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11th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics - !EC 2013 September 01 – 04, 2013, Ni!

, Serbia

LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATION OF DOUBLE-EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION PARAMETERS
Dino LOVRI"1, Slavko VUJEVI"2 and Ton#i MODRI"3
Abstract: In this paper an effective numerical algorithm for computation of double-exponential function parameters based on the available input data is presented. The parameter estimation is achieved using the Marquardt least squares method. Keywords: Double-exponential function, lightning, Marquardt least squares method

Double-exponential function can be used to approximate the lightning return stroke current and is described by the following expression:

i(t ) =

I 0 # $! t !e # e #"!t %

(

)

(1)

INTRODUCTION In the field of electromagnetic analysis of lightning phenomena a number of mathematical functions are available for modelling the channel-base lightning current [1]. The simplest of these functions is the double-exponential function [2], which, despite its numerous drawbacks, continues to be in use mainly due to its simplicity. In this paper, an algorithm for estimation of doubleexponential function parameters is presented, which is based on a similar algorithm applied on the Heidler function [3]. The algorithm enables simultaneous solving of a system of two, three or four nonlinear equations depending on the available input data: current peak value, front duration, time to half value, charge transfer at the striking point and specific energy. LIGHTNING RETURN STROKE CURRENT – DOUBLE-EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION The lightning current approximation of the first return stroke is depicted in Fig. 1, where I0 is the current peak value, t0 is the virtual starting time, t1 is the time to 10 % of peak value, t2 is the time to 90 % of peak value, th is the total time to half value of the peak value, tmax is the time to the peak value, T1 is the front duration and T2 is the time to half value [4].

where $ is the correction coefficient of the current peak value, % and & are the parameters of the double-exponential function. According to Fig. 1, two basic requirements for the estimation of double-exponential function parameters $, % and & can be written as:

i = 0.9 ! I 0 for t = t 2 i = 0.5 ! I 0 for t = t h

(2) (3)

Two additional requirements can be deduced from the charge transfer at the striking point Q0 and the specific energy W0:
#

" i ! dt = Q
0 #

0

(4)

"i
0

2

! dt = W0

(5)

From equations (2-5), the following four normalized nonlinear equations can be obtained:

R1 =

1 " e !%"t 2 ! e !$"t 2 ! 1 0.9 " #

(

)

(6)

R2 =

1 " e !%"t h ! e !$"t h ! 1 0.5 " #

(

)

(7)

R3 =

I0 ' 1 1 $ *% ! " ! 1 Q0 * + & ) ( #

(8)

R4 =
Fig.1 – Lightning current approximation of the first return stroke.
1 2

2 1 $ ' 1 )% ! + " !1 + ) W0 & 2 ) * * + ( 2 ) ( #
2

2 I0

(9)

Univ. of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, 21000 Split, Croatia, e-mail: dlovric@fesb.hr Univ. of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, 21000 Split, Croatia, e-mail: vujevic@fesb.hr 3 Univ. of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, 21000 Split, Croatia, e-mail: tmodric@fesb.hr

LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATION OF DOUBLEEXPONENTIAL FUNCTION PARAMETERS Double-exponential function parameters can be estimated in four cases by solving a set of m nonlinear equations using the Marquardt method [3], [5], depending on the available input requirements (Fig. 2): Case 1: m = 2, E1 = R1 and E2 = R2 Case 2: m = 3, E1 = R1, E2 = R2 and E3 = R3 Case 3: m = 3, E1 = R1, E2 = R2 and E3 = R4 Case 4: m = 4, E1 = R1, E2 = R2, E3 = R3 and E4 = R4 In Fig. 2, a flowchart is presented that describes the estimation of the double-exponential function parameters $, % and & introduced in (1). In each rth iteration, parameters tmax, $ and t1 have to be computed, where the auxiliary parameters tmax and t1 are computed by solving the corresponding nonlinear equation. The abbreviation MSE in Fig. 2 stands for Marquardt method for a Single nonlinear Equation. It is used for estimation of values of t1 or tmax.

The parameter $ is computed from the linear equation given in Fig. 2. Then the parameters % and & are computed by the Marquardt method from the corresponding set of nonlinear equations in the rth iteration. The nonlinear equation for computing the parameter tmax can be obtained from the following requirement:

di dt

=0
t = t max

(10)

The following normalized nonlinear equation for computation of tmax can be obtained from (10):
k

Fmax = ! r $ " e !

r

$"k !1 t max

+ r # " e!

r

#"k !1 t max

(11)

When estimating tmax, the initial value is taken to be tmax = 0.9'T1. The nonlinear equation of computing the parameter t1 can be obtained from the following requirement:

i = 0.1! I0 for t = t1

(12)

Fig.2 – Least squares estimation of double-exponential function parameters.

Using (2), the following normalized nonlinear equation for computation of t1 can be obtained:
k

F1 =

r k !1 1 ' ! r +(k !1 t1 (%e ! e ! *( t1 $ " !1 # 0.1 ( ) &

(13)

the method described in the previous section. The following parameters have been obtained: $ = 0.9511, % = 2121.76 s-1 and & = 245303.6 s-1. Double-exponential function with these parameters is depicted in Fig. 3.

When estimating t1, the initial value is taken to be t1 = 0.1'T1. In Fig. 2, the matrix [D] is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are identical to the diagonal elements of matrix [A] defined by the following equation:

[A] = [J]T ! [J]
where the Jacobian matrix [J] can be computed by:

(14)

& (E1 r *1 ), r *1 ' $ ( r *1) $ $ [J ] = $ ! $ $ (E m r *1 ), r *1 ' $ ( r *1) $ %

(

) )

(E1

(

! ! ! ! ! (E m r *1 ), r *1 ' ! ! ( r *1' ! "

(r *1 ), r *1 ') # !
( r *1'
(15)

Fig.3 – Double-exponential function approximation of the first positive impulse.

(

)

Vector {B} can be computed using following expression:

'E ! 1 {B} = ! & ! !E m %

(r *1 ), r *1 () $ ! (
! # ! r *1 r *1 ), ( ! " !
(16)

)

Other often used lightning current waveshapes sometimes used for designing low-voltage power lines within structures are the T1/T2 = 0.2/5 µs waveshape, the T1/T2 = 4/16 µs waveshape and T1/T2 = 1.2/50 µs waveshape [1, 6]. Since these waveshapes are only defined by T1 and T2 values, only two nonlinear equations are simultaneously solved. Results of the estimation for these three waveshapes are presented in Table I. Corresponding double-exponential functions approximating these waveshapes are depicted in Fig. 4. All functions have a current peak value of I0 = 1 A for plotting clarity purposes. Peak values can be changed accordingly since the parameters in Table I are independent of the peak current value.
Table I Double-exponential function parameters for fast-decaying lightning current waveshapes.

Partial derivatives of nonlinear equations (6-9) which are required for computation of matrix [J] in (15) can be computed analytically using the following expressions:

$R 1 t " e % &" t 2 $R 1 t 2 " e %#"t 2 =% 2 ; = $& 0.9 " ! $# 0.9 " ! $R 2 t " e % &" t h $R 2 t h " e %#"t h =% h ; = $& 0.5 " ! $# 0.5 " ! $R 3 I0 $R 3 I0 =& ; = 2 $% $! Q0 " # " % Q0 " # " !2
2 & I0 ,R 4 2 1 # = ( ) ! 2 $ 2 ,* W0 ( + % (* + ') 2 ( *2 " 2 & I0 ,R 4 2 1 # = ( ) ! 2 $ 2 ,' W0 ( + % (* + ') 2 ( '2 "

(17)

Waveshapes T1/T2 0.2/5 µs 4/16 µs 1.2/50 µs

(18) (19)

Double-exponential function parameters ! " (s-1) # (s-1) 0.93269 152921.46 11887358.7 0.27475 117598.38 252722.5 0.95847 14732.18 2080312.7

(20)

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES The first numerical example features Case 4, i.e. the simultaneous solving of four nonlinear equations. The input data taken from IEC 62305-1 Ed. 2 [4] represent the maximum values of lightning current quantities of the first positive impulse for Lightning Protection Level III-IV: I0 = 100 kA, T1/T2 = 10/350 µs, Q0 = 50 C and W0 = 2.5 MJ/(. Double-exponential function parameters are estimated using a computer program that implements

Fig.4 – Double-exponential function approximation of fast-decaying lightning current waveshapes.

However, in the case of communication lines which have a different exposure to lightning than power lines, different waveshapes are used for designing lightning protection system. These waveshapes are characterized by a relatively sharp rise followed by a very slow current decay:

the T1/T2 = 10/700 µs waveshape and the T1/T2 = 10/1000 µs waveshape [6]. Again, these waveshapes are only defined by T1 and T2 values, so only two nonlinear equations are simultaneously solved. Results of the estimation for these two waveshapes are presented in Table II. Double-exponential functions approximating these waveshapes are depicted in Fig. 5.
Table II Double-exponential function parameters for slow-decaying lightning current waveshapes.

exponential function has the steepest rise in the time t = 0 and can not approximate the recorded waveshape accurately. Much better results can be obtained using the Heidler function [3, 9] or Javor function [10]. The input data of the recorded waveshape current taken from [8] is: I0 = -1 A, T1 = 8 µs and T2 = 100 µs. The resulting double-exponential function parameters are: $ = 0.86481, % = 8421.53 s-1 and & = 265585.9 s-1.

Waveshapes T1/T2 10/700 µs 10/1000 µs

Double-exponential function parameters ! " (s-1) # (s-1) 0.97423 1028.39 257923.7 0.98135 712.41 262026.6

Fig.7 – Recorded lightning current and its double-exponential function approximation.

Fig.5 – Double-exponential function approximation of slowdecaying lightning current waveshapes.

In addition to standardized lightning current, the presented least squares method can easily be used to approximate the waveshapes of various recorded impulse stroke currents. The recorded waveshape taken from [7] is depicted on Fig. 6, along with the double-exponential function approximation. The input data of the recorded waveshape current taken from [7] is: I0 = 5 A, T1 = 9.3 µs and T2 = 90 µs. The resulting double-exponential function parameters are: $ = 0.80917, % = 10054.37 s-1 and & = 197765.3 s-1.

CONCLUSION In this paper, a robust and effective algorithm for the least squares estimation of double-exponential function parameters is presented. Using this algorithm various standardized and recorded lightning current waveshapes can be approximated by the double-exponential function. This algorithm can be easily modified to estimate the parameters of an arbitrary lightning current function. REFERENCES
[1] V. Cooray: “Lightning protection”, V. Cooray, 2007, London, pp. 67-72. [2] C. E. R. Bruce, R. H. Golde: “The lightning discharge”, J. Inst. Elect. Eng, Vol. 88, Part 2, 1941, pp. 487-520. [3] S. Vujevi#, D. Lovri#, I. Juri#-Grgi#: “Least squares estimation of Heidler function parameters”, European Transactions on Electrical Power, Vol. 21, 2011, pp. 329-344.

[4] IEC 62305-1 Ed. 2, Protection against lightning – Part 1: General principles, 2010. [5] D.W. Marquardt: “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters”, Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1963, pp. 431-441. [6] M.A. Uman: “The art and science of lightning protection”, Cambridge University Press, 2008, New York. [7] Z. Stojkovi# et al.: “Sensitivity analysis of experimentally determined grounding grid impulse characteristics”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1998, pp. 1136-1142. Fig.6 – Recorded impulse current and its double-exponential func- [8] K. Berger, R. B. Anderson, H. Kroninger: “Parameters of tion approximation. lightning flashes”, ELECTRA, No. 41, 1975, pp. 23-38. In the following example a typical negative first stroke [9] D. Lovri#, D. Vujevi#, T. Modri#: “On the estimation of Heidler function parameters for reproduction of various current waveshape is considered. The recorded waveshape standardized and recorded lightning current waveshapes”, Intaken from [8] is depicted on Fig. 7, along with the doubleternational Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, Vol. exponential function approximation. One can observe from 23, 2013, pp. 290-300. this figure the inadequacy of the double-exponential func[10] V. Javor: “New function for representing IEC 62305 Standard tion approximation. The recorded lightning current is charand other typical lightning stroke currents”, Journal of Lightacterized by a slow rise at the very beginning followed by a ning Research, Vol. 4, 2012, pp. 50-59. much steeper rise. On the other hand, the double-