010 00010011 00010100 00010101 00010110 00010111 00011000 00011001 00011010 00011011 00011100 00011101 00011110 00011111 NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR S0 S1 DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F 00100000 00100001 00100010 00100011 00100100 00100101 00100110 00100111 00101000 00101001 00101010 00101011 00101100 00101101 00101110 00101111 00110000 00110001 00110010 00110011 00110100 00110101 00110110 00110111 00111000 00111001 00111010 00111011 00111100 00111101 00111110 00111111 space ! “ # \$ % & ‘ ( ) * + .plc numbers . < = > ? Figure 3.3.17 ASCII Character Table ASCII binary binary . . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : .

It is best to use the basic codes. but there are more extensive tables that contain special graphics symbols. Figure 3.291 hexadecimal hexadecimal decimal decimal ASCII 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 01000000 01000001 01000010 01000011 01000100 01000101 01000110 01000111 01001000 01001001 01001010 01001011 01001100 01001101 01001110 01001111 01010000 01010001 01010010 01010011 01010100 01010101 01010110 01010111 01011000 01011001 01011010 01011011 01011100 01011101 01011110 01011111 @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ yen ] ^ _ 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6A 6B 6C 6D 6E 6F 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E 7F 01100000 01100001 01100010 01100011 01100100 01100101 01100110 01100111 01101000 01101001 01101010 01101011 01101100 01101101 01101110 01101111 01110000 01110001 01110010 01110011 01110100 01110101 01110110 01110111 01111000 01111001 01111010 01111011 01111100 01111101 01111110 01111111 ‘ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } r arr. and should suffice for all controls tasks. as they are supported widely. etc.3. international characters. ASCII binary binary .plc numbers .18 ASCII Character Table This table has the codes from 0 to 127. l arr.

292 An example of a string of characters encoded in ASCII is shown in Figure 3.19. This is very important when transmitting data in noisy factories. over phone lines. The sequence of numbers below will convert to A W e A space W e e space T e s t e 65 32 87 101 101 32 84 101 115 116 T e s t Figure 3. The odd parity bit is true if there are an odd number of bits on in a binary number. 3. etc.20. e. or ignored.3. Parity bits can be added to data as a simple check of transmitted data for errors. When the data is encoded the number of true bits are counted.3.2 Parity Errors often occur when data is transmitted or stored. A parity bit is normally a 9th bit added onto an 8 bit byte. The parity bit is then set to indicate if there are an even or odd number of true bits. When stored in a computer an ASCII value of zero is used to end the string. If the data contains error it can be retransmitted. . These are both based upon an even or odd number of data bits being true. then the byte is judged to be in error. When the byte is decoded the parity bit is checked to make sure it that there are an even or odd number of data bits true.g. even or odd. This is illustrated in Figure 3. On the other hand the Even parity is set if there are an even number of true bits.plc numbers .19 A String of Characters Encoded in ASCII When the characters are organized into a string to be transmitted and LF and/or CR code are often put at the end to indicate the end of a line. There are two types of parity. If the parity bit is not satisfied.

At the receiving end the data values are summed again. When error detection occurs the system should either be robust enough to recover from the error. If they match the data is accepted as good. but checksums are better for larger data transmissions. As a result error detection methods are very important for control system. If an error occurs there could be serious consequences. . and the total is compared to the checksum. This sum is then transmitted with the data.3. Before data is transmitted the numeric values of all of the bytes are added. or the system should fail-safe.20 Parity Bits on a Byte Parity bits are normally suitable for single bytes. 3.21.plc numbers .293 data bits Odd Parity Even Parity 10101110 10111000 00101010 10111101 parity bit 1 0 0 1 Figure 3.3. An example of this method is shown in Figure 3. These are simply an algebraic sum of all of the data transmitted.3 Checksums Parity bits are suitable for a few bits of data. If you ignore these design concepts you will eventually cause an accident. but are not reliable for data with a number of bits. Note: Control systems perform important tasks that can be dangerous in certain circumstances.

only one bit changes at a time.22. Consider an oven temperature transmitted as a binary integer (1023d = 0000 0100 0000 0000b). This signal is often too small to be noticed. Thus making it easier to detect erroneous bit changes. This phenomenon is known as cross-talk. . An example of a gray code sequence is shown in Figure 3. it induces a magnetic pulse that excites a signal in other nearby lines. and was not detected the temperature might become (0000 0110 0000 0000b = 1535d) This small change would dramatically change the process. but several simultaneous changes.21 A Checksum Checksums are very common in data transmission. Gray code is used for checking data that must follow a binary sequence. Notice that only one bit changes from one number to the next.3.plc numbers . then an error can be detected. The concept is that as the binary number counts up or down. coupled with background noise could result in erroneous values.4 Gray Code Parity bits and checksums are for checking data that may have any value. This is common for devices such as angular encoders. If more than a single bit changes between numbers. but these are also hidden from the average user.3.294 DATA 124 43 255 9 27 47 505 CHECKSUM Figure 3. If you plan to transmit data to or from a PLC you will need to consider parity and checksum values to verify the data. Small errors in data can have major consequences in received data. If a single bit were to be changed. 3. ASIDE: When the signal level in a wire rises or drops.

What are the specific purpose for Gray code and parity? 4.5 Problems 1. • 2s compliments allow negative binary numbers.3. • BCD numbers encode digits in nibbles.22 Gray Code for a Nibble 3. • ASCII values are numerical equivalents for common alphanumeric characters.4 Summary • Binary. Convert the following numbers to/from binary . • Gray code. decimal and hexadecimal numbers were all discussed. Why are binary. 3.plc numbers . octal. Is a word is 3 nibbles? 3. parity bits and checksums can be used for error detection. octal and hexadecimal used for computer applications? 2.295 decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 gray code 0000 0001 0011 0010 0110 0111 0101 0100 1100 1101 1111 1110 1010 1011 1001 1000 Figure 3.

Convert the decimal value below to a binary byte. Convert the following binary number to a Hexadecimal value. hexadecimal. a) b) 101101 11011011 c) d) 10000000001 0010110110101 .3. 0110 0010 0111 1001 6. 0100 1011 7. 0100 1011 9.296 a) from base 10: 54. and then determine the odd parity bit. 97 10. Convert the following binary number to a BCD number.321 b) from base 2: 110000101101 5.plc numbers . BCD and octal. Convert the following from binary to decimal. 0100 1011 8. Convert the BCD number below to a decimal number. Convert the following binary number to a octal.

Both of these are coding schemes designed to increase immunity to noise. 4. 4.01011111 b) 00111011 + 00000011 c) 11011011 + 11011111 18. Do the following operations with 8 bit bytes. and then to hexadecimal. 2. b) Convert the decimal values to binary. Convert the decimal number 1000 to a binary number. 1001 0110 0101 0001 0010 0100 0011 1000 0100 0011 0101 0001 a) Convert these numbers to their decimal values. Explain where grey code occurs when creating Karnaugh maps.298 17. base 2. it is four nibbles 3.plc numbers . 21. 8. d) What would the even parity bits be for the binary words found in b). 113 .11101110 3. A parity bit can be used to check for a changed bit in a byte. 0111 0101 7. Consider the three BCD numbers listed below. Gray code can be used to check for a value error in a stream of continuous values. b) 3117 5. and indicate the condition of the overflow and carry bits.3. a) 10111011 + 00000011 d) 110110111 . no. c) Calculate a checksum for all three binary numbers. and 16 numbers translate more naturally to the numbers stored in the computer. a) 1101 0100 0011 0001. e) 01101011 + 01111011 f) 10110110 . 4B 8.6 Problems Solutions 1. 19. Is the 2nd bit set in the hexadecimal value F49? 20. 6279 6.

decimal BCD binary hex octal 12. hex BCD binary decimal octal 13.299 9.3.plc numbers . binary BCD decimal hex octal 11. BCD binary decimal hex octal 1001 1001 9 9 11 1001 0011 101 1101 93 5D 135 0011 0110 0001 1 0110 1001 361 169 551 0000 0101 0111 0100 10 0011 1110 0574 23E 1076 1 0001 1 1 1 17 0010 0011 10111 23 27 ABC 0010 0111 0100 1000 0000 1010 1011 1100 2748 5274 -A -0001 0000 1111 1111 1111 0110 -10 177766 1 0001 1 1 1 17 0001 0111 10001 11 21 20456 0010 0000 0100 0101 0110 0100 1111 1110 1000 4FE8 47750 -10 -0001 0000 1111 1111 1111 0110 FFF6 177766 101101 0100 0101 45 2D 55 11011011 0010 0001 1001 219 5D 333 10000000001 0001 0000 0010 0101 1025 401 2001 0010110110101 0001 0100 0110 0001 1461 5B5 2665 . 1100001 odd parity bit = 1 10.

300 14. The binary value is 1111 0100 1001. 0000 1001 1000 0110. octal binary decimal hex BCD 7 111 7 7 0111 17 1111 15 F 0001 0101 777 1 1111 1111 511 1FF 0101 0001 0001 32634 0011 0101 1001 1100 13724 359C 0001 0011 0111 0010 0100 15.3. only one bit is changed at a time. . a) 0001 0110 1110 1000 b) BBD c) 1122 d) 0000 0001 1000 1000 e) 999 f) 654 g) 1111 1110 0111 1000 h) -999 17. so the second bit is 0 20. b0 the number is not a valid BCD 16.01011111=0101 1000+C+O e) 01101011 + 01111011=1110 0110 f) 10110110 . b) 0010 0101 1011 0011. 4351. This is the same method used for grey code number sequences. when selecting the sequence of bit changes for Karnaugh maps. 0. c) 16440. a) 10111011 + 00000011=1011 1110 b) 00111011 + 00000011=0011 1110 c) 11011011 + 11011111=1011 1010+C+O i) -654 j) 0000 0001 0111 1010 k) 0000 0000 0011 1110 l) 0001 1101 1111 0001 m) 122655 n) 6 o) 0000 0000 0001 0001 p) 9 d) 110110111 . 2438. 0001 0000 1111 1111. 0 19.11101110=1100 1000 18.plc numbers . a) 9651. a) 3532 = 0011 0101 0011 0010 = DCC. d) 1. By using the code the bits in the map are naturally grouped.

7 Challenge Problems 1.3.plc numbers . . 1000 10 = 1111101000 2 = 3 e 8 16 3.301 21.

the Laplace transform is much more useful in system analysis.1 Laplace Transforms • The Laplace transform allows us to reverse time. And. Topics: • Objectives: • 4. • The basic Laplace transform equations is shown below. F(s) = where. Andrew Sterian.page 302 4. f ( t ) = the function in terms of time t F ( s ) = the function in terms of the Laplace s ∫0 f ( t ) e ∞ – st dt . TRANSFORMS ***** This contains additions and sections by Dr. Because we are normally concerned with response. as you recall from before the inverse of time is frequency.

FREQUENCY DOMAIN Kf ( s ) f1 ( s ) + f2 ( s ) –f3 ( s ) + … sf ( s ) – f ( 0 ) df ( 0 ) 2 – s f ( s ) – sf ( 0 ) – ----------------dt s f(s) – s f (s) -------s e – as n n–1 – – TIME DOMAIN Kf ( t ) f1 ( t ) + f2 ( t ) –f3 ( t ) + … df (t) ----------dt d f(t) ------------2 dt d f(t) ------------n dt n 2 f(0 ) – s – n – 2 df ( 0 ) d f(0 ) ----------------– … – ------------------n dt dt – n – ∫0 f ( t ) dt f ( t – a ) u ( t – a ). .1 Laplace Transform Tables • Basic Laplace Transforms for operational transformations are given below. a > 0 tf ( t ) t f(t) f (t) ------t n ∫ f ( u ) du s • A set of useful functional Laplace transforms are given below.page 303 4.1.f ⎛ --⎞ a ⎝ a⎠ – df ( s ) --------------ds f(s) ( – 1 ) -------------n ds nd ∞ n f ( at ). a > 0 e – at t f(s) f(t) f(s – a) 1 s -.

.page 304 TIME DOMAIN FREQUENCY DOMAIN A -s 1 ---2 s 1---------s+a ω ----------------2 2 s +ω s ----------------s +ω 2 2 A t e – at sin ( ω t ) cos ( ω t ) te e e – at – at sin ( ω t ) cos ( ω t ) 1 -----------------2 (s + a) ω ------------------------------(s + a) + ω s+a ------------------------------(s + a) + ω 2 2 2 – at 2 Ae – at A---------s–a A ----------------2 (s – a) cos ( β t + θ ) A A ----------------------+ ------------------------------------s + α + βj s + α – βj complex conjugate Ate – at 2Ae –α t 2t A e –α t cos ( β t + θ ) A ------------------------------+A ------------------------------------2 2 (s + α – βj) (s + α + βj) complex conjugate • Laplace transforms can be used to solve differential equations.

2 z-Transforms ∞ • For a discrete-time signal x [ n ] . In both cases. the z-transform is • The inverse z-transform is obtained by contour integration in the complex plane 1n–1 x [ n ] = ------X(z)z dz . These are the values of z for which X ( z ) is bounded (i. ∫ ° j2π similar to the Laplace transform. of finite magnitude).e. the two-sided z-transform is defined by X ( z ) = ∞ –n ∑ n = –∞ x[n]z . –n The one-sided z-transform is defined by X ( z ) = a polynomial in the complex variable z . This is usually avoided by partial fraction inversion techniques. • Along with a z-transform we associate its region of convergence (or ROC). . ∑ x[ n]z n=0 .page 305 4..

page 306 • Some common z-transforms are shown below. Table 1: Common z-transforms Signal x[ n] δ[n] u[n] z-Transform X(z) 1 1 --------------–1 1–z z ---------------------–1 2 (1 – z ) z (1 + z ) ---------------------------–1 3 (1 – z ) 1 -----------------–1 1 – az az -------------------------–1 2 ( 1 – az ) 1 -----------------–1 1 – az az -------------------------–1 2 ( 1 – az ) 1 – z cos ω 0 -----------------------------------------------–1 –2 1 – 2 z cos ω 0 + z z sin ω 0 -----------------------------------------------–1 –2 1 – 2 z cos ω 0 + z 1 – az cos ω 0 --------------------------------------------------------–1 2 –2 1 – 2 az cos ω 0 + a z –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 ROC All z z >1 nu [ n ] z >1 n u[n] 2 z >1 a u[n] n z > a na u [ n ] n z > a ( –a ) u [ – n – 1 ] n z < a ( – na ) u [ – n – 1 ] n z < a cos ( ω 0 n ) u [ n ] z >1 sin ( ω 0 n ) u [ n ] z >1 a cos ( ω 0 n ) u [ n ] n z > a .

page 307 Table 1: Common z-transforms Signal x[ n] a sin ( ω 0 n ) u [ n ] n! ---------------------u[n] k! ( n – k )! n z-Transform X(z) az sin ω 0 --------------------------------------------------------–1 2 –2 1 – 2 az cos ω 0 + a z z ----------------------------–1 k + 1 (1 – z ) –k –1 ROC z > a z >1 • The z-transform also has various properties that are useful. except z = 0 if k > 0 and z = ∞ if k < 0 a r2 < z < a r1 1 1 ---< z < ---r1 r2 r2 < z < r1 z-Domain Scaling Time Reversal z-Domain Differentiation a x[n] x [ –n ] nx [ n ] n X(a z) X(z ) dX ( z ) – z ------------dz –1 –1 . The one-sided z-transform properties can be derived from the ones below by considering the signal x [ n ] u [ n ] instead of simply x [ n ] . Table 2: Two-sided z-Transform Properties Property Notation Time Domain x[ n] x1 [ n ] x2 [ n ] Linearity α x1 [ n ] + β x2 [ n ] X(z) X1 ( z ) X2 ( z ) α X1 ( z ) + β X2 ( z ) z-Domain ROC r2 < z < r1 ROC 1 ROC 2 At least the intersection of ROC 1 and ROC 2 Time Shifting x[ n – k] z X(z) –k That of X ( z ) . The table below lists properties for the two-sided z-transform.

∫ f ( x ) sin ⎛ n --------⎞ dx b n = -⎝ L –L L ⎠ 4.3 Fourier Series • These series describe functions by their frequency spectrum content. Find y(t). a0 -+ f ( x ) = ---2 ∞ ∑ n=1 nπx πx -⎞ + b n sin ⎛ n --------⎞ a n cos ⎛ -------⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ L 1 πx .4 Problems 8a. • The basic definition of the Fourier series is given below.∫ f ( x ) cos ⎛ n --------⎞ dx a n = -⎝ L –L L ⎠ L 1 πx . y (s) s + 4s --------= ------------------------2 x(s) s + 6s + 9 2 x(t) = 5 . For example a square wave can be approximated with a sum of a series of sine waves with varying magnitudes.page 308 Table 2: Two-sided z-Transform Properties Property Convolution Time Domain x1 [ n ] * x2 [ n ] z-Domain X1 ( z ) X2 ( z ) ROC At least the intersection of ROC 1 and ROC 2 Multiplication x1 [ n ] x2 [ n ] x [ n ] causal z 1-⎞ v – 1 dv ------X1 ( v ) X2 ⎛ ∫ ⎝ v⎠ j 2 π° x [ 0 ] = lim X ( z ) z→∞ At least r1l r2l < z < r1u r2u Initial value theorem 4.

page 309 4.5 Challenge Problems .

The sum of applied torques is equal to the inertia forces shown in Figure 1. in rotation.1 Introduction 5.1. GEOMETRY Topics: • Objectives: • 5.page 310 5.23. .1 Inertia When unbalanced torques are applied to a mass it will begin to accelerate.

page 311 θ. ω. α ∑T = JM α (6) (7) (8) (9) J T J M = I xx + I yy 2 I xx = ∫ y dM 2 I yy = ∫ x dM Note: The ’mass’ moment of inertia will be used when dealing with acceleration of a mass. When dealing with rotational acceleration it is important to use the mass moment of inertia. other than the centroid. 2 J M = J˜ M + Mr where.24 Parallel axis theorem for shifting a mass moment of inertia . If the object is constrained to rotate about some point. Later we will use the ’area’ moment of inertia for torsional springs. Figure 1. not the area moment of inertia. The center of rotation for free body rotation will be the centroid. as shown in Figure 1. or found in tables.24. This can be calculated using integration. The parallel axis theorem provides the method to shift a moment of inertia from a centroid to an arbitrary center of rotation.23 Summing moments and angular inertia The mass moment of inertia determines the resistance to acceleration. J M = mass moment about the new point ˜ = mass moment about the center of mass JM M = mass of the object r = distance from the centroid to the new point Figure 1. Moment of inertia values are typically calculated about the centroid. the moment of inertia value must be recalculated.

If the gravity varies over the length of the (very long) object then the center of gravity should be used.26. The integrals for the moments about the x and y axes. An example of calculating a mass moment of inertia is shown in Figure 1. J A = area moment about the new point J˜ A = area moment about the centroid A = mass of the object r = distance from the centroid to the new point Figure 1. In this problem the density of the material is calculated for use in the integrals. This is then shifted from the centroid to the new axis using the parallel axis theorem. . are then added to give the polar moment of inertia. the area and volume centroids can be used as the center.page 312 2 J A = J˜A + Ar where. If the object is made of different materials then the center of mass should be used for the center. The integrals are then developed using slices for the integration element dM. If the object is made of a homogeneous material.25 Parallel axis theorem for shifting a area moment of inertia Aside: If forces do not pass through the center of an object. it will rotate.

33 Kgm + 83.33 Kgm 2 ∴ = 1. 10 Kg –2 ρ = ------------------------------= 0.33 Kgm ⎝ 3 – 3 ⎠ J M = I xx + I yy = 53.25 Kgm ⎛ -------------⎝ 3 3 ⎠ I yy = ∫– 5 x 2 dM = ∫– 5 x 3 2 ρ 2 ( 4 m ) dx = 1 Kgm ---3 3 –1 x 3 5 –5 – 5 m ) -⎞ –1 ( 5 m ) 2 -------------.= 53.67 Kgm 2 2 2 The centroid can now be shifted to the center of rotation using the parallel axis theorem.25 Kgm ---3 3 3 –1 y 3 4 –4 ( –4 m ) ⎞ –1 ( 4 m ) .page 313 The rectangular shape to the right is constrained to rotate about point A.33 Kgm = 136. The given dimensions are in meters.67 Kgm + ( 10 Kg ) ( ( – 2. 2 2 2 2 2 J M = J˜ M + Mr = 136. Find the mass moment of inertia.( ----------------∴ = 1 Kgm ⎛ = 83. The total mass of the object is 10kg.5 m ) + ( – 1 m ) ) = 209.5 -1 -4 5 ∫– 4 y 5 4 2 dM = ∫– 4 y 5 4 2 ρ 2 ( 5 m ) dy = 1.– ----------------.2 Kgm Figure 1.26 Mass moment of inertia example .125 Kgm 2( 5m)2( 4m) I xx = 4 -5 -2. First find the density and calculate the moments of inertia about the centroid.

8 Kgm 2 J M = 209.page 314 The rectangular shape to the right is constrained to rotate about point A.33 Kgm 2 I My = 145. Find the mass moment of inertia WITHOUT using the parallel axis theorem. The given dimensions are in meters. I Mx = 66.5 -1 -4 5 ans.2 Kgm 2 Figure 1.27 Drill problem: Mass moment of inertia calculation . The total mass of the object is 10kg. -5 4 -2.

5 rad rad ω ( 5 s ) = 125 -------s Figure 1. what will the angular velocity be? ans.page 315 The 20cm diameter 10 kg cylinder to the left is sitting in a depression that is effectively frictionless.28 Drill problem: Find the velocity of the rotating shaft • A set of the basic 2D and 3D geometric primitives are given. . θ ( 5 s ) = 312. If a torque of 10 Nm is applied for 5 seconds. and the notation used is described below.

I z = moment of inertia of area (or second moment of inertia) AREA PROPERTIES: Ix = Iy = I xy = JO = A ∫y ∫x A 2 dA = the moment of inertia about the y-axis 2 dA = the moment of inertia about the x-axis A ∫ xy dA A = the product of inertia ∫r 2 dA = A ∫ (x 2 + y ) dA = I x + I y = The polar moment of inertia 2 A . y.page 316 A = contained area P = perimeter distance V = contained volume S = surface area x. y.= centroid location along the x-axis x = -----------∫ dA A ∫ x dA A . I y. z = centroid I x.= centroid location along the y-axis y = -----------∫ dA A ∫ y dA . z = center of mass x.

( a 2 + b 2 – ab ) I y = ----36 I xy bh = -------.( 2 a – b ) 72 2 3 Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): bh I x = -------12 bh .( a 2 + b 2 – ab ) I y = ----12 I xy bh = -------.( 2 a – b ) 24 2 3 .page 317 Rectangle/Square: A = ab P = 2a + 2b y a x b Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): ba I x = -------3 b a I y = -------3 b aI xy = ---------4 y 2 2 3 3 Centroid: b x = -2 a y = -2 Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): ba I x = -------12 b a I y = -------12 I xy = 0 3 3 Triangle: bh A = ----2 P = a θ h x b Centroid: a+b x = ----------3 h y = -3 Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): bh I x = -------36 bh .

page 318 Circle: A = πr 2 y r P = 2πr x Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): (about origin axes): 4 πr I x = ------Ix = 4 πr I y = ------4 I xy = 0 4 Centroid: x = r y = r Iy = I xy = Half Circle: πr A = ------2 P = πr + 2r 2 y r x Centroid: x = r 4r y = ----3π Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): π 8-⎞ 4 .– ----r I x = ⎛ -⎝ 8 9 π⎠ πr I y = ------8 I xy = 0 4 Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): πr I x = ------8 πr I y = ------8 I xy = 0 4 4 .

( θ + sin θ ) 8 I xy = 0 4 4 .( θ – sin θ ) 8 r I y = ---.05488 r I y = 0.05488 r 4 Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): 4 πr I x = ------16 πr I y = ------16 4 4 I xy = – 0.01647 r 4 I xy r = ---8 4 Circular Arc: θr A = ------2 P = θr + 2r 2 y r x θ Centroid: 2 r sin θ -2 x = ---------------3θ y = 0 Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): Ix = Iy = I xy = Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): r I x = ---.page 319 Quarter Circle: πr A = ------4 π r P = ----.+ 2 r 2 2 y r x Centroid: 4r x = ----3π 4r y = ----3π Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): I x = 0.

01647 r 1 r 2 2 2 3 3 Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): π r2 r1 I x = -----------16 3 π r2 r1 I y = -----------16 2 2 r1 r2 I xy = --------8 3 .( sin θ ) 2 d θ + 2 r 2 1 – ------------------a 2 2 r1 2 r2 r1 r2 x r1 + r2 P ≈ π --------------.05488 r 2 r 1 I y = 0.+ 2 r2 2 Centroid: x = r2 4 r1 y = ------3π Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): I x = 0.page 320 Ellipse: A = π r1 r2 P = 4 r1 ∫ π -2 0 y r1 r2 r1 + r2 .05488 r 2 r 1 I xy = – 0.( sin θ ) 2 d θ 1 – ------------------a 2 2 2 x r1 + r2 P ≈ 2 π --------------2 Centroid: x = r2 y = r1 Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): (about origin axes): π r1 r2 I x = -----------4 3 π r1 r2 I y = -----------4 I xy = 3 2 Ix = Iy = I xy = Half Ellipse: π r1 r2 A = -----------2 P = 2 r1 ∫ 2 π -2 0 y + .

( sin θ ) 2 d θ + 2 r 2 1 – ------------------a 2 2 2 r1 r2 x r1 + r2 π .page 321 Quarter Ellipse: π r1 r2 A = -----------4 P = r1 ∫ 2 π -2 0 y r1 + r2 .+ 2 r2 2 2 Centroid: 4 r2 x = ------3π 4 r1 y = ------3π Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): Ix = Iy = I xy = Parabola: 2 .ab A = -3 ⎛ 4 a + b 2 + 16 a 2⎞ b + 16 a b -------------------------------⎟ P = + ln ⎜ --------------------------------------8a ⎝ 2 b ⎠ Centroid: b x = -2 2a y = ----5 Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): Ix = Iy = I xy = 2 2 2 Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = π r2 r1 Iy = π r2 r1 I xy r2 r1 = --------8 2 2 3 3 y a x b Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = I xy = .--------------P ≈ -.

+ -------4 16 a ⎝ b ⎠ Centroid: 3b x = ----8 2a y = ----5 2 2 2 y a x b Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): (about origin axes): 3 3 8 ba 2 ba I x = ----------I x = ----------175 7 19 b a I y = -------------480 b a I xy = ---------60 2 2 3 2b a I y = ----------15 b a I xy = ---------6 2 2 3 • A general class of geometries are conics. Ax + 2 Bxy + Cy + 2 Dx + 2 Ey + F = 0 Conditions A = B = C = 0 B = 0.page 322 Half Parabola: ab A = ----3 ⎛ 4 a + b 2 + 16 a 2⎞ b + 16 a b -⎟ .ln ⎜ --------------------------------------P = --------------------------. This for is shown below. and can be used to represent many of the simple shapes represented by a polynomial. A = C 2 B – AC < 0 2 B – AC = 0 2 B – AC > 0 straight line circle ellipse parabola hyperbola 2 2 .

= centroid location along the z-axis z = -----------∫ dV V ∫ z dV .= centroid location along the y-axis y = -----------∫ dV V ∫ y dV V .page 323 VOLUME PROPERTIES: Ix = Iy = Iz = V ∫ rx ∫ ry V 2 dV = the moment of inertia about the x-axis 2 dV = the moment of inertia about the y-axis dV = the moment of inertia about the z-axis V ∫ rz 2 V .= centroid location along the x-axis x = -----------∫ dV V ∫ x dV V .

π r3 V = -3 S = 4πr 2 y r z x Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): 2 Mr I x = -----------5 2 Mr I y = -----------5 2 Mr I z = -----------5 2 2 2 Centroid: x = r y = r z = r Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = .page 324 Parallelepiped (box): V = abc S = 2 ( ab + ac + bc ) b c y z x a Centroid: a x = -2 b y = -2 c z = -2 Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): M(a + b ) I x = -------------------------12 M(a + c ) I y = -------------------------12 M( b + a ) I z = -------------------------12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = Sphere: 4 .

πr V = -3 S = y z r x Centroid: x = r 3r y = ---8 z = r Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): 83.2 I x = -------Mr 320 2 Mr I y = -----------5 83.π h2 ( 3 r – h ) V = -3 S = 2 π rh y h z r x Centroid: x = r y = z = r Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = .page 325 Hemisphere: 2 3 .2 I z = -------Mr 320 2 Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = Cap of a Sphere: 1 .

page 326 Cylinder: V = hπr 2 2 y r h z x S = 2 π rh + 2 π r Centroid: x = r h y = -2 z = r Moment of Inertia (about centroid axis): h.r I z = M ⎛ ---+ ----⎞ ⎝ 3 4⎠ 2 2 Cone: 1 .r + ----⎞ I x = M ⎛ ----⎝ 12 4 ⎠ Mr I y = --------2 2 2 2 Moment of Inertia (about origin axis): r h .π r2 h V = -3 S = πr r + h 2 2 z h r x Centroid: x = r h y = -4 z = r Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): 3h 3r ⎞ I x = M ⎛ -------.---+ ⎞ I x = M ⎛ ---⎝ 3 4⎠ Iy = 2 2 h .---r I z = M ⎛ ----+ ⎞ ⎝ 12 4 ⎠ y 2 2 h.+ ------⎝ 80 20 ⎠ 3 Mr I y = -----------10 3 h 3 r -⎞ -------------Iz = M ⎛ + ⎝ 80 20 ⎠ 3 2 2 3 2 Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = .

page 327 Tetrahedron: 1 .Ah V = -3 y h A Centroid: x = h y = -4 z = Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = z x Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = Torus: 1 .π2 ( r1 + r2 ) ( r2 – r1 )2 V = -4 S = π ( r2 – r1 ) Centroid: x = r2 r 2 – r 1⎞ -------------y = ⎛ ⎝ 2 ⎠ z = r2 2 2 2 y r2 z r1 x Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = .

π r2 h V = -2 S = y h z r x Centroid: x = r y = z = r Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = .πr r r V = -3 1 2 3 S = y r2 z r3 r1 x Moment of Inertia (about centroid axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = Moment of Inertia (about origin axes): Ix = Iy = Iz = Centroid: x = r1 y = r2 z = r3 Paraboloid: 1 .page 328 Ellipsoid: 4 .

page 329 5.2.1 Challenge Problems .2 Problems 5.

page 330 6.1 Introduction • The primary object of a public corporation is to generate the maximum amount of profit possi- . FINANCIAL Topics: • Objectives: • 6.

Supplier Invoices (AP) Inventory (S) products/services Business Operating Expenses (O) Profits (P) Taxes (T) Receivables (AR) Customer products/services T = 0.Depreciation on capital equipment . A simple model is shown below.page 331 ble. .5 • Operating expenses include a number of factors such as.5 P = 0 AR – AP – O ∴P = -----------------------------1.5 P (assumes 50% tax on profit) ∑ = AR – AP – O – P – T = 0 ∴AR – AP – O – P – 0.

one method is the payback period. CI N = ----SA where. CI = CE – IS where.page 332 . L 0.Wages/salaries • When cash flow occurs over a number of years it is often shown with cash flow diagrams. A t • When considering the economic value of a decision. M 1 = maintenance costs before and after . H 1 = labor hours before and after M 0. L 1 = labor rate before and after H 0. C E = cost of new equipment I S = revenue from sale of old equipment (salvage) SA = ( L0 H0 – L1 H1 ) + ( M0 – M1 ) where. C I = initial investment (\$) S A = savings per year (\$/yr) N = payback period (years) • Simple estimates for the initial investment and yearly savings are.

PW = present worth of the money (in todays dollars) R Aj = Annual revenues (income) for year j C Aj = Annual costs (expenses) for year j j = j years in the future i = interest rate (fractional) n = number of years for consideration • The future value of money can be evaluated using.change in inventory size .g. j ) = ---------------j (1 + i) where. including. i = 5% P = 1000 n = 3 3 ( P ⁄ A. i. . and can include a companies value for the money. (ie. This is used in place of interest rates.. i.setup times . i.material handling change • The simple models ignore the conversion between present value and future value. i. money now is worth more than the same amount of money later) PW = C 0 + ∑ [ ( R Aj – C A j ) ( P ⁄ F. This will always be higher . i.page 333 • There are clearly more factors than can be considered. n ) where. n ) = 1000 ( F ⁄ P. i.opportunity cost .changes in material use . 3 ) = 1000 ( 1 + 0. FW = future worth of the money e. F = P ( F ⁄ P. n ) = ( 1 + i ) n F = P ( F ⁄ P. j ) ] 1 ( P ⁄ F. 5%. i. n ) = (1 + i) – 1 ∑ ( P ⁄ F. j ) = -------------------------n i(1 + i) n ( F ⁄ P.05 ) = • Quite often a Rate of Return (ROR) will be specified by management.

page 334 than the typical prime interest rate. D = The annual depreciation • Another methods is the accelerated cost recovery (ACRS) method that is based on US tax law. CE – IS D = ---------------n where. A = after tax cash (\$/yr) B = before tax cash (\$/yr) D = depreciation of equipment (\$/yr) tax rate = the corporate tax rate • Methods for depreciation are specified in the tax laws. This distribution is known as depreciation. A = B – T = B – ( tax rate C ) = B ( 1 – tax rate ) + Dtax rate where. One method is straight line depreciation. A similar version is the Modified ACRS (MACRS) system. . Therefore we attempt to distribute expenses evenly across the life of a project (even though the majority of the money has been spent in the first year). • So far we haven’t considered the effects of taxes. Basically corporate taxes are applied to profits.

5 14.0 18.4 6.5 9.3 (copied from Lindberg FE Review Manual) • The ’book value’ for an item is calcuated as.9 8.page 335 Dj = C × fj where D j = The annual depreciation for year j f j = the depreciation factor for year j recovery % for a given depreciation period year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 yrs 33.5 3.0 32.8 7.5 5.2 11.4 5 yrs 20. BV = C – ∑ D j • Rate of Return (ROR) Analysis - .5 6.5 10 yrs 10.5 11.3 24.6 6.8 8.5 12.5 8.6 6.0 19.9 4.8 7 yrs 14.4 11.3 44.2 7.5 17.0 14.

The corporate tax rate is 50% and the company policy is to require a 17% rate of return. B–C . All costs must be converted to the present values. B2 – B1 ----------------->1 C2 – C1 Choice 2 is better than 1 • Break Even Analysis C – PBP × NAP where. and then be sold off.page 336 • Present worth analysis shifts all of the future costs and incomes into a present day sum. or install the new one? . and the system proposed to replace it. The product line is expected to last 5 years. PBP = Payback period NAP = Net annual profit • Return On Investment.100% ROI = -----------C • Consider an assembly line that is currently in use. • Benefit Cost Analysis for chosing between alternatives. Should we keep the old line.

2 workers are required for 1000 hours year at \$40/hr each .page 337 Current Manual Line: .000/yr . A machine was purchased for \$100.maintenance is \$20.000 and generates \$20. how much would be due at the end of the loan if \$20. \$40.000 were borrowed for 3 years at a %10 interest rate.the current equipment is worth \$20. \$133. (ans.000 and the company charges %10 for the use of money. (ans. how much would be due at the end of the loan.000 6.49) .000 used Proposed Line: . 7. If a machine is purchased for \$100.100) 2. How many years would be required to break even if the company charged a 10% internal interest rate.900) 3.000 per year income.211.used 2000 hrs/yr with 10 workers at \$20/hr each .000 .000 were borrowed for 3 years at a %10 interest rate. (ans. If \$100. If \$100. (ans. what annual return is required for the machine to break even in 3 years.27 yrs) 4.000 were repaid each year.2 Problems 1.the equipment will cost \$100.000 and the expected salvage value at the end of the project is \$10. \$66.yearly maintenance will be \$40.

.560) 8. PVnew \$208.. \$31.000.000 new and have a slavage value of \$10.000 and requires \$30. The annual income will be \$50. Compare the present value of the two options. purchasing is a better option) 7.000 and will be sold for salvage value in 3 years for \$30.148. The decision to purchase the new machine will be based upon a 3 year period with a 25% interest rate. Write a general computer program to solve the following project costing problem.000. A machine costs \$100.200.000 to operate per year. A new piece of automated equipment is being considered to replace the manual production line.000 per year. We have a customer that wants.3 Challenge Problems 1. an annual income (R). 000 S = 10. Consider Moore’s law that predicts that every 18 months the basic speed and capacity of semiconductors will double. Write a program that determines the ROI for a project given the project length.. The program should then calculate a present worth and the ROI. The alternative is to lease a machine for \$40. an annual maintenance cost (M). salvage value. and projected income. Test the program using the numbers provided. An existing manual production line costs \$100. If the company uses an interest rate of 10% which option should be chosen? (ans..000 per year to operate.page 338 5. (ans. initial cost. The equipment will cost \$100. The program should accept the initial cost of equipment (C). 000 R = 150. Test values: C = 100..000 and will be sold for salvage value in 3 years for \$30. To test the program assume that the project lasts for 36 months.000. 6. and an interest rate (I). 000 M = 20.69) 6. PVmanual \$195. What is the Equivalent Uniform Annual Cost for the machine assuming the company uses an interest rate of 10%? (ans. The company standard interest rate is 18%.000. a salvage value (S). The new equipment costs \$150.. A machine costs \$100. 000 I = 10% L = 3 yrs 9.

• The basic procedure is. Analyze the results and search again if necessary 7. Idenitfy the major variables in a decision 2. .signal-to-noise ratio .mass .power consumption .page 339 7.factor of safety . 1. OPTIMIZATION Topics: • Objectives: • 7.component cost .volume . Select an optimization method and search 5. Model the system or decisions to be made with equations 3. Assign a cost (objective) function for the system 4.2 System Modeling and Variable Identification • Typical decision variables in systems include.1 Introduction • This is normally used when there is no clearly optimal solution to a problem.

. .time . 7. .page 340 .money .etc. These should be aligned with system objectives.transmission rates . or maximize.cycle times . These relationships oftem include performance measures.capacity .3 Cost Functions and Constraints • Cost functions quantify things that we want to minimize. Typical cost functions include.flow rates . In this case when the area becomes too large.cutting speeds . We want to maximize the value of V. there is a reduced value.some combination of factors • Systems also have constraints that limit available solutions • Expressed as a function of variables that provides a value • Consider the example of building a fenced pasture.etc.power . • A model of the system should relate the decisions to be made mathematically.

01 ⎛ ----------⎝ 2 ⎠ m yr where. R = revenue generated by pasture land V = R – C fence – C land where.05 ⎛ ----------wd ⎝ 2 ⎠ m yr \$ ⎞ .page 341 \$ -⎞ ⎞ (2w + 2d) C fence = 20 ⎛ --⎝ m⎠ ⎠ where.( wd – 300 m 2 ) + 60\$ R = 0.. C land = cost for the land \$ -⎞ R = 0. C fence = cost to construct the fence (\$) w = width of the pasture (m) d = depth of the pasture (m) \$⎞ = 0. V = total value Figure 1.29 Example cost function for building a fence around a pasture wd < 300 m wd ≥ 300 m 2 2 • The cost function can be written as.35 ⎛ -----⎝ 2⎠ m C land where. .

.30 A subroutine for cost function calculation • Constraints are boundaries that cannot be crossed. double cfence.300) + 60.31 Example constraint functions for a pasture • The cost function can be written as. if (w*d < 300){ R = 0. } value = R .05*w*d. double d){ double value. } Figure 1.05 * w * d. R.01 * (w * d . } else { R = 0. • Example of constraints.Cland return value. cland. w ≤ 1600 m d ≤ 1600 m Figure 1. Cland = 0.page 342 double cost(double w.Cfence . Cfence = 40*(w + d). the pasture cannot be larger than one 1600m be 1600m beacuse of the constraints of an existing road system..

if(d > 1600) value = 1000000. cland.33 Example of slack variables for including constraints • The cost function can be written as. } Figure 1. w -⎞ 4 ⎛ --------------d -⎞ 4 --------------+ C penalty = ⎛ ⎝ 1600 m⎠ ⎝ 1600 m⎠ V = R – C fence – C land – C penalty Figure 1.05*w*d. return value. } value = R .05 * w * d. Cfence = 40*(w + d). if (w*d < 300){ R = 0. R.Cfence .01 * (w * d . Helps with a system with many local minimum.Cland if(w > 1600) value = 1000000.. . } else { R = 0.page 343 double cost(double w. double cfence. double d){ double value.300) + 60. Cland = 0.32 A subroutine for cost function calculation • Slack variables allow constraints to be considered as part of the cost function.

01 * (w * d .Cfence . 4). value = R . .Cland . if (w*d < 300){ R = 0. double cfence. 7.tool life . cland. double slack. . Cfence = 40*(w + d).it suggests that good quality parts are produced at reasonable cost.accuracy including dimensions and surface finish .4 Single Variable Searches • For simple single value problems use derivatives and find the maxima/minima.1 Example Problem • As with most engineering problems we want to get the highest return. Cland = 0.4.300) + 60. double d){ double value. R.05 * w * d. with the minimum investment. • Cost is a primarily affected by. } else { R = 0.34 A subroutine for cost function calculation 7. In this case we want to minimize costs. • EFFICIENCY will be the key term . while increasing cutting speeds. } // slack variable slack = pow((w/1600). } Figure 1.slack.power consumed • The production throughput is primarily affected by.page 344 double cost(double w. return value. 4) + pow((d/1600).05*w*d.mrr (metal removal rate) .

exemplified by high speeds. but we may also graph it normally to emphasize the effects. high mrr *** There are many factors in addition to these.tool shape . low mrr. but these are the most commonly considered . tool life • There are two basic conditions to trade off. short tool life.cutting velocity (biggest effect) . cutting velocity This graph is representative for most reasonable cutting speeds.page 345 • The factors that can be modified to optimize the process are. longer tool life .Low cost . The velocities at the high and low ranges do not necessarily exhibit the same relationship. .High production rates .exemplified by low speeds.cutting fluid • We previously considered the log-log scale graph of Taylor’s tool life equation. .work material .tool material .feed and depth .

cutting speed .page 346 cost per unit volume total cost tool cost cutting cost overhead minimum cost • A simplified treatment of the problem is given below for optimizing cost.

per edge T = tool life . t1 = tool change time t2 = tool grind time in minutes Rc = cutting labour + overhead cost Rs = grinding labor + overhead cost CT = cost of the original tool N1 = the number of cutting edges to grind N2 = the maximum number of regrinds and. Ct = cost per cutting edge c1 = the cost to change a tool c2 = the cost to grind a tool per edge c3 = the cost of the tool per edge and. Cc = Rc × T where. c1 = t1 × Rc Rs c 2 = t 2 × ----N1 CT c 3 = -------------------------------N1 × ( N2 + 1 ) where. Ct = c1 + c2 + c3 where.page 347 First lets look at costs for a cutting tool over the life of a tool. Cc = cutting operation cost over life of tool.

QT = V × T × f × c where. QT = metal removal rate per edge V = cutting velocity f = tool feed rate c = depth of width of the cut consider the life of the tool. lets consider the effects of metal removal rate. dC u 1 ⎞ n–1 n–2 --------. C C×f×c × T × f × c = -------------------Q T = V × T × f × c = ----n n–1 T T At this point we have determined functions for cost as a function of tool life.⎛ Rc × n Rc ⎝ n ⎠ • We can also look at optimizing production rates. we can find the minimum cost with respect to tool life. . We can now proceed to find cost per unit of material removed.= -------------------( R × T + Ct ) C u = ----------------QT C×f×c c n (1) (2) Using some basic calculus. V × T = C (Taylors tool life equation) C ∴V = ----n T Now combine tool life (2) with the mrr (1). as well as the metal removal rates.= ----.= ⎛ -------------------( Rc × n × T + Ct × ( n – 1 ) × T ) = 0 ⎝ ⎠ dT C×f×c ∴R c × n × T = – C t × ( n – 1 ) –Ct × ( n – 1 ) C t 1 – n⎞ ----------∴T = ------------------------------. n–1 Cc + Ct T .page 348 Next.

dR p –2 –1 -------. Rp = average rate of production recall from before that.page 349 There are two major factors here when trying to increase the mrr. CfcQ T = ----------n–1 T now substituting in gives.= Cfc ( T n + t 1 ) R p = ----------------T + t1 We can now optimize the production rate.= Cfc [ – ( T n + t 1 ) + ( nT n – 1 + t 1 ) ( T n + t 1 ) ] = 0 dT ∴( T + t 1 ) n –2 = ( nT n–1 + t1 ) ( T + t1 ) n –1 ∴1 = ( nT ∴1 = nT n–1 + t1 ) ( T + t1 ) + nt 1 T n–1 n 2n – 1 + t1 T + t1 n–1 n 2 ∴log ( 1 ) = log ( nT 2n – 1 ) + log ( nt 1 T ) + log ( t 1 T ) + log ( t 1 ) 2 n 2 ∴0 = log ( n ) + ( 2 n – 1 ) log ( T ) + log ( nt 1 ) + ( n – 1 ) log ( T ) + log ( t 1 ) + n log ( T ) + log ( t 1 ) ∴0 = 2 log ( n ) + ( 4 n – 2 ) log ( T ) + 4 log ( t 1 ) log ( n ) + 2 log ( t 1 ) ∴log ( T ) = -----------------------------------------1 – 2n . the only down-time involved is the replacement of the tool. This gives us an average rate of production. We can have a supply of tools by the machine. and as the tools require replacement. Cfc-⎞ ⎛ ----------⎝ n – 1⎠ –1 T . QT R p = ------------T + t1 where.

cutting velocity for maximum production is > velocity for lowest cost cost cutting velocity production rate minimum cost high efficiency range cutting velocity maximum rate 7. t1 < Ct/Rc then tool life for maximum production is less than economical tool life and as a result. . Since.5 Multivariable Searches • Local Search Space • A topographical map shows the relationship between search parameters and cost values.page 350 • We can now put the two optimums in perspective.

.page 351 Maximum (or minimum) Objective Space Constraints Search path Figure 1.35 Local searches • Global Search space. In this case the system becomes ’stuck’ in a local mimina.

36 Global searches • Global Search space. In this case the system searches all maxim. .page 352 Local Optima Global Optima Figure 1.

7.1 Algorithms • The search algorithms change system parameters and try to lower system parameters.2 Random Walk .5. • The main question is how to change the system paramters to minimize the system value.5.37 A Global Search 7.page 353 Local Optima Global Optima Figure 1.

10 per pound. Rocket Fuel Burn 2.6 Summary • 1.5.5.0 + 3. To regrind and dry scrap parts there is a cost of \$0. 100%] S = percentage of parts that are scrap R+5 -----------4 1. S = 2. A production facility molds plastic parts.page 354 7.00 per pound. However rejected plastic parts are ground into (regrind) pellets and mixed in with new plastic pellets. Power plant fuel mixture .0 × 2 where. Write a program to determine the optimum quantity of regrind to minimize the cost per part.3 Gradient Decent 7.7 Problems 1.8 Challenge Problems 1. If a part is discarded (not reground) the total cost of the material is lost. R = percentage of reground material [0. The customer demands that the percentage of regrind cannot exceed 30%. New plastic costs \$1. Ideally these parts are made with new plastic pellets.4 Simplex 1. Statistical data was used to find the following relationship between the percentage of regrind and the scrap rate.

. Model the program on the example in the chapter.page 355 3. Write a program that recommends the optimum cutting speed for a machining process.

dates tasks tasks flow . PROJECT SCHEDULING Topics: • Objectives: • 2.2 Gantt Charts • General form.1 Introduction 2.page 356 2.

too much/too little detail (charts can be broken into subcharts to isolate detail) . .too many concurrent tasks .gaps when no tasks are boing done .identify critical paths and move forware to create slack time .page 357 • tasks start task 1 end milestone task 2 task 3 handoff • These charts should be updated on a regular basis to track the progess and completion of each task.delay costly components to reduce WIP 2. .associate people and resources to tasks • Good ideas when constructing Gantt Charts. • Things to look for when doing Gannt charts include.3 Critical Path Method (CPM) .

• Desired Project Duration .ES • Critical Path .the planned time for completing the project.page 358 • Tasks (possibly from a Gannt chart) can be put in a network diagram.the latest a task can start for a Desired Project Duration. . • Minimum Project Duration .the shortest time to complete the project based upon the longest path. • Total Float (TF) = LS . • Latest Start (LS) . and dictate the Minimum Project Duration.the sequence of tasks that take the longest. D A G B E C F H Event (0 time but acts as a start/end) activity dummy task/constraint (0 time) • Earliest Start (ES) the earliest time a task can start.

to + 4 tm + tp t e = ---------------------------6 • A Standard Deviation for each activity time can be approximated using. in practice the task lengths vary. t o = optimistic time estimate t m = most likely time estimate t p = pessimistic time estimate tm tp • task times are expressed with three numbers separated by dashes to-tm-tp to represent task times. f(t) to where.4 Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) • In CPM we assume that each activity has a fixed time. This variation can be shown with the Beta distribution.page 359 2. • the mean (effective) time can be found with. Once the Critical Path is . tpi – toi σ i = --------------6 • The te valuaes can be used to do a CPM analysis of a network diagram.

Ts – Te z = ---------------σT 2.5 weeks . A new building is being constructed and the following tasks are required. Develop a project activity network for problem 1.after Painting 2. 4. σT = Te = ∑ σi ∑ te i 2 • To find the chance that the process will be done by the time Ts. Site Preparation .page 360 identified the overal task time and variance can be calculated using. Consider the PERT network diagram below and find the likelyhood that the project will be . Identiy the critical path for problem 2. The normal workdays are 7am-3pm.1 month .after Framing Inspection .after Foundations Plumbing .after Site Preparation Framing .3 days .after Framing Electrical . The z value can then be used to find the probability of completion using the cummulative normal distribution function. Write a Gantt chart for completion of the job in 3 months.6 weeks .2 weeks .1 week .after Painting Carpet . Overtime is possible. however the costs make it highly underiable.after Drywall Hardware . 3.after Plumbing and Electrical Drywall .after Inspection Painting .5 Problems 1. Monday to Friday.2 weeks . the z value can be calculated.1 week .1 month Foundations .

For problem 4.page 361 complete in 40 days. find a target completion date for the project that will make it 50% likely that it will be complete.6 Challenge Problems . 3-5-8 10-11-12 4-10-11 9-12-18 24-28-29 4-6-9 1-9-14 2-4-5 7-10-11 3-7-9 13-15-19 5-7-8 5. 2.

1 Introduction • Graphs are normally data structures that have vertices (circles) and edges (lines) as shown below. . DIRECTED GRAPHS Topics: • Objectives: • 3.page 362 3.

as shown below. 3.page 363 • In a directed graph the edges will have a direction assigned. Vertex list: Vertex Edge list: Edge From To .2 Data Structures • A simple data structure for representing a graph is shown below.

2 E 4 G B 1 C D 3 F 5 Vertex list: Vertex 1 2 3 4 5 Edge list: Edge B C D E F G From vert.page 364 • Consider the graph below. 1 1 2 2 3 4 To vert. 2 3 3 4 5 5 .

. "2" . vert_number("3")]]. [edge_number("G"). "G"]. name). 1). "5"]. [edge . name) // a function to find list numbers given names foo = -1. vert_number("2"). vert_number("5")]]. // record the matching row number break. name). "E" . [edge . vert_number("1"). [edge . vert_number("1"). "C" . vert_number("5")]]. [edge_number("C"). "F" . // define the edges. [edge_number("F"). end endfunction vertex_names = ["1" . [edge_number("E"). vert_number("2"). [edge_number("D"). "3" .page 365 • Representing a graph in Scilab function foo = find_index(_list. vert_number("3"). vert_number("2")]. vert_number("4")]]. [edge . "4" . "D" . // no point continueing the for loop end. // get the rows in the list for i = 1 : cnt. end if foo == -1 then mprintf("ERROR: list name %s not found\n". endfunction edge edge edge edge edge edge = = = = = = [edge_number("B"). // use -1 to indicate no match found yet A = size(_list). // find the rows and columns in the list cnt = A(1. // define the vertices function foo = vert_number(name) // a function to find vertex numbers given names foo = find_index(vertex_names. endfunction edge_names = ["B" . [edge . name). vert_number("3")]]. vert_number("4"). // loop through the rows if name == _list(i) then // look for a name match foo = i. function foo = edge_number(name) // a function to find edge numbers given names foo = find_index(edge_names.

{"C"}. "2"). return 0. "3"). return -1. {"2"}. int edges[MAX_EDGES][3]. {"4"}. "3"). list[i]) == 0){ return i. "2".page 366 • Representing a graph in C int find_number(char list[][].} char edge_names[][] = {{"B"}. add_edge("G". int edge_number(char *name){ return find_number(edge_names. "1". for(i = 0. add_edge("F". add_edge("E". . i++){ if(strcmp(name. } int main(){ add_edge("B". name). list[i][0] != NULL. add_edge("C". int vert_number(char *name){ return find_number(vert_names. } "1". } char vert_names[][] = {{"1"}. vert_number(from_vert). {"5"}. {"F"}. {"D"}. "4". "3". } } printf("ERROR: search name %s not found \n". {"G"}.} #define MAX_EDGES int edge_cnt = 0. char *to_vert){ edge_number(edge). "4"). name). 10 char *from_vert. "5"). {"E"}. edges[edge_cnt][0] = edges[edge_cnt][1] = edges[edge_cnt][2] = edge_cnt++. if(name == NULL) return -1. name). void add_edge(char *edge. "2". vert_number(to_vert). char *name){ int i. "5"). {"3"}. NULL}. NULL}. add_edge("D".

3 Applications 3. Cycle through and check each edge. Set all the precendence values to 1 (lowest precedence) 2. • Consider a Network Diagram for a CPM problem.page 367 3. code review check codes (3) permit approval permit application (6) review launch write spec (2) build (6) spec approval inspections (7) signoff .3. 1.1 Precedence Identification • To determine a precedence we add a precedence count for each vertex. For each edge ensure that the ’to’ vertex has a precedence that is at least one greater than the ’from vertex. The basic check is.

6]]. // get the rows in the list edge_names = ["check codes" . precedence = [precedence . name). end. "signoff"]. vert_number("code review"). end. 3). for i = 2 : vert_cnt. // find the rows and columns in the list edge_cnt = A(1. "permit approval" . A = size(edge_names). 1). vert_number("launch"). 0]]. name). // no point continueing the for loop end. edge = [edge . vert_number("spec approval"). [edge_number("inspections"). 7]]. [edge_number("review"). // get the rows in the list for i = 1 : cnt. [edge_number("write spec"). // initialize all precendence values to 1 precedence = [1]. edge = [edge . // find the precendence of previous/next vertices next_precedence = precedence(next_vert). // find the previous and current vertices next_vert = edge(j. prev_precedence = precedence(prev_vert). end 3. vert_number("signoff"). // find the rows and columns in the list cnt = A(1. vert_number("launch").3. // loop through the rows if name == _list(i) then // look for a name match foo = i. end endfunction function foo foo = endfunction function foo foo = endfunction = vert_number(name) // a function to find vertex numbers given names find_index(vert_names. "write spec" . 2]]. "code review" . vert_number("permit approval"). //------------------------------------------------// Note: an extra column is added to include the time for each activity edge = [edge_number("check codes"). edge = [edge . 6]].page 368 • The algorithm implemented in Scilab (assuming the ’find_index’ function is the same as before) vert_names = ["launch" . prev_vert = edge(j. "permit application" . "review" . edge = [edge . 1). vert_number("code review").2 Graph Searching . name). end if foo == -1 then mprintf("ERROR: list name %s not found\n". for j = 1 : edge_cnt. "inspections"]. 1].1. // vertices A = size(vert_names). vert_number("signoff"). vert_number("spec approval"). "spec approval" . / / define the edges. if (prev_precedence + 1) > next_precedence then // check to see if the precedence needs to be updated precedence(next_vert) = prev_precedence + 1. "build" . // get the rows in the list //-----. vert_number("code review"). // find the rows and columns in the list vert_cnt = A(1. // record the matching row number break. = edge_number(name) // a function to find edge numbers given names find_index(edge_names. 1). [edge_number("permit application").Previous Code ---------------------function foo = find_index(_list. // use -1 to indicate no match found yet A = size(_list). edge = [edge . 2). vert_number("permit approval"). [edge_number("build"). vert_number("spec approval"). 3]. end // Loop through and update precendences for i = 1 : edge_cnt . name) // a function to find list numbers given names foo = -1.

4). 2). 3. // initialize all vertex cost values to 0 cost = [0]. end mprintf("The critical path cost is %f \n". for i = 2 : vert_cnt. last_vert = next_vert. for j = 1 : edge_cnt. 0]. last_vert = 0. prev_cost = cost(prev_vert). edge_cost = edge(j.1.4 Other Topics . // find the cost of previous/next vertices next_cost = cost(next_vert). 3). // Loop through and update precendences for i = 1 : edge_cnt . end maximum_cost = 0. end end. // find the previous and current vertices next_vert = edge(j. end. cost = [cost . prev_vert = edge(j. if (prev_cost + edge_cost) > next_cost then // check to see if the cost needs to be updated cost(next_vert) = prev_cost + edge_cost. maximum_cost). if cost(next_vert) > maximum_cost then maximum_cost = cost(next_vert).page 369 • Identifying the vertex costs. // Assumes the code for vertices has already been defined and run.

6 Problems 1. S.page 370 • ADD: resource limited plans 1.333. Test the program with the following network diagram.826) 1. The program will then do a PERT analysis to determine the Te value and the standard deviation.7 Challenge Problems .=1.5 Summary • 1.D. 8-9-12 D 3-6-9 1-2-3 F 2-8-9 B A 15-16-18 C 5-7-8 E 1-4-5 G 9-10-16 H (ans. Te=42. Write a general program that will accept a network diagram entered as vertices and arcs.

page 371 2. B A E root C F leaves D . • The tree has nodes (shown with circles) that are connected with branches. Each node will have a parent node (except for the root) and may have multiple child nodes.1 Introduction • Trees are a special case of a graph data structure. The connections radiate out from a single root without cross connections. TREE DATA STRUCTURES Topics: • Objectives: • 2.

however in an ordered tree the children take priority. Node list: Node Branch list: Parent Child .page 372 • In an unordered tree the children of a node can be unordered. • A Boolean tree applies operators for each of the nodes 2.2 Data Structures • A simple data structure for representing a tree is shown below. often by listing them in order.

"C" . "E" . [node_number("B"). 1). [node_number("C"). "B" . node_number("C")]]. // no point continueing the for loop end. node_number("F")]]. // define the nodes function foo = node_number(name) // a function to find node numbers given names foo = find_index(node_names. "F"]. name). . name). [branch . B A E root C Node # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Node Name A B C D E F F leaves Parent 1 1 2 3 3 Child 2 3 4 5 6 D • Representing a tree in Scilab function foo = find_index(_list. endfunction branch branch branch branch branch = = = = = [node_number("A"). [node_number("C"). // get the rows in the list for i = 1 : cnt. end endfunction node_names = ["A" . [branch . [branch . node_number("E")]]. // use -1 to indicate no match found yet A = size(_list). end if foo == -1 then mprintf("ERROR: list name %s not found\n". // find the rows and columns in the list cnt = A(1. [branch . "D" . node_number("D")]].page 373 • Consider the graph below. node_number("B")]. // record the matching row number break. // loop through the rows if name == _list(i) then // look for a name match foo = i. [node_number("A"). name) // a function to find list numbers given names foo = -1.

1. {"C"}.1 Precedence Identification • To determine a precedence we add a precedence count for each node. NULL}. void add_branch(int parent. Set all the precedence values to 1 (lowest precedence) 2. int node_number(char *name){ return find_number(node_names. add_branch("A". . {"B"}. add_branch("C". if(name == NULL) return -1. {"D"}. branch[branch_cnt][1] = node_number(child). "F"). name). Cycle through and check each branch. int branch[MAX_BRANCHES][2]. } int main(){ add_branch("A". branch_cnt++.page 374 • Representing a graph in C int find_number(char list[][]. list[i]) == 0){ return i. } "B"). {"E"}. "D"). i++){ if(strcmp(name. } char node_names[][] = {{"A"}. add_branch("B". {"F"}. name). 2.3 Applications 2. The basic check is. for(i = 0. For each branch ensure that the child vertex has a precedence that is one greater than the parent vertex. int child){ branch[branch_cnt][0] = node_number(parent). return -1. return 0.3. "C"). char *name){ int i. add_branch("C". } } printf("ERROR: search name %s not found \n". list[i][0] != NULL.} #define MAX_BRANCHES 10 int branch_cnt = 0. "E").

name). // get the rows in the list for i = 1 : cnt. node_number("E")]]. end if foo == -1 then mprintf("ERROR: list name %s not found\n".1)) >= precedence(branch(j. node_number("D")]]. end for i=1:node_cnt-1. node_number("F")]]. "C" .page 375 • Consider the previous example. branch = [branch . end endfunction node_names = ["A" . name) // a function to find list numbers given names foo = -1.3. name). // get the rows in the list function foo = node_number(name) // a function to find node numbers given names foo = find_index(node_names. branch = [branch . // loop through the rows if name == _list(i) then // look for a name match foo = i. "F"]. "E" . [node_number("A"). "B" . "D" . // use -1 to indicate no match found yet A = size(_list). for i=1:node_cnt.1)) + 1. branch = [branch . // set all precendence values to 1 precedence(i) = 1. [node_number("B"). // find the rows and columns in the list cnt = A(1. // record the matching row number break. end end end 2. [node_number("C"). node_number("B")].2)) then precedence(branch(j. function foo = find_index(_list. [node_number("C"). branch = [branch .2 Tree Searching . if precedence(branch(j. node_number("C")]]. 1). // loop through and update precendence values for j=1:branch_cnt. // define the nodes node_cnt = 6. branch_cnt = 5. // no point continueing the for loop end. endfunction branch = [node_number("A").2)) = precedence(branch(j.

"D" . "E" . node_number("E")]. end for i=1:node_cnt-1. branch = [branch . node_number("F")]. endfunction branch = [node_number("A"). 15]. "B" . [node_number("C").page 376 • Assume that each branch has a cost associated. We can then find the cost of each of the nodes. [node_number("A"). node_number("B"). // get the rows in the list function foo = node_number(name) // a function to find node numbers given names foo = find_index(node_names. name). branch = [branch . // define the nodes node_cnt = 6. end end 13]. function foo = find_index(_list. // get the rows in the list for i = 1 : cnt. 3). branch = [branch . // use -1 to indicate no match found yet A = size(_list). // find the rows and columns in the list cnt = A(1. end if foo == -1 then mprintf("ERROR: list name %s not found\n". node_number("D")]. 10]. 16]. branch_cnt = 5. end endfunction node_names = ["A" . // set all node cost values to 0 cost(i) = 0. cost(branch(j. // loop through the rows if name == _list(i) then // look for a name match foo = i. 12]. . "F"]. 2)) = cost(branch(j. // loop through and update cost values for j=1:branch_cnt. "C" . name) // a function to find list numbers given names foo = -1. 1). B 15 D 10 A 13 16 12 E C F • Identifying the vertex costs. for i=1:node_cnt. branch = [branch . [node_number("B"). node_number("C")]. // no point continueing the for loop end. 1)) + branch(j. // record the matching row number break. [node_number("C"). name).

There is a 10% chance that ’delivery late’ will occur.000) (-10.05 parts bad 0.9 0. Write a program that will use the probabilities and costs to calculate the effective income (expenses) for the facility. Consider the following probability tree for a single day in a production facility.000) halt production A 0.000) start 0. 66046) 0.4 Summary • 1. and an 90% chance that ’delivery on-tine’ will occur. The values on the branches indicate the probability of an event occurring.1 (-500) (-2.1 late 0.000 halt production C(-10.000) (ans.000 delivery production 0. For example.8 1.2 0.page 377 1. (-10. 1. if there is ’delivery on-time’ there will be a net cost of \$400 to process the incoming parts.6 Challenge Problems .8 halt (-500) production B reduce 40.9 (-400) delivery on-time 0.95 (-100) parts good 0.2 slow production regular production 100.5 Problems 1.