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Performance, Analysis, and Musical Imagining Author(s): Charles Fisk Source: College Music Symposium, Vol. 36 (1996), pp.

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as a basisfor himself a he calls 'seriousanalysis'can serve what Rink. butsometheomany performers already what belief that do is what with his rists performers actually they apparent maydisagree as "critical discourse a viewofperformance on for to do.170.1 . 1989):6. vagaries basisfor andnot tobe "theinescapable considers therefore. may suggests. tocarry Thefact that almost leastinprinciple. readers. This content downloaded from 193.3 19-39. an integral . (1990). doing. andPerformance. orthecapacity. never havethetime. (NewHavenandLondon: Yale. MusicAnalysis 9/3 MusicalStructure ofWallaceBerry. performance theimplicit belief Rink takes issuewith ofthese writers that John ture andPerformance. kind of . system. performance. else. anyattempt toproblems. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . . butperformance cannot about texts state statements makesexplicit anyinfer someofperformers' aboutthe Whileone can usually thoughts thing explicitly.228 on Thu. 3Berry. them.129.advocates ought and that who do not a their of theperceived score."3 at ifaskedabout views. distinct from what "a that holds unique performer's analysis quite pianist. . Berry's might saythey agreewith Manyperformers. Mostobviously. . andMusicalPerformance MusicalStructure 2Wallace Berry. forms oftheperforming we as analysts usually part process. Rink.41. moreover. critical discourse leadsimmediately tocritical discourse andartworks."2 argues performers ground meaning canrely onwhat heregards onmusical as the ofthis analysis only meaning conception oftheir teachers andother He oron docileimitation ofintuition. analysis itly Inhisreview ofWallaceBerry's MusicalStrucorvalidating objectively. guides canever needs than suited to more as tematic systematic analysis performers' analysis even that have more to gain theorists He to become. anytheoretical Acknowledging gesture." practice aims to above all aural to discover. analytic begun from to drawconclusions them abouthowto playthemusic havetried them. Berry. interpretive doing analysis. does notimply outsuchanalysis But. performance. performers. still their entreat whether to decisions. pleting writers someofthese thedirect Eventhough ofanadeny applicability being analyzed.andMusical Performance. Analysis. they an objection. review 'John Rink.as Rinkpoints out. awareness theexplicit erscangainfrom analytic what andendorses Rink thus describes do. they impliclytic findings performative as a foundation for as a wayofgrounding toregard orexplicitly.thewaysperhavenosimple relation andthe decisions formers reach wayswe evaluate performances todevelop a comparison ofperformance Inparticular. one. analysis 'shape' performer's According that informed more than andmusical intuition. Imagining Charles Fisk Parti:Schumann' s Arabesque Introduction the between music andperformance whoaddress have relationship analysis W Writers with their discussions observations and after comV V usually then. tosuchconvictions. Rink nonetheless suchunsyssuchperformer's clearly regards analysis. aspire modes of musical awareness than on their from performanalyses performers' building oftheorists.

performers through sictorecover itsimmediacy from themedium ofthescore. Before can performers bring themusic toreflection. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ability order itsparameters. roleof experimentation. torestrain itanalytically." Journal ofMusicTheory29/l (1985): 1-31. buton knowledge that has becomefor themostpart intheperformer's embodied of and musical sound rather than ways hearing producing remembered as It be would as and remaining consciously knowledge. point."4 She cannot on a passage.nos. conceptualizationsmight explicitly upon. imagining analyno matter what it draw botharise sis. Therefore a performer's hearing. process experimentation experienced merely basedon knowledge ofall sorts. neither draws emphasizing Againquite obviously.must from and resolveitself inthat of his or her as an embodiment performer's technique musical imagination.129.or ignore stopto reflect anydetailof it while others. Bagatelles Op. nor makes abstractions. theperformer's compre"synoptic be placedcompletely attheservice ofprojecting thework time hension must through thethread ofmusical momentconnections. musicianship intheability toimagine both and in than the define and to music. as FredMaushasargued.2 and5. directly. As Janet Schmalfeldt haswritten. musician."MusicalPerformance Paperreadattheannual meeting MusicTheory inAustin. thoughts perout formance cannot choosewhich details itwilltakeinto whileleaving others account. performance generalizations from a score. performancespecifies andmakes what thescoreleavesindeterminate. they bring Eventhe most literate listeners not so much musically respond through anyobservations formulate in course of the to a as the they listening performancethrough vividness that theimaginative focus andenergy oftheperformance totheir musical experibrings ence.170. oftrying thiswayand thatin order what to discover things a performer's senseof identification with themusic. determinate ina sense themusicitself. justas we can all make refined to the situations within which we to have without responses expertise having thereasons for more these Practical consists specify explicitly responses. inhibiting impracticalfor totry toarticulate ofthis performers consciously every aspect experimentation. 1989. cannever hear orreadthese Unlike critical moreover. Onthecontrary. 5Fred Everett as Composition. as tobecome self-conscious about most oftherest analytically 4Janet "On theRelation ofAnalysis toPerformance: Beethoven's Schmalfeldt. This content downloaded from 193.whatproduces this of far Itis is from intuitive. completing normally works discuss as seek their with themuidentification they objects. thephysical ofa performer's toa pieceisessentially deed. 126.Manyperformers can bring to theplaying thisfocusand excitement of a piece without everformulating an articulate basisfor their decisions. living through achieved. by-moment making holding logicatevery within havebeen and the work and even its final tones until. must itaudibly to life. after.For an 'works'." oftheSociety for Maus.October 28.228 on Thu. ofconsideration. aurally bodily. Texas. andnoanalysis cantaketheplaceoftheyears ofpractical experiencerequired to developandfocusa performer's Inauralandtechnical imagination. they shapeandcharacter playfrom playing. Berry overplays analysis andwith ittheperformer's toconvey critical andheunderplays the capacity judgments.5 Onceagainunlike whomust taketheartcritics.60 COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM their onecan onlyinfer one ofwhat them. discourse. aspect relationship implicated inhisorher andshaping ofthe music. thus theroleofmusical inthepreparation ofperformance.

Butoften a perone's sound-image imageofthemusicinto bring from must togainsuchfocus itimagiinorder awareness. I shallexplore param. parts technical a goodpiament Sincethe involves. This content downloaded from 193. to playthehandsseparately. analytic supplement into norRink consideration. forexample.andprobably The theme. necessary supplements With theKreisleriana.170.especially notonly thewaysperformers needtoinvestigate onesthey adthemselves . difficulties.228 on Thu. and working analytic approach in relation these concerns.129.ANALYSIS. ortooopaqueintexture. In his response hand.Autobiographical information from them tomakemusical experience perthantheorists' formulations of ideological in formers will be morehelpful programs theoretical have the most to contribute to kinds of what s analysis performer' assessing just in whoalso teaches and somewaysclaimsan As a performing theory pianist analysis. accented. tomore analytic objectively . performer likely begin critically analytically hisor indoing so willbecome more andmore dissatherownwayofplaying it. I the to of shall describe some less the two. from eters myattempts Main Theme on a piecesimply tobegin work for instrumentalists It is common it.more inthedelineation detailed ofmusical howmyanalysis II. tobe discussed inPart observations. enable mire most vivid. their thiswayinitiating .'Imagining becomea daunting can often task. I propose to explore one performer's to performance. is likely to seemtoo heavy. contrapuntal andtechnical focus. explicit andmotivic andoftheir interactions ofitscomponents canhelp harmonic.whatever oftheir bodiesthetechnique oftheir instrutheir vocalchords breath.Rinkunderplays and evolves such that both can guides through experimentation analysis' performer's the in all its music or in it a on 'serious draw distincdetail. Arabesque posesnoobvious soon. finding analysis. neither inwaysthat Berry bring natively of role the ofanalysis inachieving assessment the To developa realistic possible for both andperformers theorists kind ofimaginative necessary performance. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the intuitive orexperimental an theperformer's music baffles awareness capacities.actually butalso whatattitudes and habits ofthought reachdecisions. oftheir on theother thewaysthatthe to Berry.in byplaying oflearning to 'hear' itthrough their a process hands andarms. in theperformance oftwopiecesby to solve specific I developedin order problems With andthesecondpieceofKreisleriana. attempt simply overtly problematic besque. own to decision-making processes my I shallreconstruct someanalytic observations that In order tomakethis exploration. onitwillbe abletoplayitvery towork orsoon nist beginning will most to listen and this to after. the AratheArabesque Robert Schumann.Andsurely when tivemusicalshapeorgesture. former. as I recently studied the the first ofmyown'performer's time. specificity . either too strongly ortoovaguely toomonotonous. isfied with thisway ofplaying. to try thetheme The pianist with beginsto experiment.Butatthesametime. AND MUSICAL IMAGING 61 behavior.PERFORMANCE. analysis' piecefor aspects drew onarticulate awarethewaysthis I shalltry toclarify performer's analysis analytic music'scharacter became ofthe andalso howassessments ness.grew tosolvesomeeditorial riddles.

inwhich harmony This content downloaded from 193. curved. fingers the in-and-out ofthehand andforearm. feeling following drop('entering' alon the and then the the release board) upbeats feeling weight ('exiting' keyboard. 1-8).themotion to.I amatonewith it. Sooner orlater from sidetosideorwith motions if sometimes as a combination of attitudes and motions discovers. technique surprise anyone understanding to or I ever learned told students to the same similar motions before ably piano employ had I I not settle for until the And did into these motions myself play piecemyself. without the on the downbeats.orpart and. sincethe second ofthe measure often resolves the onthefourth dissonance eighth occurring eighth . I eventually The motions oftheArabesque discovered for thetheme (Example1) I probwillnot whose ofpiano resembles mine. butthat andbodily more discovery intellectual the of an incarnation of the music." more inclined capacity bysaying: play metaphysically simply ofme. initiate the entire motion ofthehands (orjustafter) measure-long with theright on thesecondeighth ofeach measure. might capacity. . down-up every beatintoevery thekeythearm-weight downbeat. through body up plays. observations cansometimes ofsuch thepossibility Simpleanalytic helptosuggest at other awareness ofanalytic canresult from suchmotions motions. themotion I found for handinvolves myright into leftward rotation into eachthumb-note. of. times. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .andI part ofit. yet with After these motions the theme for weeks orevenmonths. makeitnatural for theleft liketheright. what willprobably failtocapture ofthediscovery for tobe clear. ways understanding a On therhythmic levelofthebeat. This motion of the hand though releasing key) right agrees wellwith theleft-hand motion tomebythesyncopations inthe tenor suggested register. andembodies what tothat liketheessence one's that feels ofthetheme.after ofthepreceding measure.129. captures pianist motions becomesubordinated ofthemusic."One hasfound add:"Ithasbecome part might the music a waytoimagine the music one's own one has rediscovered through technique. Butifonecontrols thumb theright and dynamically.228 on Thu. Any experience. This starting-point thumb.170. anda swing eachmelodic sixteenth through a rightward rotation foreach ofthemelody's dotted Buton thelevelofthe quarters. performer might one "I A can this now.plays thehand tomoveinthis themotion doesnotdisrupt teaching way continuously. may strike theanalytically-minded as violating theintegrity ofthevoice-leading. todrop into theupbeats andtorelease hand. pianist byaccident. experience becoming ofthe technical andaural ifdetailed factors tothat enough analysis contributing discovery.The motions I employ to theharmonic (and advocate)in thistheme correspond ofthefirst twosubphrases a dominant on every patterning (m. thecontinuity ofthis altovoice. any to the while it music vanishes. impedimenthearing physical playing The personal which ofhowto playa passagewith one has experimented discovery an is a sensory than andstruggled can be thrilling. theexcitement itself. own one's taken in the music as and the feels one body.ideally. experimented describing indoing so I begthereader's ontheir relevance todifferent patience I shallcomment of the theme. points trying out.62 COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM with more with rotations ofthewrist flatter ormore orlessarm-weight. is notprimarily such onediscovers nota series ofobservations ora summary cognitive. I subordinate to a arm second these rotations motion of the from measure. this A as a theorist but instead a describe discover. they into I the downbeats.

j ■ oj.M.J^J Jl*.228 on Thu. AND MUSICAL IMAGING (theme) Example1.do p '"^ ' 1 I j -^K ^ ^ \J\ rrjlji I'.. Minorel ri . I ^ l[ -L_ Jy J.- tf i^' l^ff r^ lirf if' Itf H \j fp Iirr If-I 37| iI ' -*^ I 1 . 1839 Componirt 63 ¥ JW j|*. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ANALYSIS.- tar dan do ^ ri ^ tar .M. tj 'i^j'r { ^ ^ ' .*!!*• *1 F/u ^ I ^^n^VJJl J^J.170..!^ P -^ Jp i_-^f Ip ^ f I c/. J■ jyTTTpJ J"T 11 J j i If 1 IIf I hIf IU Mr If 1^=^ r l'L ^ 11-i jd I# "f jT I V r/ ^^° y /? f/ .dan .129.JftJJ■ JJ. Arabesque Leichtundzart..J = 152 .i-11" ''("" f VF" T 'r 'f |i 'f if"'i Jr This content downloaded from 193.PERFORMANCE..

170. Mytechnical explorations closely. ingespecially G.129. In particular. pianist. diatonicism. itwas notuntil I recognized andconceptualized the of this to the the music of B I felt Minore that relationship phrase I. Buteventhen. phrase vary weight. began syncopations. (m. quality that onenotseparate I ittoomarkedly thearabesques from ofitsownaccompaniment. thenext-highest parts. I understood these atall fully. tobe regarded Forallthecareofthepartas analytic. as itwere. Inthe middle theme's to attention (m. I beganto takenoteoftheearlier inthethird cessation ofthesyncopation and fourth inthefirst andsecond: theplaceswhere. fully Minore I Ifone'splaying ofthetheme ofthe canseemmonotonous initsunvarying Arabesque This content downloaded from 193. ritards andhence felt more motivated tomake them. andthefunctional perhaps. phrase ternary explicit theleft-hand me especially. intend ofmyplaying thefluidity float in motions toallowthe to the melody atmospheric webofitsownaccompanimental ornamentation.moreplayful intheir chromaticism. thisanalytic upbeat is notatall subtle.228 on Thu. Inteaching theleft hand itspattern ofsyncopation as part ofmyownplaying motion.thoughts thetexture andcharacter ofthis theme tooimpressionistic andtoopersonal. sensedetermine thecourseofmypianistic butitdidsetlimits for that whatever I evenmotions experimentation. observation andI was certainly out awareofitevenas I begantotry It didnotin anystrong different motions. (inmyopinion) subtly controlling distinctly as separate for dithebass. rising andskipping their andtheir earlier the free from line. melody. videdbetween thehands. Thisphrase consists oftwoidentical syncopations helped four-measure eachmarked with a ritard for itslastthree I could measures. finger-articulation andthedegree themeasure-long towhich arm motion wrist overthebeat-long prevails rotation. support melody. contrastingsection. writing differentiation oftheparts inthistheme. Ofcourse. experimentation: must not violate this harmonic tually employed pattern. find nosatisfying of these ritards I until the left focushand way making alone. falling pure breaking these differences into I in of different account. Becoming pianistically aware ofthesyncopations andoftheir abatement me and helped conceptualize then bring outthedifference ofcharacter between thefirst somewhat pairofsubphrases. should flow themelody into so that thelistener doesnotmake toocleara distinction between inthe itssixteenth notes andthesixteenth-note upbeats Itis part oftheevanescent ofthe theme itemerge that from itsownaura. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . practiced on the the motion B from to and then the G B. than itstexture is surely morehomophonic The lower all with while and the and the parts ally polyphonic. except possibly part. 11-12. 17-24)ofthe structure.64 COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM leadsto itsrespective tonic onthefollowing downbeat. thoughts .15-16)than subphrases themelody no longer has to pullagainst thesesyncopations. subphrases. syncopated syncopated initsmiddle voice. should not strive tomake them audible them. pleading intheir lineandtheir andthesecondpair. Taking parts the to of the amount armthe of ratio to arm-motion. interacted much more with about however.Theritards hadtomakesensefor this voicebefore couldmake they sensefor theothers.

where harmony. than four measures all tworather arealmost ofthe long.and to recognize from the dominant-to-tonic half-cadence of E-minor of the patterning ensuing departure of I then tobring outthe the three slowing harmonic sought rhythm subphrases. m. insisting myself as part ofits I as obsessive. I felt much more as with the dissatisfied from the in the same theme. begins it. andtooopprestheme for theopening myfingers. ina dotted notes rather than inundifferentiated andits unfolds itsrhythm eighth figure.ANALYSIS.129.41). gnant painful This content downloaded from 193. under the influence of this this rubato how reconstruct I cannot natural. wardcarrying this viewofthe either toarrive atortoconfirm meespecially Oneobservation helped the ofthe motivic and remember oftheepisode character which): recognition (I nolonger to the of the oftheepisode'sopening connection harmonic contrasting beginning gesture ofthetheme middle 2.PERFORMANCE. inmeasures 65-68andthen momentary intensifying in71-72. 54-56. preceding three a singledominant inmeasures measures. episode arpeggiated. bycontrolling B major. with start I began. as the mood from Heard cannot music as if the obsessive. tonal center from theephemerinorder topullthe a longer subphrase produces and more E the music back to minor. could not find a this distinctive from character absent initially entirely I couldfind onealltooreadily. Within Example Example1. yet way episode thewayI playedit. 17 with (compare phrase ina sounds tonic-to-dominant E-minor this thetheme. tohelpmesomewhat: for harmonic Thesimplest began analysis example. Thefirst ofthe next thehesitancy about tobring seems episode waythat to it each time more and returns and harmonic idea melodic with this same twice. recognition relationship momentarily I helped metomakesenseof tothemusicofMinore ofthetheme ofthis central phrase ofa poithemusichesitates overtheintrusion ofthetheme: thispart within theritard or preoccupation.I did nothaveto experiment with this forthiscontrasting technically sively.1 itsdramatic cadencein67-68from relief oftheG-major negation imperfect the second four-meafour-measure the more still intensified (m. I While B section. Arabesque. itschromatic inMinore suregroup suspensions.228 on Thu. conception itout. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with didnot the to harmonic these Butmaking fully changes dispel responsive myfingers in the about a in this of by espressivo brought part episode. m. themore ofexperience stratum as a conflicting I canalso be heard ofMinore underlying an and thus as obsession that mood of the and serene more theme. progression three measures. I). dominant. itsmonotony toregard ofMinore tothink deliberately began it as rubato and feel I to this insistent did aesthetic intentional begin accept quality. 2) canseemevenmore rhythm is chordal rather than ofthisE-minor thetexture thicker. Bymaking quieter floating allytonicized 1differentiated the itagainin69-72. painful getaway intensely. somewhat. especially poignant. AND MUSICAL IMAGING 65 I (Example ofMinore one's playing then so: andtexture. simpler. through music. nostalgic fleeting yet of in central The the its theme the overtakes phrase. monotony monotony my playing almost within I found on which rubato every OnlywhenI subphrase. of theiv chordin measures the thetonicization to intensify 45-46.77-80.170.Thecharacteristics subphrases the associate most with that onemight seem main theme readily piece'stitle. actually changed I no longer felt awkfor havechanged butitmust oftheepisode. only subphrase that leadsbacktoE minor.

Minor eI Example Etwaslangsamer.iJI?i!!<r^i]i.j i i.170.j ? irTTT .129. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . rnT?S3 (HIIt»r<r> ir»rIf Tlr r <r? IrV 1^ i^*.228 on Thu.66 2.i371i i^'r *r [r * <r^r ir * ir Y 'r r'r 'r i r P 1 r > 'r V'r »r 'r V'r »r 'r 'f 'f r '* 'P This content downloaded from 193. i j"jhTj i. COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM ® jt¥] nrT^r^ /nTph /fig .

sevenths). and itsinner pulsation eighth the melodic of this slower Nevertheless. that itundertakes 3. ■ iL.PERFORMANCE. m.i ' ^ ^^'^N * L TemP° -t r^ III IJ rL_l^ LJf l MJ. taking eventually dominant to this then two transition as one six-fours. seeking epithem as being inconflict a response tohearing with oneanother.and also muchmorefluctuating note ofthedissonant harmonies attheendofeachofits after decided.170.^^T <£. wide-ranging very searching passagein intempo. 89-104)from on thepage. H i . thesecond 4). play (two subphrases in each somewhat order to do so) sixteen-measure 'early' (beginning subphrase phrase ones. episode: the or an attitude of of reconciliation between backinto thesphere theme. more than far harmonically anyother passage. In spiteof all itsfluctuations. Transition Example $* \/LJ .jJlTj rf Pr fpJ II Minore motivic between themusicofthefirst thedistinctive relationship epiRecognizing Minore ledmetoexpect main theme sodeandthe II. h * ' ® J^ * *gg _ tf r 0^f±t . AND MUSICAL IMAGING 67 TheTransition I as obsessive Minore also helped andplaying metocometoterms with Regarding that in itsfirst thetransition episodebackto thetheme (Example3. therhythmic motive ofthetheme at theendof each thefirst timeand incorporating the as transition a different to conceive of led me voice. the I from that of Minore a voice that calls theobsessed different one attitude. m J--Jj1Y 'vn q .ANALYSIS. I. Itis a sodeandtheme.228 on Thu. transition. search doesnotlose itsurgency. gestures falling bystepfor tempo. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and feelmoredifferent return.129. to episode (Example This content downloaded from 193.oratleasta embodying gesture. to thehigh under respond onalmost even-numbered downbeat accented notes Minore every occurring throughout theconstant of voices perpetuate even ifat a notes. Thistransition maylook moredifferent sounds:itslongmelody-notes thanitactually thefingers. I thepiece. If the transition this the one plays four-measure rather than as four way.

* i^ Tempo^I. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . orfrom MinoreII effects a kindof synthesis of all shipI found surpassed myexpectations: . Thiscombination elements andof harnesses theenergies ofthetheme the transition's to the obsessive music of Minore it dissolves I. musically calling gesture I material theinsistent andso metaphorically theobsesovercomes shapeoftheMinore itembodies._ *- . episode overlays I (5-6-5-2-3) ofMinore motive with the andthe from the chromatic ascent upbeat-motive andthen combines this newfusion with a stepwise from melodic descent theme. The music of this melodic the episode. Theappoggiaturas sionthat for metheturning(ma.either exhibit somesimilar toitsmusical theme. 147.68 COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM . 4.v This content downloaded from 193.170. Minore ButtherelationI. Minore ^"^T"^\ -J =&rjj J^ ^ J?3 -ffiJ? j5== 5=>J> J7^ '"' r * 'ir * 'r Mf Mr * '£' |r1|-ir IJ^ I^{jT ^=ll>= ^">t^I cjlJI^eJ1CUlLX1 JTgg^JI ^cJl cJCL-rl [jV^1 iJ\ itO£ iiJ i illJ ttj-i*1 jJ7TJ A^~J ^.oftheme. i -J-&-* %b. relationship surroundings againtothe ortoMinore thetransition backfrom I tothetheme. three and transition. Minore II Example Minore II \^ I cf. 147) evenmore ofmotivic would. interpretation impels inthefalling lines these introduce to to them more appoggiaturas bring importance than thescoresuggests. Recognition synthesis size theappoggiatura that binds ascent todescent I otherwise than (m.129.163) symbolize inthis andthis metomake ofthem more ritardando point overcoming. „ .228 on Thu. deriving the transition ofthis motivic ledmetowant toempha(m 145-49).

9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . putanother dramatically way.and ofdramatic fulfilled a needfor somekind other thecoda. ofthecoda's final theserenity affirmation ofC major.tail than doestheterm strongly It suggests what would tothemusic. analysis explicit kinds tobearonthecodamight these ofinsight toplaythecoda.one might without it. compositional in relation how it functions to earlier and if so.bringing interpretation wouldfurther ofearlier focusmyimaginative helpme in passagesinwaysthat grasp them. might itcould couldstand thetheme think that fore alone.only balance. after the wouldseemresolved what extent themusic all.PERFORMANCE. soonrecognize: resolution for thetheme's is nota completely becauseofitslow register. 40 the time of cadence authentic sameperfect . of it as to refine and withdifferent to experiment ways playing simply myauditory with thecoda imcontrol overwhatI was already technical doing. preparinthis a the needfor ultimate resolution whilealsoreinforcing itsreturn register.170. theexplorations ofthetwoMinore motivates achievedinthetheme. gesturally opening. terminal embellishment anySchenkerian analyst notso muchbecauseof itsheldG as that thecadenceofthetheme. The codathus remembers notes.that justas wellendthepiece. although holding every (Example the resolution to the One therecovers somewhat thepenultimate G always tonic). theme' s transition.228 on Thu. suchmarked contrast thecoda.215-16) long-held in it refers to the transition. coda.reaches 1 m. andtheresonance evenifthememory thetransition. AND MUSICAL IMAGING 69 TheCoda time atthe atthis between thesecond intervenes No transition juncture episodeandthe . designation articulation theidea of cadential muchmore "In Closing:"it suggests latedliterally . this "ZumSchluss. me one ofthemostaffecting is thesublime lastoccurrence.Thusno problem it. melodically harmonically (Example callingpairsof over harmonies while the half-notes middle voices (m.with itsconnotation ofsomething addedas a 'coda'.129.ANALYSIS. From I felt inplaying thebeginning I never felt anyproblem physically andwastherefore itas I played motivated not with so much identified andemotionally it. arpeggiate upwards eighth is onlysubliminal for thelistener.209. me to analyze pelled XhQ atall fully without underunderstand I couldnever Yet I didfeelthat Arabesque one it works its how resolves of howthecoda magic:put way.ifitcompletes a compositional inthe earlier issuesraised piece process. playing theresolution ask to to understanding As a route brought bythecoda. or resort to musical critical if need to I didn't Even musicalevents. register opening.what thesynthesis that II achieves Minore ofthetheme. something standing .for passagesin all and Both with its Schumann 5). ingfor needthat thecoda addresses.Thetheme.Bothepisodes. This content downloaded from 193.211. epipartly fully the thus infact.213. how. cadence inthe of theme's sodes." for final istransGerman ButSchumann's section. in transition ofcodawith deepens mercurial shifts oftonal tothetransition's center. satisfactory of resolution made butnever of The sense incomplete resolution. lastoccurrence I am Perhaps as the of the obsession obviates the need overcoming characterizing metaphorically balances the inthesphere What then ofthe main for sucha transition.likeso many that codas.

228 on Thu. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . byproviding grounding ordramatic ofthe the kind ofunderstanding that canthen music. has already beenfound. changes though. understanding strengthen a performer's anddelineation ofchanges ofmusical character a piece. This content downloaded from 193. to.or. calmly reconciliation Itcomeslikea realization for that what one searches bynow achieved. episode may ofthepiece. the Minore II seem to have resolved the dramatic conflict central obsession. way Berry inorder toattain whatI amcalling understanding 'imaginative specificity. passagesembody coda no longer hasto seekfor further butinstead onthe reflects reconciliation.Coda ZumSchluss.1 Langsam.putmore ciliation between themusicofMinore I andthemaintheme metaphori. pany.' In itsfusion of contrasting whatI understand as itsovercoming of an materials. a = 58 COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM > _______^^ >•- ^^^ i^^^B"^T^^r(Sl jJ-u J4JJ \ I Schumann's treatment ofregister inthe with theissuesthat any Arabesque belongs 'serious of the such would in some detail. theachievement ofthereconciliation itself.the between theconflicting mental that states these different cally. analysis Arabesque canlearn from it?Onemight answer that a performer out' somehow to 'bring they ought the the and accordregistral throughout piece. ciently might helpa performer but much more a route to or a critical for indirectly profoundly.70 Examole5.brightening darkening sonority changes willrespond to registral ingly. a feeling that can sometimes accomrather than onlyfollow. But once analysis' piece probably investigate a serious is carried howcanperformers ofthe makeuseofwhat out.andthecodamayhavenothing toadd.129. On theother more suchan analysis hand. many Perhaps performers. sensitively won't and needto study inorder totakethem suffianyway.170.While a reconthetransition sought . anyanalytic disquisition into account. grasp throughout Forwhilea performance of itself cannot makeexplicit a critical ofthe understanding in the that seems to want it it can often draw on a critical such music.

I otherwise than less might.returns andfantasy atthe a symbol offreedom movement. a cadential ofthe theef. appoggiagestures on thisgesture. In efd1 than ever before. analysis' "performer's stages I not for the of Minore first the and the theme only Arabesque. everto is unlikely such'performer's Likeanycritical explication' understanding.228 on Thu.ANALYSIS. they try represent ways "analysis" ofdifferent kinds. anykind Ideally. something. analytic. initsisolation anditsdiatonic butdissonant harmonizaofcalm. most obvious the toname literary. AND MUSICAL IMAGING 71 themusic ofthecodastill searches for andits inanother Butheard way. fleetingly. ofitsmusical andcharacterological onboth descriptions analytic in the initial encountered with suchdescriptions bya performer problems begin might In tofind Rink of the waysto satisfying trying proposes.PERFORMANCE.170. themoment waytheroleoftheopening Understanding beyond further onthecharacter ofthecoda. In focusing separating orinthesecond the codaachieves inthetransition a newlevel linked toiteither episode. way. besqueinitsornamental resonates from this a lifethat an ongoing to affirm lastmoment life. lyrically. especially piece inthis ofitsconclusion. inorder for succession andtheir their ofboth tiveordramatic opposition understanding I seekanunderstandthem for from conviction metodraw Ultimately. observations work candrawuponandleadtoexplicit They analytic a of it that draws the of an account call onemight atwhat also arrive telling piece. analytic their musicalcharacter. This content downloaded from 193. The return gesture role.129. itfrom theother elements turasin MinoreII.yetthegesture itself. slowly way long-held opening a cf of the c1 becomes a final affirmation return. refer. one these call more becomes tion. melodic closure full andrichly for they begtokeepthe supported thanallowing themelody on againand againrather to musicopen. butalso tothecrucial as I havealready said. characterological. mysound-image indirectly. for Schumann. thathelpme to encapsulate. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .I amledtoreflect atthelastmoment return theme's more more theme andso I am ledtoplaythis ofthetheme andpotential itself. butinanother.Without thereturn initsopenness. . appoggiaturas pleading oncf. terms Minore I must both and the theme main about the observations ensuing my Eventually. fairly Thesearch for events. quietly. narraan contribute to and for these in themselves feelappropriate intelligible passages.tothetransition. than c' leaves Its e' rather two-note on melodic final something open. of the music: to focus in order however canreliably draw. for secures Arabesque to a but with work its that line could melodic the cf. biographical. simply Conclusion wouldcall a thorough a theorist what do notrepresent Thesecomments obviously inwhich a performer's some do to but the of Arabesque. terms episodes sequence ing character ofthe to theevolving of myownplaying thecharacteristics I can harness I onwhich ofobservation from candevelop Thisunderstanding music. my performance. in which in the of musical the entire of through Arabesque. only grotesque possibility (try playing of the an araThe motive itself melodic final ofe' as the instead Arabesque pitch!). episode play butalso find these about observations cometosomefirst descriptive passages.insisting simply as thefinal ofthemaintheme of motive the oftheopening close. idea. example. ending phrase. or at leastapproximate.

as already observed. someperformers. developing onanalytic tofind a waytotellthemusicimaginatively insomeof observation drawing itsmyriad canopena waytosuchbecoming. the time themusic No matter: evenneedtochange every the again.itmay an individual evenfor Itmaychange somewhat becomedefinitive. This content downloaded from 193. bethe uncertainties of its own course. Insomeperformances. performer prepares a an be embarrassed never has chance to such to explication.In suchthinking to suchperformances. performer.170. to hearitself. The seem to have may reexperience performer Andfor comethemusic. 9 Jan 2014 03:26:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . rarely byitsnaivete. andthat theperformer haspersisted that theperformer enough with andfeeling to makeitconsistent both itself andwith themusic. theaudience theperformer however. themusicmayseemto becomeawareof itself. thinks.228 on Thu. maysense justwhat with hasthought andfelt.129.72 COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM . detail. one's ownaccount ofthemusic. performer usually present torevise theaudience knows tobe forced it.