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A Report On IN-PLANT TRAINING

Submitted To Dr. C.H.Tyagi Dr. Dharam Dutt

Submitted By

Gopi Krishna Tummala
B.Tech 3rd year (Enrollment no. 05091 !

"epartment o# $aper Technolo%y& 'ndian 'n(titute o# Technolo%y Roor)ee *th April& 00*

ACKNOWL DG ! NT"
' +ould li)e to ta)e thi( opportunity to e,pre(( my pro#ound than)( and deep (en(e o# %ratitude to pro#e((or(& Dr C.H. Tyagi and Dr. Dharam Dutt #ho %uided me +ith their in-aluable )no+led%e about pulp . paper indu(trie( and made me po((ible to %ain (ome practical )no+led%e throu%hout our mill trainin% cla((e(. ' +ould al(o li)e to e,pre(( my deep %ratitude to the mana%in% director o# "tar Pap$r !ill and all the (uper-i(or( and +or)er( #or (harin% their e,perti(e durin% mill trainin% cla((e( and ma)in% in/plant trainin% an enrichin% and +orthy e,perience. ' al(o ta)e thi( opportunity to e,pre(( my (incere than)( to my (enior( #or their in-aluable help and %uidance and to e-ery per(on& +ho ha( contributed directly or indirectly in the pro%re(( o# thi( re-ie+. ' am al(o than)#ul to all my #riend( #or their (upport and cooperation throu%hout the preparation o# thi( report and the contribution o# e-erybody i( (incerely accredited.

CONT NT"
S.no.
1. . 3. 1. 5. 0. 2. *. 9. 10.

Topic
'ntroduction Ra+ material preparation $ulpin% and +a(hin% Bleachin% Stoc) preparation $aper machine (ection Reco-ery (ection E##luent treatment plant 3onclu(ion( Re#erence(

$a%e number
5 0 0 * 9 11 13 15 10 10

3

INTROD%CTION
4ith more ad-ancement( in the #ield o# $aper Technolo%y and more de-elopment& the demand #or paper i( increa(in% by the day. 5ilter paper i( today u(ed in rail+ay en%ine(& electrical in(ulation paper( etc.& +hile the demand #or +ritin% and printin% paper i( e-er increa(in%. The leadin% countrie( in the +orld in pulp . paper production are the Scandina-ian countrie( i.e.& 6or+ay& S+eden& 5inland etc.& . 3anada. 'ndia& ho+e-er i( not yet (el#/(u##icient in paper production and import( ra+ material . paper #rom other countrie(. 7ar%e mill( today reco-er heat . chemical( #rom (pent blac) li8uor u(in% reco-ery cycle(. Some mill( ha-e become (el#/ (u##icient in term( o# po+er %eneration throu%h co%eneration. 'n thi( report ' ha-e de(cribed the pulp . paper production proce((e( in STAR $A$ER 9'77S (S$9!. ' ha-e al(o li(ted the e8uipment( u(ed #or production. S$9 produce( nearly 0 %rade( o# paper . paper board li)e +ritin% . printin% paper& ab(orbent ti((ue %rade paper& :ra#t paper etc. ' ha-e di(cu((ed the entire pulp . paper production proce(( under the (ection( ; Ra+ material preparation& $ulpin%& Bleachin%& Stoc) preparation& $aper machine& Reco-ery and E##luent treatment.

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The #lo+ dia%ram o# the proce(( i( (ho+n belo+.

4=7

Reco-ery cycle

9a)e up

B=7 Ra+ material chippin%

Screenin%

$ulpin%

4a(hin%

Ra+ pulp che(t

4a(hin%

Bleachin% E##luent E##luent treatment plant

Screenin%

Stoc) preparation (ection

<ead bo,

$aper machine

$aper roll

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&. RAW !AT RIAL PR PARATION
The ra+ material u(ed in a mill depend( on the a-ailability and the economic a(pect. <ard+ood i( amply a-ailable in 'ndia and (o#t +ood re(ource( are le((& (o mo(t o# the paper mill( u(e hard +ood material e(pecially Eucalyptu( and $oplar. Some mill( u(e non +ood material( li)e bamboo& ba%a((e& +heat (tra+ etc. The +ooden lo%( are %enerally tran(ported to the mill (ite. 4ood preparation con(i(t( o# a (erie( o# operation( / +a(hin% o# +ooden lo%(& debar)in%& chippin%& chip (creenin% . con-eyance to (tora%e +hich con-ert +ooden lo%( into a #orm (uitable #or the (ub(e8uent pulpin% operation( that i( +ood chip(. The chip dimen(ion( are important #or handlin%& pac)in%& li8uor penetration and 8uality o# the #inal pulp. "urin% di%e(tion in (ulphite coo)in%& the initial coo)in% li8uor penetration occur( mainly in the #iber direction& (o the chip len%th i( important. 5or chip( u(ed in the (ulphate proce((& the chip thic)ne(( i( important becau(e the important reaction( ta)in% place durin% (ulphate coo)in% %et their chemical( mainly throu%h di##u(ion a( the lar%e(t amount o# chemical( +ould be tran(ported in the (horte(t +ay i.e. -ia the thic)ne((. The optimum chip len%th i( 15/ 30 mm . the optimum chip thic)ne(( i( 3/5 mm. 'n Star paper mill& the ra+ material u(ed compri(e( o# eucalyptu(& bamboo& -aneer +a(te o# paper i.e. the +a(te #rom the ply +ood indu(try. There are t+o type( o# chipper( in S$9 ; the Norman 'hipp$r u(ed #or eucalyptu( +ood and the ($'oplan 'hipp$r u(ed #or bamboo or -aneer +a(te o# poplar. The(e
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chipper( cut the +ooden lo%( into +ood chip(. 6ormally chip( #ed to the di%e(ter compri(e( o# 00/*0> poplar& 10/10> eucalyptu(& 10> bamboo. Some o# the -i(ible dirt (pec)( are remo-ed manually #rom the chip(.

). P%LPING AND WA"HING
$ulpin% re#er( to any proce(( by +hich +ood or other #ibrou( ra+ material i( reduced to a #ibrou( ma((. The main ob?ecti-e o# pulpin% i( to (eparate the indi-idual #iber( #rom #ibrou( ra+ material(. Ba(ically& it i( the mean( by +hich the bond( are (y(tematically ruptured +ithin the +ood (tructure. 't can be done mechanically& thermally& chemically or by combination( o# the(e treatment(. 4ood chip( are #ed to the di%e(ter u(in% con-eyor belt +here the coo)in% chemical( (mainly +hite li8uor ! i( added to di%e(ter. Either direct or indirect heatin% by (team i( done to coo) the ra+ material. $ulpin% i( ba(ically a deli%ni#ication reaction. But alon% +ith the remo-al o# li%nin& (ome amount o# cellulo(e& hemicellulo(e(& e,tracti-e(& many #atty acid( etc.& di((ol-e in the li8uor. 5or proper coo)in% o# chip( / time to temperature& time at temperature& temperature& concentration& pre((ure are important parameter( +hich are to be controlled. A#ter coo)in% the pulp i( (ent to the blo+ do+n tan) i.e.& the coo)ed material comin% #rom the di%e(ter i( at hi%h pre((ure . the pre((ure i( relea(ed in blo+ do+n tan) +here #la(h -apour( +ill be %enerated. Then the pulp i( +a(hed and (ent to )notted (creen( +here )not( i.e.& uncoo)ed material i( retained and the pulp pa(( throu%h the (creen(. The(e )not( are #ed bac) to the di%e(ter. 3ontinuou( di%e(ter( ha-e many
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ad-anta%e( li)e con(i(tent output o-er batch di%e(ter( but becau(e o# hi%h capital co(t and (hut do+n problem& batch di%e(ter( are bein% u(ed. 'n continuou( di%e(ter(& i# a problem ari(e( in one (ection then the +hole proce(( ha( to be (hut do+n till it i( recti#ied +herea( in batch di%e(ter( thi( i( not the ca(e. 'n S$9& there are (i, batch di%e(ter(. A" ra+ material #ed to each 19 m3 ; 1m3 di%e(ter "i%e(ter pre((ure 2 )%=cm Bath ratio Sulphidity Acti-e al)ali Coo*ing 'on+itions, Time to temperature 10 A3 Time at temperature 10 A3 Total pulp yield 5or ab(orbent %rade paper acti-e al)ali pulpin% time 1@ .* 0> 10> hour( 25 minute( 1*/19> 1*>& 90 minute(.

'ndirect (team heatin% i( u(ed. P$rmanganat$ no@ i( u(ed a( a mea(ure o# re(idual li%nin content. $ulp con(i(tency i( le(( than 3> +hich ma)e( pumpin% ea(ier.

Washing
*

There are 1 bro+n (toc) +a(her( manu#actured by "oor Oli-er . Eimco +a(hin% companie( in S$9. The (pent blac) li8uor #rom the di%e(ter i( u(ed #or +a(hin% alon% +ith #re(h +ater. Thi( i( counter current +a(hin%. 9o(t dirty pulp i( +a(hed +ith dirty +ater . clean pulp i( +a(hed +ith clean=#re(h +ater. The +a(hin% (y(tem o# pulp comin% #rom the blo+ do+n tan) i( a( %i-en in the #lo+ dia%ram belo+. The inlet con(i(tency o# pulp i( 3> and the outlet con(i(tency #rom each bro+n (toc) +a(her (BS4! i( 10>.

-. .L ACHING
7i%nin i( the main cau(e o# color in pulp( a( cellulo(e . hemicellulo(e( are inherently +hite. Bnbleached pulp i( not (uitable #or manu#acture o# hi%h %rade +hite paper. The ob?ecti-e o# bleachin% i( the production o# +hite pulp o# (table color obtained at a rea(onable co(t and minimum harm#ul e##ect on phy(ical and chemical propertie( o# the pulp. 'n S$9& O3E$<< bleachin% (e8uence i( #ollo+ed. The unbleached pulp )appa number i( nearly 11. '# bleachin% o# pulp i( not re8uired then the pulp a#ter bro+n (toc) +a(her( i( (ent to the (toc) preparation (ection. '# bleachin% i( re8uired then it i( (ent to o,y%en deli%ni#ication plant (O"7!. 4a(hin% i( done a#ter each bleachin% (ta%e u(in% rotary drum +a(her(. The entire bleachin% proce(( i( (ho+n in the #ollo+in% #lo+ dia%ram
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Bnbleached $ulp

O"7

3/(ta%e bleachin% . +a(hin%

E/(ta%e . +a(hin%

</1 (ta%e bleachin% . +a(hin%

</ (ta%e bleachin% . +a(hin%

Bleached $ulp

Oxygen delignification plant:
7i%nin remo-ed :appa no@ o# pulp a#ter O"7 Bri%htne(( 10/15> */9 10>

<ere pulp i( treated +ith molecular o,y%en . al)ali (6aO<!. Then a#ter +a(hin% it i( (ent to 3/(ta%e bleachin%.

3 (3hlorination! /(ta%e bleachin%@
Bleachin% condition( Total chlorine demand 3l applied a( a-ailable 3on(i(tency Ambient temperature& p< Reaction time 5> .5> 3> .5 30 minute(.

The pulp #rom O"7 i( (ent to chlorination to+er +here 3l di(per(ed in +ater react( +ith pulp. Then the pulp i( +a(hed in rotary drum +a(her(.

E (E,traction! (ta%e@
3ondition( 6aO< $ero,ide 3on(i(tency Temperature p< 3.5>& 0.5> 10> 20A3 10.5/11.5
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Time Bri%htne(( a#ter 3E bleachin%

hour( 00/05>.

$ulp a#ter 3/(ta%e +a(hin% i( mi,ed +ith 6aO< . pero,ide and pumped into an up#lo+ to+er +here the li%nin component( +ill be di((ol-ed to #orm li%no/(ulphonate(. A#ter thi( pulp i( +a(hed +here li%no/(ulphonate( are +a(hed a+ay and (o the bri%htne(( o# pulp i( impro-ed.

</1 (<ypochlorite! bleachin% (ta%e@
"o(e Temperature 3on(i(tency p< Reaction time 20> o# .5> 3l 15A3 10> 9/9.5 (end p<! 20 minute(

The pulp a#ter 3E bleachin% i( treated +ith hypochlorite (olution +hich i( prepared at the mill (ite it(el# by the #ollo+in% reaction 3l C < O D <C3l/ C <O3l E <C C O3l/ 'ncrea(e in p< increa(e( O3l/ concentration. <ence hi%her p< i( maintained #or </(ta%e bleachin%. 7ater pulp i( +a(hed in rotary drum #ilter(.

</ (<ypochlorite! (ta%e@
"o(e 30> o# 3l

5inal bri%htne(( o# pulp a#ter 3E$<< *5> bleachin% Fi(co(ity o# pulp *.5/9 cp(

11

Remainin% condition( are (ame a( </1 (ta%e. E-en time can be reduced here. 5or </(ta%e do+n #lo+ to+er i( u(ed a( hypo (olution i( li8uid.

Ad-anta%e( o# </ (ta%e
There i( no re8uirement #or E/ (ta%e a#ter </(ta%e a( li%nin #ra%ment( are continuou(ly di((ol-ed

hypo i( cheaper

in </(ta%e.

"i(ad-anta%e( o# hypo

$o(t color number i( -ery hi%h i.e.& colour re-er(ion tendency i( -ery hi%h. Al(o colour re-er(ion i( a((ociated +ith lo(( o# pulp (tren%th.

$ulp de%radation i( hi%her and hence pulp (tren%th or -i(co(ity i( lo+er. So paper brea)( do+n a#ter certain time.

1

/. "TOCK PR PARATION
3ellulo(e #iber(& a( produced by pulp mill& are %enerally un(uitable #or runnin% into paper machine i.e.& the ra+ #iber( +ould re(ult in an un(ati(#actory (heet& both in term( o# phy(ical propertie( . appearance. 3on(e8uently dependin% upon t+o con(ideration(@ 1. 5iber characteri(tic( . End u(e re8uirement o# paper it i( nece((ary to treat #iber( to attain the 8ualitie( de(ired in the #ini(hed paper or paper board. The (toc) preparation . paper ma)in% (y(tem proce(( the indi-idual #iber( (eparated #rom #ibrou( ra+ material( by pulpin% to de-elop re8uired propertie( in #iber( . ma)e thin (heet( o# #iber( )no+n a( paper. Stoc) preparation i( the combination o# proce((e( li)e di(inte%ration& beatin% and=or re#inin%& (toc) blendin% . the addition o# non/#ibrou( additi-e(. "i(inte%ration proce(( i( to (eparate the #iber( indi-idually and to produce (u(pen(ion o# pulp #iber( +hich can be pumped continuou(ly to (ucceedin% proce((. Thi( Beatin% . re#inin% i( the mechanical treatment %i-en to the pulp #iber( and carried out in the pre(ence o# +ater. An e8uipment )no+n a( a beater=re#iner i( u(ed #or beatin%=re#inin%. B(ually the (u(pen(ion o# pulp #iber( i( pa((ed throu%h a relati-e narro+ %ap bet+een a re-ol-in% motor . a (tationary (tator& both o# +hich carry bar( or )ni-e( ali%ned more or le(( acro(( the line o# #lo+ o# the (toc). Beatin%=re#inin% proce(( i( cla((i#ied in the #ollo+in% +ay(.

13

Beater i( u(ed in batch proce(( #or accurate beatin% but 8uantity manu#actured i( -ery (mall.

Beatin% . re#inin%

Gordan re#iner( are conical re#iner(. lo+ an%le . +ide an%le re#iner(.

"i(c re#iner(Sin%le di(c re#iner "ouble di(c re#iner 5loatin% di(c re#iner!

11

The throu%hput o# di(c re#iner i( nearly 3.5 tonne per hour Beatin% or re#inin% i( carried out +ith ma?or ob?ecti-e( o# ;  $reparin% #or the de-elopment o# phy(ical (tren%th  'mpro-in% the #ormation  5acilitatin% the (heet ma)in% operation The purpo(e o# (iHin% i( to enable paper to re(i(t the penetration by #luid(. SiHin% can be achie-ed by u(in% +et/end/ additi-e( in (toc) preparation (ection or by on/machine (ur#ace application. 4hen u(ed a( a +et/end/additi-e& the (iHin% impart( de(irable propertie( to the paper and the (heet remain porou(. The u(ual +et/end/additi-e( are ro(in and to a le((er e,tent +a,e(. Today& the addition o# #iller( i( re%arded a( an inte%ral part o# the paperma)in% proce((. A lar%e number o# #iller( are a-ailable to the paperma)er& ran%in% #rom cheap& lo+ %rade clay( to the e,pen(i-e TiO . The principal ob?ecti-e o# addin% #iller( to paper i( to impro-e the opacity and bri%htne((. <o+e-er (moothne((& in) ab(orption& (o#tne(( . dimen(ional (tability are al(o a##ected #a-ourably. There may al(o be other (pecial rea(on( o# addin% #iller( #or e,ample& the u(e o# 3a3O3 in ci%arette paper( to re%ulate the rate o# combu(tion and the u(e o# carbon a( a conductin% a%ent in electrical conductin% a%ent paper. The addition o# hi%h percenta%e o# #iller( al(o re(ult( in (ome unde(irable e##ect( (uch a( decrea(e in (tren%th& bul) . (o#tne(( o# the (heet. 'n S$9& there are 0 ra+ pulp che(t( di##erent #or bleached . unbleached %rade pulp( +hich are u(ed #or pulp (tora%e. The #lo+ dia%ram #or (toc) preparation (ection i( %i-en belo+. 5rom there pulp i( (ent to re#inin% (ection +here it i( beaten or re#ined accordin% to the end u(e re8uirement.

15

Then pulp i( pumped into mi,in% che(t +here non/#ibrou( additi-e( li)e dye(& Ro(in (iHe& #iller(& +et (tren%th additi-e(& dry (tren%th additi-e( are mi,ed +ith pulp. Then it i( pumped to blendin% che(t +here pulp i( blended +ith bro)e . other pulp( i# any. $ulp i( (tored in machine che(t a( paperma)in% i( continuou( operation +hich need( continuou( (upply o# pulp. "e#oamer( are added to machine che(t to reduce #orm #ormation.

0. PAP R !ACHIN " CTION
10

The term Iapproach (y(temJ re#er( to (peci#ically to the #an pump loop +herein the paper ma)in% #urni(h i( metered& diluted& mi,ed +ith any nece((ary additi-e(& and #inally (creened and cleaned be#ore bein% di(char%e on to the paper machine #ormin% #abric approach #lo+ (y(tem e,tend( #rom the machine che(t to the head bo, (lice. Some time( (toc) che(t( and re#iner( are con(idered to be the po(t o# the (toc) (y(tem. Althou%h the machine che(t (toc) (hould be rea(onably #ree #rom impuritie(& mo(t paper machine approach (y(tem( utiliHe (creen( and cleaner( a( in(urance a%ain(t #orei%n contamination.

Traditionally (creen( ha-e #unction mainly to remo-e %ro(( contamination and de#loc the #iber( +hile the cleaner( are de(i%ned to remo-e (ome debri(. The approach #lo+ (y(tem i( %i-en in the #i%ure belo+.

1igur$ &, Approa'h 2lo# syst$m The +or) hor(e o# the approach (y(tem i( the #an pump +hich (er-e( to mi, the (toc) +ith the +hite +ater and deli-er the blend to the head bo,. The machine (y(tem and the demand( made on it -ery e,actin%. Both #lo+ rate and pre((ure mu(t be (table& +ithout pul(ation( and (ur%e( u(ually a (in%le #an pump i( u(ed& but occa(ionally t+o #an pump( are u(ed in a (erie( arran%ement. A t+o/pump (y(tem i( a re8uirement +hen air i( remo-ed #rom the (toc) under -acuum.

12

1igur$ ), "impli2i$+ s*$t'h o2 pap$r ma'hin$ The (heet/#ormin% proce(( on a #ourdrinier +ire i( #ar more complicated& in-ol-in%& in addition to draina%e& other e##ect( (uch a( the %eneration and decay o# turbulence& #ormation and brea)do+n o# #iber net+or)(& retention and tran(port o# #ine particle( in the mat& compaction o# the mat& and (hear #orce( bet+een the mat and #ree (u(pen(ion.

1igur$ -, Diagram o2 2our+rini$r #$t $n+ 'n S$9& online (iHin% i( employed +here the (iHin% a%ent #all( onto in inclined po(ition. The #ollo+in% pre((ure( are employed at the pre((in% (ection. Suction pre(( 30/10 )6=m 5abric pre(( 10/50 )6=m Smoothenin% pre(( 50/00)6=m

1*

There are 1 machine( in S$9.

19

con(i(t( o# 9ach #ini(h (95!

combination o# 9achine #ini(h (95! . 9achine %laHe (9K!

3 and 1 con(i(t o# 9achine %laHe

#inal moi(ture content o# (heet moi(ture remo-ed +ater i( remo-ed on 9K

0/2>! 10/11 )%=hm 50/20 )%=hm

The (heet #rom +et pre(( mo-e( on to the(e roll( 95 . 9K. The(e are e8uipment( +here moi(ture in (heet i( remo-ed. 9achine #ini(h i( (mall in (iHe and the pre((ure applied i( (mall compared to 9achine %laHe. 6o t+o/(idedne(( i( imparted to (heet on 95. On 9K& hot air i( blo+n into hood on top (ide to remo-e moi(ture and (o the (heet loo)( dull on top (ide. Steam i( applied in(ide the
0

9K roll +hich remo-e( moi(ture #orm bottom (ide o# (heet. So 6K impart( t+o/(idedne(( to the (heet.

1.5m 95 Sheet

0m 9K

$aper (0/2> moi(ture! 4et pre((

3. R CO( R4 " CTION
Reco-ery i( the mo(t important part o# inte%rated pulp . paper mill(. 't i( a proce(( to reco-er both ener%y . chemical( #rom the +ea) blac) li8uor comin% #rom bro+n (toc) +a(her(. 't al(o reduce( the e##luent chemical load on the e##luent treatment plant. But hi%h capital in-e(tment i( re8uired #or the mill( to %o #or reco-ery. Blac) li8uor i( a comple, (olution containin% poly di(per(ed li%nin& a ho(t o# de%raded reaction product( o# li%nin& poly(accharide(& e,tracti-e( and (e-eral other inor%anic material(. 't al(o contain( chemical( u(ed #or pulpin%. The #ollo+in% ma?or proce((e( ta)e place in reco-ery (ection

 3oncentration o# +ea) blac) li8uor obtained #rom bro+n (toc) +a(her( in the multiple e##ect e-aporator(

 Blac) li8uor o,idation   

1

 5urther concentration o# blac) li8uor up to 05> in direct contact e-aporator( i# nece((ary to #rom hea-y blac) li8uor

 'ncineration o# hea-y blac) li8uor in the reco-ery #urnace

 "i((ol-in% (melt to #orm %reen li8uor

 3au(ticiHin% %reen li8uor +ith lime to #orm +hite li8uor +hich i( a%ain u(ed #or pulpin%

The #lo+ dia%ram o# reco-ery (ection i( %i-en belo+.

CP ; 3au(ticiHation plant $=9 ; $aper machine 4B7 ; +ea) blac) li8uor (15/1*> (olid(! <B7 ; hea-y blac) li8uor (0 /05> (olid(! K7 ; %reen li8uor 47 ; +hite li8uor 9EE ; multiple e##ect e-aporator( "3E ; direct contact e-aporator 3hemical reco-ery cycle in (hort i( a combination o# 1 3J( ; concentration& combu(tion& cau(ticiHation& calcination. 3oncentration i( achie-ed by e-aporation o# +ater in multiple e##ect e-aporator( . direct contact e-aporation(. The #ollo+in% reaction( ta)e place mainly in the +hole cycle (tartin% #rom pulpin%. 1. 3oo)in% 6aO< C 6a S C +ood=non +ood L 6a/or%anic( C 6a<S 3oo)in% i( ba(ically a deli%ni#ication reaction. . Reco-ery boiler 6a SO1 C 3 L 6a S C 3O 3. Sla)in% . 3au(ticiHin% 3aO C < O L 3a (O<! C 6aO<
3

1. 7ime reburnin%=3alcination 3a3O3 C heat L 3aO C 3O In "P!5 th$r$ is a s$6-tupl$ multipl$ $22$'t $7aporators 8 +ir$'t 'onta't $7aporator. "up$rh$at$+ st$am 2rom th$ r$'o7$ry 2urna'$ is s$nt to po#$r a g$n$rating tur9in$ #hi'h g$n$rat$s $l$'tri' po#$r an+ th$ $6haust st$am is us$+ in +ig$st$rs5 'austi'i:ation plant5 an+ pap$r ma'hin$. Thus "P! is s$l2-su22i'i$nt in po#$r g$n$ration #hi'h is r$;uir$+ 2or th$ mill.

<. 11L% NT TR AT! NT PLANT
' am (orry to (ay thi( ( ! but the $ulp . paper indu(try i( one o# the mo(t pollutin% indu(trie( in the +orld. The e##luent #rom bleachin% (ection i( the mo(t polluted (ection a#ter the pulpin% (ection. But the e##luent load #rom pulpin% (ection i( reduced to a %reat e,tent by employin% reco-ery cycle. <u%e amount( o# pollutant( li)e BO" (biolo%ical o,y%en demand!& 3O" (chemical o,y%en demand!& AOM (ad(orbable o,y%en halide(! are pre(ent the e##luent . it i( dar) bro+n in colour mainly due to the pre(ence o# li%nin #ra%ment(. The e##luent treatment plant in S$9 i( di(cu((ed belo+. The e##luent #rom all (ection( i( collected . tran(#erred to a I Primary 'lari2i$rJ. <ea-ier particle( ((peci#ic %ra-ity N1! li)e (and (ettle do+n and the o-er#lo+ #lo+( to the nutrient( do(in% tan). 6utrient( li)e urea& pho(phate are added to thi( tan). A( the (lud%e i( acti-ated& microbe( %ro+ up u(in% the nutrient( pro-ided and de%rade the bio/de%radable matter and reduce BO"& 3O". "e#oamer( are al(o added to the tan). Aerator( are pro-ided (o that microbe( %et (u##icient air #or (ur-i-al. 3olor reducin% a%ent( are
1

al(o added. The e##luent i( le#t a( (uch in the tan) nearly #or a +ee). Then the e##luent i( pa((ed into (econdary cla((i#ier. The o-er#lo+ #rom (econdary cla((i#ier i( drained into ri-er. The under#lo+ #rom the primary cla((i#ier i( collected in a tan) . it i( a%ain +a(hed . (ome amount o# #iber i( collected #rom it. The remainin% (lud%e i( dumped into ri-er.
6utrient( E##luent

$rimary clari#ier

O-er #lo+

O 6utrient( do(in% tan)

Secondary clari#ier

o-er #lo+

Bnder #lo+

Some #iber collected #rom thi(

Secondary cla((i#ier@
Total number o# (ur#ace aerator( Aeration ba(in (iHe 3apacity 1 (50 hp each! 101m P 10m P 1.5m 102 0m3

CONCL%"ION"
'n 'ndia& mo(t o# the pulp . paper mill( do not ha-e online control (y(tem(. Still 'ndia i( importin% automobile #ilter paper( #rom other countrie( a( only #e+ mill( in 'ndia are manu#acturin% the(e paper(. Qet re(earch ha( to be conducted in many area( +hich are (uitable #or the ra+ material u(ed in 'ndian mill(. $aper mill( in (ome European countrie( ha-e clo(ed (y(tem( +herin the +hole pollution load o# the mill i( recycled in(ide the mill it(el#. 4e need
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to achie-e that (tate. ' hope +e a( paper technolo%i(t( can contribute to+ard( de-elopin% (uch (y(tem(R

R 1 R NC "
1. "ata collected #rom Star paper mill . <and boo) #or paper technolo%i(t( by Smoo). 3. $re-iou( year(J report(

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