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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Chapter 11 Wireless Systems and Standards

Yimin Zhang, Ph.D. Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Villanova University
http://yiminzhang.com/ECE8708

Yimin Zhang, Villanova University

ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Evolution Overview
Wireless Japan 1st US
AMPS

Cordless Europe Europe


CT03

US

Japan

NMT450

TACS

NMT900 NETZ-C
RADIOCOM

2nd

D-AMPS/IS-54

PDC

PCS 1900

GSM 900 GSM 1900 GSM 1800

DECT Paging

PACS PHS

CDMA/IS-95

3G IMT-2000
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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Terminology

AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System): North American cellular phone standard, operates in 800 MHz and 900 MHz bands. About 85% of AMPS subscribers are in the U.S. GSM (Groupe Speciale Mobile): Digital cellular standard in Europe. DCS 1800 (Digital Communication Service): an extension of GSM standard, operates at 1800 MHz. DECT (Digital European Cordless Telecommunications): a cordless system supporting voice and data. NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone): one of the first cellular systems, operates in 450 MHz and 900 MHz bands. Used in Scandinavian countries (Norway, Sweden, Finland). TACS (Total Access Communications System): derivative of AMPS developed in U.K. 91% of TACS subscribers come from Europe. TACS/NTT: Japanese digital transmission scheme, operates in 800 MHz and 1500 MHz bands; based on TDMA/FDD.
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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Generations of Mobile Systems


1st Generation (1G): Analog Transmission


AMPS TACS (ETACS) NMT

2nd Generation (2G): Digital Transmission


GSM CT2, CT3 (Cordless Telephone) DECT CDMA

3rd Generation (3G): Unification of technologies


FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems) UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom System) cdma2000, WCDMA (Wideband CDMA)

Yimin Zhang, Villanova University

ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

First Generation - History


AMPS: Advance Mobile Phone System 1978 First cellular experimental analog systems - AT&T AMPS system (Chicago, IL); channel spacing is 30 KHz 1983 First commercial analog system at Chicago, IL; total 40 MHz spectrum in 800 MHz band 1989 Additional 10 MHz (extended spectrum) band

- 1991 Motorola developed AMPS-like system N-AMPS (narrowband AMPS); channel spacing is 10 KHz
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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

First Generation - History


ETACS: European Total Access Communication System, or TACS Developed in Mid-1980s; virtually identical to AMPS The channel spacing is 25 KHz The mobile identification number (MIN) accommodates country codes.

N-AMPS developed by Motorola (3*capacity, still analog) in 1991

Yimin Zhang, Villanova University

ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Yimin Zhang, Villanova University

ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation USDC/ CDMA/GSM


IS-54 dual mode digital cellular in 1990, also known as USDC (United States Digital Cellular), D-AMPS (Digital AMPS), and NADC (North American Digital Cellular) TDMA/FDD Support 3 full-duplex users on each AMPS channel IS-136 in 1994 (against competition from PCS1900) Design objectives: Higher Capacity Backward compatibility

Yimin Zhang, Villanova University

ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation USDC/CDMA/GSM


Qualcomm CDMA proposal in 1989 and IS-95 in 1992

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) Design objectives: - Standardized Pan-European mobile system - Equivalent traffic capacity to pre-existing 25kHz European analog cellular bandwidth (200kHz/8) - Wireless counterpart for ISDN

Yimin Zhang, Villanova University

ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation Share

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

User 1 Slot 1 Slot 4 User 2 Slot 2 Slot 5 User 3 Slot 3 Slot 6

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

FACCH: FACCH:Fast FastAssociated Associated Control ControlChannel Channel --important importantcontrol controlof of specialized specializedtraffic trafficdata data(e.g., (e.g., handoff) handoff) --within withindata datatraffic trafficchannel channel

Data: total 260 bits Sync: 28 bits SACCH: 12 bits - Slow Associated Control Channel - provides a signaling channel in parallel with the digital speech - carries various control and supervisory messages between the subscriber unit and the base station - used by the mobile unit to report the results of signal strength measurement of neighboring base station CDVCC: 12 bits Coded Digital Verification Color Code - 8 bit information + 4bit coding - MS must receive, decode, and retransmit the same CDVCC Guard: 6 bits - guard bits to compensate for timing differences Ramp: 6 bits - ramp bits to allow for power ramp up of RF signal
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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Data: total 260 bits Sync: 28 bits SACCH: 12 bits - Slow Associated Control Channel FACCH: Fast Associated Control Channel - within data traffic channel CDVCC: 12 bits Coded Digital Verification Color Code - 8 bit information + 4bit coding - MS must receive, decode, and retransmit the same CDVCC Reserved: 12 bits

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation USDC


Channel coding: uncoded information: 77 class-1 bits and 82 class-2 bits.

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation USDC


Interleaving Use two speech frames x and y.

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation USDC


Modulation 48.6 kbps over 30 kHz band 1.62 bps/Hz spectral efficiency /4-DQPSK is used. Roll-off factor: 0.35 Equalization symbol rate : 24.3 ksps maximum rms delay is 4.12s without equalization Probability that rms delay exceeds 4s is 25% of the location in 4 cities DFE equalizer: 4 feedforward taps (1/2 symbol spacing), 1 feedback tap
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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation USDC


IS-136 Final USDC standard provide new features and services to be competitive with IS-95 and GSM. - short message capability - private, user group - sleep mode - control channel changes from 10 kbps FSK to 48.6 kbps DQPSK - IS-54 and IS-136 terminals are not compatible

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM


Before GSM, European countries used different cellular standards throughout Europe. GSM is now the worlds most popular standard for 2nd generation wireless communications in the world. First introduced in 1991. Several non-European countries in South America, Asia, Australia adopted GSM. GSM uses removable Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) to store information of the subscribers identification information, network and countries where the subscriber is entitled to service, private keys.

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM


G S M S y s te m
m o b ile M o b ile S ta tio n
M o b ile E q u ip m e n t S u b s c rib e r Id e n tity M o d u l (S IM )

F ix e d

R a d io N e tw o rk < B a s e S ta tio n S u b s y s te m > (B S S )


B a s e T ra n s c e iv e r S ta tio n (B T S ) B a s e S ta tio n C o n tro lle r (B S C )

M o b ile S w itc h in g N e tw o rk < S w itc h in g a n d M a n a g e m e n t S u b s y s te m > (S M S S )


M o b ile S w itc h in g C e n te r (M S C ) G a te w a y M o b ile S w itc h in g C e n te r (G M S C ) In te rn a tio n a l S w itc h in g C e n te r (IS C ) H o m e L o c a tio n R e g is te r (H L R ) V is ito r L o c a tio n R e g is te r (V L R )

M a n a g e m e n t N e tw o rk < O p e ra tio n a n d M a in te n a n c e S u b s y s te m > (O M S S )


O p e ra tio n a n d M a in te n a n c e C e n te r (O M C ) E q u ip m e n t Id e n tity R e g is te r (E IR ) A u th e n tic a tio n C e n te r (A U C )

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM


BTS: Provide the radio channel for signaling and user data traffic in this cell BSC: Control of BTSs; Frequency administration MSC : The major tasks of an MSC are routing incoming and outgoing calls and the assignment of user channels on the A-interface. HLR : An HLR can be regarded as a large database that administers the data of literally hundreds of thousands of subscribers. VLR : A VLR contains subscriber data, but only part of the data in the HLR and only while the particular subscriber roams in the area for which theVLR is responsible. ISC Connections to other mobile or international networks are mostly routed over the International Switching Center (ISC) of the respective country. OMCAdministration and commercial operation; Security management; Network configuration, performance management AUCConfidential data and keys are stored or generated in AUC EIRStores the serial numbers of the terminals

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM


GSM originally used two 25 MHz cellular bands. GSM uses FDD and a combination of TDMA and FHMA schemes to provide multiple access to mobile users. Forward and reverse frequency bands are divided into 200 kHz wide channels, called ARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers). Each channel is time shared between as many as 8 subscribers using TDMA. Guard band of 100 kHz at each end; total 125 channels (about 1000 users). ARFCN+TS constitutes physical channel. Data rate: 270.833 kbps per channel, 33.854 kbps per user Modulation: GMSK modulation with BT=0.3
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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM


Broadcast Channel (BCH) <Downlink> Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Frequency Correction Channel (FCH)

Signaling

Common Control Channel (CCCH) <Down- or Uplink>

Random Access Channel (RACH) <Uplink> Access Grant Channel (AGCH) <Downlink> Paging Channel (PCH) <Downlink>

Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) <Bidirectional>

Associated Control Channel (ACCH)

Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)

Traffic

Traffic Channel (TCH) <Bidirectional>

Full-rate Channel (Bm) Half-rate Channel (Lm)

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation GSM

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Second Generation CDMA


Qualcomm developed CDMA/AMPS dual mode phone in 1994. As of 2001, there are over 80 million CDMA subscribers worldwide. Each IS-95 channel occupies 1.25 MHz on each one way link.

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

CDMA

24x16 array

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

CDMA

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Migration Path 2G, 2.5G, 3G


2000 Japan
PDC

2001

2002

2003
W-CDMA

Europe America

GSM HSCSD AMPS/D-AMPS

GPRS

EDGE

D-AMPS+

IS-95A 2G System 3G System

IS-95B Easy upgrade Upgrade requiring new modulation Upgrade requiring entire new radio system

CDMA2000

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Evolution

2G Handsets
This is the current digital mobile phone technology most of us are using. Features includes: Phone calls Voice mail Receive and send SMS Speed: 9.6 kilobits/sec Time to download a 4 min MP3 song: 50 min

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Evolution Cont.

2.5G Handsets
The best technology now widely available Features includes: Phone calls/fax - always on Voice mail Send/receive large email messages Internet browsing GPS Instant news update Speed: >10 - 144kilobits/sec Time to download a 4 min MP3 song: 7 - 12min
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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Evolution Cont.

3G Handsets
Combines a mobile phone, laptop PC and television. Features includes: Phone calls/fax - always on Global roaming Send/receive large email High speed internet GPS Videoconferencing Live streaming Speed: >144 - 2 megabits/sec Time to download a 4 min MP3 song: 15sec - 1.6min
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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Generations of Mobile Systems


1st Generation (1G): Analog Transmission


AMPS TACS (ETACS) NMT

2nd Generation (2G): Digital Transmission


GSM CT2, CT3 (Cordless Telephone) DECT CDMA

3rd Generation (3G): Unification of technologies


FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems) UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom System) cdma2000, WCDMA (Wideband CDMA)

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ECE 8708 Wireless Communications : Wireless Systems and Standards

Homework Assignment 6
9.12

11.1 (find by yourself for DECT)

11.13

11.6 (optional + 20)

Deadline 4/20/05 Before next class begins


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