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# Sampling

Types of Sampling
Random Sampling

Non-Random Sampling

Types of Random Sampling
• • • • Simple Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Cluster Sampling

Simple Random Sampling
• Can be used when population size is small, to get a representative sample • For eg, steel producing companies in India • Companies providing aviation service in India • Not used in consumer research • Not used when population is very large • Not possible to get a representative sample

Stratified Random Sampling
• Population divided into strata which are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. • Based on demographic variables • Gender, Income , Age, Marital Status • Homogeneity within strata and heterogeneity between strata. • From each strata, certain number of people are picked • Proportionate & Disproportionate

Stratified Random Sampling
• Bank deposits • Big Account holders (above 10 lakhs) -10% • Medium Account holders (between 2 lakhs and 10 lakhs) – 60% • Small Account holders (less than 2 lakhs) – 30%

Systematic Sampling
• Sampling interval , k = N/n (convert to a whole number) • A random number C selected from between 1 & k. • From a list of people, the elements selected would be C, C+k, C+2k,…… till n elements of the sample have been picked.

Cluster Sampling
• Geography divided into areas/clusters such that there is heterogenity within clusters and homogeneity between clusters
• Cluster of test market cities • Simple random sample/stratified random sampling

Cluster Sampling
• Departments on each floor of a building • Collecting information on how much money is spent on entertainment by people in Departments. • Might be difficult to form heterogenous clusters. • Households in a neighbourhood will be homogenous rather than heterogenous

Types of Non-random sampling
• Convenience Sampling • Judgemental Sampling
• Snowball Sampling • Quota Sampling

Convenience Sampling
• • • • Convenience of the researcher /investigator Obtain information quickly & inexpensively People interviewed in a shopping mall People coming out of a movie theatre for reviews about the movie • Researcher visiting shops in neighbourhood to observe which brand of a product are people buying, to draw an estimate of market share.

Convenience Sampling
• Generally used in the pre-test phase of research study • Used in exploratory research • Not used in conclusive research

Judgemental Sampling
• Judgement of an expert is used to identify a representative sample • Very difficult to produce satisfactory results • May curtail generalisability of results • Most common application is in B2B marketing

Snowball sampling
• Used when it is difficult to identify members • Deep sea divers, people who play golf, neurosurgeons • Problem is only in finding the first contact • Ask for references • Downside is that references might be similar • Therefore, difficult to get a representative sample • Also, problem in identifying a new case

Quota Sampling
• Sample includes minimum number from each subgroup • Sample based on certain demographic variables as age, gender, education, occupation, income levels • Quotas allotted to field workers

Quota Sampling - % composition
• Job satisfaction varies across levels of employees
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 10% 15% 35% 40%

Quota Sampling - % composition
• Job satisfaction influenced by Level and Education
Class 1 Postgradua tion 8 Class 2 5 10 Class 3 5 20 Class 4 0 5 Total 18 37

Higher Secondary
Total

0
10

0
15

10
35

35
40

45
100

Quota Vs. Stratified Random
• In stratified random sampling, the selection of sample from each stratum is random • In quota sampling, the selection from each sub group can be done by judgement or convenience sampling • The results of stratified random sampling can be generalised

Central Limit Theorem
• If samples of size n are drawn randomly from a population that has a mean µ and standard deviation σ, then the sample means will follow a normal distribution for sufficiently large sizes of the sample (x ≥ 30), regardless of the shape of the population distribution.