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Thyristor Thyristors
• A family of devices that are constructed of four semiconductor layers (pnpn). • They act as open circuits capable of withstanding a certain rated voltage until they are triggered. When triggered, they turn on and become low resistance current paths and remain so, even after trigger is removed, until current is reduced to a certain level or until they are removed.

Industrial Electronics

Shockley Diode
• Also known as 4-Layer Diode and SUS



Shockley Diode
• When a positive bias voltage is applied to the anode with respect to the cathode the base-emitter junctions are forward bias and the base-collector is in reverse bias.

Shockley Diode


Thyristors SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER (SCR) 2 . Determine the resistance of the diode in the forward blocking region. Under this bias condition . Shockley Diode • Holding Current (Ih) • Once the Shockley diode is conducting (on state). Example • A certain 4-layer diode is biased in the forward blocking region with an anode-to-cathode voltage of 20 V. it will continue to conduct until the anode current is reduced below to this specified level.8/29/2013 Shockley Diode Characteristic Curve Shockley Diode • Forward Blocking Region • A region in the forward bias in which the device has a very high forward resistance (ideally an open) and is on off state. the anode current is 1μA. VBR(f) = 10 V. • Forward Breakover Voltage (VBR(F)) • The value of VAK where the device enters the forward – blocking region. Assume the forward voltage drop is 0.9 V. • Switching Current (IS) • The value of the anode current at the point where the device switches from the forward-blocking region (off) to the forward-conduction region (on) Example • Determine the value of anode current in the figure when the device is on.

3 . the device acts as a Shockley diode in the off state. In this state. Turning ON SCR • Like the Shockley Diode. IG. and gate. Turning ON the SCR • When a positive pulse of current (trigger) is applied to the gate.8/29/2013 SCR • Silicon Controlled Rectifier is a 4-layer pnpn device similar to a Shockley Diode except it has three terminals: anode. In this state. both transistors will turn on (the anode must be more positive to the cathode) Turning ON the SCR • The device stays on (latches) once it is triggered on. the very high resistance between the anode and cathode can be approximated by an open switch. SCR Equivalent Turning ON the SCR • When the gate current. an SCR can be turned without triggering by increasing the anode-to-cathode voltage to a value exceeding the forward-breakover voltage. cathode. is zero. the very low resistance between the anode and cathode can be approximated by a closed switch.

• Firing delay  . 4 . a value of IG is reached at which the SCR turns on at a very low anode-to-cathode the number of degrees of an AC cycle during which the SCR is turned on. Turning OFF the SCR • There are two basic methods for turning off an SCR: – Anode Current Interruption – Forced Commutation SCR WAVEFORMS • Conduction  . • Firing delay  + Conduction  = 180° VAK AND VL WAVEFORMS Anode Current Interruption Forced Commutation • Forced Commutation method basically requires momentarily forcing current through the SCR in the direction opposite the forward conduction current so that the net forward current is reduced below the holding value.8/29/2013 Turning ON SCR • The forward-breakover voltage decreases as IG is increased above 0 the number of degrees of an AC cycle that elapses before the SCR is turned on. Eventually.

The LASCR is most sensitive to light when the gate terminal is open. Notice that the input source is electrically isolated from the rest of the circuit. If necessary. The anode current energizes the relay and closes the contact. a resistor from the gate to the cathode can be used to reduce sensitivity. Thyristors APPLICATIONS OF SCR 5 .8/29/2013 Forced Commutation SCR Characteristics and Ratings SCR Characteristics and Ratings LASCR • Light Activated Silicon-Controlled Rectifier is a thyristor that operates as a conventional SCR except that it can be light-triggered. LASCR Circuit • The input source turns on the lamp. the resulting incident light triggers the LASCR. The LASCR conducts current in one direction when activated by a sufficient amount of light and continues to conduct until the current falls below a specified value.

Variable-Resistance Control Circuit. Phase 90o Conduction 135o Conduction 6 .2 V.7 V and IH= 5 mA Half Wave Power Control • Used for the control of ac power for lamp dimmers. electric heaters and electric motors 180o Conduction Half-Wave. SW1 is momentarily closed.8/29/2013 ON-OFF Control of Current Example: • Determine the gate trigger current and the anode current when the switch. Assume VAK= 0. VGK= 0.

The time constant is set by R1 and C1. Backup Lighting for Power Interruption • As long as the ac power is available. The anode is at the 6 V battery voltage. When the SCR turns on. making the cathode less positive than the anode or the gate. the capacitor starts charging and discharging again. When the switch is closed. making it less positive than the cathode. the voltage across the SCR is the same as the applied voltage. and R3. which is connected across the line voltage. By adjusting the potentiometer. The SCR current causes the fuse to blow. the capacitor quickly discharges through it. the battery charges through diode D3 and R1. and the voltage at which the SCR triggers on is determined by the variable voltage divider from R2 and R3. thus maintaining illumination. thus disconnecting the line voltage from the power supply. the capacitor discharges through the closed path R1. 7 . The trigger voltage turns on the SCR . the zener conducts and the voltage divider produces an SCR trigger voltage. the frequency of the sawtooth waveform can be changed. The upper limit of the output voltage is set by zener voltage. the SCR is conducting and voltage across it is ideally zero. As soon as the SCR is off. D3. and the SCR begins to conduct. This action establishes triggering condition. the anode current then decreases below the holding value. Sawtooth Generator • The SCR can be used in conjunction with an RC circuit to produce a repetitive sawtooth waveform. Assume an ideal SCR Solution: • When the there is load current. The SCRs cathode voltage is established when the capacitor charges to the peak value of the full-wave rectified ac. If this voltage is exceeded. the capacitor begins charging and turns on the SCR. and 90o.8/29/2013 Example: • Show the voltage waveform across the SCR from anode to cathode (ground) in relation to the load current from 180o. thus preventing conduction Backup Lighting for Power Interruption • When there is an interruption of ac power. When the there is no load current. Current from the battery is through the SCR and the lamp. The battery begins recharging • Overvoltage Protection Circuit • Also known as Crowbar Circuit • The dc output voltage from the regulator is monitored by zener diode (Z1) and the resistive voltage (R1 and R2). causing the SCR to turn off. When ac power is restored the capacitor recharges and the SCR turn off. 45o.