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3.7 Grapevine: The grapevine is used by nearly everyone in an organisation at one time or another.

It can convey accurate messages with amazing speed. It can also distort and filter messages beyond recognition. Rumours as well as facts are carried by the grapevine. Good managers pay attention to grapevine. Even though the grapevine‘s reliability can never be determined with complete certainty, it does serve some useful functions: 1. It satisfies a need — employees have to enjoy friendly relations with employees. their fellow

2. It helps workers to make sense out of their work environment especially in interpreting unclear orders from supervisors. 3. It acts as a safety valve. When people are confused and unclear about what is going to happen to them, they use grapevine to let out their anxieties. Passing a rumour along the grapevine is a way of expressing and releasing negative energy.

4. When people gossip about someone who is not present, they often pass judgments. Some people pass judgment on others to find out where they stand. It is a way of dealing with self-doubt and insecurity. Grapevine thrives on information, not openly or generally available to an employee, either because of its confidential or secret nature or because of the defective or inadequate formal communication lines. Grapevine is inevitable but at the same time, valuable and an intelligent manager uses this form of communication by feeding accurate information at the right places and thus gains very quick communication around the establishment. Grapevine properly used is a great help. Neglecting grapevine is likely to lead to serious consequences in an establishment. The best way to dispel grapevine is to give people the facts. If there is no truth to a rumour or no information concerning it that should be said? Above all workers should be asked to never repeat a rumour. Supervisors must show their people that they intend to do everything possible to keep them fully informed.

Permalink Reply by M.Tariq Malik on September 16, 2011 at 6:35pm

3.8 Styles of Communication A communication style may be defined as a specialized set of interpersonal behaviours which are used in a given situation. Since communication is at the heart of effective managerial functioning, it is imperative to identify and to analyze the styles of communication which are used in an organisation. Four basic communication styles may

be characterized in the organisational situation in terms of the communicator‘s concern for self and concern for others. 1. The Controller Style of Communication: In this style, the manager has a high concern for himself and a low concern for the person with whom he communicates; he, therefore, represents an unbalanced exchange relationship. In business organisations, the existence of an unbalanced exchange, as in the controller style of communication, causes strains in inter-personal relationships. The production- oriented manager often expects loyalty from workers in exchange for money. In this case, there is usually a transaction from the critical parent-ego state to the child-ego state with the life position. ―I am O.K., You are not O.K.‖ The controller communication thus jeopardizes the interpersonal trust which is essential for effective communication. 2. The Withdrawn Communicator: In withdrawn communication, there is the least amount of actual communication, for it involves the avoidance of interaction. The communicator prefers to withdraw because he neither wishes to influence others nor wishes to be influenced. The withdrawn communicator has the least concern, both for him and for others, and feel that other people in the organisation are not interested in them. They, therefore, have a life position of ―I am not O.K., You are not O.K.‖ The withdrawn style is rarely effective in communication, because it blocks interaction.

3. The Relinquisher Communicator: Here the communicator takes up a receptive rather than a directive position and evinces interest in others. Here, too, there is an unbalanced exchange, for the relinquishing communicator tends to be passive in an interchange. It is possible that, for a relinquishing manager, his subordinates take the lead in decisionmaking and discussion. The relinquishing manager has the life position of ―I am not O.K., You are O.K.‖, which is characteristic of the child. Being humble and unsure, the relinquisher believes it has nothing worthwhile to contribute. 4. The Developmentor Communicator: The ideal type of communication is, of course, that of the developmentor, which involves a high concern for both himself and for others. The Developmentor is an adaptable social type who can be a high or low participator in a group, depending upon the situation. Since they have the life position of ―I am O.K., You are O.K.‖, they neither feel it necessary to constantly assert their competence, nor do they refrain from leadership positions when the need arises. The developmentorcommunicator understands the need for a two way communication by not assuming that he is always right. He is the one who, unlike the controller, allows the subordinate to make some mistakes in the process of learning, and builds in him self-confidence and esteem.

Once attention has been drawn to the message. It is mainly the supervisor who is constantly in touch with the workers and.9 Supervisory Communication: Supervisory Communication is an important dimension of management communication for proper functioning of an organisation. Effective listening habits prevent misunderstanding and rumours. It then implies that the transmission of message sent and received does not presuppose that communication has occurred. (3) The sender‘s mobility aspirations. It then appears that communication to be effective not only needs the skill of self-expression but also the skill of effective listening. therefore. but also has an adverse effect on the total working of the establishment.10 Effective Communication The key to effective communication is reception of messages. therefore.3. when they distrust each other. the perception of the same begins. (b) keep the discussion frank and open. frustration and misunderstanding exist. The touchstone of effective communication is hearing of the meaning ―intended‖ and to carry out the message. When people trust each other. and (e) develop good attitudes and maintain good relations. their communication tends to be more accurate and open. 3. ―Talking it over‖ is very important to an employee. it is necessary for him to acquaint himself with the importance of communication and the principles to be followed for effective communication. – There are four factors affecting reception of messages: (1) Attention (2) Perception (3) Comprehension (4) Acceptance Attention refers to situations when individuals become voluntarily interested in the message. (d) be fair and impartial. Supervisors. Four aspects of interpersonal relationships influence communication in organisations: (1) The sender‘s and receiver‘s trust of each other. and that this condition not only reduces their productivity. Only on receiving the intended message that one can conclude that communication has occurred. It means that the messages must be recognised in an unbiased manner. (c) choose a proper place. . they are more likely to be secretive or hesitant to talk openly. (2) The sender‘s and receiver‘s influence over each other. should always: (a) discuss problems immediately with the subordinates. Employees have asserted that where communication is lacking. and (4) The norms and sanctions of the groups(s) to which the sender and receiver belong. Listening is more intricate and complicated than the physical process of hearing.

meaning and transparent management that has the manifest image that it cares for its stakeholders. First. a defensive climate prevails. as well as building and maintaining employee morale. In many organizations. needs constant nurturing by a well. therefore. Listen attentively and develop the skill of listening. Use simple language as understood by the receiver. Consider the total physical and human situations whenever you give instructions. Third. it plays a vital role in planning. communication occupies a central place because the structure. The making of a plan requires facts and figures which can only be made available through effective communication. it acts as a basic foundation for management. Second. Fourth. information as well as meeting of minds. When people are being emotional. q When people are misunderstanding and getting confused. organisational control. and scope of the organisation are almost entirely determined by communication techniques. Concentrate on the problem rather than the people involved.Comprehension is to understand the message received. Experts have laid down several guidelines to improve communication. They are: q q q q q q q q q Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating. . If organisation fail to provide careful attention to communication. extensiveness. It is said that communication gives life-blood to an organisation. others should try to be sympathetic and understanding. be a good listener. Since communication provides the key to facilitate the exchange of ideas. other people should try to be rational. The climate of communication in an organisation. Be sure your actions support your instructions. q Consult everyone affected. it integrates the formal organisation structure and is responsible for holding together the members of a primary social group. common goals and shared purpose and vision. An effective communication serves several purposes. Communication as a continuous process ensures this. Do not over communicate but just enough for the purpose in view. it also plays a pivotal role in national decision-making. it can aptly be described as the ―ears and eyes‖ of the management. Follow-up on your communication: get feedback. even though they are not concentrating at present (because they will resent not being consulted afterwards). Acceptance of message results in effective communication. and benefits an organisation in many ways. The transformation of an organisation is conditional on the employees‘ involvement with commitment.

They will feel part of the team and will tend to be more dedicated and productive. show respect for them when they speak. It assumes that there are three ego states — adult. 2011 at 6:35pm There are four fundamental rules of communicating which can help anyone to get across messages more accurately: 1. q Ask each time when an instruction is given whether the message is clear. Communicating Better at Work: Experience shows there are many ways managers can improve internal communication. . and child . It is not complete simply when information is given. TA helps to identify one‘s own state and the state of the person with whom he or she is talking to and helps to improve communication between the two. Here are some tips for them: q Understand that communication is a two-way street.and that the way a person communicates depends on the state he or she is in. q Listen to employees. Active listening is another technique that can help to improve interpersonal communication. q View information as ―service to‖ employees and not ―power over‖ them. parent. Do not leave out important information. The message has to be received accurately.Tariq Malik on September 16. even the best technique cannot save the message. 2. Choose your words carefully and do not include unnecessary words. but others should be honest and open rather than trying to pay them back in their own coin. An incomplete message is sometimes more dangerous than no message at all. memos and other written communication. Other techniques for improving communication include transaction analysis and active listening. Most vagueness is caused by failing to be specific. 4. Transactional Analysis (TA) is a technique aimed at helping interpersonal transactions or communication between superior and subordinate. Be correct in your message. this can be openly acknowledged. If the information conveyed is false or misleading. q Put more emphasis on face-to-face communication with employees.q When people are being manipulative or deceptive. Be concise in your message. Don‘t rely mainly on bulletin boards. It involves giving information and getting feedback from employees.  Permalink Reply by M. 3.

Supervisors must use their expertise and experience of employees and be able to get them to exercise this expertise. people perform better when they know that their opinions and suggestions are heeded 3. Attention paid to gripes often prevents their blossoming into big grievances. 2.Tariq Malik on September 16. q Concentrate on building credibility with employees. which is Gentle hint that they should listen more than they talk. Managers who lack credibility and fail to create a climate of trust and openness are not believed . such as obstinacy. 7. Allow people to disagree and to come up with new ideas. supervisors must plan time for it in their busy schedules. Good listeners save time because they learn more within a given period of time and they learn about the person talking.11 Listening Listening can be described as a combination of: (i) Hearing — the physical reception of sound. and emphasize current issues that employees care about. Everyone likes to feel important. 4. The correction of bad habits is a slow process and must be self-motivated. Effective listening helps receiver to take the exact intended message. Practice it by walking around and talking to employees. one for meaning and one for feeling. Listening requires full attention to the speaker.     Nature has given people two ears but only one tongue. ask employees how management can help them to do a better job. To do a good job of listening. q Conduct one-on-one matter how hard they try to communicate. 2011 at 6:36pm 3.  Permalink Reply by M. people think more of us when we listen to them attentively. (ii) Comprehending — the interpretation and understanding of the message. it is impossible to listen intelligently while the mind is preoccupied with something else. and (iii) Remembering — the ability to retain what has been heard. The Bureau of National Affairs has developed a ―laundry list‖ of the important concepts related to effective listening: 1. 6. Listening habits are deeply embedded in the personality and are related to other personality traits. 8. as well as what the person is saying. 5. Hearing is with ears. but listening is with the mind. Good listening is also good manners.q Don‘t just talk open-door policy. . 9. and so on. Decision-makers who do not listen have less information for making sound decisions. empathy. Listening requires two ears. Supervisors who jump to conclusions lose the respect of their subordinates.

Keep an open mind. Overcome personal prejudgments and distractions. The higher you go up in the organisational set-up. (Ideas have no pride. They are willing to be born to anyone willing to have them). the more successful you are likely to be if you listen to others. This is first and the last. Look and Remove distractions. Ask questions. One must develop the art of listening. Go easy on arguments and criticisms. An angry person takes the wrong meaning from words.10. Listen for ideas. Don‘t start for the door or walk away. you lose. These put people on the defensive. 2011 at 6:36pm         The following guidelines are suggested in respect of listening: Put the talker at ease. . ü You get ideas that you might never have thought. It helps to develop points further. ü You get co-operation from people who know that you value their thinking and ideas. You get good listening on the part of others to what you have to say. Control your emotional reactions. 3. Don‘t doodle. Hold your temper. because all other guides depend upon it. Help a person feel free to talk. Stop talking. Be patient. Listen more than you talk. not just for facts. This encourages a talker and shows that you are listening. Will it not be quieter if you shut the door? Empathize with the talker. ü You develop understanding of people who are different from you in many ways. Do not argue. or shuffle papers. Listening Tips: 1. 5. Show a talker that you want to listen. tap. Some of the listening gains are: ü You get information that may help you. and they may calm up or become angry. 4. Allow plenty of time.Tariq Malik on September 16. You cannot do effective listening job while you are talking. Even if you win. Try to help yourself see the other person‘s point of view. Supervisors who don‘t get all the facts often make poor decisions. 2. Do not interrupt a talker. ü ü You motivate action from people who have a part in your success.  Permalink Reply by M.

Involving line personnel in conducting training classes to improve understanding of each other. 9. Issuing manuals/guidelines detailing policies. 2011 at 6:36pm     3. and (b) conducting meetings. rules. Ensuring proper dissemination of information. and aloud to the speaker. Organizing informal gatherings such as annual day. and soon.Tariq Malik on September 16. Exploring avenues for establishing a library which would act as a central point of information.  Permalink Reply by M. Facilitating greater clarity of job role and relationships through job descriptions. Paraphrase frequently in your mind. Hear the other person out. Learn to practice active listening. 8. 10. Strengthening formal communication through departmental/cross functional meetings along the suggested lines. Keep your mouth shut (literally. and the like to promote free interaction and exchange of views. Sometimes you have to go out of your way to interact with your employees. other than through departmental meetings. Providing linkages with annual appraisals as a mode of facilitating meetings. sports meets. The way you communicate with your employees demonstrates you care about them as people — not just as employees. and for creating healthy interaction at shop floor level. . Facilitating upward communication through personal contacts. fact finding surveys. don‘t interrupt. Frequent interaction with employees tells them they‘re important. Focus on the person speaking. but they always will notice how much effort you put forth to communicate with them. and other personnel related matters to ensure clarity. 7.6. keep your lips closed). Conducting training programmes on (a) effective listening skills. Self-check — Communication Are you making the most of your opportunities to communicate with your employees? Answer the questions below in YES or NO to see how well you‘re doing.         Developing a system of open communication policy to facilitate more openness and trust. procedures.12 HR Role in Communication. Advising departments to maintain circulars and flies relating to their working for general consumption.

edited and stored. fears and concerns? 14. Are your employees welcome at your office at any time? 7.000 employees worldwide. Do you give frequent positive reinforcement? 11. printer and email account available for $5 a month to all of its more than 3. at the convenience of the recipient. Do you go to your employees‘ work areas to talk to them? 5. e-mail ahs a long list of benefits. modem. wants. duplicate and distribute comparable letter or brochure. Do you try to greet your employees every day? 2. They can be distributed to one person or thousands with a click of a mouse. Ford Motor Company. Do you go out of your way to interact with your employees at least once each day? 3. customers. Do you talk to your employees about non-work activities? 6. As a communication tool. . Do you ask your employees‘ personal goals and aspirations? 13. or other outside stakeholders. has dramatically reduced the number of memos. Do you have lunch with your employees from time to time? 8. letters. for instance. Do you know what your employees like to do when they aren‘t at work? 9.13 Computer-Aided Communication Communication in today‘s organizations is enhanced and enriched by computeraided technologies.‖ list below things you can do to increase your interaction with your employees. E-Mail: Electronic mail (or e-mail) uses the Internet to transmit and receive computer-generated text and documents.00. These include electronic mail. In fact. And the cost of sending formal e-mail to employees is a fraction of what it would cost to print. recently made a computer. Do you frequently review goals and expectations? 12. a recent study found that the average U. Most white-collar employees now regularly use e-mail. Do you ask about your employees‘ problems.S. E-mail messages can be quickly written. employee receives 31 e-mail messages a day. They can be read. for instance. Do you speak to your employees before they speak to you? 4. And organizations are recognizing the value of e-mail for all workers. goals and aspirations? 10. and phone calls that employees historically used to communicate among themselves and with suppliers. Do you understand your employees‘ needs. Its growth has been spectacular. 3. Do you ask yourself what you can do to help improve your employees‘ performance? For any questions that you answered ―no. in their entirety.1.

Another drawback of e-mail is that the lack emotional content. plant closings or other messages that might evoke emotional responses or social support. Live audio and video images of members allow them to see. although efforts have been made to create emotional icons. Videoconferencing: Videoconferencing is an extension of intranet or extranet system. In addition organisations are creating extra net links that connect internal employees with selected suppliers. but to which only people in an organization have access. is not without its drawbacks. allowing Wall Mart buyers to easily communicate with its suppliers and for suppliers to monitor the inventory status of its product at Wall Mart stores. Similarly all Wall Mart vendors are linked into its extranet system. of course. Reading. Intranets are rapidly becoming the proffered means for employees within the companies to communicate with each other.Using companies intranet IBMers must everywhere swapped ideas on everything from how to retain employees to how to work faster without undermining quality. Videoconferencing .Its not unusual for employees to get a hundred or more e-mails a day. Employees are finding it increasingly difficult to distinguish important e-mails from junk mails and irrelevant messages.E-mail. At the top of the list is information overload . It permits employees in an organization to have meetings with people at different locations. As such it‘s the ideal means to convey information like lay-offs. IBM recently bought together 52 thousand of its employees online for what it called Worldjam. absorbing and responding to such an inflow can literally consume an employee‘s entire day. In essence e-mail‘s is of use has become its biggest negative. Finally e-mails tend to be cold and impersonal. For instance an extranet allows GM employees to send electronic messages and documents to its steel and rubber supplier as well as to communicate with its dealers. Organization worldwide information networks that look and act like a web-site. customers and strategic partners. The nonverbal quest in a face to face message or the tone of voice from a phone call convey important information that come across an e-mail. hear and talk with each other. Intranet and extranet links: Intranets are private.

Tariq Malik on September 16. More recently cameras and microphones are being attached to individual computers allowing people to participate in videoconferences without leaving their desks. and Saturday mornings promised a staff reduction of 5% an institution of a time .in effect allows employees to conduct interactive meetings without the necessity of all physically being in the same location. but others should be honest and open rather than trying to pay them back in their own coin.14 CHOICE OF COMMUNICATION CHANNEL Neal . q When people are being manipulative or deceptive. 6pm. The parking is sparsely used at 8am likewise at 5pm.. Patterson‘s e-mail additionally suggested that managers schedule meetings at 7 Am.L. In the late 1990s videoconferencing was basically conducted from special rooms equipped with television cameras located at company facilities. We are getting less those 40 hours of work from a large number of our Kansa City based employees. As the cost of this technology drops in price videoconferencing is likely to be increasingly seen as an alternative to expensive and time consuming travel. others should try to be sympathetic and understanding. hen p4�ea�#���erstanding and getting confused. q Consult everyone affected. As managers-you either do not know what your EMPLOYEES are doing or YOU do not CARE ….. this can be openly acknowledged..  Permalink Reply by M. even though they are not concentrating at present (because they will resent not being consulted afterwards).we has a problem and we will fix it or will replace you. Patterson. Upset with his staff‘s work ethics he recently sent an e-mail to his firm‘s 400 managers. 2011 at 6:37pm 3. May be too much so. . Here are some of those e-mails highlight: ―Hell with freeze over before this CEO implements ANOTHER EMPLOYEE benefit in this culture….What are you doing as managers with this companies makes me sick.. CEO at medical software maker Cerner Corporation likes e-mails.

Although one can argue about whether such harsh criticism should be communicated at all. (3) be very personal . because of its no routine nature and complexity.clock system and Patterson‘s intention to charge unapproved absences to employees vacation time. However. they can communicate non routine messages effectively only by selecting rich channels. A model of media richness has been developed to explain channel selection among managers. should have been conveyed using a rich communication medium. one thing is certainly clear Patterson erred selecting the wrong channel for his message. The latter are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding. and the personal touch of ―being there ― Impersonal written media such as formal reports and bulletins rate lowest in richness. immediate feedback. Generally. The former types of messages tend to be straight forward and have a minimum of ambiguity. Research has found that channels differ in their capacity to convey information some are rich in that they have ability to: (1) handle multiple quest simultaneously (2) Facilitate rapid feed back. face-to-face conversation scores highest in terms of channel richness because it provides for the maximum amount of information to be transmitted during a communication episode.Others are lean in that they score low on these three factors. Why do people choose one channel of communication over another-for instance a phone call instead of face you face talk? Is there any general insight we might be able to provide regarding choice of communication channel? The answer to the later question is a qualified ‗Yes‘. it offers multiple information cues . it appears that Neal patter sons problem was using a channel relatively low in richness to convey a message that. copies of it had made its way on to a Yahoo website. And within three days Corners‘ stock price has plummeted 22%. Managers can communicate routine messages efficiently through channels that are3 lower in richness. Referring back to our opening example at Cerner Corp. . Such an emotional and sensitive would have been better received in a face to face meeting. That is. Within hours of this e-mail. The choice of one channel over another depends on whether the message is routine or non-routine.

But you can expect some filtering to occur whenever there are status differences. when a manager tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear. Selective Perception We have mentioned it earlier. motivations. therefore to see the most effective managers expanding their use of rich channels .Evidence indicates that high-performing managers tend to be more media sensitive than low-performing managers. thus distorting upward communications. It appears again here because the receivers in the communication process see and hear based on their needs.Tariq Malik on September 16. experience. background and other personal characteristics. the more opportunities there are for filtering. consolidating and introducing new products and services at an accelerated paceall no routine messages in high ambiguity and requiring the use of channels that convey a large amount of information .The more vertical levels in the organizations hierarchy. of levels in the organization structure . he is filtering information. For example. Filtering Filtering refers to a sender‘s purposely manipulating information so it will be seen mare favorably by the receiver.1 BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION A number of barriers can retard or distort effective communication. The media richness model is consistent with organizational trends and practice during the past decade. In this section. It is not just coincidence that more and more senior managers have been using meetings t5o facilitate communication and regularly leaving the sanctuary of their executive‘s offices to manage by walking around. The past decade has been characterized by organisations closing facilities.It is not surprising. we highlight the more important of these barriers. The major determinant of filtering is no. 2011 at 6:37pm 4. That is. merging. Receivers also project their interests and . These executives are relying on rich channels of communication to transmit the more ambiguous messages they need to convey. they‘re better able to match appropriate media richness with ambiguity involved in the communication. Factors such as fear of conveying bad news and the desire to please one‘s boss often lead employees to tell their superiors what they think those superiors want to hear.  Permalink Reply by M.

Regardless.expectations into communications as they decode them. The employment interviewer who expects a women job applicant to put her family ahead if her career is likely to see that female applicants. the result is lost information and less effective communication Emotions How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication will influence how he or she interprets it. meetings and the need to keep current in one‘s field. In large organizations. phone calls. we are most prone to disregard our national and objective thinking processes and substitute emotional judgments. Age. the result is information overload . Extreme emotions such as jubilation or depression are most likely to hinder effective communication. If we knew how each of us modified the . employees usually come from diverse backgrounds. In such instances. There point is that although you and I probably speak a common language-English –our use of that language is far from uniform. The grouping of the employees into departments creates specialists who develop their own ―buzzwords‖ or technical jargon. In an organization. ignore. education and cultural background are three of the more obvious variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions he or she gives to words. regardless of whether the applicants feel that way or not Information Overload Individuals have a fine capacity for processing data. As noted in our previous discussion of e-mail. faxes. more and more managers and professionals are complaining that they‘re suffering overload. Language Words mean different thing to different people. pass over or forget information. The existence of vertical levels can also cause language problems.And with e-mails. The same message received when you are angry is often interpreted differently from when you‘re happy. Or they may put off further processing until the overload situation is over. members are also frequently widely dispersed geographically-even operating in different countries. when the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity. What happens when individuals have more information than they can sort out and use? They tend to select out.

A weak delivery is like the very funny joke with the badly-told punch line --. People who suffer from it experience undue tension and anxiety in oral apprehensive may find it extremely difficult to talk with others face to face or become extremely anxious when they have to use the telephone. communication difficulties could be minimized. It's all in the delivery.language. There problem is that the members in an organization usually don‘t know how those the words and terms they use mean the same to the receiver as they do to them This assumption is often incorrect. As a result. It is important to not get confused between delivery and presenter. We should expect to find some self-selection in jobs so that such individuals don‘t take positions such as teacher. It doesn't matter whether that audience is an audience of one or one million. communication techniques. But almost all jobs require some oral communication is a dominant requirement. Weak delivery It doesn't matter how important or impressive the subject of your communication is. So we need to be aware that there is a set of people in the organization who severely limit their oral communication and rationalize this practice by telling that more communication isn‘t necessary for them to do their job effectively. Although lots of people speaking in front of a group. Communication Apprehension Another major barrier to effective communication is that some people. Studies demonstrate that oral-communication apprehensive avoid situations that require them to engage in oral communication. And of greater concern is the evidence that high oral communication apprehensive distort the communication demands of their jobs in order to minimize the need for communication. they may rely on memos or faxes to convey messages when a phone call would be not only faster but more appropriate. . if you deliver it without any 'punch' you will not get as many people to take your desired action as you would is not as funny or as memorable as you remember the original to be. Poor structure to the communication The structure of a communication is an essential factor in how well a business communication is received by an estimated 520% of the population-suffer from debilitating. So a poor structure to your message or delivery is therefore a major barrier to effective communication. good structure is essential if a communication is to be 'heard' amongst the advertising and marketing 'noise' of today's business environment.

How do you communicate this? An advertising campaign on local radio would be a highly ineffective way of reaching the desired audience if the message was complex and really intended for a narrow niche audience. they 'lose' their audience within minutes. it is wise to analyze the following:        What is the fixed cost of production? Are there ad agency fees. would be the wrong medium if the message you were trying to communicate would be better served by a white paper.such as CDs. A HUGE barrier to business communication is the ability of 'business-speak' to confuse and alienate its audience. a public presentation. edit and produce your communication in your chosen medium? What percentage of your target audience is likely to have access to your chosen medium at the time you choose to publish/play/present it? What percentage of your target audience will be likely to pay attention to your chosen medium? Is your message a complex one? Would your message be more easily and readily comprehended through auditory. or otherwise. irrespective of the number or volume of items produced? What are the variable costs -. very happy to be in front of an audience. suggested When considering which medium to use for which type of message you wish to communicate. But because their presentations and communications lack a suitable structure. If you deliberately. the audience becomes increasingly confused and eventually frustrated by not being able to understand clearly and easily what on earth these businessmen are on about. with 'obligatory' PowerPoint TM slideshow full of complex charts and data. It does this in two ways: . DVDs.Several businessmen are extremely confident in the public's gaze. broadcast or print fees that must be paid. Similarly. confuse them. audio cassettes and printing costs? How long will it take to write. reading or images) modalities? How quickly do you need your audience to comprehend and take action on your message? A mixed message It is very hard for an audience -. tactile or visual (e. The use of the wrong medium You have to announce a temporary hold on non-essential stationery spending in your department.whether an audience of 1 or 1 million to understand your communication if you unnecessarily confuse the audience. or some similar print-based format that allowed the audience to digest the complexities at their own pace.g.

Whether their inability to 'hear' you is because of:               Your voice not being strong enough Too many others talking in the room at the same time Police and ambulance sirens outside the venue Too many phone calls coming in to their office while they're trying to read your memo Interruptions while they try to read your report Incoming emails keep popping up while they are reading your web-based communication Their minds are full of other pressing matters They are supposed to be somewhere else at that moment Their mobile phone keeps ringing. then not allowed again after the gift-giving and receiving season is over. An example of this would be where the acceptance of corporate gifts is not allowed. By using terms and phrases that are 'jargon'. the meaning of which are possibly recognized but probably not fully understood 2.pick your audience then pick the medium that will best find them. Be very careful of mixing your messages. A distracting environment There's nothing worse than trying to communicate your message to a group of people who cannot 'hear' you. but then allowed if it a brand new client who has contracted a large amount of money to your business. but the very senior management is found to be traveling first class. or vibrating if they've set it to 'silent' instead of switching it off Their internet connection is slow Their internet connection keeps dropping out There are too many interesting people to look at while they are on the bus trying.1. Another barrier arising from mixed messages is when a previously-held stance is lightly overturned to meet some political or business expediency. Or a company-wide budget cut that stops all business-class travel. By trying to 'save time/paper' by rolling several different communication messages into one. to concentrate on your report The room's air-conditioning is not working and the room is hot and stuffy The room's heating is not working and the room is cold and clammy . in vain. then upheld again. The wrong audience Presenting your message to the wrong audience for your business communication is a complete waste of your time and money. Don't do it -. as mixed messages are a very real barrier to effective business communication.

2011 at 6:37pm 4. Why do men and women often have difficulty communicating with each other? What role does silence play in communication? What are implications of the ―politically correct‖ movement on communications in organizations? And how individuals can improve their cross culture communication? Communication Barriers between Women and Men Research by experts provides us with some important insights into the differences between men and women in terms of their conversational styles. Independence emphasis separateness and differences. whereas women use it to create connection. But here‘s the kick Women speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy men speak and hear a language of status power and independence. or individual women and men are more likely to talk one way or the other. juggling the conflicting needs for intimacy and independence. to reduce the number of distractions your chosen audience might be subjected to.Many women. of course. doesn‘t apply to every woman. Thus it . on other hand view telling a problem as a means to promote closeness‘s e women present the problem to gain support and connection . What‘s happening is that when men hear a problem. means ―a larger % of women or men as a group talk in a particular way. more reasonable. Women criticize men for not listening. This contributes to distancing men and women in their efforts to communicate . Communication is a continual balancing act. Mutual understanding is symmetrical. whilst acknowledging that this might be next to nothing.Well. they frequently assert their for independence and control by offering solutions . The essence of the research is that men use talk to emphasize status.2 CURRENT ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION In this section we discuss four current issues relating to communication in organization. But giving advise is asymmetrical it sets up the advise giver as more knowledge. there are of course a thousand possible distracting reasons why they cannot or will not attend to your business communication.  Permalink Reply by M. The point is to do whatever you can. and more in control.not to get the man‘s advise. The conclusion.Tariq Malik on September 16. So for many men conversations are primarily a means to preserve independence ands maintain status in a hierarchical social order‘s few examples will illustrate this: Men frequently complain that women talk on and on about their problem.

A man might say ―I think you are wrong at that point‖. ―Watson surprised responds‖ But the dog did nothing in the night time. dissent. They often downplay their authority or accomplishments to avoid appearing as braggarts and to take the other‘s person feelings into account Men can interpret this and incorrectly conclude that a woman is less confident and competent than she really is.But it‘s not necessarily in action . It can be a powerful form of communication. when he knows she‘s not to blame. That story is also an excellent illustration of the importance of silence in communication. many believe a failure to communicate.Tariq Malik on September 16. and anger. ―Holmes concluded thwart crime had to be committed by someone with whom the dog was familiar because the dog didn‘t bark.‖ Silence—defined here as an absence of speech or noise-has been generally ignored as a form of communication in OB because inaction or no behavior . Holmes remarked to his assistant Dr . Finally men often critise women for seeming to apologize all the time . It can mean a person is anxious and fearful of speaking. It can signal agreement. Women tend to be less boastful than men. For many women ―I m sorry ―is an expression of understanding and caring about the other person‘s feelings rather than an apology. The dog that didn‘t bark in the night is often used to metaphor for an event that is significant by reason of its absence.3 SILENCE AS COMMUNICATION: Sherlock Holmes once solved a murder mystery based on what didn‘t happen. . about ―the curious incident of the dog in night time. Women might say‖ Have you looked at the marketing research report on that point?‖ Men frequently see female indirections as ―covert ―or ―sneaky‖ but women are not vas concerned as men with the status and one-upmanship that directness often creates.  Permalink Reply by M.Watson.Men are often more direct than women in conversation. 2011 at 6:37pm 4.Men tend to see the phrase ―I m sorry‖ as a weakness because they interpret the phrase to mean the woman is accepting blame. The problem is that the women use often ―I m sorry‖ to express to regret and restore balance to conversations.Nor is silence as. It can mean someone is thinking a response to question.

they pay attention to what comes next. They treat pauses. The Los Angeles Times. hesitations. . silence is a critical element of group thinks. Even those of us with thinning scalp. I know what death means.In terms of Organizational Behaviour we can see several links between and work related behaviour. garbage. There is a downside to political correctness. visually impaired.4 “POLITICALLY CORRECT” COMMUNICATION: What words do you use to describe a colleague who is wheel-chair bound? What terms do you use to address a female customer? How do you communicate with a brand new client who is not like you? Your answers can mean between losing a client. and people of gender. educational equity. But each of these words also has been found to offend one or more groups. We must be sensitive to others feelings. For instance. Certain words can and do stereotype and insult individuals. for instance. but can you be sure that ―negative patient outcome‖ will be consistently defined as synonymous of death? Some critics for humor‘s sake enjoy carrying political correctness to the extreme. a harassment claim or a job. a lawsuit. blind. as when a typically talking person says nothing Failing to pay close attention to silent portion of a conversation can result in missing a vital part of the message. an employee. 4. pauses. in which it implies agreement with majority. They hear and interpret silence. quotas women. You know what death means. Most of us are aware of how our vocabulary has been modified to reflect political correctness. They‘ve been replaced by negative patient outcome. For instance. post consumer waste materials. and elderly from our vocabulary – and replaced them with physically challenged. Astute communications watch for gaps. who aren‘t thrilled at labeled ―bald‖ have to smirk when we‘re referred to as ―follicle challenged‖. as when they ―suffer in silence‖. most of us have cleansed the words handicapped. It can be a way of employees to express dissatisfaction. you probably know what these 4 terms mean: death. We must be sensitive to know how words might offend others. senior. Is the person suffering from communication apprehension? Sometimes the real message in a communication is buried in silence. To illustrate. It can be sign that someone is upset. But our concern here is with how politically correct language is contributing a barrier to effective communication. allows its journalists to use the word old age but cautious that it varies from ―person to person‖.

Negotiations between Americans and Japanese executives are made more difficult because Japanese hai translates as yes but its connotation will be ―yes I m listening‖ rather than ―yes I agree‖ Third are barriers caused by tone differences in some cultures. there are barriers caused by semantics.  Permalink Reply by M. the larger the vocabulary used by sender.Tariq Malik on September 16.Words are primary means with which people communicate. Some words. First. We must sensitive to how our choice of words offends others. tone changes depending upon the context: people speak differently at home. Cross – cultural factors clearly the potential for increased communication problems. As we‘ve noted. Words imply different things in different languages. A gesture that is well understood and acceptable in one culture can be meaningless or lewd in another. words mean different to different people. Second there are barriers caused by word connotations. But we also have to be careful not to sanitize our language to the point at which it clearly restricts clarity of communication. However you should be aware of the trade-offs and the need to find a proper balance. we reduce our options for conveying messages in accurate form.5 CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION: Effective communication is difficult under the best of conditions. Understanding sisu will help you to communicate in Finland but this is non transferable to English. the greater opportunity to transmit messages. 2011 at 6:38pm 4. Using a personal. When we eliminate words from use because they are politically incorrect. By removing certain words from our vocabulary we find it hard to communicate. In some. language is formal. informal style in situation in which a more formal style is expected can be embarrassing and off-putting . Cultural barriers: One author has identified 4 specific problems related to large difficulties in cross-cultural communications. Don‘t translate between cultures. For the most part. in others it‘s informal. This is true for people from different cultures.

Before sending a message put yourself in the recipient‘s shoes what don you know about his or her education. Low context cultures value directness.Fourth. (2) Emphasis description rather than interpretation or evaluation. Countries like china. Korea. . Oral agreements imply strong commitments in high context cultures. (3) Practice empathy. Communication in high context cultures implies considerably more trust by both parties. What do these contextual differences mean in terms of communication? Actually quite a lot. Managers are directed to be explicit and precise in conveying intended meaning. A Cultural Guide: When communicating with people from a different culture what can you do to reduce misperceptions and misevaluations? You can begin by trying to assess context culture. Thais perceive no differently than Americans because the former have no such word in the vocabulary. But people from different countries often are different. Cultures tend to differ in importance to which context influences meaning that individuals take from what is actually said or written in light of who the other person is. People from Europe and North America reflect their low context cultures. Cultural Context: A better understanding of these barriers for communicating across cultural can be achieved by considering the concepts of high and low context cultures. Most of us assume that others are more similar to us than they actually are. upbringing or background? Try to see other person as she or he really is. The 4 rules are helpful: (1) Assume differences until similarity is proven. there are barriers caused by differences caused by perceptions. A person‘s official status in society and reputation carry considerably weight in communications. What may appear to outsider as casual and insignificant is important because it reflects a desire to build a relationship and create trust. People who speak different languages actually view the world in different ways. Interpreting or evaluating what someone has said or done is based on observer‘s culture and background than on observed situation. Japan and Vietnam are high context cultures they rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situations cues when communicating with others.

The symbols of communication are words. For important decisions or communiqués.  Permalink Reply by id=3783342%3ATopic%3A870562&page=2#comments#ixzz2q3cTdYUE Read more at http://vustudents. Have the support the support of top management to operate in a climate favourable to free and open exchange of views and attitudes.(4) Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis. Moreover. Lack in organizational communication hampers the productivity of employees and in turn that of the organisation. 2011 at 6:38pm CONCLUSION Thus. Have continuity Read more: ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION PROJECT REPORT .Tariq Malik on September 16. Once you‘ve developed an explanation for a new situation think your empathize with some foreign culture. To be fully effective. 2. and numbers. 3. actions. Communication is an exchange of information and transmission of meaning. your can also check with other foreign and home country colleagues to make sure that your interpretations are on target. the case studies also help to throw light on the important aspects of organizational communication and depict how useful it is in shaping the organization‘s future and helping it achieve its objectives. Carefully assess the feedback by recipients to see if it confirms your hypothesis.ning. It is considered as a crucial function of modern id=3783342%3ATopic%3A870562&page=2#a08dpFjTUsKRmzRE. channel and receiver.99 . Be properly organized and integrated with the structure of the corporate enterprise. a communication programmes must: 1. Communication always involves a sender. Organization communication thus is one of the most important tools used by many Human Resource Development (HRD) managers to cut the communication gap in the organisation.Virtual University of Pakistan http://vustudents. pictures.ning. It also plays an important part to build an organization structure.