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Flower of Services: A Study on Private Universities in Sylhet City, Bangladesh.

Abdul Latif
Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Sylhet International University, Sylhet-3100, Ban ladesh

handa!er "ahirul #sla$
Assistant Professor, Department of !"!, Sylhet International University, Sylhet-3100, Ban ladesh

haled %ussain
Assistant Professor, Department of "S!, Sylhet International University, Sylhet-3100, Ban ladesh

ABS&'AC& In this era of the advancement of technology and business, educational institutions with viewable salient traits have emerged with an aim to provide excellent education to the students. The services to be provided or expected by the students to be provided other than education are also now a point of concern. This paper purports to identify the newly evolved services called supplementary services to be rendered with the core one, the education itself. With the growth of economy, the customers feel the necessities and expectations of the supplementary services, which are in truth too vital in importance. The current research is thus circled around those distinguished and keyed services and attempts to interpret these after having the straight poll from the students of private universities in Bangladesh. A successful transaction between two parties, namely service providers and customers generate an event that assures a great motivation for an ongoing process of the improvement of service uality and productivity. Academic institutions are and should be largely orbited to the various affairs of the students as how to make them capable of enticing to the systems from a business point of view. In this context, an extensive survey with some of the private universities along with the data interpretation will surely serve the researcher to understand the current service situation. In this study, it is revealed that the universities are lagging behind in service rendering regarding information, order entry, billing and payment, and also in enhancing service attention given to improve transport, consultation handling of special problems and restriction also. But these are the continuous process. The service uality is to be improved continuously to draw it in the level of highly satisfactory. eywords: supplementary services, core service, private universities, service uality and productivity. (. #ntroduction and Bac!ground #oday$s dramatic increase in service of the farms is no% a point to &e noted that ho% these services are enerated %ith a vie% to 'eep pace %ith the customers$ demand( )or a particular product, it must have some core values that identify the product itself to &e the &est for fulfillin the re*uirements of the customers( But as the day passes &y, the people are holdin more and more money, their re*uirements thus count more( It is o&served that the increase of affluences affects the increase of services( #he customers no% are not only satisfied at the product core, &ut also e+pect more supplementary service elements that surround and add value to it( A service is any activity or &enefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intan i&le and does not result in the o%nership of anythin ( Its production may


( #o recommend on ho% to deal %ith the supplementary services %ith an aim to improve service *uality and productivity . di ital telephone.-( a deed. -ethodologies #he entire study attri&uted the t%o sources to &e the core for collectin the data for the reater convenience of study and analysis( #he sources are cate ori<ed as: Pri$ary sources:  Practical des' %or'  )ace to face conversation %ith the officers  Direct o&servations  )ace to face conversation %ith the clients Secondary sources:  Pu&lications  Boo's  Internet #he step-&y-step methodolo ies are: 1( "onduct a survey at three private universities in Sylhet. internet provider. fa+..or may not &e tied to a physical product . . contri&ution in total employment increases( /. patholo ical la&. research. especially private universities in Ban ladesh( 3( #o assess the opinions of the customers 1here students4 that ho% the product core 1education4 in academic institutions are accompanied &y ne%ly trended supplementary services . &elo% avera e( Page-2 . "oachin . private universities etc( Product and service are interrelated( 7o product can &e provided %ithout service( 7o service can &e provided %ithout product( Services are activities.1SPBB. 0 avera e. *b+ectives #he specific o&9ectives of this research are: 1( #o understand the concept of flo%er of services . intercity &uses and trains.234 %hich is over 300 of in America 15oveloc'.002. ca&le #8. "ourier services. &eauty parlor.. as the service *uality increases. or an effort that cannot &e physically processed . or satisfactions %hich are offered for sale or are provided in connection %ith the sale of &enefits . .3-( ). non-stop &us service. Ban ladesh( . . &enefits. a It is no% clear that.0064( 7e% items of services are entered into the core product( 7e% items are introduced li'e clinic.1-( A service is an intan i&le product involvin performance. massa e parlor.( #o define the supplementary services 1facilitatin and enhancin services4 in the conte+t of academic institutions. 'inder arten. employment in forei n countries.(3. entertainment par's. pac'a e lunches. cell phone.0 of our national income comes from services. .( Sort out the *uestionnaire script( 3( #he / point 5i'ert Scale is classified into three &road parts in percenta e manner: 0 a&ove avera e.

. 31 speciali<ed colla es. althou h many receive pu&lic su&sidies. as rapid e+pansion entails a ris' of compromise on *uality and e+penses( ?o%ever. as education at these universities is much more e+pensive at the pu&lic universities of Ban ladesh( Ane very familiar feature of these universities is the %ay they follo% the American method of education rather than the British model( #hey offer four-year &achelor de ree pro rams %ith credit-&ased courses( #his system has also created popular appeal in Ban ladesh( Still. an important varia&le for hi her educational private institutes that aspire to that de ree of e+cellence( #his study is. international universities. pu&lic universities. re ulators and consumers have concerns a&out service *uality. desi n and costs . iven &y venerate "hristopher ?( 5oveloc' is to understand the elements that facilitate. there is no&ody to re ulate private universities and to assure the *uality of education other than throu h the %ea' supervision of the University Brant "ommission 1UB"4( Since private universities receive no fundin from the UB". today the num&er has reached //( A&viously. the ro%th rate seems unhealthy considerin the per capita income of the country and also in terms of *uality assurance in hi her education.=-( As of today. the main &eneficiary is the student community. and . enhance and finally improve service *uality and productivity( Page-3 . mainly throu h the emer ence of a lar e num&er of universities in the private sector( >et. Flower of Services )lo%er of service is a visual frame%or' for understandin the supplementary service elements that surround and add value to the core product is referred as follo%er of services .6-( #he issue is. a&out 3/0 of these universities are located in Dha'a$s metropolitan areas( @hile in the year . this ro%th also has a do%nside to it.3-( All of the ne%ly added services %ith the product core fall in the service providers$ responsi&ility( !ffectively handled elements of flo%er of services provide satisfaction %hereas &adly handled elements may ne atively affect customers$ perceptions of service *uality( #he follo%in fi ure.( #he decisions are deduced from the num&er of fre*uencies achieved from the field survey( /.000 there %ere only 16 of these universities./-( Surprisin ly.. thus. especially in the form of ta+ &rea's and pu&lic student loans and rants( Private universities are compara&le to pu&lic universities and national universities( Since that enactment of the Private Universities Act of 133. Ban ladesh has seen a tremendous ro%th in the num&er of private educational platforms over the recent years. special universities %or'in in Ban ladesh . Private Universities of Bangladesh At present there are 3. an attempt to e+amine the opinion of the clientele or consumers 1students4 re ardin the service *uality in the private education sector in Ban ladesh( Coreover. the com&ined effect is a vi&rant education sector %ith a healthy rivalry amon the competin institutions( Undou&tedly. there are stron e+pectations on private universities on deliverin the core product 1education4 alon %ith the supplementary services to satisfy the students( 0.. /= private universities. therefore. %hich ains access to a %ider platform of selection %ith the comparative cost advanta e of domestic study over studyin a&road( #hus. private universities on the other hand remain confined only to a fe% disciplines that have hi h mar'et demand .-( Private universities are universities not operated &y overnments. there is little that the UB" can do e+cept report some facts for the overnment .2-( #he costs of studyin at private universities are much hi her than pu&lic universities( ?ence.. society and the nation are the ultimate ainers .

conditions of services.(. price. and documentation( *rder ta!ing: After ettin information a&out any product or services. reminder a&out responsi&ilities. mailE telephone fulfillment. Categori1ing su22le$entary services A study of Dapanese. recordin and reservation( *rder entry: !nterin the order to provide service is an unavoida&le step of sellin the service( #he order may &e recorded &y on line order fulfillment. ver&al statement of account dues. %here to et direction to site. class and e+am schedule. and !uropean firms servin &usiness-to-&usiness mar'ets found that most companies simply added layer of services to their core offerin s %ithout 'no%in %hat customers really valued . incomplete and ille al( Private universities$ revenue Page-4 .fees of different pro rams. machine display of account due. invoices for individual transactions. recordin of the application 1order entry4 and reservin the seats for aspirant and eli i&le candidates( #echnolo y can ma'e the tas' of order ta'in easier and efficient( Anline and %e&sites may &e used for application. de&ate or different clu&s( Billing: Prior to payment for service. the customers need &illin for the product and service( #he &illin may ta'e different forms li'e periodic statements of account activities. American. instruction for use is needed( )or the case of information.( #nter2retation of the Leaves of Flower of Service with Acade$ic #nstitutions: 0. emailE %e& site fulfillment. price. a customer may &e ready to &uy the service( In this sta e of &uyin process.( Facilitating Services: #nfor$ation: "ustomers need information for full satisfaction( Information a&out product. the various services mi ht &e attri&uted to as. %arnin for any activities. Self-&illin 1computed &y computer4( "ustomers et dissatisfied if the &ills are inaccurate. appointments %ith the authorities to fulfill different necessities and admission to lan ua e. instructions. and manual fulfillment( 'eservation: Feservation of service facilities is re*uired &y the &uyer of services( A university can reserve the facilities of seats of different departments. condition of sale.10-( #he a&ove fi ure sho%s that the supplementary services are divided into facilitatin services and enhancin services( )acilitatin services are re*uired for delivery of services or aid in the use of core product( !nhancin services add e+tra value for customers( 0. cultural. a customer apply for the product or service( #he order tal'in conducted &y receivin the application for service( A university may provide the service &y collectin applications.Figure (. notification of chan e.

systems. class room or other places %here there are some e*uipment( University. these services shouldn$t &e provided only to satisfy the students %ho need those( Some of the e+ceptional services may &e needed as a result of accident. lan ua es pro&lems or others( 7ot only for courses or pro rams. comforta&le sittin arran ements. su estions and complements may provide the feelin of satisfaction in the mind of sta'eholders( Page-5 . pet care. hospitality plays a si nificant role( It may &e e+pressed indifferent %ays li'e reetin s. providin rela+ed environment 1e( (. teachers and employees( So it is natural that there may &e different complaints. facilities to o&serve reli ious activities. dietary re*uirements. friendly approach to%ards students$ and uardians$ *ueries. course. su estion. as there are involvements of students.) 3nhancing services Consultations: "onsultation is needed to solve the customers$ pro&lems to add e+tra value to customers$ satisfaction( It involves providin advices to solve customers$ pro&lem from an e+pert( !ffective consultation dia noses customers$ pro&lems correctly and then provides a course of actions to solve it( Students may suffer from lac' of information a&out rules. controllin room temperature etc(4( Safe!ee2ing: Safe'eepin provides sense of security in customers mind( Safe and convenient par'in place for professionals &rin s security in customers mind( In universities many professionals come to develop themselves &y admittin in professional courses li'e CBA. home sic'ness etc(. medial re*uirements. and pro rams( #hey may suffer from indecisions a&out course selection.(. ina&ility to pay fees. delay. &ut also for the future or present carrier. providin ne%spapersE ma a<ines to read %hile they %ait for service. automatic system and manual systems are some of them( 5on *ueue for payment may dissatisfy the customers as they have to %aste their valua&le time( "ustomers prefer an automatic system %here after payment he can &e sure a&out the dues or advances( In universities sophisticated soft%are may &e used to provide the service to the students( 0. needs %ith physical disa&ility etc( In university. complements of sta'eholders( !fficiently handlin of the complaints. coat room or room for their &elon in s etc( 34ce2tional: #hese services fall outside the normal activities of &usiness( Businesses should thin' of them ahead and plan earlier to provide the services on the special occasion( #hese activities %ould &rin e+treme levels of satisfactions in customers mind( Some of the services may &e provided on special re*uest of customers li'e care of children.depends on tuition fees from students( As the &illin system mi ht satisfy or dissatisfy the students. these are very common. lifestyle. direct payments to payees or intermediary. B( Sc(. ina&ility to cope %ith classes. the &illin of universities should &e conducted in a manner that could satisfy the students Pay$ents: #here are many %ays to pay the &ill( Self-service. 55(B etc( #hey need child care. students may need consultation( Universities have student counselin &ody to provide su estions in different pro&lems( %os2itality: ?ospitality refers to activities that &rin happiness in customers mind %hen they come to a shop or institution to et service( It is the responsi&ility of the mana ement to ensure the pleasure in the customers mind &y their courtesy and consideration for customers( In face to face meetin or telephonic conversation hospitality does matter( Private university must enroll more students for their e+istence( So to attract the students and their uardians. e*uipment failure or users manuals etc( Universities should &e careful a&out such accident in la&oratory.

Figure ). )ees 1/204. other than Hsufficient direction to service sitesI all the items are considered &y less than /00 as e+cellent: classes and e+am schedule 1/104./ respondents. %arnin s 1/204.0.04. reminders 1=.206. it needs to sho% ho% the services e+plained a&ove can &e set as the leaves of a flo%er( )i ure . Sylhet had . instructions 1/304. conditions of services 1/ satisfy the lon deprived students from the e+pected services from the pu&lic universities( Sylhet is an affluent re ion %ith 3. 5eadin University. notification of Page-6 . Sylhet( #here %ere a couple of factors to &e found %hich %ere presented as a structured *uestionnaire and the respondents had freedom to select the options( As mentioned earlier private universities are for e+cellence of services. less than /00 intervie%ees consider the follo%in as e+cellent and or ood: )irst. a&ove has &een s'etched %ith an aim to interpret the needs and services that an academic institution is and should &e entan led %ith( 5. Ban ladesh ot a total of .000 populations havin a handsome forei n remittance every year .0 and the rest from Cetropolitan University.11-( So the need to et &etter service from the hi her educational institution in respect of *uality services is stiff( #he researchers evaluate the satisfaction level of customers in t%o vie%points: o Are more than /00 considerin the services as e+cellent or oodG o Are more than . #$2le$entation of Flower of Service in an acade$ic institution After havin all of the possi&le services to identified. Sylhet had .00 considerin the services as poor or very poorG • Amon the facilitatin services. out of %hich Sylhet international University. the factor HInformationI holds as many as nine varia&les( It has &een found from the ta&le 1 Appendi+ 14 that. "ata Analysis #he case study on three private universities in Sylhet.

complements and su estion handlin need to dra% special attention as those items are considered e+cellent and or ood &y only 310.. mailE telephone fulfillment and on line order fulfillment for order entry as poor and or very poor &y =00...0 of participants considered those services as poor or very poor( #he researchers found that the varia&le electronic fund transfer and mail a chec' are considered as e+cellent and or ood &y only 120 and 130 respondents respectively and =00 and =.00 as poor and or very poor( Analy<in the data on the order entry point.. %eather protection and ma a<ine. =. 200 students are not a ree that emailE%e& site fulfillment of admission or other necessary formalities are done as e+cellent or ood( Same situation is o&served &y 610 participants in cases of mailE telephone fulfillment of formalities of order entry( An line order fulfillment service is not considered as e+cellent and or ood &y =00 of participant( 7ot only that participants %ho consider !mailE %e& site fulfillment. entertainment.0. . appointment and admission to special clu&s.0 considered the *uality of service renderin &y private universities as poor or very poor( Amon the enhancin services no items of consultation are considered as e+cellent and or ood and a lar e portion of them 1all a&ove .04( • "onsiderin the order ta'in factor.0 and 120 respondents consider those service *uality as poor and or very poor( • • • • • • • • Page-7 .04 and periodic statements to students13204 are la in &ehind to o to same status( )urthermore /10 and . =. . and fees 1.00 of the intervie%ees considered the service *uality of the item HdocumentationI to &e poor and or very poor( Ather items in that cate ory are: notification of chan es 13104. the researchers came to 'no% that less than /00 termed the item JApplication for mem&ership in different clu&s as e+cellent and or ood( 7o item %as considered &y more than .chan es 1/204 and documentation 1/204( Besides this. the e+ceptional service re ardin medical need is la in &ehind to &e considered in the same status( ?andlin of special pro&lem re ardin the complain. &ut self &illin 1.04 consider the *uality of service renderin in such items as poor or very poor( In hospitality head... /=0 and .604.0 and 610 consider those services as e+cellent and or ood and no participant consider those services as poor or very poor( Analy<in the facilitatin service HBillin I. it %as found that no item %as considered &y more than /00 intervie%ees as e+cellent and or ood( In the a e of automation. t%o items vouchers and ver&al statement of amount due are considered e+cellent and or ood &y more than /00 of the participants.30. ne%spapers are considered &y more than /00 respondents as e+cellent and or ood( #ransport service to students and employees &y those private universities is very poor( 620 of the respondent considers that service as poor and or very poor( #hou h the enhancin services in respect of security and carin for professional people are considered e+cellent and or ood &y more than /00 of the respondents. reetin s. reminder 1.0 respectively( In case of reservation of seats. 3=0 And 320 respondents respectively and .

personnel counselin . documentation and reminders( Amon enhancin services.Fesolvin difficulties related to classes and restrictions have &een considered &y a ood num&er of respondents as e+cellent and or ood e+cept a restriction re ardin compensation that is la in &ehind to &e considered ali'e( 6. the item to &e iven most importance is transport( #he respondent mentions their dissatisfaction a&out the transport facility( Service *uality in consultation. the core product is hi her education and the facilitatin services ma'e it easier to consume the product %here the enhancin services increase the comfort a&ility of consumin ( • Private universities should provide due attention to increase the service *uality re ardin order entry in the form of mail E telephone fulfillment and email E %e&site fulfillment( As the modern era is some%hat sufficed %ith di ital technolo y. as they purchase its products. and creatin lon -term loyalty is an important thin to &e ade*uate in ac*uirin other customers and the services must &e e*uipped in a %ay to hold fast the e+istin roup of customers( 5earnin a&out customers$ needs. the service usin it must set to top importance( • Code of payment usin automation technolo y li'e electronic fund transfer should &e launched( Self &illin system and periodic statements to students$ service should &e ta'en to the improved mar'( Sufficient attentions should &e dra%n to fees. includin their preferences for various forms of service delivery is also another important issue in launchin a ood *uality service( #he top mana ement thus in an academic institution need to pay special attention to the students %ho really %ant to thin' the institution havin the reatest value. recreation and other related and lo ical facilities( #he today$s rich-&red youn people %on$t &other the institution suffice %ith only educational facilities leavin all other supplementary services( Increasin the accepta&ility of the products and services to e+istin customers. the education( #he students no% are not comin to the institution for ac*uirin the core product only( Father they %ant to see their institutions to &e the &est place %ith some facilitatin and enhancin services li'e en9oyment. Suggestions and Conclusion As mentioned earlier. tutorin necessary. namely customi<ed services. and notification of chan es. the flo%er of service includes the facilitatin and enhancin services for the core products( )or the universities. mana ement and technical consultancy should &e improved( ?andlin or special pro&lems re ardin complaint complement and su *uality must have to &e iven special emphasis( if • • • • estion handlin service • "ompensations of customer service are also to &e handled %ith special care for removin dissatisfactions( #he students often re*uire information a&out ho% to 'no% the different activities and responsi&ilities in an institution and thus they can o&tain and use a product or service( Cany types of supplementary services should &e availa&le for the students %ho are involved in ainin a true final product. the education %ith the reatest fre*uency and spend %hat they have learnt in %hole span of their lives( Page-8 . %arnin .

division Page-9 .Beery and Parasuraman.3 O ISB7-13: 362013126//.Anderson.'eferences .( .1. Fesearch papers( Paris: International Institute for !ducation Plannin .=. )ree press. 3M..0064( $rivate higher education in Bangladesh.?a*ue.00..2.S(C( Dha..11."hristopher ?( 5oveloc' and Dochen @irt< 1. 1331.( . C( S( 1.4( )ore%ord( Cana ement )orum ."ho%dhury. C( S( and Siddi*ui. April. ?i her !ducation in Ban ladesh: Pro&lems and Policies.4( Nuality mana ement issues in &usiness education in Ban ladesh: A synoptic revie% &ased on "anadian and !uropean papers. "ervices !arketing# $eople.Cuhammad Casum. ?imalaya Pu&lishin ?ouse. p-/( . Prentice ?all.00..0 . April. C(. ?a*ue.http:EEen( @i'ipedia(or E%i'iESylhet./.Alam. .http:EEen(%i'ipedia(or E%i'iEUniversitiesLinLBan ladesh . I( B( 1. "ervice !arketing. . Cana ement )orum. S( )( 1. 7>. Dournal of the @orld Universities . Technology and "trategy. !arketing "ervices# competing through uality. 7arus.10.Kotler. pa e 6/-23 . . Armstron ...000 p.00.3.3. Prentice ?all 1ISB7-10: 013126//. p3( . 1M10( .6.0064.00. 1332. H Principles of Car'etin I.=..

0(/= 0(=0 0(06 0(1= 0(11 0(0.3 0(3= 0(32 0(33 0(.. 0(..0 ..&illin Payments i( Self. 0(12 0(. . 1. 0(/1 1= 10 1/ 11 3 .0 16 6 3 . 1 = 1 / . 1. 0(. 2 0(0. 0(..0 0(13 0(11 0(.service ii( !lectronic fund transfer iii( Cail a chec' 3nhancing services "onsultations i( ii( iii( iv( ?ospitality i( ii( iii( "ustomi<ed services Personal counselin #utorin if necessary Cana ement or technical consultancy Breetin s )ood or &evera e #oilet and %ashroom 3 2 6 3 = 6 / 6 2 1. 11 1. 0(/3 0(. 2 .3 0(.3 0(. above averag e Information i( Sufficient Direction to service sites ii( "lass and e+am schedule iii( )ees iv( Instructions v( Feminders vi( @arnin s vii( "onditions of services viii( 7otification of chan es i+( Documentations Arder ta'in Application Application for mem&ership in different clu&s Arder entry i( An line order fulfillment ii( CailE telephone fulfillment iii( !mailE %e& site fulfillment iv( Canual fulfillment Feservation i( Seats ii( Appointments iii( Admission to special clu&s Billin Periodic statements to students ii( 8ouchers iv( 8er&al statement of amount due v( Self.1 3 . 0(. / 6 10 . 11 3 12 11 2 1. 0(32 0(1= 0(. 2 1/ .0 0(. 0(.0 0(..3 0(. 1= 1. 11 1.0 0(.3 0(.6 0(32 0(. 1/ .0 0(31 0(. 0(=. 10 11 0(3= 0(. 3 0(=0 0(...6 0(. 0(. / = 0 3 . 3 1 1.0 ..6 0(. 0(.0 10 1. 0(/3 0(. 0 3 / 3 6 / . 0(03 0(.. 0(. 3 12 1.0 .6 0(06 0(11 0(03 Page-10 ...0 / 12 . 0(33 0(. 0(. 2 2 = 3 10 16 1. 1. averag e Poor 8ery 2oo r . 3 = 10 3 10 0 3 1 0(.0 0(.A22endi4 ( Factors and variables 34cellent 7ood . 0(. = = 3 / 13 .6 0(.0 .0 0(.3 0(=.. below average 6 / = / 1. 0(.... 0(=0 0(=. 3 / . 6 2 .. 1= 16 1/ 1.0 0(12 0(.. Averag e . 1. 11 3 6 11 6 2 11 3 3 0(31 0(3= 0(. 0(.3 0(..0 3 3 2 11 13 .6 0(.. 3 ..0 0(. 0(.3 0(/1 0(. 1 6 0 0 3 0 1. 11 1= 12 11 12 ... 10 6 = 1. 0(03 0(. 0(=3 0(12 0(13 1= 13 1/ ..6 0(12 0(33 0(.0 0(. 0(06 0(11 0(/1 0(0. 0(61 0(32 0(/3 0(=.

0(.1 1. 0(1= 0(0. seatin @eather protection Ca a<ine./ 10 10 1/ 0(. 0(. 10 13 = 2 10 10 1/ 13 .. 0(. 0(00 0(0. .0 0(62 0(11 0(. ?andlin of special pro&lems Fesolvin difficulties related to classes "ourses Schedule Fefunds "ompensations Fepair Festrictions - Page-11 .0 3 11 10 12 . 0(12 0(0.0 1.0 0(2...0 10 . 0(. 0(31 0(3= 0(32 0(=6 0(62 0(/1 0(3= 0(/1 . 0(. entertainment..0 13 .iv( v( vi( vii( viii( Safe'eepin i( ii( !+ceptional i( ii( @aitin facilities 5oun e.. 0(0.0 0(. 0 .0 1 / . .3 0(.0 0(.0 0(/= 0(/1 0(13 0(6= 0(=. 0(.6 0(31 0(. 1. 0(13 0(. .. 3 2 16 / / 6 1. 0(00 = / .. %aitin area. 10 . = 3 1 10 = / 1 0 1 / .. ne%spaper #ransport Security "arin for professional customers Cedical needs Feli ious o&servance "omplaint "omplements Su estions 2 2 10 10 . 1 3 / 3 0 0 1 / 0 0(11 0(13 0(13 0(.0 0(.0 . 13 . .3 0(.3 0(03 0(13 0(11 0(..0 = 12 12 .. .0 0(. 3 . 0(31 0(. = 6 1/ 0(00 .