u5 AJvooceJ kolltooJ wlteless (Akw)

usloq l1c os o foooJouoo fot Akw

!anuary 2014 - v2

Sky1el - W. Pavens

ºSky1el" means Skybrldge SpecLrum loundauon, 1elesaurus Poldlngs C8 LLC, LnvlronmenLel LLC, verde SysLems
LLC, lnLelllgenL 1ransporLauon .LLC, and v2C LLC. Warren Pavens ls ÞresldenL of Lhese companles.

1hls parual, publlc verslon ls ñled ln lCC dockeL 11-79, !anuary _ , 2014.

1hls ls ñled ln Lhls dockeL for purposes sLaLed by Lhe lCC, and ln response Lo recenL ex parLe presenLauons by
some rallroads' LhaL lmpllcaLe Sky1el, Sky1el's A1MS llcenses, our oñers of AM1S specLrum Lo rallroads,
and Lhe publlc lnLeresL Lhe lCC lndlcaLes ln openlng and conducung Lhls dockeL.

CredlL: nokla Slemens
Above excerpLs ls from Lhe publlcauon llsLed above, copy aL:

1he 5k¥1íl group holds a broad, unlque assembly of radlo specLrum ln Lhe 900, 200 & 40 Mnz ranges
nauonwlde, llsLed ln 5ecuoo 6 below, as Lhe foooJouoo* for nauonwlde wlreless for smarL LransporL,
energy and envlronmenL sysLems, wlLh hlgh-accuracy Þn1* (whlch we call º1ettooooucs")
ln publlc-prlvaLe-nonproñL parLnershlps.

AJvooceJ kolltooJ wlteless (Akw), ouLllned hereln, ls wlLhln 1ettooooucs.

1bls ll1 lllosttotes compooeots ooJ beoefts of 1ettooooucs, oot ooly of Akw.

*" Þosluon, navlgauon and 1lmlng," as used ln Lhe CnSS/ radlolocauon lndusLry.



(l) l1c bockqtoooJ. 8oJ beoefts/cost, tecb ooJ excoses. Cood os ploqotm fot Awk.
1. cottlJot A8W plan (nLC used as example) ls sane, buL a plan wlLh lndependenL rallroad
wlreless sysLems and specLrum ls severely wasLeful, and hardly posslble wlLh avallable
specLrum and publlc fundlng.
2. wlJebooJ conuguous specLrum and beneñLs, lncludlng ln 200 MPz.
J. nlqb Accotocy locouoo (PALC) wlLh one-way 8roadcasL daLa, for º8CAS" - 8allroad
Colllslon Avoldance SysLems (l) makes Þ1C teJooJoot, and (ll) ls, by an order or magnlLude
or more, more cosL eñecuve Lo deploy and malnLaln, and ls needed anyway for A8W.
4. AJvooceJ kolltooJ wlteless (A8W-CW-PALC) (A8W for Corrldors wlLh Wldeband and Plgh
Accuracy Locauon).
5. 5ecotlty. ueñclencles ln one -band, one -mode Þ1C sysLems vs. mulu-mode A8W.
6. 5pecttom llcenses of Sky1el enuues: 217-220, 904-910+, 33/43 MPz, and Sky1el.
• Sky1el obLalned Lhese for nauonwlde smarL LransporL, energy and envlronmenL sysLems, whlch
can lnclude Akw.
• Þersons Loo ñxed on Þ1C are noL ln a posluon Lo conslder or pursue Akw, as we experlence.
lL may even be seen (falsely) as a LhreaL.
• We presenL Akw as parL of our nauonwlde plans, lncludlng Lo persons ln varlous federal agencles
Congress, and oLher publlc enuues. Þubllc-prlvaLe-nonproñL (all 3 secLors) are besL comblnauon.

- (l) -

l1c bockqtoooJ.
8oJ beoefts/cost, tecb ooJ excoses.
CooJ os ploqotm fot Awk.

1he º8all SafeLy lmprovemenL AcL of 2008"
Þ1C ls noL a wlreless specLrum band, Lechnology or sysLem.

lL ls noL necessarlly a Lwo-way wlreless sysLem.

lL does noL have Lo be ln, or only ln 220-MPz range specLrum.

lL does noL have Lo be a sLand-alone wlreless appllcauon.

lL does noL have Lo be whaL Lhe frelghL rallroads wanL and promoLe lL Lo be.

lL does noL have Lo be wasLeful and lgnoranL of Lhe besL specLrum, Lech, and sysLems
avallable, wlLh only slmple ob[ecuve assessmenL, free of undue speclal lnLeresLs and
personal buy-lns Lo whaL ls, Lhus far, deñclenL Þ1C-only plans.

lL does noL have Lo make uS rallroad / governmenL wlreless lnLo a laughlng sLock
lnLernauonally and lnLernally among Lhe non-deluded, whlch wlll evenLually be clear.
Þ1C slnce 2008, Þ1C radlo sysLems, asserLed specLrum shorLage, eLc.

Sky1el presenLed on Þ1C ln lCC dockeL 11-79. 1hose and easlly accesslble publlc maLerlals and research show:
- l1c wlteless Joes oot oeeJ mocb specttom. 1bete ls llule Joto to be posseJ.
- 1bete ls oo l1c wlteless system ploo of sobstooce to Jote wltb esseouol compooeots, locloJloq JefoeJ
secotlty, oppllcouoos, qtoJes of setvlce, Joto copoclty oeeJeJ, wlteless covetoqe ooJ copoclty oeeJeJ, types
of toJlo tecb to be oseJ, specttom oeeJeJ, system ooJ otcbltectote oltetoouves, etc.* Not sotptlsloqly,
tolltooJs Jo oot seek toJlo epolpmeot tbot moke seose- fot wlJet cboooels ooJ specttom e[cleocles.
- kolltooJs wete mooJoteJ to lmplemeot l1c, by o qeoetol cooqtessloool Act, bot lt ls oo oofooJeJ mooJote
jsee íoJ Note 1- lost secuoo] tbot ls teslsteJ. Assetuoos of lock of toJlo specttom ls ooe meoos to teslst .
- . ot leost to slow lmplemeotouoo, ooJ lo tbe Jeloy, seek fooJloq, etc. 5ky1el eouues bove o plotollty of
217-222 Mnz ovolloble fot l1c, bot oot ooce bos ooy tolltooJ tespooJeJ to oot loluoteJ ptoposols ovet mooy
yeots. 5ome tolltooJ bove lssoeJ to 5kytel tepoests fot lofotmouoo, lotetest, ooJ oot-folly-JefoeJ ptoposols.
5ky1el bos olwoys tespooJeJ.** (we bove, ot umes, o[eteJ specttom ot llule ot oo foooclol cost (ooJ ooly moJest otbet cost, cleotly lo
tbe pobllc lotetest), ot ot opptolseJ voloe less o Jlscooot, ooJ lo ooy cose oevet obove folt motket voloe (wblcb we koow. oll soles of
qeoqtopblc AM15 specttom bove beeo Jltectly by os, of oot specttom).
- 1bese ossetuoos ote fot tbe most pott folse. 5ky1el coo ptovlJe Jetolls to tbe lcc (some pobllc, ooJ some
coofJeouol), lf tbe lcc woolJ llke to bove tbem, to compote to ossetuoos of some tolltooJs.
- * L.g., noL one rallroad has, ln publlc (per our subsLanual research), or ln prlvaLe communlcauons wlLh us, reßecLed baslc knowledge of
fundamenLal ma[or dlñerences ln many of Lhese facLors, e.g., Lhe ma[or dlñerence ln performance per amounL of specLrum by use of a
large specLrum block vs. separaLed narrow channels, and use of modern wlder band Lechnologles. Some of Lhls ls dlscussed below.
- ** 5ky1el´s tespooses ote umely ooJ well wltblo tbe folt motket lo ecooomlc tetms, coottoct looqooqe, etc.. lf tolltooJs boJ cotteot
lnLeresL and capablllLy (funds, auLhorlLy, a serlous Þ1C plan, eLc.), Lhe lCC would have seen asslgnmenLs or leases. Oot cooclosloo ls tbot
tbe pobllc oqeocy tolltooJs lo tbls cose ote oot yet ´teoJy boyets´ lo o ´motket´ sltoouoo. 1bls oppeots to be sloce tbete ls o Covetomeot
to Covetomeot fqbt (feJetol vs. stote-locol), ooJ tbot Joes oot soppott o ptopet motket eovltoomeot (tbe ´motket´ ls oot C to C).
8e: Þ1C slnce 2008, Þ1C radlo sysLems, asserLed specLrum shorLage, eLc. (conunued)
As loJlcoteJ oo tbe pteceJloq poqe, lo oot sobstoouol expetleoce wltb l1c wlteless ooJ
pobllc oqeocy tolltooJs, tbe tolltooJs ote sobject to oo expeoslve, botJeosome, oofooJeJ
mooJote. 5ee olso tbe lost poqe below - íoJootes.
l1c wlteless by ltself Joes oot moke seose. 1bls ls plolo oow, ooJ wlll come to booot
tbose wbo ovolJ.
8ot wbot mokes seose ls !"#$%&'" )$*+,-$" .*,'+'// 0!).1, tbot levetoqes tbe
mooJoteJ l1c, to ptovlJe oo otJet of moqoltoJe- plos lo lmptovemeots ovet l1c lo
oppllcouoos, secotlty, copoclty, fotote vloblllty, beoefts-to-cost, loteqtouoo wltb
commetclol wlteless oo ttolos, etc.
we pteseot Akw below. 5ome fotm of ´Akw´ (by votloos oomes) ls beloq lmplemeoteJ
wotlJwlJe. 1be u5 sboolJ oot qet fottbet bebloJ. lt ls octoolly lo o qooJ posluoo to leoJ.
1bls l1c fxouoo ls o Jlvetsloo -- bot lt coo be oseJ os o ploqotm fot Akw.
Akw wlll ose blqbly specttom e[cleot tecb, systems ooJ otcbltectote. 1bese ote cotteotly
lt moy eoJ op folly covetloq costs, tesoluoq lo NO Ní1 cO515 to qovetomeot tolltooJs.
5ky1el belleves ossetuoos oo tbe lef ote wtooq ooJ teveol
lock of cooJot wltb tbe lcc ooJ cooqtess.
[1] [2] 1hese rallroads sbow oo oeeJ for Þ1C specLrum-
Lhey goL Lhelr 220 MPz and wanL more, for Lhelr non-Þ1C
proñL buslness. 1hey falled Lo show oLherwlse ln Lhe Þ1C
dockeL, Lhe relaLed SC88A dockeL, and Lhelr own speclal
consLrucuon-walver proceedlng.
[3] [4] Sky1el dld noL asserL lL was ºunfalr," buL LhaL lL
would be lllegal, aL leasL wlLhouL proper emlnenL domaln
procedure, buL for LhaL, Lhe rallroads have Lo show a
compelllng need, and Lhey have noL done LhaL- Lhelr
allegauons of specLrum problems ls used Lo ob[ecL Lo and
delay Þ1C mandaLe, Lry Lo ñnd money, eLc. 8allroads aL Lhe
same ume- (l) LhreaLen Sky1el and oLher specLrum
llcensees ln Lhls way (ºwe need Lo Lake you llcenses by
ºreallocauon" or else we wlll run over grandma.") and (ll)
ºnegouaLe" for specLrum as lf ln Lhe ºfalr markeL," and aL
Lhe same ume (a) say Lhey loJeeJ bove blllloos of dollars
Lhey are ralslng and commlmng for Þ1C (alleged assoclaLed
large sysLem lnLegraLor conLracLs, eLc.) buL (b) Lhen lamenL
Lo Lhe lCC LhaL Lhey loJeeJ bove scoot money for specLrum.
5ky1el bos oot ooce boJ o ptoblem oqteeloq oo ptlce ooJ tetms
wltb powet oullues ooJ otbets tbot octoolly seek specttom ot folt
motket tetms ooJ cooJluoos. 5ky1el boJ oot tolseJ ptlces fot ooy
tolltooJs, vetses lts opptolseJ folt motket ptlces ooJ fotmolos. 1be
ptoblem ls- ooJetstooJobly- tbe tollooJs Jo oot woot tbe l1c
boooJoqle. lt sboolJ be swltcbeJ to AJvooceJ kolltooJ wlteless.
- 1be text oo lef ls ftom
tbls ck5 tepott ftom mostly
secooJ booJ sootces.
- 1be ootbots JlJ oot
cootoct 5ky1el ooJ woolJ
oot tespooJ to w. noveos.
Nooe of tbe tesolts fot ´posluve ttolo coottol,´ ´l1c´ ooJ teloteJ tetms
pteseots ot blots ot l1c lloo os ootlloeJ oo tbe pteceJloq poqe (locloJloq
tbe popet ftom Meteotcomm ooJ popets teqotJloq lííí 802.15 ft l1c).

1bls lííí Jotobose bos exteoslve otucles oo oll octoolly ploooeJ, vloble
wlteless tecbooloqles ooJ systems - 8u1 NO1 u5 l1c. lííí membets coo vetlfy
tbe obove ossetuoo lo Jetoll, ooJ wltboot beloq o membet yoo coo seotcb ooJ qet
1hese excerpLs ln blue boxes are from: 1rlmble ºAccuracy ln Lhe
Workforce," May 2011.
Sky1el has noL yeL conñrmed 1rlmble's speclñc asseruons here ln law, buL
generally hlgh accuracy locauon (ºPALC" - see Secuon 3 below) ls needed
for Lraln (and all roadway vehlcular) safeLy and emclency, and crlucal
lnfrasLrucLure asseL lnvenLorles. lor PALC, (l) Lhe roadway musL be
preclsely surveyed and mapped ln dlglLal ClS, and (ll) Lhe movlng vehlcles
musL be Lracked ln real ume ln dlñerenual CÞS-CnSS wlLh ongolng error
correcuons. ºneLwork 81k" ls belng adopLed worldwlde for lnLelllgenL
vehlcle 1ransporLauon SysLems, as Lhe mosL accuraLe and very cosL
eñecuve PALC for roadways. 1hus can lnclude rallroads as well as non-
rall roadways.

- 1 -

cottlJot A8W plan
(nLC used as example)

Corrldor A8W ls pracucal & emclenL,
buL any Þ1C-only plan, or any oLher plan
wlLh lndependenL rallroad wlreless sysLems & specLrum
ls severely wasLeful,
and noL posslble wlLh avallable specLrum & publlc fundlng.

u5 cottlJot Akw:
llrsL, lL ls oot l1c - buL wlll eoslly ptovlJe l1c as a slmple appllcauon. lL wlll use Þ1C and
220 MPz range specLrum beuer and expand for needed vlablllLy.
wbot ls tbe l1c wlteless ploo ofet 5 yeots ftom tbe Mettollok occlJeot ?
1bete ls oo l1c wlteless ploo. oo teol ploo wltb esseouol compooeots, locloJloq JefoeJ
oppllcouoos, qtoJes of setvlce, Joto copoclty oeeJeJ, tesoltoot wlteless covetoqe ooJ
copoclty oeeJeJ, types of toJlo tecb to be oseJ, specttom oeeJeJ, system ooJ
otcbltectote oltetoouves, etc.
uon'L belleve lL - qo tty to foJ ooe. noL presenLed by any rallroad, Þ1C radlo
equlpmenL provlde, sysLems lnLegraLor, l8A, AÞ1A, AA8, noL on lnLerneL, noL ln lCC
11-79, noL under lííí (see precedlng page), eLc. 1bls l1c empetot bos oo clotbes. Þ1C ls noL
wanLed as lL ls bad law, bad cosL/beneñL = no plan, buL a loL of eñorL Lo exLend Lhe
deadllne, and ñgure ouL how tbe pobllc wlll pay for Lhls l1coo boooJoqle.
1be test of tbe JevelopeJ wotlJ bos ploos ooJ lmplemeotouoos fot oJvooceJ tolltooJ
wlteless, to locloJe l1c foocuoos. 1be u5 ls JlvetteJ by l1c cooqtess JemooJs ooJ tbe
tolltooJs Jo oot woot to Jo. lmplemeouoq AJvooceJ kolltooJ wlteless lo tbe u5 coo
toto l1c loto tbe best Akw lo tbe wotlJ.
uSuC1, lederal 8allroad AdmlnlsLrauon, Cmce of 8allroad Þollcy & uevelopmenL. hup://necfuLure.com/pdfs/prellm_alLs_reporL.pdf
We use Lhls Lo lllusLraLe tbe oeeJ fot
Corrldor wlreless sysLems, plans, and
specLrum for uS passenger rallroads.

lf eocb seqmeot of Lhls nLC ot ooy
rallroad corrldor wlLh muluple
segmenLs (operaLed by dlñerenL
rallroads or oLherwlse), has lts owo
sysLem and specLrum, tbete ls qteot
woste of specLrum, and sysLem
caplLal and operaung cosLs, and less
securlLy, lnLer-segmenL lnLeroper-
ablllLy, less economles of scale ln
equlpmenL used, eLc. (We conunue
and demonsLraLe Lhls below.)

ln addluon, SkyLel proposes for Lhls
nLC 8all Corrldor - Advanced
8allroad Wlreless, on cottlJot basls,
wlLh wlJebooJ specLrum and
equlpmenL ln 217-220 MPz, 904-910
MPz & 33-43 MPz. 1hls should be
soppotteJ ot tbe feJetol level as ls
Lhls nLC luLure 8all lnvesLmenL Þlan.
1hls shows Lhe pet-tolltooJ seqmeots
along nLC (passenger rall operauons).
1here should be ooe Níc AJvooceJ
kolltooJ wlteless system.

1haL ls besL served by ooe, loteqtoteJ
specttom ploo LhaL supporLs Lhe besL
radlo Lech, equlpmenL and sysLems, as
we propose hereln. 5pecttom ls tbe
foooJouoo. (1ry Lo show oLherwlse.)

nLC A8W should use wldeband
specLrum and Lech, and supporL: (l) ñrsL,
Lraln operauons, buL also (ll) passenger
broadband - underlylng 4C L1L
commerclal wlreless and Wlll, and
maklng Lhe passenger wlreless hlghly
rellable -- wlLh no coverage gaps (more

cluzeo osets ooJ toxpoyets sboolJ qet
tbe best, ooJ best beoefts/costs Níc
tolltooJ system - tbls oeeJs Akw os we
ptopose betelo. 1bls coo ooly be
ocbleveJ wltb feJetol level leoJetsblp
ooJ soppott.
We add Lhe
road map Lo
show where
Lhe rallroad
corrldors lle:
LhroughouL all
of Sweden.
í\AMllí. lrom Lhe documenL llsLed above, Lhls ls a map of Lhe
nauonwlde Swedlsh 900 MPz CSM-8 (CSM for 8allroads) radlo sysLem.
lL uses a block of 900 Mnz specLrum ad[acenL Lo Lhe commerclal CSM
900 MPz specLrum 1x and 8x bands. Cn all rall corrldors, even ln
rugged parLs of Sweden, tbe toJlo-potbs ote folly koowo, and rellable
coverage ls easy Lo plan and lmplemenL. 900 Mnz setves well,* and
Lhere ls noL sumclenL vPl ln any developed nauon for subsLanual
advanced rallroad wlreless.

23 Lhls deplcLed sysLem had Lo use Lhe same specLrum ln segmenLs,
where Lhe lnLer-segmenL specLrum use wos oot cootJlooteJ (causlng
co-channel lnLerference, and Lhus large dlsLances for mlugauon of LhaL
lnLerference) Lhen approxlmaLely uOu8lí Lhe amounL of specLrum
would be needed. 1be coovetse opplles. tbe some specttom coo be oseJ
oo oll seqmeots lf cootJlooteJ. lurLher, lf Lhe deplcLed sysLem used
ooo-oJjoceot specLrum of small per-channel bandwldLh, wlLh oLher
enuues uslng Lhe lnLerleaved specLrum, Lhen each channel would need
subsLanual ad[acenL-channel-lnLerference guard-band specLrum, Lo
leave vacanL, LhaL could fottbet ~ uOu8lí Lhe specLrum needed fot
some covetoqe copoclty. [8e an even greaLer lncrease - see p. below.]

8u1 tbls woste ls wbot u5 tolltooJs olooq o cottlJot, e.q., tbe Níc ploo
fot l1c: use of ooo-cootJlooteJ specLrum along dlñerenL segmenLs of
dlñerenL rallroads, and use of ooo-oJjoceot oottow channels. lL sbows
lock of tbe fooJomeotol koowleJqe ooJ cote ln specLrum and sysLem
plannlng, and lack of awareness of oLher advanLages of wlde-band
specLrum, Lechnology, radlos and sysLems.
* 8uL 200/ 900 / 40 MPz ls far beuer, as we propose.
ueplcuon: 8ed and 8lue
represenL dlñerenL
narrow channels, raLher
Lhan uslng Lhe same LoLal
amounL of specLrum aL
each base sLauon
anLenna slLe.

PelghL of red/ blue llnes
represenLs Lñecuve 8adlaLed
1. use of Lhe same wlder channels aL each slLe, wlLh approprlaLe Lechnology (ln parL dlscussed below) ls fot
more specLrum emclenL. lltst, Lhe Lechnology ls more specLrum emclenL. 8uL more fundamenLal -
2. 5ecooJ, lL allows oll of Lhe specttom Lo be used aL each slLe and eocb leoqtb of tbe ttock, as Lhe Lralns
pass.* use of dlñerenL specLrum per segmenL of Lrack makes no sense - lL only makes sense, someumes
(such as ln days pasL, when wldeband wlreless was noL vlable) ln wlde-area all-dlrecuons wlreless, such as coverlng
large land masses wlLh roads and users ln all dlrecuons. 1tolos cottlJots ote oot llke tbot: even ln urban
areas wlLh Lraln corrldors someumes crosslng, muluple Lralns are generally noL ln Lhe area of one base
sLauon aL Lhe same ume. 5pecttom sboolJ be folly ollocoteJ wbeo o ose otlses (bete, wbeo o ttolo
posses), tbeo folly ollocoteJ Jowo tbe ttock ot oootbet stouoo wbeo tbe ose otlses.
J. 1bltJ, use of non-conuguous more-narrow channels aL ad[acenL slLes along a rallroad corrldor requlres a
guard band (bullL lnLo Lhe channel, or beyond Lhe channel) - per each channel - whlch ls specLrum
lnemclenL verses use of Lhe wlder channels. (1hls ls shown ln a sllde below.)
* lL allows close Lo Lhls even when Lhere are no Lralns - whlch ralses Lhe quesuon: Pow Lo use Lhls exLra capaclLy?
lL can be used for oLher mlsslon-crlucal funcuons, ooJ sobstoouolly ooJetwtlte / teJoce tbe tolltooJ-ose cost.
8adlo base
sLauon anLenna

8adlo base
sLauon anLenna

ueplcuon: see
precedlng page:

8ed and 8lue represenL
dlñerenL narrow
channels, raLher Lhan
uslng Lhe same LoLal
amounL of specLrum aL
each base sLauon
anLenna slLe.

1he l l ghL green-
yel l ow ln all of Lhe
deplcLed ºcell slLe"
radlo-coverage areas,
along Lhe Lraln
corrldor, represenL
Lhe 5AMí wluí
8ANu channel used
aL each slLe, ln each
coverage area.*
* 5ee pteceJloq poqe os to loluol sommoty of some of tbe beoefts.
CSM-8 ls a 2
Cen commerclal land
moblle wlreless Lechnology. lL ls
reasonable specLrum & cosL
emclenL (caplLal & operaung cosLs).
u5 l1c wlreless ls far less specLrum
and cosL emclenL vs CSM-8.
l1í ooJ l1í-llke tecb & systems fot
tolltooJ ls far more specLrum and
cosL emclenL vs. CSM-8 as deplcLed
here (specLrum ls parL of overall
cosLs, when lL ls even avallable),
and some otJet(s) of moqoltoJe
mote specttom ooJ cost e[cleot
vs. u5 ploooeJ l1c wlteless.
8uL beyond LhaL, ploooeJ u5 l1c
wlteless wlll slmply oot meet tbe
oeeJeJ oppllcouoos fot ttolo ooJ
posseoqet sofety ooJ otbet ctlucol
foocuoos. l1 ls oo otufclol feJetol
lmposluoo. leJetol oqeocles coo
toto lt loto mojot wlo, vlo soppott
of AJvooceJ kolltooJ wlteless.
(Sky1el added Lo Lhe above Lhe curve and label on uS Þ1C as planned, and whlch was ls good.)
0S PTC as planneu
Cn on analysls of CosLs/8eneñLs (beneñLs belng: sysLem capaclLy, rellablllLy,
appllcauons servlced, fuLure vlablllLy, eLc.), Lhe above curves would be even more ln
favor of Lhe ºnexLCen" whlch hereln we called AJvooceJ kolltooJ wlteless,
especlally slnce we propose Lhree specLrum bands, and boLh Lwo-way and one-way
wlreless, whlch añords ma[or advanLages.
&'( #$
´NextCeo´ l1í ooJ l1í-llke Lech and sysLems provlde Lhe beneñLs ln parL sum-
marlzed above: use of wlJe booJ channels, oll oseJ ot eocb bose stouoo (ºcell slLe"
ºanLenna slLe," ºenode8" - all meanlng Lhe same).
1hls expands
upon Lhe polnLs
commenced on
Lhe precedlng

(Sky1el added Lo Lhe above Lhe bar and label on uS Þ1C as planned, and whlch way ls good.)
0S PTC as planneu
&'( #$
1hls expands
upon Lhe polnLs
commenced on
Lhe precedlng
As AlcaLel sLaLes, l1í o[ets ´fot qteotet e[cleocy tboo C5M-k ot 1í1kA. eveo wltb llmlteJ. booJwlJtb. o boqe tooqe of oppllcouoos .
coosollJoteJ loto o sloqle. oetwotk.´
WlLh l1c-olooe wlteless-- uslng narrow channels and radlos ln 220 MPz-range only- Lhe uS Lraln lndusLry ls on Lhe wrong Lrack down
slope Lo a broken LresLle brldge, llke ln Lhe old-ume movle, bot tbls ls teol to tox poyets ooJ posseoqets.
1he federal governmenL and Lax payers should noL allow lL.
1hls currenLly planned Þ1C ls somehwaL llke 1L18A, noLed above, buL noL nearly as maLure and emclenL: yeL 1L18A* ls far lnferlor Lo
L1L, and L1L-llke Lech and producLs avallable ln 220-MPz range, lf one uses sumclenLly wlde conuguous blocks. We dlscuss LhaL below.
* 1L18A uses 1uMA ln 23 kPz non-conuguous channels. uS Þ1C as planned uses alleged Lypes of 1uMA ln 12.3 kPz channels (as
reporLed by, e.g., Þ1C 220 LLC, SLÞ1A, l8A on AmLrak (e.g. hup://www.fra.doL.gov/Þage/Þ0287).


- 2 -

wlJebooJ* coouqooos
specLrum blocks
and beneñLs, lncludlng ln 200 MPz

* We use ºwldeband" hereln Lo mean subsLanually wlder, by large muluples,
of whaL ls planned for Þ1C, and LhaL can use L1L or L1L-llke Lech, ln parL lndlcaLed hereln.

1bls ls lllosttouve, oot beteby o soqqesteJ tecbooloqy ot ptoJoct. 1hls ls an example of an wlder-band mlsslon-crlucal vlP-range radlo
and sysLem. Note tbe compotlsoo below betweeo 12.5 knz ooJ 100 knz booJwlJtb os lmplemeoteJ lo tbls toJlo. 1he SkySkweep
company lnformed Sky1el (no relauons beLween Lhe companles) LhaL Lhey can radlos ln lower 200 MPz, upon commerclal
arrangemenLs. 8elow ls from: hup://www.skysweep.com/lndex-2.hLml
1bls ls lllosttouve, oot beteby o
soqqesteJ tecbooloqy ot ptoJoct.

1hls ls an example of an wlder-band
mlsslon-crlucal vlP-range (and hlgher)
radlo and sysLem.

1hls ls from 8ockwell Colllns and
1hales, deslgned for mlllLary use.

8uL Lhe same Lech can be used ln non-
mlllLary radlos (excludlng some
feaLures noL needed ouLslde mlllLary
use, such as SC8): narrow up Lo wlde
band channels, muluple bands, and
Lhe noLed advanced characLerlsucs,

WlLhouL use of wlder conuguous
channels, one cannoL use radlos LhaL
use such wlder channels, and supporL
hlgher daLa raLes and more advanced
appllcauons (and greaLer LoLal sysLem
capaclLy), eLc. 8uL wlLh such wlder
channels, Lhe sysLem operaLor can
always use more narrowband channels
and modes (dlvldlng Lhe wlder
conuguous specLrum lnLo any number
of more narrow channels).

lL ls besL Lo sLarL wlLh a conuguous
block for currenL and fuLure purposes.
1bls ls lllosttouve, oot beteby o soqqesteJ tecbooloqy ot ptoJoct.
ke. less qootJ cboooels oeeJeJ fot 1 coouqooos block vs. mooy blocks.
1he dlagrams on Lhe leû
deplcL guard bands ln
ºacLual" (real world) radlo-
sysLems, on boLh ends of a
number of frequencles used
for daLa Lransmlsslon (a
º As a numerlcal example, assume LhaL a glven . Lransmlsslon requlres
m = 8 daLa channels. Assume LhaL Lhe besL 8 channels are non-
conuguous and one guard channel on each slde of a daLa channel ls
avallable. Accordlng Lo Lhe greedy scheme, Lhls . Lransmlsslon requlres
16 guard channels, whlch resulLs ln specLrum emclency of 33°. Pere,
specLrum emclency ls deñned as Lhe rauo of Lhe number of daLa
channels and Lhe LoLal number of requlred daLa-plus-guard channels.

º Cn Lhe oLher hand, lf 8 ad[acenL daLa channels are avallable (l.e., one
[conuguous] frequency block), Lhe Lransmlsslon wlll requlre only 2 guard
channels. 1hls resulLs ln specLrum emclency of 80°. llgure 2 shows Lhe
LoLal number of requlred channels as a funcuon of k for m = 8.
Source of charLs and quoLed language: ºueslgn and Lvaluauon of an LmclenL Cuard-band-aware Mulu-channel SpecLrum Sharlng Mechanlsm,"
Copy aL: www2.engr.arlzona.edu/~krunz/18/guardband_aware_leb2011.pdf
Pere ls an example of a mlsslon-crlucal
vPl* radlo Lranscelver (LransmlL-
recelve radlo) LhaL occuples 23 kPz.

1he daLa modulauon uses ºabouL 7
kPz"" leavlng 18 kPz guard band
specLrum: 9 kPz on each slde.

Whlle many facLor añecL sulLable
wldLh of guard bands, Sky1el's
proposal allows eñecuve guard bands
on boLh ends of Lhe proposed
conuguous specLrum block: 10 kPz on
one end, and LhaL or greaLer on Lhe
oLher end. Sky1el wlll use Lhese only
ln a way LhaL ºguards" Lhe rallroad's
use of Lhe asslgned block. 1he rallroad
wlll fully conLrol ad[acenL-channel
lssues lnLra-block (wheLher lL uses
narrow or wlder channels).

* vPl ls 30-300 MPz, and lncludes
217-222 MPz.
8egardlng vPl range guard bands, and furLher on conuguous blocks.
1hls ls from a reporL
commlssloned by

We add here Lhe
elemenLs ln color.

1he advances from C
Lo C are far larger Lhan
deplcLed by Lhe box
slzes by a facLor of 10+.

1hls enure reporL ls
relevanL Lo A8W. We
lnclude some excerpLs
on Lhe followlng page.

* lrom nlshlLh u. 1rlpaLhl Þh. u., ºL1L ueploymenLs ln Lhe LMS band for l1S 8adlo Communlcauons and Locauon, verslon 2," AugusL 2012. Copy aL:
Þ1C as planned ls
~ here ln Lerms of
dlglLal Lech overall,
~ & here ls Lerms of
sysLem capablllues
A8W as proposed hereln ls ~ here
ln comblnauon of emclencles and
!"#$ &'( #$
lrom Lhe
clLed on
- - - - -
ls a one-
servlce ln

plans Lo
use Lhls
forms of
L1L), buL
also Lo
use u8M
ln 200 and
40 MPz

- 3 -

nlqb Accotocy locouoo (PALC)
wlLh one-way 8roadcasL daLa
for º8CAS" - 8allroad Colllslon Avoldance SysLems,
(l) makes Þ1C teJooJoot, and
(ll) ls, by an order or magnlLude or more,
more cosL eñecuve Lo deploy and malnLaln,
and ls needed anyway for A8W.

(ke. ´kcA5´ = kolltooJ colllsloo AvolJooce 5ystem)
1hls descrlbes an oJJluoool form of wlreless for rallroad safeLy. 5ky1el eouues´ specttom ls vety soltoble fot tbls, os well.
lrom: See nexL page for paper uLle and auLhors. Copy aL Lhls llnk:
(ke. ´kcA5´ = kolltooJ colllsloo AvolJooce 5ystem)
Conunued from prevlous page.*
5ky1el eouues´ oouoowlJe ploo bos, os o cote oppllcouoo - blqb occotocy posluoo, umloq ooJ oovlqouoo (nA lN1). we bove oo lJeol
combloouoo of J-booJs of specttom fot tbls, osloq btooJcost, moblle peet-peet, ooJ two-woy moJes, ooJ Jellvety of coostoot neLwork 81k
CN55 cottecuoo Joto fot sob-Jeclmetet occotocy combloeJ wltb oobootJ lN5, etc. nA l1N wlll lmptove eveo fottbet tbe type of tolltooJ
(ttolos) kcA5 JesctlbeJ obove. (´kcA5´ = kolltooJ colllsloo AvolJooce 5ystem)
1hls and prevlous pages are excepLs from:
(ke. ´kcA5´ = kolltooJ colllsloo AvolJooce 5ystem)
Conunued from prevlous page.*
5ky1el eouues´ oouoowlJe ploo bos, os o cote
oppllcouoo - blqb occotocy posluoo, umloq ooJ
oovlqouoo (nA lN1). we bove oo lJeol
combloouoo of J-booJs of specttom fot tbls,
osloq btooJcost, moblle peet-peet, ooJ two-
woy moJes, ooJ Jellvety of coostoot
Netwotk k1k CN55 cottecuoo Joto fot sob-
Jeclmetet occotocy combloeJ wltb oobootJ
lN5, etc.

1bls ls oseJ to Jeplct Cl5-CN55 slqools (otooqe)
(bot ossome tbete ote mooy CN55 sotellltes
vlslble ooJ oseJ), Netwotk k1k cottecuoo
slqools vlo looq-tooqe 8kOAucA51 (qteeo), ooJ
two-woy commoolcouoos (potple).

8tooJcost N-k1k wlll ptovlJe uíclMí1ík
occotocy (see below) to movloq ttolos, ttockslJe
veblcles ooJ wotkets, posseoqets, etc.

(1bls NA lN1 compooeot of AJvooceJ kolltooJ
wlteless ls coouooeJ below.)
ueplcuon credlL: SLeve ulLmeyer, SCC81/188, 8all CapaclLy Workshop, SepLember 22, 2010
8eal-ume vehlcle locallzauon ls one of Lhree key enabllng Lechnologles for Lhe concepLs of vehlcle-Lo-vehlcle and vehlcle-Lo-
lnfrasLrucLure (v2v and v2l, collecuvely Lermed v2x, see openlng graphlc), a classlñcauon of lnLelllgenL LransporL sysLems
(l1S). 1he furLher enabllng Lechnologles are ad-hoc dynamlc neLworklng of agenLs, and accuraLe dynamlc local Lramc maps.
!olnLly, Lhese requlre LhaL posluonlng be accuraLe, rellable, avallable, and conunuous.

A naLural evoluuon ln road LransporL, v2x promlses Lo dellver Lhe nexL ma[or safeLy breakLhrough. 1he concepL moves away
from vehlcles maklng lndlvldual declslons abouL road safeLy, as ln advanced drlver asslsLance sysLems, and Lowards a
cooperauve drlvlng approach LhaL shlûs Lhe emphasls from colllslon proLecuon Lo colllslon prevenuon. 1he u.S. nauonal
Plghway 1ramc SafeLy AdmlnlsLrauon esumaLes LhaL v2x Lechnology can avold or mlnlmlze up Lo 80 percenL of colllslons of
unlmpalred drlvers, and LhaL even a small number of deployed vehlcles wlll provlde Langlble safeLy beneñLs.

neLwork 81k CnSS posluonlng, llke v2x appllcauons, requlres a communlcauon sysLem, and by lLs naLure v2x has a
posluonlng soluuon requlremenL. 1hus lL ls envlsloned LhaL neLwork 81k wlll play an essenual role ln Lhe lmplemenLauon of
v2x sysLems.
* * * *
ulglLal Audlo 8roadcasung (uA8) ls capable of belng used as a fuLure communlcauon meLhod for neLwork 81k posluonlng.
Compared Lo Lradluonal vPl and uPl radlo communlcauon [Lwo-way land moblle radlo], lL uses Lhe frequency more
emclenLly and ls more robusL Lo degradauon
cíN1lMí1ík ACCu8AC?

- 4 -

Advanced 8allroad Wlreless

(8ead above slldes ñrsL Lo beuer undersLand Lhe below.)

(Also, we descrlbe above, and ln Lhe ñrsL 3 pages below of text slldes
below, componenLs for our proposed u5 Akw LhaL wlll expand
and lmprove whaL ls ouLllned ln qtopblc slldes laLer below,
whlch draws mosLly from leaders ln L1L for 8allroads ouLslde of Lhe uS.)

Advanced 8allroad Wlreless (A8W) lnlual SLudy (Sky1el)

1he sLudy lnvolves use for nLC passenger rallroads' operauons, lncludlng M1A's operauons, of wlde radlo frequency specLrum
blocks ln Lhe followlng radlo servlces and frequency bands:

(a) Lhe ºAM1S" Servlce ln 217-220 MPz (ln greaLer amounLs Lhan ln ),

(b) Lhe ºM-LMS" Servlce ln Lhe lower 900 MPz (ln mulu-MPz bandwldLh),

(c) Lhe ºuS8C" Servlce ln Lhe 3.9 CPz range (ln 10 MPz or more bandwldLh), and

(d) Lhe ºÞaglng" servlce llcenses ln Lhe 33 and 43 MPz vPl ºLow 8and" range.

Sky1el enuues, Sky1el, holds lCC llcenses ln all Lhese servlces and bands excepL uS8C: Lhese holdlngs are descrlbed and mapped
ln slldes below.

uS8C ls Lhe ºslsLer" band Lo M-LMS. 1hese are Lhe Lwo compose Lhe ºlnLelllgenL 1ransporLauon SysLem 8adlo Servlce" esLabllshed
by Lhe lCC under ÞarL 90 subparL M of lLs rules. uS8C aL 3.9 CPz ls for shorL-range and M-LMS ln lower 900 MPz ls for long-range
wlreless coverage. AM1S ln lower 200 MPz ls for sull longer-range and more-robusL coverage, and Lhe 30-40 MPz Low 8and
specLrum ls for super -long-range and -robusL coverage. ln mlsslon-crlucal wlreless over wlde areas and corrldors, redundancy ln
coverage and dlverslLy ln bands ls especlally lmporLanL.

1he A8W SLudy wlll lnvolve use, wlLhouL llmlLauon, of Lhe followlng (some of Lhese furLher dlscussed below an ln Lhe Appendlx-1

(a) L1L and L1L-llke Lechnology, producLs and sysLems ln Lhese specLrum bands.

(b) lnLegrauon wlLh commerclal broadband wlreless sysLems as used by Lhese rallroads (º88s") passengers and sLañ,
wlLh a hlgh level of ºñrewall" and oLher conLrols.

Cne of Lhe goals ls Lo achleve no-gap hlghly-secure hlgh-speed wlreless communlcauons for boLh Lraln operauons, and for
passengers-wlLh no gaps, lncludlng for passengers by coverlng Lhe coverage gap ln locauons and umes of Lhe commerclal
wlreless sysLems and Wlll sysLems LhaL provlde varylng levels of servlce along Lhe rallroad corrldors and sLauons. 1he lower range
specLrum descrlbed above (900 MPz and below), placed lnLo servlce aL ñxed based sLauons of Lhe rallroads, can achleve Lhls.
(ConL'd) Advanced 8allroad Wlreless (A8W) lnlual SLudy (Sky1el)

(c) 1wo-way wlreless communlcauons, as well as one-way broadcasL wlreless such as by use of ºulglLal 8adlo
Mondlale" (ºu8M") employlng some of Lhe 33-43 MPz specLrum, and some of Lhe AM1S lower- 200 MPz specLrum.

(d) Plgh-accuracy Þosluonlng, 1lmlng, and navlgauon (ºÞn1") uslng cerLaln currenLly avallable Lechnologles and
sysLems lncludlng ºneLwork 81k." 1hls ls crlucal for many appllcauons, boLh for rallroad operauons, and for passengers,
lncludlng passengers wlLh dlsablllues.

(e) Coverage above ground, and Lhrough underground rallroad faclllues and Lracks (subways), wlLh no gaps.

Sky1el pro[ecLs, for rallroad operauons by Lhemselves, over order of magnlLude lncrease ln per-sLauon, per-llnk, and overall
sysLem capaclLy-- aL only small addluonal caplLal and operauonal expendlLures-- as compared Lo lmplemenLauon of Þ1C-only
wlreless sysLems on lower 200 MPz. 1here would be a muluple of wlreless capaclLy ln addluon, also aL only modesL addluonal
cosLs, for servlce Lo passengers vla Lhe funcuon lndlcaLed above.

1he goals, radlo specLrum, Lechnologles, equlpmenL, sysLems, and means Lo lmplemenL Lhe advanced rallroad wlreless sysLems
ouLllned hereln are all currenLly avallably. Llke sysLems are already deployed and oLhers are belng planned ln varlous ma[or
meLropollLan areas of Lhe World, buL wlLh Lhe specLrum lndlcaLed above, Lhe uS nLC passenger rallroads can have a superlor
sysLem. 1he Appendlx-1 Slldes demonsLraLe some of Lhese, and all of Lhese are easy Lo verlfy. lL ls lmporLanL Lo look ouLslde of
much of Lhe currenL Lhlnklng and Lra[ecLorles of parues noL aware of Lhese, or who would noL beneñL from lmplemenLauon of
Lhe lndlcaLed goals of Lhls nLC SLudy.

1he lmplemenLauon Sky1el has ln mlnd on Lhe specLrum bands and bandwldLhs noLed above would noL only lncrease by a large
muluple Lhe wlreless daLa capaclLy for Lraln operauons, and Lhus lncrease safeLy, securlLy, emclency, eLc., buL also provlde hlgh-
speed wlreless access lnLo Lhe Lralns for passengers. 1hls would be easlly comblned wlLh on-board commerclal and Wlll wlreless
Lo Lhe exLenL Lhose are avallable ln many locauons and Lraln-movemenL condluons.

use of dedlcaLed mlsslon-crlucal-grade radlo specLrum and sysLems descrlbed above wlll provlde consLanL and more rellable
wlreless access for passengers Lhan by use of only commerclal and Wlll wlreless. Caps ln coverage and rellablllLy ls a ma[or
deLracuon ln wlreless access, and Lhe [usL noLed lmproved hlgh-speed wlreless assess Lo passengers should lncrease rldershlp and
revenues, eLc.

(ConL'd) Advanced 8allroad Wlreless (A8W) lnlual SLudy (Sky1el)

1he Lraln operauons would always have prlorlLy use of Lhe mulu-band wlreless sysLems, and ln emergencles would preempL
capaclLy used for passengers ln non-emergency slLuauons. 1hls would be anoLher beneñL.

As general references, Lhe followlng are papers Sky1el commlssloned relevanL Lo Lhls nLC SLudy ouLllne:

A paper by ur. nlshlLh 1rlpaLhl on Lhe use of L1L ln M-LMS ln 900 MPz (where we have 3+ MPz bandwldLh avallable), and ln
AM1S ln 200 MPz:

A paper on Lhe wlreless for rallroads by 8on Llndsey:

A paper by Lhe unlverslLy of Callfornla, 8erkeley, lnsuLuLe of 1ransporLauon SLudles on ublqulLous, nauonwlde hlgh-accuracy
locauon (posluon, navlgauon and umlng)

Slldes below provlde furLher lnformauon on Lhls SLudy rauonale and [usuñcauon, poLenual Lechnologles, eLc. 1hese are by world
leadlng companles and auLhorlues ln advanced wlreless, lncludlng advanced wlreless for rallroads.

Sky1el llcenses. AL Lhe end, ln ÞarL 3, below are slldes descrlblng and mapplng Lhe AM1S 217-220 MPz, M-LMS 900 MPz, and 33/
43 MPz llcenses of LnL and Lhe oLher Sky1el enuues.

/ / /

lrom "L1L lndusLry snapshoL," by nlls kleemann, Pead M88 Soluuons, AÞAC, nokla Soluuons and neLworks. 12/9/2013
lrom: hup://www.masLel.or.ld/ñles/L1L°20Appllcauon°20ln°208eal°20World.pdf
lrom: hup://www.masLel.or.ld/ñles/L1L°20Appllcauon°20ln°208eal°20World.pdf
Conunued, same publlcauon
lrom: hup://www.masLel.or.ld/ñles/L1L°20Appllcauon°20ln°208eal°20World.pdf
Conunued, same publlcauon
lrom: hup://www.masLel.or.ld/ñles/L1L°20Appllcauon°20ln°208eal°20World.pdf
Conunued, same publlcauon
lrom: hup://www.masLel.or.ld/ñles/L1L°20Appllcauon°20ln°208eal°20World.pdf
Conunued, same publlcauon
ltom Jocomeot lJeoufeJ below
lrom: hup://www.hsr.ca.gov/docs/programs/elr_memos/Þro[_Culdellnes_1M300_0480.pdf

lrom: SLeñen Amundsen, ºluLure 8all Communlcauon - lmplemenLauon Scenarlos for L1L, !une 2013
As ouLllned ln Lhe nLC plan
sLudy, we propose use of mulu-
MPz M-LMS specLrum wlLh L1L,
along wlLh AM1S (as well as low
band vPl we also hold
nauonwlde) for nLC advanced
rallroad wlreless for (l)
passenger Lraln operauons, and
(ll) for Lhe foundauon of full-
coverage, robusL hlgh-speed
wlreless access for passengers.
lrom nokla Slemens neLworks ºL1L for rallways" SepLember 2010
lrom: hup://www.conferlnLe.clubferovlar.ro/lnfrasLrucLure_developmenL/wp-conLenL/uploads/2012/prezenLarl/danl[el°20kuu°20(2).pdf
lrom same publlcauon
lrom same publlcauon
lrom same publlcauon
lrom same publlcauon
lrom same publlcauon
lrom same publlcauon
lrom same publlcauon
lrom same publlcauon
lrom SLLLx (lLaly) brochure: º1he Cperauonal and Mlsslon crlucal - from narrowband Lo broadband"
lrom: hup://www.selexelsag.com/lnLerneL/locallzauon/lÞC/medla/docs/1PL-8AulC-CCMMunlCA1lCnS-nLW-ÞA1P.pdf
1hls & followlng pages are from:
lrom publlcauon ldenuñed on Lhe rlghL
lrom: hup://www.LmcneL.com/Lmc/whlLepapers/documenLs/whlLepapers/2013/8272-alcaLel-lucenL-lLe-meLro-rallway-operauons.pdf
Conunued from prevlous pages -
same publlcauon
[lncludlng lower 900 MPz, whlch ls ln Lhe sLandard L1L º8and 8."]*
* 5ky1el´s M-lM5 specttom ls lo
tbls specttom ´sweet spot´
especlolly fot looq tollwoy ooJ
otbet ttoospottouoo cottlJots
socb os tbe u5 Nottbeost cottlJot
ooJ lts spots.
lrequencles llsLed below ln blue are 5ky1el enuues' nauonwlde llcenses' frequencles, lncludlng ln norLheasL Corrldor.
1oqetbet, tbese ote lJeol fot covetoqe, teJooJoocy, two-woy ooJ ooe-woy btooJcost.
CharL above (wlLhouL Lhe blue lLems) ls from:
904-910 MPz 33-43 MPz 217-220 MPz

- 3 -
ueñclencles ln
one-band, one-mode Þ1C sysLems
vs. mulu-mode A8W
(muluple specLrum bands,
boLh one-way broadcasL and Lwo-way wlreless,
muluple over-Lhe-alr proLocols, and
redundanL means for dellverlng and verlfylng daLa lnLegrlLy:
losluve 1tolo coottol Joto, ooJ Cl5, coo be jommeJ ooJ spoofeJ, ooJ JetolleJ
ln Þ1C sLand-alone wlreless far more oûen and easlly
Lhan ln Sky1el's proposed Advanced 8allroad Wlreless.

1hls requlres hlgh secotlty, slmllar Lo whaL ls auempLed ln ºsmarL grld" wlreless Lo conLrol power producuon and grld faclllues,
and advanced alr-ground wlreless command and conLrol wlreless. 8uL, Lhls ls noL shown for uS Þ1C wlreless, oot ls ocblevoble
wltb ooe specttom booJ ooJ ooe fotm of wlteless llok to o blqb Jeqtee. 1here are no Þ1C wlreless securlLy proLocols Sky1el has
found ln documenLauon or ln law lncludlng 49 Cl8 ÞarL 236, SubparL P - SLandards for Þrocessor-8ased Slgnal and 1raln ConLrol SysLems.

456 */ 7'89 : ;

Io||ow|ng a proud trad|non of gross neg||gence |n proper /'&<,*9= eng|neer|ng and |mp|ementanon |n v|ta|
commun|canons |nc|ud|ng w|re|ess systems, to name some stars:

Internet: We a|| know some of th|s.
GÞS: (|) Interference: commerc|a| rece|vers w|thout proper s|mp|e h|ters. e.g.: the a||eged L|ghtsquared
prob|em. See th|s Iavas Ash[aee short presentanon: to the ICC: hup:]][avad.com][gnss][avad]news]pr20120910.htm| (||)
Spoohng: Lasy to do. hup:]]arstechn|ca.com]secur|ty]2013]07]professor-spoofs-80m-superyachts-gps-rece|ver-on-the-h|gh-seas] (|||) Goog|e
"GÞS [amm|ng spoohng" for more. (M|||tary GÞS |s more secure, but |s not ava||ab|e |nc|ud|ng for Þ1C.)
L1L: L.g., hup:]]secur|tyaña|rs.co]wordpress]1037S]secur|ty]|te-networks-vu|nerab|e-to-[amm|ng-a-quesnon-of-nanona|-secur|ty.htm| and
hup:]]www.crows.org]deta||s]2S1-vu|nerab|||nes-of-|te.htm|?pop=1&tmp|=component . L1L for pr|vate systems, such as pub||c safety,
w||| be more secure.
Þ2S: Ior pub||c safety (guns and hoses fo|ks) but not secure: e.g., hup:]]www.crypto.com]p2S] . 1hese guys shou|d
try out US Þ1C - any takers?
Smart Gr|d: Not easy w|re|ess secur|ty, e.g., hup:]]d-scho|arsh|p.p|u.edu]12S08]1]Smart_Gr|d_Infrastructure_I|na|.pdf
nomer S|mpson: Þerhaps he does nuc|ear p|ants aher a||, ||ke pumng them at Iapanese and US coast||nes
sure to be h|t by earthquakes and nda| waves they cannot w|thstand ||ke Iukush|ma.
1he po|nt |s secur|ty |s a cost humans ||ke to avo|d, then |n h|nds|ght, the "sp|n" takes over.
456>/ ?-$+ */ /'&<,*9= - *9 */ $ 3$,&' *3 9@' A*,'+'// /=/9'B 3-, 9@*/ */ %-9 @*?@+= /'&<,'. 1he p|anned Þ1C
system cannot be, nor can GÞS but for certa|n m|ss|on cr|nca| forms.
Security * benefits of ARW
vs. PTC

1. Jamming: Far less likely to be jammed. See [1] below. Easy to cheaply get high power Amateur radios on lower
200 MHz, retune, and jam PTC on 220 MHz range channels. Much harder for anyone to get sophisticated wider-
band radios capable of jamming all of the multiple bands and modes of AWR.
2. Interference: Far more robust to interference. See [1] below and papers on wideband OFDM LTE, etc.
3. Spoofing and interception: Far more resistant. See [1] below.

4. Points and probability of failure: Far superior. PTC will have far less back up, if a base station or several in an
area fail in mobile coverage and base-to-network links. See also [1] below.
5. Coverage redundancy: Far superior in range, overlaps, etc. See also [1] below.
6. Economic stress: Far less, since AWR is far more cost effective, and has far more economic value and future
viability, better tech and equipment supplies and future, etc. See also [1] below.
[1] AWR (Advanced Railroad Wireless) as described herein. It includes: (1) The described multiple bands, (2) OFDM subcarriers in each,
and (3) where critical traffic uses all or many of these, so that if one band and some carriers are subject to jamming, interference, spoofing or
corruption, failure, etc., the others will not or be less likely to suffer the same, in same times and places. (4) Also, ARW will have order(s) of
magnitude more capacity and uses, justifying more base stations, and more coverage redundancy, and (5) will have highly secure one-way
broadcast antenna stations, with coverage that will be hard to compromise and afford additional redundancy (for network to mobile traffic).
(6) It will also support secure radio-to-radio mesh nets that will provide an additional robustness mode for mission-critical data (where if
many nodes fail, the others still operate to complete connections). (7) If Meteor burst communications (MBC) is also used for some of our
35-43 MHz spectrum, this adds major additional security for reasons covered in MBC radio literature (super wide area coverage, hard to
intercept, very easy to secure base stations, allows nanocencond timing and MBC-generated cryptography that can add to security, etc.
MBC and terrestrial can be combined.
[2] PTC as planned by US public railroads: (1) narrow 220 MHz range channels; (2) only one or several channels per fixed base station; (3)
substantial radio-service overlap (always 2 serving base stations), and (4) assuming hot-standby of radios at each based station, (5)
cryptography of the essential data, (6) mission-critical grade radios and other components, (7) good physical security of the system, (8) good
system maintenance, etc. (AWR will have 4-8, and vast improvements in 1-3, and other security benefits.)
* By “security” we mean all aspects of the wireless systems that contribute to successful radio communications without any failures and
compromises at any place and any time, and being able to verify that success.
1hls ls an exomple of ooolysls of secotlty lo o mlssloo-ctlucol wlteless system, provlded Lo lllusLraLe LhaL lL ls a
serlous underLaklng. lL ls noL seen ln uS Þ1C wlreless as noLed above. 1hls ls noL provlded here Lo suggesL Lhls
ls a sulLable securlLy soluuon for Þ1C, and lL cannoL come close Lo maLchlng securlLy ln Lhe proposed A8W
ouLllned on a sllde above. Mlssloo-ctlucol wlteless secotlty most be well ploooeJ ooJ lmplemeoteJ, especlolly
wbeo tbe molo oppllcouoo ls secotlty (oot commoolcouoos) - ctosb ovolJooce lo l1c.
arucle on




- 6 -


AM15 217 - 220 Mnz
M-lM5 904 - 910 Mnz
& lowbooJ 33 / 43 Mnz

lor nauonwlde
smarL LransporL, energy and envlronmenL sysLems
whlch can lnclude A8W


900 Mnz w|de-b|ock M-LMS,
80+° of uS, 6 MPz LoLal, held by:
1elesaurus Poldlngs C8 LLC, Skybrldge SpecLrum loundauon
(8enewal appllcauons pendlng)

900 Mnz ÞarL 22 and MAS,
99° of Lhe uS, held by:
Skybrldge SpecLrum loundauon, v2C LLC, lnLelllgenL 1ransporLauon & MonlLorlng Wlreless LLC

200 Mnz AM1S,
93° of uS, 1-2 MPz LoLal, held by:
LnvlronmenLel LLC, verde SysLems LLC, lnLelllgenL 1ransporLauon & MonlLorlng Wlreless LLC,
Skybrldge SpecLrum loundauon
(ÞoLenually oLhers under pendlng lCC proceedlngs.)

43 and 3S Mnz,
99° of uS Lwo-way, and 100° one-way, 300-600 kPz LoLal, held by:
v2C LLC, LnvlronmenLel LLC, lnLelllgenL 1ransporLauon & MonlLorlng Wlreless LLC,
Skybrldge SpecLrum loundauon

1he llcenses descrlbed hereln may be conñrmed vla Lhe lCC's onllne daLabases by golng Lo Lhe followlng llnk,
cllcklng on Lhe ºAdvance Llcense Search" secuon and Lhen enLerlng ln Lhe Llcensee's name ln Lhe llcensee-name
ñeld. hup://wlreless2.fcc.gov/ulsApp/ulsSearch/searchLlcense.[sp

lollowlng pages do noL furLher descrlbe Lhe MAS and 220 MPz llcenses: see lCC uLS.

Sky1el lCC Llcenses
SkyTel FCC licensed spectrum, and other bands available for ARW – location in radio spectrum ranges


( A deployment architecture using this spectrum is depicted 4 slides below. )
* Additional N-LMS spectrum, up to 14 MHz additional, can be used with the M-LMS for Intelligent Transport System (ITS) and
synergistic applications. N-LMS uses relatively low-height base stations. M-LMS can use any antenna height. The two can be
combined for ITS and related applications. We depict this in a slide below.

N-LNS A-block Licenses, , -./ banuwiuth in lowei 011 -./. See pieceuing page. This spectium is within SuPP 2!3 4'5+ 6.
Telesauius & Skybiiuge
Piouuceu using FCC uIS .
Licenses helu in all hatcheu aieas in all colois.
Not all helu licenses-maikets show the Call Sign.


Sky1el plans Lo use 1u-l1í ln Lhls ºLMS"

1elesaurus Poldlngs C8 LLC and Skybrldge
SpecLrum loundauon hold M-LMS A-8lock
llcenses ln Lhe areas deplcLed on Lhe followlng

ln [olnL venLures wlLh SLaLe and/ or local
governmenL, Skybrldge may also obLaln use of
lCC llcenses for any reglon ln whlch Lhe hold
M-LMS llcenses for n-LMS specLrum deplcLed
above, as well as ln Lhe oLher reglons.

1he Sky1el enuues may also use subsLanual
amounLs of 3.9 CPz uS8C specLrum, ln Lhe
range of 20-30 MPz, under ÞarL 90, SubparL
M (Lhls ls Lhe slsLer l1S band Lo LMS). Clsco
boughL an AusLrallan company advanclng

Among oLher uses: vehlcle Lo vehlcle, and
vehlcle Lo roadslde (ln dual mode wlLh oLher
specLrum lndlcaLed above), buL also polnL-Lo-
polnL backhaul (3.9 CPz, ln Þ-L-Þ use,
maLches ln dlsLance LMS ln moblle use).
use of 1u-L1L ln Lhls M-LMS specLrum ls
descrlbed ln a sLudy funded by Sky1el by ur.
nlshlLh 1rlpaLhl, submlued Lo Lhe lCC, a copy
of whlch ls here:


ANTS Licenses, 7 -./ banuwiuth in each block, in lowei 811 -./.
Note: some of the spectium (one half oi less of total ) in paits of maiket aieas 1 anu 7 have been solu-assigneu to powei utilities (as of 1Q 2u1S).
Licensees: Enviionmentel, veiue Systems, Skybiiuge Spectium Founuation, anu Intelligent Tianspoitation.Wiieless.
veiue obtaineu the B-bock !"#$% '$(#) *+,#-)# in SQ 2u1S.
FCC appioval gianteu. Will be consummateu soon.
Not held.

~ 4,uuu 9: -./ '5+ ;9 -./ licenses, 81 <./ in each, ~911=,11 <./ >*>'?@ in all paits of the 0S.
Licensees: v2u, Skybiiuge Spectium Founuation, Enviionmentel, Intelligent Tianspoitation.Wiieless LLC.
The licensees holu #5 '?? *A >"B 5'>#*5 this spectium in license aieas shown below.
Commerclal & M-LMS
L1L lnfrasLrucLure.
Commerclal & M-LMS
ulrecL / u2u / ÞroSe -- V2V
M-LMS & 3.9 CPz uS8C
v2l (lnfrasLrucLure) and CDC
lor very wlde area.
lor conunenLal wlde area
8adlo comms, locauon & umlng.
Plgh Accuracy Locauon
Plgh Accuracy Locauon Plgh Accuracy Locauon
Plgh Accuracy Locauon
Source: Skybrldge & amllaLes

CBD#E>#*5 *A 'FE"#>BE>GFB >* G$B ?#EB5$B$ ?#$>B+ 'H*IB JK E*LD?BLB5>'F( $DBE>FGLM

Lnd noLes

Lnd noLes. 1hese lLems furLher supporL cerLaln componenLs presenLed above.
1. lrom n! SLaLe 8all Þlan, uraû llnal 8eporL, CcLober 2013
2. lrom n! SLaLe 8all Þlan, uraû llnal 8eporL, CcLober 2013
4. L. Pamberger, AA8 before uS SenaLe, !une 19, 2013
3. uS uC1, ºnauonwlde ulñerenual CÞS. AssessmenL, uec. 4, 2013
AAk (ftelqbt tolltooJs. l1c 220 llc ptlmotlly) wblcb ote lotqe
commetclol, ptoftoble eotetptlses, lofotm tbe pobllc - tbe u5 5eoote -
tbot tbey ote osloq ´tbelt owo fooJs oo l1c´ -- os opposeJ to - ´sote
wlsb tbls mooJote come wltb pobllc fooJs. llke oot tlqbts of woy.´
uS prlvaLe for-proñL ºctlucol loftosttoctote oûen Lakes Lhe posluons
LhaL - we are Loo crlucal Lo fall, so Lhe publlc musL pay for our burdens
lf we need lL, or else lose Lhe servlce we provlde.
1hey even ask Lhe governmenL Lo Lake oLhers' prlvaLe properLy, uslng
emlnenL domaln, for Lhelr ºcrlucal" money maklng - as Lhey do
regardlng more 220 MPz specLrum vla lCC ºreallocauon."
As Lhe above presenLauon also presenLs, lL appears LhaL Lhe nauve
Amerlcan proLecuon mauers LhaL arose wlLh regard Lo new base
sLauons for Þ1C, was a cause for a new 1hanksglvlng, as lL became a
basls Lo delay Lhe unwanLed mandaLe. ºWe come ln Þ1C peace.."
Sky1el challenges AA8 and lLs members, as well as governmenLal
rallroads, Lo acL ln Lhe publlc lnLeresL ln plannlng and deploylng emclenL
and eñecuve Advanced 8allroad Wlreless, noL wasLeful sLand-alone
Þ1C. lt oppeots tbey wlll oot Jo so except by ootslJe leoJetsblp,
toxpoyet coocetos, ooJ oew leJetol qovetomeot tepoltemeots.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful