You are on page 1of 48

2011

Institute of Business Management
COMMUNICATION AT WORK PLACE
Misunderstanding that can occur in communication at workplace

home <> 8/19/2011

[REHAN ALI]
[SHAHRUKH] [ASAD]

Institute of Business Management

A Research Study On COMMUNICATION AT WORK PLACE Prepared for: Irfan Shaikh Professor, Institute of Business Management

Prepared by: Rehan Ali Shahrukh Asad

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH

[REHAN ALI]
[SHAHRUKH] [ASAD]

TABLE OF CONTENT :
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 5 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL…………………………………………………………………………..6 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................... 7 PURPOSE STATEMENT .......................................................................................................................... 8 SCOPE OF THE REASEARCH ………………………………………………………………………. 9 RESEARCH QUESTION:.......................................................................................................................... 10 HYPOTHESES: .......................................................................................................................................... 11 LIMITATION OF REPORT....................................................................................................................... 12 POPULATION: .......................................................................................................................................... 12 SAMPLE:.................................................................................................................................................... 12 RESEARCH TOOL .................................................................................................................................... 12 METHAD`OLOGY .................................................................................................................................... 12 ANALYSIS: ................................................................................................................................................ 12 QUESTIONNAIRE: ................................................................................................................................... 13 LITERATURE REVIEW:- ....................................................................................................................... 174 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................................ 14 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS ……………………………….……………………………… 16 BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION ………………………………………………………………. 18 HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION ..................................................................... 23 ASSUMPTION UNDERLYING EARLY ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION ....................... 24 COMMUNICAITON NETWORK ............................................................................................................. 26 DIRECTION OF COMMUNICAITON ................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.28 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION ………………………….....…………………………….. 30 COMMUNICATION APPROACHES IN AN ORGANIZATION ………………………………......32 CURRENT REASEARCH TOPIC IN ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION ……………..32 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.33 ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................................. 36 CONCLUSION…… ……………………………………………………………………………………..44

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH

[REHAN ALI]
[SHAHRUKH] [ASAD]

TABLE OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO. 1…………………………………………………………………17 FIGURE NO. 2…………………………………………………………………17 FIGURE NO. 3…………………………………………………………………30

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH

who never cease in loving us and for the continued guidance and protection. Sheikh Irfan for his guidance and support in the duration of the study. who. And above all. To the working of pioneer engineering works.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers wish to express their deepest gratitude and warmest appreciation to the following people. To Mr. who have been unselfishly extending their efforts and understanding. in any way have contributed and inspired the researchers to the overall success of the undertaking. To our parents who have always been very understanding and supportive both financially and emotionally. to the Almighty God. The Researchers [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .

If you need any kind of further information regarding the report.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Friday. Irfan: Following is the Term Report that you have assigned us as the final project. Dear Mr. Sheikh Mohammed Irfan Institute of Business Management Korangi Creek Karachi. as well as on the topic we chose. 2014 Mr. We hope you will find our report interesting and enlightening and that our efforts in shape of a report will come up to the expectations of the readers and concerned people Sincerely. January 10. REHAN ALI SHAHRUKH ASAD [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . This report is about finding: COMMUNICAITION AT WORK PLACE It was a good learning experience doing this assignment. please contact us at any time with questions or even suggestions. Thank you for giving us this opportunity to expand our knowledge on the subject of Business Communication.

Lodge. (1983) stated: Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another. Jaggers. (2008) stated: Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit.S.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] CHAPTER NO 1 INTRODUCTION ‘’Communication is a two way process resulting in transmission of information and understanding between individuals. information. In order to know how effectively one has communicated feed back is necessary ‘‘ As Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe stated: No one would talk much in society if they knew how often they misunderstood others. it involves a sender transmitting an idea. In an annual passing out parade a U. Mistry. Alton and Mericle. Army official. Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the either the direct result of people failing to communicate. which leads to confusion and can cause good plans to fail [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . or feeling to a receiver In the same scenario.

1. productive interpersonal relationships among coworkers and successful customer service resolutions. 1. controlling. Communication enables to make plan: Communication with each other from bottom to top a plan has been set up to meet the organization goal 1. producing. Communication organizes works: Communication has enabled us to organize the all sort of activities------. Communication enables to carry out the management function: It is the vehicle through which the basic management functions are carried out. It is one activity that we human beings clearly do better than the other forms of life on earth. reporting. effective business communication professionals understand how to tailor messages for maximum results. Communication develops civilized society: Communication is what has enabled us to develop the civilized society. distribution etc. Communication enables to reach the goal: Every organization has a goal and through proper communication makes easy to achieve this goa FUNCTION [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .through organization 1. Communication helps functioning of the organization: Staffing. Managers direct and coordinate through communication 1.to work in groups and . resulting in effective marketing campaigns. Communication coordinates works: All efforts from beginning to ending (procurement. and it largely explain our dominant role. The organization cannot function if the persons involved fail to communicate. Communication plays a vital role in the business organization. production. Communication overcomes barriers: Barriers to our existence that we could not have conquered individually can be overcome through communication with group of people. It contributes to the development of each and every employee 1. servicing and the like functions are done through communication. selling. Because audiences demand different kinds of communications in different situations and settings.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] THE IMPORTANCE OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANIZATION Business communication defines most organizations. Followings are the key roles of business communication: 1. is essence without communication one can't think of the existence of organization in real world. planning.) in an organization are coordinated by the communication 1.

Critics of “millennials. Asha Kaul of the Management Development Institute in India writes that effective business communication includes a two-way cycle of messaging and feedback designed to achieve a specific reaction. In addition to speech and written text. appropriate. thoughtful messages often correlate to successful companies staffed by engaged professionals. to help process large amounts of information. Features The feedback cycles required for effective business communication can take different forms. business communication happens throughout every organization. making it more challenging when team members speak. often advise younger professionals to double-check their communication for tone.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] Though most casual observers of corporate behavior focus on a company‟s external marketing. business professionals must understand how to communicate effectively via e-mail. Older decision-makers may refuse to conduct business with young representatives using unprofessional communication. text message and even social media status update. New tools allow business professionals to combine personal messages with automated responses. Efficient. especially when aided by modern technology. read and learn differently from each other. using multiple channels for many kinds of desired results. Many effective communicators find ways to cut through the clutter of overflowing inboxes with handwritten notes or direct phone calls. Likewise. a manager with a highly visual learning style may not respond as intended to a dense report from an employee with strong writing skills. such as vacation auto-responder messages. Effects [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . Misconceptions Despite a cultural trend toward casual communication.” workers born between 1977 and 1998. a company director accustomed to highly analytical spreadsheets may not appreciate the lack of density inherent in a text message. For instance. Considerations Messages must take on the characteristics of the medium chosen for communication. studies indicate that spelling and grammar still play major roles in how audiences evaluate business professionals. relevance and especially presentation.

[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] In most organizations. By building a reputation as an engaged listener. effective communication offers the best opportunity to make an outstanding first impression. However. images and messages. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . the second half of the feedback cycle can really cement interpersonal relationships. business professionals can craft strong internal partnerships while developing the foundation of a solid client base. a professional can set up next actions that solidify her commitment to acting on requests or adjusting after responses. Using powerful words.

[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] PURPOSE STATEMENT: „To demonstrate the many problems of misunderstanding that can occur in communication at workplace. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH: The scope of the research is to analyze the different problems faced by individuals due to various reasons while communicating at the work place with other individuals.

Heavy organizational structure creates miss communication & misses understanding 7.Physical distraction & language cannot create miss communication [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .Oral Communication is better or not .Feedback is important 4. 2.Proper medium play a vital role 3.An informal environment is preferable in organization 5- Visualize reader or listener before conducting communication 6.Apply informal manner before communicating with boss 8.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] RESEARCH QUESTION: MISUNDERSTANDING THAT CAN OCCUR IN COMMUNICATION AT WORKPLACE ? Other research question(s): 1.

Feedback is important in communication process or not. 3.Heavy organizational structure creates miss communication & misses understanding or not.Visualize reader or listener before conducting communication or not. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . 7. 6. 8.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] HYPOTHESES: 1.Apply informal manner before communicating with boss or not.An informal environment is preferable in organization or not. 5. 4.Oral Communication is better or not. 2.Physical distraction & language cannot create miss communication or not.Proper medium play a vital role or not.

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . As sample questionnaire was made and used as research tool. SAMPLE: Randomly selected 100 students were taken as sample from Pioneer engineering works RESEARCH TOOL: The questionnaire is used as the research tool. Consisting of 8 Questions that are filled by 100 Pioneer engineering works. This questionnaire will be submitted to the chair with the final report on research. The survey is done with the help of workers of Pioneer engineering works aging from 25-60.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] LIMITATIONS OF REPORT: The scope of research is limited to who are working professional of different classes . METHODOLOGY: Research is based on quantitative means of research and also findings are from different articles on the internet and books. Samples are randomly selected for analysis. POPULATION: The Population under research study is working professional at Pioneer engineering works.

Formal or informal? visualize your reader or listener? Heavy organizational structure creates miss communication & miss understanding? Communicating woth boos Environment of your office Physical distraction & language can create miss communication? [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . It was made using all the modern techniques of research. As research has been done using all the modern techniques the chances of false results becomes less. All the analysis has been done in Microsoft office excel 2007. All the data have been entered in software and charts and graphs were plotted. STATEMENTS STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE Oral or Written communication for sharing information? Proper medium play a vital role Feedback is important Proper medium play a vital role Environment is in your organization. Questionnaire was used as research tool that consist of 100 Professionals of Pioneering works .[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] ANALYSIS: The research was done to find out the problems of misunderstanding that can occur in communication at workplace .

Healthy communication is essential for a healthy society. the idea should be communicated as a plan. It is very important for an organization that there would a healthy environment in an organization and people may not feel problems in communicating with each other due to difference in their classes or languages or by difference education levels. It is very important that we interact with our surroundings and people living in the surroundings. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . drawing or description. But to make the transition from just a thought to an implementation. INTRODUCTION: Communication is the actual transfer of information through various mediums in such a way that it caters to the needs of people from different strata of life. Hence. it requires effectual communication. communication plays a vital role.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] CHAPTER NO 2 LITERATURE REVIEW:- BACKGROUND: The background of our research is to identify the hurdles lies in communicating with different individuals either a supervisor face problems in conducting communication with its juniors or the lower classes in communicating their issues with higher individuals. Communication has a great significance: FOR TRANSFER OF IDEAS To transfer ideas from one person to another.

herein the deal is not just to communicate. we will never understand the way things function and how things are piled up and related to one another. audio. which thereby leads to many problems. However. we. but to communicate effectively. TO UNDERSTAND THE WORLD Unless we communicate with the world. FOR EDUCATION To educate someone. react to his/her questions. People who do not communicate tend to get isolated.. but in their own ways? We need to interact with the environment in order to understand life. we need to communicate the ideas in the syllabus or the study material to the student. This is communication. Education involves a collection of all kinds of communication i. Did you know that other elements of the world also communicate to us. actions or comments.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] FOR INTERACTING WITH SOCIETY Whenever we talk to someone. books and lectures. video. knowingly or unknowingly. People are just a fragment amongst these things.e. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .

and understanding the message by using both verbal and non-verbal (body language) cues of the message which is the most important part and here the understanding between the individuals‘ works at a micro level [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . information. This can be a concept. e-mail. or feelings or IDEATION is the process of new thought or idea generated by the sender which can be analogous to starting a new life together. information exists in the mind of the sender. TRANSMISSION is the process of sending.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS THE COMMUNICATION MAINLY INVOLVES THE FOLLOWING STEPS SENDER HAS IDEA – First. reports). the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand or DECODING is the interpreting. a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols or ENCODING means putting information into a form that allows it to be transmitted through a particular medium and it depends on fluency as in providing an efficient communication channel. RECEIVING The message received by the receiver analogous to the start of a relationship DECODING –Lastly. propagating and receiving a message through channel or medium of communication i. ENCODING – Next. MEDIUM – The medium is the method used to convey the message to the intended receiver (such as by telephone. idea. commencement of effective communication.e.

If it comes solo without ACCEPTANCE. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] FEEDBACK FEEDBACK is included in inter-personal communication and is a continuous process of clarification and verification of ―communication noises‖. the results are dangerous. unpredictable and often set wrong trends.

its level of importance. hand gestures. Jim misunderstood the message. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . This feedback tells the sender that the receiver understood the message. Although paralanguage or context often cause messages to be misunderstood as we believe what we see more than what we hear. And many words have different meanings to confuse the issue even more. etc. not just a give. and state of emotions (anger. I told Jim to do it. How do you know it has been properly received? By two-way communication or feedback. fear. body language. confidence.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] During the transmitting of the message. as all parties must participate to complete the information exchange. so even simple messages can be misunderstood. CONTEXT is the way the message is delivered and is known as paralanguage — it is the nonverbal elements in speech such as the tone of voice. we often trust the accuracy of nonverbal behaviors more than verbal behaviors. Indeed.) that can be detected. We all use and interpret the meanings of words differently. and what must be done with it. two elements will be received: content and context. ―I don't know why it did not get done. Communication is an exchange. CONTENT are the actual words or symbols of the message that is known as language: the spoken and written words combined into phrases that make grammatical and semantic sense. A message has NOT been communicated unless it is understood by the receiver (decoded). the look in the sender's eyes.‖ More than likely. they are powerful communicators that help us to understand each other. Some leaders think they have communicated once they told someone to do something. uncertainty.

[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Freeman Teague. barrier screens. Jr. BUT MAKING AN EFFORT TO REMOVE THE OBSTACLES .THAT STAND IN OUR WAY. Many physical and psychological barriers exist: SEVEN BARRIERS TO GREAT COMMUNICATION ERIC GARNER STATED: IT'S NOT ALWAYS EASY AND OFTEN TAKES A LOT OF DETERMINATION. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . difficult. It is after all something we've done all our lives. Communicating is straightforward.TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE . empires and fiefdoms into which strangers are not allowed  closed office doors. PHYSICAL BARRIERS Physical barriers in the workplace include:  marked out territories. and frustrating are the barriers we put in the way. 1. What makes it complex. CAN BE THE KEY TO BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS THAT REALLY WORK Many people think that communicating is easy. Here are the 7 top barriers. There is some truth in this simplistic view. separate areas for people of different status  Large working areas or working in one unit that is physically separate from others. stated: “Nothing is so simple that it cannot be misunderstood” Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. nearness to others aids communication because it helps us get to know one another. Research shows that one of the most important factors in building cohesive teams is proximity. As long as people still have a personal space that they can call their own.

they were an irascible bunch. As a result many people hold back from communicating their thoughts and feelings to others. Can you tell me what the townspeople are like?" "Well. While some caution may be wise in certain relationships. excessive fear of what others might think of us can stunt our development as effective communicators and our ability to form meaningful relationships. "Mind your P's and Q's". "Don't speak until you're spoken to". mistrust and suspicion. "Children should be seen and not heard". If we didn't. assumptions and perceptions shape our own realities: A traveler was walking down a road when he met a man from the next town. They feel vulnerable. It is comprised mainly of fear. Took me for a fool. we would have no need to communicate: something like extrasensory perception would take its place. Gave me very poor service. Kept to themselves. "how did you find the people in the last town you visited?" "Oh. EMOTIONAL BARRIERS One of the chief barriers to open and free communications is the emotional barrier." "Well. The following anecdote is a reminder of how our thoughts. "Excuse me. then." he said." said the townsman. "I am hoping to stay in the next town tonight." 3. The roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy when we were taught to be careful what we said to others. PERCEPTUAL BARRIERS The problem with communicating with others is that we all see the world differently.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] 2 . [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . "you'll find them pretty much the same here." said the townsman. Overcharged me for what I got.

however. a high level of game-playing replaces good communication. In a global market place the greatest compliment we can pay another person is to talk in their language. When [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . A woman speaks between 22. One of the more chilling memories of the Cold War was the threat by the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev saying to the Americans at the United Nations: "We will bury you!" This was taken to mean a threat of nuclear annihilation. LANGUAGE BARRIERS Language that describes what we want to say in our terms may present barriers to others who are not familiar with our expressions. When a man talks. buzz-words and jargon. there are barriers to your membership of a group. However. a more accurate reading of Khrushchev‘s words would have been: "We will overtake you!" meaning economic superiority.000 and 10. In childhood.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] 4. but the fear and suspicion that the West had of the Soviet Union that led to the more alarmist and sinister interpretation. have a vocabulary twice that of boys. 5. When we couch our communication in such language. there is a mutuality of interest and a high level of win-win contact.000 and 25. it is a way of excluding others. sooner or later we need to adopt the behavior patterns of the group. In groups which are happy to accept you and where you are happy to conform. his speech is located in the left side of the brain but in no specific area. GENDER BARRIERS There are distinct differences between the speech patterns in a man and those in a woman. CULTURAL BARRIERS When we join a group and wish to remain in it.000 words a day whereas a man speaks between 7. The group rewards such behavior through acts of recognition. The reason for this lies in the wiring of a man's and woman's brains. These are the behaviors‘ that the group accepts as signs of belonging.000. 6. girls speak earlier than boys and at the age of three. approval and inclusion. It was not just the language. Where.

7 INTERPERSONAL BARRIERS There are six levels at which people can distance themselves from one another:       is an absence of interpersonal contact. WORKING activities are those tasks which follow the rules and procedures of contact but no more. It is both refusal to be in touch and time alone. and your physical connections. These barriers can be thought of as filters. features of both sides of the brain. And the way to overcome filters is through active listening and feedback. features of left-brain thinking. WITHDRAWAL Working on improving your communications is a broad-brush activity. whereas a woman talks more freely mixing logic and emotion. repetitive routines devoid of real contact. the speech is located in both hemispheres and in two specific locations. You have to change your thoughts. your feelings. It also explains why women talk for much longer than men each day. They include "rackets" and "stamps". CLOSENESS is the aim of interpersonal contact where there is a high level of honesty and acceptance of yourself and others. and is then heard by the receiver. the message leaves the sender. manipulative interactions which are about winning and losing. This means that a man talks in a linear. you can break down the barriers that get in your way and start building relationships that really work. PASTIMES fill up time with others in social but superficial activities. goes through the above filters. logical and compartmentalized way. That way. that is.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] a woman talks. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . GAMES are subtle. RITUALS are meaningless. These filters muffle the message.

Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon wrote in 1947 about "organization communications systems". Until then. In the 1950s.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION The field traces its lineage through business information. In the 1990s. and in using the term "organizational communication". critical theory influence on the field was felt as organizational communication scholars focused more on communication's possibilities to oppress and liberate organizational members. organizational communication focused largely on the role of communication in improving organizational life and organizational output. saying communication is "absolutely essential to organizations" W. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . In the 1980s. and early mass communication studies published in the 1930s through the 1950s. organizational communication as a discipline consisted of a few professors within speech departments who had a particular interest in speaking and writing in business settings. business communication. Charles Redding played a prominent role in the establishment of organizational communication as a discipline. the field turned away from a business-oriented approach to communication and became concerned more with the constitutive role of communication in organizing. The current field is well established with its own theories and empirical concerns distinct from other communication subfields and other approaches to organizations. Several seminal publications stand out as works broadening the scope and recognizing the importance of communication in the organizing process.

 Formal logic and empirically verifiable data ought to be the foundation upon which any theory should rest. transmitted through some channel. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . can and ought to be identified and reduced or eliminated. they tended to pick the first acceptable option. He maintained that people making decisions in organizations seldom had complete information. Distortion.  Organizations are mechanical things.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING EARLY ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Some of the main assumptions underlying much of the early organizational communication research were:  Humans act rationally. Individual differences can be minimized or even eliminated with careful management techniques. unless there is some breakdown in the communication process—which is common. then received and decoded by a receiver. they generally have no access to all of the information needed to make rational decisions they could articulate. in which the parts (including employees functioning in defined roles) are interchangeable. Unrational people rationalize how they will rationalize their communication measures whether or not it is rational. Any differences in form or function of communication between that occurring in an organization and in another setting can be identified and studied as factors affecting the communicative activity.  Organizations function as a container within which communication takes place. and therefore will make unrational decisions. represented as any differences between the original and the received messages. Herbert Simon introduced the concept of bounded rationality which challenged assumptions about the perfect rationality of communication participants. What works in one organization will work in another similar organization. Sane people do not behave in rational ways. All we really need to understand communication in organizations is (a) observable and replicable behaviors that can be transformed into variables by some form of measurement. rather than exploring further to pick the optimal solution. in which a message is constructed and encoded by a sender. and that even if more information was available. and (b) formally replicable syllogisms that can extend theory from observed data to other groups and settings  Communication is primarily a mechanical process.

1970s and 1980s the field expanded greatly in parallel with several other academic disciplines. Research expanded beyond the issue of "how to make people understand what I am saying" to tackle questions such as "how does the act of communicating change. or even define. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . These have been well received and are now a mainstay in current beliefs toward organizational communications. "why do organizations that seem to be saying similar things achieve very different results?" and "to what extent are my relationships with others affected by our various organizational contexts?" In the early 1990s Peter Senge developed new theories on Organizational Communication. looking at communication as more than an intentional act designed to transfer an idea. These theories were learning organization and systems thinking. who I am?".[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] Through the 1960s.

it is easy to see that some individuals occupy key positions with regard to the number of messages they handle and the degree to which they exercise control over the flow of information. individuals who occupy stations at the edges of the pattern handle fewer messages and have little or no control over the flow of information. can readily be seen to represent the hierarchical pattern that characterizes strictly formal information flow. which is an elaboration of Bavelas's Circle used by Guetzkow. For example. "from the top down. they have important implications for the dynamics of communication in formal organizations. "Wheel". "Star". Bavelas has shown that communication patterns. There are several patterns of communication:      "Chain". influence groups in several important ways. Although these findings are based on laboratory experiments. is analogous to the free-flow of communication in a group that encourages all of its members to become involved in group decision processes. the person represented by the central dot in the "Star" handles all messages in the group. Communication networks may affect the group's completion of the assigned task on time. "All-Channel" network. The AllChannel network. THE W HEEL is similar to the basic formal structure of many organizations." in military and some types of business organizations THE CHAIN can be compared with a typical autocratic organization. In contrast. or networks. THE STAR may also be compared to some of the informal communication networks.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS Networks are another aspect of direction and flow of communication. If it's assumed that messages may move in both directions between stations in the networks. or they may affect the group members' satisfaction from occupying certain positions in the network. "Circle". meaning oneman rule and limited employee participation. THE ALL-CHANNEL NETWORK [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . the position of the de facto leader in the group.

It may be concluded from these laboratory results that the structure of communications within an organization will have a significant influence on the accuracy of decisions. However. an organization quickly develops around the people occupying these central positions. insight into a problem requiring change would be less in the Wheel and the Star than in the Circle or the Chain because of the "bottlenecking" effect of data control by central members. Bavelas came to the following tentative conclusions. In patterns with positions located centrally. and to restructure problems fell off rapidly when one person was able to assume a more central (that is. and Star configurations. to look at alternatives. the organization is more stable and errors in performance are lower than in patterns having a lower degree of centrality. and the satisfaction of the people involved. or "insight. he also found that the morale of members in high centrality patterns is relatively low. For example." Bavelas suggested that the ability to evaluate partial results. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . Wheel. in the long run. more controlling) position in the information flow. the speed with which they can be reached. In reporting the results of experiments involving the Circle. lower the accuracy and speed of such networks. In problem solving requiring the pooling of data and judgments. In such patterns. the better the group's morale in the long run.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] These "peripheral" individuals can communicate with only one or two other persons and must depend entirely on others to relay their messages if they wish to extend their range. Bavelas speculated that this lower morale could. such as the Circle. Consequently. in networks in which the responsibility for initiating and passing along messages is shared more evenly among the members. such as the Wheel and the Star.

to what extent is a subordinate free to communicate to his superior that he understands or does not understand a message? Is it possible for him to question the superior. or psychological atmosphere in which communication takes place. should not be cluttered by messages from subordinates but should remain open and free for messages moving down the chain of command. He describes the rectangles as he sees them. law of military protocol. Because messages from superiors are considered to be more important than those from subordinates. Vestiges of one-way flows of communication still exist in many formal organizations outside the military. "Juniors should be seen and not heard. This type of organization assumes that there is little need for two-way exchanges between organizational levels except as they are initiated by a higher level. Harold Leavitt has suggested a simple experiment that helps answer some of these questions. (A different configuration of rectangles is used in the second trial. if not explicit. Military communications also carry the additional assumption that the superior is responsible for making his communication clear and understandable to his subordinates. А group is assigned the task of re-creating on paper a set of rectangular figures. For example. which are not prescribed by the rules? To what extent does the one-way rule of direction affect the efficiency of communication in the organization. Although management recognizes that prescribed information must flow both downward and upward. No one in the group is allowed to ask questions and no [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . managers may not always be convinced that twowayness should be encouraged. the leader's back is turned to the group.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION If it's considered formal communications as they occur in traditional military organizations. first as they are described by the leader under one-way conditions. and suggest modifications to instructions he has received." is still an unwritten.) In the one-way trial. the formal communication proceeds from superior to subordinate. in addition to the morale and motivation of subordinates? These are not merely procedural matters but include questions about the organizational climate. and for many of the same reasons as described above. the implicit rule is that communication channels. and second as they are described by the leader under two-way conditions. messages have a "one-way" directional characteristic. In the military organization. except for prescribed information flows. ask for clarification. or transmit unsolicited messages to his superior. and its content is presumably clear because it originates at a higher level of expertise and experience.

on the other hand. The two-way method is relatively noisier and looks more disorderly. In this case. Leavitt formed these conclusions: 1. if a manager does not want his mistakes recognized. 4. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] one may indicate by any audible or visible sign his understanding or his frustration as he attempts to follow the leader's directions.[3] Thus. or if he is concerned about his receivers' feeling that they are participating and are making a contribution. if speed is necessary. 2. the group may ask for clarifications on his description of the rectangles and he can not only see but also can feel and respond to the emotional reactions of group members as they try to re-create his instructions on paper. if the manager wants to get his message across. because his receivers pick up his mistakes and oversights and point them out to him. and if he wants to protect his power. appears neat and efficient to an outside observer. Two-way communication is more accurate than one-way communication. The one-way method. On the basis of a number of experimental trials similar to the one described above. In the two-way trial. the leader faces the group. the two-way system is better. Receivers are surer of themselves and make more correct judgments of how right or wrong they are in the two-way system. if a businesslike appearance is important. then one-way communication seems preferable. The sender feels psychologically under attack in the two-way system. 3. 5. In contrast. One-way communication is faster than two-way communication.

expressed in words). and achieve objectives. facial expressions. To effectively solve problems. interpersonal communication. An example of interpersonal communication INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Another facet of communication in the organization is the process of face-to-face. questions need to be asked by managers—these are the people responsible for the operation of the enterprise as a whole. they need questions. anytime. Managers do not need answers to operate a successful business. the meanings sent are the meanings received. This is most often the case when the messages concern something that can be verified objectively. and certain postures ("body language"). seize opportunities. Brazil. This has turned the real job of management into determining what it is the business needs to know. or they may not involve words at all but consist of gestures. Nonverbal messages may even stem from silence. Ideally. Answers can come from anyone. Such communication may take several forms. between individuals. The photo shows a training meeting with factory workers in a stainless steel ecodesign company from Rio de Janeiro. along with the who/what/where/when and how of learning it.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Figure #2 Training meeting about sustainable design. anywhere in the world thanks to the benefits of all the electronic communication tools at our disposal. Messages may be verbal (that is. For [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .

This desire to communicate may arise from his thoughts or feelings or it may have been triggered by something in the environment. a staff-line relationship. and in a letter to the production division. "This work is too hard" or "Watergate was politically justified" are examples of opinions or feelings that cannot be verified. some in the personalities of the sender and the receiver. a messenger. As we shall see later.[6] A number of variables influence the effectiveness of communication. and some in the relationship that exists between sender and receiver. the front office orders a reorganization of the shipping and receiving departments. the situation or context in which the message is sent becomes part of its non-verbal content. "This piece of pipe fits the threads on the coupling. The receiver's background of experience and learning may differ enough from that of the sender to cause significantly different perceptions and evaluations of the topic under discussion. through their clothing or possessions) or through some form of body language. the receiver of the message can check the sender's words by actual trial. Nonverbal content always accompanies the verbal content of messages. These different variables suggest some of the difficulties of communicating with understanding between two people." In this case. For example. or a learner-teacher relationship.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] example. The sender wants to formulate an idea and communicate it to the receiver. meanings can be very unclear. The communication may also be influenced or distorted by the relationship between the sender and the receiver. Some are found in the environment in which communication takes place. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . Thus they are subject to interpretation and hence to distorted meanings. this could be construed to mean that some people were going to lose their jobs — unless it were made explicitly clear that this would not occur. if necessary. such as status differences. when the sender's words describe a feeling or an opinion about something that cannot be checked objectively. However. or a letter. such differences form a basic barrier to communication. if the company has been losing money. In messages that are conveyed by the telephone. This is reasonably clear in the case of face-to-face communication. people cannot help but communicate symbolically (for example. As Virginia Satir has pointed out.

These approaches include "postmodern". information moving from a sender to a receiver) to a study of the persistent. guidelines. generally associated with interpersonal. psychology. business administration.g. Informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work in modern organizations.g. neurology (neural nets). etc. was primarily seen as a potential hindrance to effective organizational performance. institutional management. "organic". "feminist". theology. Top-down approach: This is also known as downward communication.. Informal communication. medicine (health communication). This could be made effective by feedbacks. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . and music. business. In this type of organizational communication. anthropology. distortion of the actual information occurs. semiotics. This is no longer the case. This is used to implement policies. international relations. hegemonic and taken-for-granted ways in which we not only use communication to accomplish certain tasks within organizational settings (e.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] COMMUNICATION APPROACHES IN AN ORGANIZATION Informal and Formal Communication are used in an organization. This approach is used by the Top Level Management to communicate to the lower levels. philosophy. CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS IN ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION The field of organizational communication has moved from acceptance of mechanistic models (e. horizontal communication. "power/political". "participatory". "critical". etc. and adds to disciplines as wide-ranging as sociology.. public speaking) but also how the organizations in which we participate affect us.

The survey is done with the help of Pioneer engineering works aging from 25-60. SAMPLE: Randomly selected 100 students were taken as sample from Pioneer engineering works. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . As sample questionnaire was made and used as research tool.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] METHODOLOGY: Research is based on quantitative means of research and also findings are from different articles on the internet and books. Sample are randomly selected for analysis. POPULATION: The Population under research study is working professional at Pioneer engineering works. PURPOSE STATEMENT: To demonstrate the many problems of misunderstanding that can occur in communication at workplace.

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . 3.Physical distraction & language cannot create miss communication HYPOTHESES: 1.Proper medium play a vital role 3. 4.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] RESEARCH QUESTION: PROBLEMS OF MISUNDERSTANDING THAT CAN OCCUR IN COMMUNICATION AT WORKPLACE Other research question(s) 1.An informal environment is preferable in organization 5- Visualize reader or listener before conducting communication 6.Oral Communication is better or not .Feedback is important in communication process.Oral Communication is better.Feedback is important 4.An informal environment is preferable in organization. 2.Apply informal manner before communicating with boss 8.Heavy organizational structure creates miss communication & misses understanding 7. 2.Proper medium play a vital role.

Visualize reader or listener before conducting communication.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] 5. Consisting of 9 Questions that are filled by 100 Pioneer engineering works.physical distraction & language cannot create miss communication RESEARCH TOOL: The questionnaire is used as the research tool. Consisting of 9 Questions that are filled by 100 Pioneer engineering works . RESEARCH TOOL: The questionnaire is used as the research tool.This questionnaire will be submitted to the chair with the final report on research. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH: The scope of the research is to analyze the different problems faced by individuals due to various reasons while communicating at the work place with other individuals . [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . 8.Apply informal manner before communicating with boss. 6. 7. This questionnaire will be submitted to the chair with the final report on research.heavy organizational structure creates miss communication & miss understanding.

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS QUESTION 1 ‘Oral Communication is better for sharing information Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Average Rating 65 15 10 6 4 1.e 65% agree to opt oral communication while conducting communication.24 Stongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Conclusion: The result clearly state that Majority of people i.

24 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Straongly Disagree Conclusion: Almost 70 % people believe that Proper medium plays an important role in effective communication.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] QUESTION 2 „Proper Medium play a vital role in effective communication Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Average Rating 70 15 10 5 0 1. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .

24 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disgree CONCLUSION: Though 20 % people believe that Feedback is no important but majority goes with the fact that Feedback is important for an individual in attaining objective . [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] QUESTION 3 : „Feedback is important Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Average Rating 50 12 10 20 8 1.

24 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree CONCLUSION: ‗The stats clearly shows that individuals prefer informal environment in organizations so that is it easy for them to convey messages to higher authorities. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Average Rating 60 10 05 15 10 1.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] QUESTION 4 : „Informal environment is better for an organization.

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .24 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree CONCLUSION: Before communication it is important to visualize the reader or listener and most of the people think the same.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] QUESTION 5 : ‗Visualize reader or listener before communication is important Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Average Rating 67 13 10 9 1 1.

24 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disgree CONCLUSION: The result clearly indicates that people working in heavy organizaitons with complex structres faces problems of miss understanding and miss communication while cordinating with the others . [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] QUESTION 6: ‗Heavy organizational structures create miss communication & miss understanding Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Average Rating 80 10 5 3 2 1.

[SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .24 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree CONCLUSION: An informal manner allow individuals to represent themselves in a more better way in front of their Boos.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] QUESTION 7 : „There should be informal manner while communicating with boss Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Average Rating 60 15 5 10 10 1.

24 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disgree CONCLUSION: ALMOST 75 % BELIEVE THAT PHYSICAL DISTRACTION & LANGUAGE CAN CREATE MISS COMMUNICATION [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] QUESTION 8 : „Physical distraction & language can create miss communication Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Average Rating 75 10 10 2 3 1.

there should be an exchange of ideas. Communication at work is extremely important to people. thoughts must be organized and second. A feedback positively affects communication skills and professional behavior. but not everyone does it effectively. If these two rules are considered. misunderstandings would unlikely occur. [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH . The success of communication will depend upon a two-way flow of information. However there are some certain barriers that may hinder effective communication. but with care and attention the majority of them can be overcome. Everybody is capable of communicating. For effective communication to take place. two things must be remembered: first.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] CONCLUSION In conclusion. It is no longer enough to have a one-way flow.

Government Printing Office." Thousand Oaks. p803-813 Redding.[REHAN ALI] [SHAHRUKH] [ASAD] BIBLOGRAPHY  Butler. 1985. 2 U. IL: Waveland Press. L.. Lodge A..  Mistry K.S." American Psychologist. In: ADVANCES IN PATIENT SAFETY: NEW DIRECTIONS AND ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES. "Stumbling Toward Identity: The Emergence of Organizational Communication as a Field of Study" in McPhee and Tompkins. Kenneth and Tojo Joseph. Steve and Mumby. 2005.. FT Press.. 56. S. Get Better Answers. The Art of Asking: Ask Better Questions. New York: Oxford University Press. CA: Sage. Ph... and Hope." Long Grove. "Engaging Organizational Communication Theory and Research. DC: U. CA: Sage. Gillian. Managing Your Mind. "Psychological Science in a Postmodern Context. May. Tony. Practices. W. G.      [SIR IRFAN SHEIKH .S. Army. Mericle J.T. (2008).. Using Six Sigma Methodology to Improve Handoff Communication in High Risk Patients. MILITARY LEADERSHIP. Alton M. Jaggers J.E. 1996.. Organizational Communication: Traditional Themes and New Directions. M. Charles. 2004. PP. Washington. Cheney. Christensen. FM 22-100. Meliones J. Frush K. Thousand Oaks. and Ganesh. (2008). Organizational Communication in an Age of Globalization: Issues. Issue 10. October 2001. Vol. (1996). Dennis K. T. Zorn. Reflections. Gergen. F. (October 1983).D..D. J. Terry.