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Class 10th CBSE Geography - Contemporary India II Chapter 5, Minerals and Energy Resources NCERT solutions for Exercise

Questions Q.1: Multiple choice questions: (i) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the strata of which of the following rocks? (a) Sedimentary rocks (b) Metamorphic rocks (c) Igneous rocks (d) None of these. (ii) Which of the following mineral is formed by decomposition of rocks leaving a residual mass of weathered material? (a) Coal (b) Bauxite (c) Gold (d) Zinc. (iii) Koderma in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals? (a) Bauxite (b) Mica (c) Iron ore (d) Copper (iv) Which one of the following is contained in the Monazite sand? (a) Oil (b) Uranium (c) Thorium (d) Coal Answer: (i)-a (ii)-b (iii)-b (iv)-c. Q.2: Answer the following questions; (i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words (a) Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals (b) Conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy. (ii) What is a mineral? (iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks? (iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources? Answer: (i) (a) Ferrous minerals All those minerals which are iron based. They are metallic in nature e.g. iron ore, manganese. Non-Ferrous minerals All those minerals which do not iron are nonferrous minerals e.g. copper, gold, lead etc.

(b) Non-Conventional sources of energy 1. Conventional sources of energy are1. Non-conventional sources of those sources which have been in energy have generally been use from time immortal. identified in the recent past. 2. They are exhaustible except hydro- 2. They are inexhaustible. energy. 3. Generally these are pollution-free. 3. They cause pollution when used as 4. Low expenditure required. they emit smoke and ash. 5. Less expensive due to local use 4. Their generation and use involve and easy maintenance. huge expenditure. 6. Examples are geothermal 5. Very expensive to maintain, store, energy, solar energy, wind energy, transmit as they are carried over tidal energy, biogas energy, long distances through transmission nuclear energy. grids. 6. Examples are coal, natural gas, water, fire-wood. Conventional sources of energy (ii) Mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definite internal structure. (iii) In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in cracks, crevices, faults and joints. They are formed when minerals in liquid or molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through these weak zones (cavities) towards earths surface. They cool and solidify as they rise towards the surface. Tin, copper, zinc, lead and diamond etc. are various minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. (iv) Mineral resources are limited. It takes million of years for their formation and therefore, these resources are non-renewable and non-replenishable. Increasing consumption and continued extraction of ores lead to increasing costs of extraction and a sharp decrease in their quality and quantity. So, it is most important for us to conserve mineral resources as it is feared that with this rate of consumption the day is not far away when most of the metallic and non-metallic mineral reserves and fossil fuel deposits will be fully exhausted. Q.3: Answer the following questions. (i) Describe the distribution of coal in India. (ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India? Answer: (i) In India coal deposits are found mainly of two geological ages

1. Gondwana coal deposits, which are about 200 million years old. The major coal deposits in India are Gondwana coal which are metallurgical coal and are located in Damodar Valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand). These constitute mainly Jharia, Dhanbad, Ranigunj, and Bokaro coal fields. Besides, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valley also contain coal deposits. 2. Tertiary coal deposits which are around 55 million years old. Tertiary coal deposits are found in the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. (ii) Solar energy has a bright future in India because 1. India being a tropical country receives sunlight in abundance throughout the year. 2. Solar plants can be easily established in rural and remote areas. 3. It will minimize the dependence of rural households on firewood and dunk cakes which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.
Minerals and Energy Resources | Ncert Cbse Class X Geography - Contemporary India II Answers of CCE type Sample Questions and MCQ

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

Answer: 1-a. 2-b. 3-c. 4-c. 5-a. 6-a. 7-a. 8-b. 9-b. 10-c. 11-c. 12-c. 13-a. 14-a. 15-a.

CCE type Sample Questions

Answer.1: Open cast or Open-pit mining: It refers to a method of extracting rocks or minerals by removing the overlying materials (over burden) from shallow depth. Open-pit mines are used en deposits of commercially useful minerals or rocks are found near the surface, that is, where the overburden can be removed economically. Quarry: It is used for extracting materials such as stones etc. Quarry is usually shallower than open-pit mines. Shaft mining: When minerals occur deep below the surface, where the overburden is thick, or the mineral occurs as veins in hard rocks, then underground shaft mining is done to extract the ore. Shaft mines have vertical access to the seam via elevators that carry workers and equipment into the mines. Shaft mining is a method of mining in which vertical and horizontal shafts are made to extract the materials from deep under the earth surface.

Answer.2: 1. In igneous and metamorphic rocks as cracks, crevices, faults, and joints. 2. In beds and layers of sedimentary rocks by accumulation and concentration. 3. By decomposition of surface rocks e.g. Laterite, Bauxite. 4. Alluvial deposits in sands of valleys and along the sea coast or foot hills as placer deposits.

Answer.3: The reasons are 1. High risks involved. 2. Due to poisonous fumes, mines are vulnerable to workers for pulmonary diseases. 3. Contaminated water sources. 4. Fires in coal mines, risks of collapsing mine roofs (top surface).

Answer.4: Natural Gas 1. It is a mixture of combustible gaseous hydrocarbons occurring in the rocks of earth crust. 2. It is a commercial energy. 3. Used as raw material in petrochemicals. 4. Can be transported through pipelines to any long distance. 5. Mostly used in urban areas in India. Bio Gas 1. It is derived from organic wastes such as waste of animals and plants with the help of microorganism in presence of water. 2. Non commercial energy. 3. It is produced in tanks. 4. Can be found mostly in rural areas.

Answer.5: The reasons are 1. Hot and arid region getting maximum sun radiations. 2. Clear skies almost throughout the year. 3. Cheaper installation. 4. Renewable and pollution free energy source. 5. Government motivation.

Answer.6: Most of the petroleum producing areas in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in rock formations of Tertiary age. In the region folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the folding rock strata. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous rocks like sandstone, limestone etc. Major petroleum producing regions in India are 1. Assam producing 16% of total production Digboi, Naharkata, Moran-Hugrijan, Namdang. 2. Gujarat producing 18% of total production Ankleshwar, Lunez, Navgam. 3. Mumbai High producing 63% of total production. 4. Godawari Mahanadi basin.

Answer.7: Satluj river.

Answer.8: Mahanadi river.

Answer9: Tilayya, Konar, Maithan, Panchet dams.


Narora (UP), Rawatbhatta (Rajasthan), Tarapur (Maharashtra), Kaiga (Karnataka), Kalapakkam (Tamil Nadu).