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INTRODUCTION Organizational Communication can be defined as a process through which organizations are created and in turn create and

shape events. The process can be understood as a combination of process, people, message, meaning and purpose. Functions of Organizational Communication:
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It is the means by which a manager ensures co-operation of subordinates. It is the exchange of meanings among members of an organization. It is the ―glue‖ which binds the elements of an organization together. It builds the very structure of an organization i.e. who communicates with whom about what. Can misunderstanding of a few words literally mean the difference between life and death? They can in airlines business. A number of aviation disasters have been largely attributed to problems in communication. There are other fields also in which there are examples to illustrate how miscommunication can have deadly consequences. Good communication is essential to any group‘s or organization‘s effectiveness.

Research indicates that poor communication is probably the most frequently cited source of interpersonal conflict. Because individuals spend nearly 70 percent of their working hours communicating-writing, reading, speaking, listening-it seems reasonable to conclude that one of the most inhibiting forces to successful group performance is a lack of effective communication. No group can exist without communication: the transference of meaning among its members. It is only through transmitting meaning from one person to another that information and ideas can be conveyed. Communication, however, is more than merely imparting meaning. It must also be understood. In a group in which one member speaks only German and the others do not know German, the individual speaking German will not be fully understood. Therefore, communication must include both the transference and the understanding of meaning.

An idea, no matter how great, is useless until it is transmitted and understood by others. Perfect communication, if there were such a thing, would exist when a thought or an idea was transmitted so that the mental picture perceived by the receiver was exactly the same as that envisioned by the sender. Although elementary in theory, perfect communication is never achieved in practice, due to unavoidable reasons.

Permalink Reply by M.Tariq Malik on September 16, 2011 at 6:32pm

2.1 What is Communication? The term ―communication‖ has been derived from the Latin word ―communis‖ which means common. It was Aristotle who, for the first time, brought about a systematic study of the communication process. According to him, there are three essential elements in a communication system, namely, the speaker, the speech, and the audience. Communication strictly stands for sharing of ideas in common. The word ―communication‖, however, has many and varied meanings. Popularly speaking, it refers to the various means of transmitting information from individual to individual, individual to a group of individuals or from one place to another. It is a transmission of messages, ideas, methods, skills, and thoughts between two or more persons. It is a mutual exchange of facts, thoughts, opinions or emotions by the use of symbols, words, pictures, figures, graphs and so on. Communication is the chain of understanding which permeates an organization from top to bottom, from bottom to top, and from side to side, and which moves the organization ahead towards its stated objectives. It is the cohesive force which holds the group together. Vardaman and Halterman opine: ―Communication is the flow of material, information, perception and understanding between various parts and members of an organization.‖

In the words of Allen, ―Communication is the transfer of meaning from one person to another.‖ Mitchell goes a step further and observes, ―Communication involves more than just having the right information — the information should be believed, weighed correctly, reach the right decision-makers and result in the appropriate action.‖ Rogers and Rogers have reiterated this point of view. They opine ―Communication is a process by which an idea is transferred from a source to the receiver with the intention of changing behaviour.. ..Communication is made with the intention of achieving results/change in knowledge, attitude and overt behaviour.‖

Communication is a process in which senders and receivers of messages interact in a given social context. Interpersonal communication refers to the exchange of information and transmission of meaning between two people. Organizational communication is the subject that deals with the exchange of information and transmission of meaning throughout the organizational hierarchy. Since the leader or the manager accomplishes organizational objectives through people, it is essential to communicate what the leader or the manager wants people to accomplish, how to accomplish, where to accomplish and more important, why to accomplish. To communicate the organizational philosophy, objectives, procedures, and practices to all employees is not easy, because communication is a very complex phenomenon.

In communication, the people must understand what they are trying to communicate; they must be willing and able to understand them; they must accept their communication or message or information or goals. Thus, all social phenomena are a function of communication.

Permalink Reply by M.Tariq Malik on September 16, 2011 at 6:32pm

2.2 FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION: Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: Control, motivation, emotional expression and information. Communication acts to control member behaviour in several ways. Organizations have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines that employees are required to follow. When employees, for instance are required to first communicate any job related grievance to their immediate boss, to follow their job description, or to comply with company policies, communication is performing a control function. But informal communication also controls behaviour. When work groups tease or harass a member who produces too much (and makes the rest of the group look bad), they are informally communicating with, and controlling, the member‘s behaviour

expressed as a message to be conveyed. their work group is a primary source for social interaction. stimulate members to perform. provide a means for emotional expression. Communication. feedback on progress toward the goals. For many employees. The exhibit above depicts this communication process. (4) the channel.  Permalink Reply by M. therefore. The communication that takes place within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their frustrations and feelings of satisfaction. The result is a transference of meaning from one person to another. (3) the message. The message is encoded (converted to a symbolic form) and passed by way of some medium (channel) to the receiver. who retranslates (decodes) the message initiated by the sender. (6) the receiver.3 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS: Before communication can take place. and (7) feedback. they need to maintain some form of control over members. Almost every communication interaction that takes place in a group or organization performs one or more of these four functions. 2011 at 6:33pm 2. and reinforcement of desired behaviour all stimulate motivation and require communication. (5) decoding. .Tariq Malik on September 16. For groups to perform effectively. and what can be done to improve performance if it‘s supbar. how well they are doing. The final function that communication performs relates to its role in facilitating decision making. is needed. It provides the information that individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data to identify and evaluate alternative choices. (2) encoding. No one of these functions should be seen as being more important than the others. It passes between a source (sender) and a receiver. provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for fulfillment of social needs. a purpose. and make decision choices. The formation of specific goals.Communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what is to be done. This model is made up of seven parts: (1) the communication source.

Tariq Malik on September 16. the symbols in it must be translated into a form that can be understood by the receiver. When we speak.The source initiates a message by encoding a thought. When we think of managers communicating with employees. It‘s used by group leaders and managers to assign goals. When we write. When we gesture. So is an email from a team leader to the members of her team. the downward pattern is the one we are usually thinking of. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization. Downward Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is a downward communication. point out problems that need attention. . The receiver is the object to whom the message is directed. the speech is the message. who must determine whether to use a formal or informal channel. reminding them of an upcoming deadline. It is selected by the source. and offer feedback about performance. such as personal or social. The final link in the communication process is a feedback loop. It determines whether understanding has achieved. Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended. Other forms of messages.  Permalink Reply by M. it is using downward communication. 2011 at 6:33pm 2. But downward communication doesn‘t have to be oral or face-to-face contact.4 DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION: Communication can flow vertically and laterally. The vertical dimension can be further divided into downward and upward directions. The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The message is the actual physical product from the source encoding. When management sends letters to the employees‘ homes to advise them of the organization‘s new sick leave policy. But before the message can be received. the writing is the message. Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit message that are related to the professional activities of the members. inform employees of policies and procedures. This step is the decoding of the message. follow the informal channels in the organization. the movements of our arms and the expression on our face are the message. provide job instructions.

and informal ―gripe‖ sessions in which employees have the opportunity to identify and discuss problems with their boss or representatives of higher management. In some cases. Upward communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how things can be improved. from management‘s viewpoint. FedEx prides itself on its computerized upward communication program. these lateral relationships are formally sanctioned. they are informally created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy and expedite action.Upward Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. among members of work groups at the same level. among managers at the same level. For example. or among any horizontally equivalent personnel. Some organizational examples of upward communication are performance reports prepared by lower management for review by middle and top management. Since strict adherence to the formal vertical structure for all communications can impede the efficient and accurate transfer of information. they occur with the knowledge and support of superiors. be good or bad. All its employees annually complete climate surveys and reviews of management. suggestion boxes. and relay current problems. inform them of progress toward goals. employee attitude surveys. . This program was cited as a key human resources strength by the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award examiners when FedEx won the honor. It‘s used to provide feedback to higher-ups. grievance procedures. More often. Lateral When communication takes place among members of the same work group. superior-subordinate discussions. we describe it as lateral communications. co-workers. Why would there be a need for horizontal communications if a group or organization‘s vertical communications are effective? The answer is that horizontal communications are often necessary to save time and facilitate co-ordination. lateral communications can be beneficial. So lateral communications can. and the organization in general. In such cases.

In an organization. written and non-verbal communication. when it reaches its destination. The advantages of oral communication are speed and feedback. when members go above or around their superiors to get things done. People basically rely on oral. Each person interprets the message in his or her own way. the greater the potential distortion. you know the problem.5 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: How do group members transfer meaning between and among each other? There are three basic methods. For example in a bank diagonal communication will occur when a department manager in head office converses with a cashier in a branch of the bank based on the high street. where decisions and . A verbal message can be conveyed and a response received in a minimal amount of time. For example. or when bosses find out that actions have been taken or decisions made without their knowledge. is very often different from that of the original. formal one-on-one and group discussions.Tariq Malik on September 16. rapid feedback allows for early detection by the sender and. Diagonal Communication This occurs when communication occurs between workers in a different section of the organisation and where one of the workers involved is on a higher level in the organisation. and the informal mill or grapevine are popular forms of oral communication. hence. The message‘s content. allows for early correction.But they can create dysfunctional conflicts when the formal vertical channels are breached. 2011 at 6:33pm 2. Speeches.  Permalink Reply by M. The more people a message must pass through. if you ever played the game ―telephone‖ at a party. Oral Communication The chief means of conveying messages is oral communication. If the receiver is unsure of the message. The major disadvantage of oral communication surfaces in organizations or whenever the message has to be passed through a number of people.

If there are questions concerning the content of the message. In fact. logical and clear. The latter point is also relevant in oral communiqués. except it is easy in such cases merely to ask the receiver to summarize what you have said. does not have a built-in feedback mechanism. The result is that the mailing of a memo is no assurance it has been received. You are usually more careful with the written word than the oral word. You are forced to think more thoroughly about what you want to convey in a written message than in a spoken one. is likely to contain a number of tasks spread out over several months. notices placed on bulletin boards. They are time consuming. The other major disadvantage is feedback. Thus. or any other device that is transmitted via written words or symbols. written messages have their drawbacks. You could convey far more information to a college instructor in a one-hour oral exam than in a one-hour written exam. So. however. it also consumes a great deal of time. those who have to initiate the plan can readily refer to it over the life of the plan. This feature is particularly important for complex and lengthy communications. A final benefit of written communication comes from the process itself. Typically. there are considerable opportunities for messages to become distorted. written communications are more likely to be well thought out. or lack of it. An accurate summary presents feedback evidence that the message has been received and understood. Why would a sender choose to use written communications? They are tangible and verifiable. Written Communication. there is no guarantee the recipient will interpret it as the sender intended. you could probably say the same thing in 10 to 15 minutes that it would take you an hour to write. for instance. both the sender and the receiver have a record of the communication. although writing may be more precise. The message can be stored for a indefinite period. it is physically available for later reference. Oral communication allows the receiver to respond rapidly to what he thinks he hears. Of course. Written communication. Written communications include memos. letters. management often turns to the use of an employee handbook as a communication tool to inform employees on issues such as . Employees’ Handbook: As business grows in size. electronic mail. organizational periodicals. The marketing plan for a new product. By putting it in writing.other communiqués are verbally passed up and down the authority hierarchy. fax transmissions.

training assistance. its sources of supplies. safety.company history and products. marriages. These boards contain a wide range of material such as someone‘s choice of cartoons from newspapers and magazines. its customers. depicting cartoons. Many organizations publish illustrated handbooks. House Magazines and Newspapers: Some organizations maintain one or more employee magazines or journals. its income and distribution of financial standing. its products and the range of benefits and services available to its employees. honours and awards. employee compensation and benefits. These are meant to keep employees well informed of the development in the business and to acquaint them with the personalities and activities of the organisation. types and formats. These are intended to help in the induction of newcomers and to provide all the employees with a clear-cut understanding not only of the general policies of the management but also of the nature of the business. tapes may be played back to the workers. and work standards. pin-up photographs. Such audio-visual aids have an obvious advantage of describing a company‘s range of operations and products. House magazines contain news. events in the lives of present or former employees and other items of common interest. Handbooks are also useful to supervisors and administrators for ensuring consistent implementation and enforcement of company policies. or in explaining work rules. its expenses and profits. of the organisation and create understanding between the management and its employees. births. and personal and social items. . It can explain the policies of the management in easily understood terms. Audio-Visual Aids: Sound films. charts and photographs. big organizations keep a bulletin board for 50 to 100 employees in attractive colours. Financial Reports: Such reports describe the essential facts concerning the conduct of business. human resource policies. employee responsibilities. retirements. health services. in illustrating how financial and other decisions are made. slides. There may be references to parties. Bulletin Boards: Usually. security. movies.

a glance. no discussion of communication would be complete without consideration of nonverbal communication-which includes body movements. a stare. and these are hung at appropriate places in the premises of an organisation. through body language we say. in a singles bar. the intonations or emphasis we give to words. Proper communication plays an important role in a large organization. the nonverbal component may stand alone. These notices usually depict abstracts as desired under the various statutes as well as notices of the various institutions in the establishment such as the sports club. it is better to use more than one method to convey the same information so that one can reinforce the other.Notice Boards: Notices are often pasted o the factory walls or gates or placed in glass covered notice boards. Suggestion System: The suggestion system is designed to enlist the co-operation of subordinates in effecting improvements and in eliminating waste and to provide an avenue for a working communication with the management. Organisations also establish and organize special groups to communicate with the important segments of government. near the canteens or factory gates. In some organizations. and there has to be a proper balance between the oral and written forms of communication.‖ And rarely do we send our . and the physical distance between the sender and receiver. Quite often.  Permalink Reply by M. campaigns. For example. Nonverbal Communication Every time we verbally give a message to someone. It need hardly be said that the choice of any method depends upon the purpose to be accomplished and the likelihood of its success. I‘m depressed. It can be argued that every body movement has a meaning and no movement is accidental. As such. In some instances. 2011 at 6:34pm Communication with Public and Government: Organisations educate the public about their various activities through advertising. facial expressions. ―Help me. I‘m available‖. For example. ―suggestion boxes‖ are located at convenient places throughout the plant. meetings and conferences. Rewards are offered for suggestions which results in greater productive efficiency. ―Take me. I‘m lonely‖.Tariq Malik on September 16. and a provocative body movement all convey meaning. we also impart a nonverbal message. a frown. ―Leave me alone.

you‘re more likely to display body movements-such as crossed legs or a slouched seating position-that reflect a casual and relaxed manner. We rub our nose for puzzlement. The emphasis given to words or phrases is missing. We clasp our arms to isolate ourselves or to protect ourselves. it may mean disinterest or displeasure with what is being said. what is considered a businesslike distance in some European countries would be viewed as intimate in many parts of North America. Facial expressions also convey meaning. shyness. it may indicate aggressiveness or sexual interest. The two most important messages that body language conveys are (1) The extent to which an individual likes another and is interested in his or her views and (2) The relative perceived status between a sender and receiver. fear.messages consciously. tap our fingers for impatience and slap our forehead for forgetfulness. For example. if you feel that you‘re higher status than another. aggressiveness. We act out our state of being with nonverbal body language. A body position or movement does not by itself have a precise or universal meaning. It‘s important for the receiver to be alert to these nonverbal aspects of communication. Your . A snarling face says something different from a smile. along with intonations. wink one eye for intimacy. The way individuals space themselves in terms of physical distance also has meaning. What is considered proper spacing is largely dependent on cultural norms. For instance. Similarly. If someone stands closer to you than is considered appropriate. we are more likely to position ourselves closer to people we like and touch them more often. it gives fuller meaning to a sender‘s message. you wouldn‘t grasp the impact of what was said in the same way you would if you had been there or saw the meeting on video. We shrug our shoulders for indifference. You should particularly be aware of contradictions between the messages. If you read the verbatim minutes of a meeting. Why? There are no records of nonverbal communication. We lift one eyebrow for disbelief. Body language adds to. if farther away than usual. Facial expressions. but when it is linked with spoken language. You should look for nonverbal cues as well as listen to the literal meaning of sender‘s words. verbal communication. and often complicates. and other characteristics that would never be communicated if you read a transcript of what had been said. can show arrogance.

but nonverbally communicate a contradictory message that reads.boss may say she is free to talk to you about a pressing budget problem. modern organizations may use technology to communicate internally. but you may see nonverbal signals suggesting that the is not the time to discuss the subject regardless of what is being said. Modern organizations may design technological systems so that they can communicate with customers and undertake e-Commerce. It is a means and a very effective means for the solution of managerial problems and for attainment of managerial objectives. Technology may be used for e-mails or a linked internal communication system such as the intranet which is an internet system designed solely for use by those working for the organization. such as trust. national and international community to interact. liaise and conduct business.  Permalink Reply by M. ―I don‘t have confidence in you.1 COMMUNICATION TYPES: Internal/Organizational Communication This is communication that takes place within (or across) an organization. Since managers work through . Functions of Internal and External Communications.Tariq Malik on September 16. There is no use of communicating just for the sake of communicating. The diagram illustrates the vast array of internal and external communication available. 2011 at 6:34pm 3. fax or mail.2 Objectives of Communication Communication is not an end in itself. Alternatively they communicate with other businesses through the internet or similar systems and undertake e-Business.‖  Permalink Reply by M. We misinform others when we express one message verbally. In addition to the usual face to face. an individual who frequently glances at her wristwatch is giving the massage that she would prefer to terminate the conversation. telephone. Technology has rapidly expanded the types of internal and external communication available to organizations. 2011 at 6:34pm 3.Tariq Malik on September 16. Combined together internal and external types of communications allow various sectors of the local. External communications Conversely external communication is communication between the organization and those outside the organization.

orders and procedures must pass through some sort of communication channel. Co-ordination of work is impossible. gossip. To provide an attitude which is necessary for motivation. all their acts. self-importance and sense of participation. To improve labour-management relations by keeping both in contact with each other. 2011 at 6:34pm 3. employees cannot know what their respective associates are doing. Chester Bernard (1938) has considered communication to be the ―very first function‖ of a manager and has viewed it as the shaping force which links people and purposes together in any co-operative system. 3. The purpose of communication is to establish asocial environment that supports effective interaction and to ensure that the workforce has the skills to share information and coordinate their achievements efficiently  Permalink Reply by M. To serve auxiliary functions such as entertainment and the maintenance of social relations among human beings.Tariq Malik on September 16. policies. Peter Drucker (1954) has observed that the manager‘s main instrument for operating his affairs is information.3 Importance of Communication Organizations cannot exist without communication. As such effective communication tends to encourage better performance. suggestions from subordinates for an improvement in the product and work conditions.others. To prepare workers for a change by giving them the necessary information in advance. Co-operation also becomes impossible. To develop information and understanding which are necessary for group effort? 2. creates proper understanding. because people cannot communicate their needs and feelings to others. 5. In the practice of management. The management process has widely been discussed as one which embraces the functions of . 2. and develops feeling of involvement among the people. To encourage ideas. 4. improves job satisfaction. rules. for a reduction in time or cost involved and for the avoidance of the waste of raw material. To discourage the spread of misinformation. Every act of communication influences the organisation in some way or the other. and the organisation will collapse for lack of it. rumours. management cannot receive information on inputs. ‗and to release the emotional tensions of workers 1. The purposes of communication are: 1. To satisfy the basic human needs like recognition. and management cannot give instructions. co-operation and job satisfaction? 3. If there is no communication.

and rules. According to Miner and Miner‘ there Ware four basic types of communication network: (a) the regulative network ensures security.Tariq Malik on September 16. Integrity: Communication should always be used as a means. internal communication in an organisation is extremely. conformity to plans and the achievement of productivity through the communication of policy statements. and to be understood. or commercial. procedures. 2011 at 6:35pm . phrases. Precision: Precise words should be used. organizing. whether social. and results in common understanding of the organisational issues that have a long-term bearing on the future of the organisation.Tariq Malik on September 16. Organisational structure is definitely tied to the communication systems. understanding. which are intimately involved with and dependant on. (c) the integrative network is directly related to consideration of employee morale and organisational maintenance. governmental. communication. Communication is an essential skill at every level of organisational functioning and for organisations of all types. written and oral. Simplicity: Short. Only one idea should be used in a sentence. communications must be understood. and sentences should be used. 2011 at 6:34pm 3.  Permalink Reply by M.planning. During any major change programme. Important. regardless of form or format. for both are based on the common fundamentals of information. It must be borne in mind in this context that communication is more than a dialogue.  Permalink Reply by M. Brevity: It makes both written and oral communications easier to understand. Every word should count. and (d) the informative network relates to employee‘s effectiveness and productivity through a direct dissemination of information and training programmes. never as an end.      Clarity: To be effective.4 Rules for Communication: A few basic rules should be followed in planning for and carrying out communications of all kinds. Extra words only serve to confuse. Communication is the key to effective teamwork. leading and controlling. It builds on trust and openness among colleagues. consultation and participation. (b) the innovative network is concerned with problem-solving and change through such techniques as suggestion systems and meetings. simple words. they must be clear.

the ideals and standards of these groups conflict with those of the formal organisation. a half-truth.In a sense. It is important to remember that these groups are not established by the management.5 Formal and Informal Communication Basically. it will pop up in another If we cut off one of its sources. it must recognize their existence and try to understand them. A major finding of Hawthorne studies was the revelation of the ways in which these groups operate. distorted. values. the grapevine is sure to develop. a gossip. It can serve the needs of the organisation as well.. or ordinary conversation. They share a set of beliefs. These communications may be oral or written. and socially acceptable behaviours. If management is to deal effectively with the informal groups. They are generally beyond the control of the management. In industry. or stopped. the two most important media of communication in an organisation are formal and informal communications. tied up. and they are vital parts of the total organisational environment. or a private interpretation. Formal communications are those that are ―official‖. a rumour. whatever its style or form.. There are many opportunities for conflict between the needs and goals of the informal work group and the needs and goals of the organisation. at every level of organisational life. it merely moves to another one — quite similar to the way we change from one channel to another on a television set. or external. and this encourages feelings of closeness among them. taps on the prison wall. from a subordinate to a superior. and they do not appear on the organisation charts. Informal communication originates spontaneously outside the formal channels and is the natural responses to the need for social interaction. The influence of informal work groups is pervasive. because wherever men congregate into groups. hidden under the basket. group members come to think and act in similar ways. One of the characteristics of informal work groups is leadership. Extensive research has shown that these informal work groups have tremendous power in shaping attitudes. They can work for or against the management. the grapevine is man‘s birthright. production. Within the organisation. A formal communication can be from a superior to a subordinate. The information actually transmitted through the informal channels may be inaccurate. cohesive informal groups develop. Often. recognized communication system. In other words.3. chopped down. The informal group serves many needs of the workers. Davis observes: ―It (grapevine) cannot e abolished. Informal communication is those that are ―outside‖ the formal. by encouraging cooperation and increasing production or by sabotaging management and slowing production.. or some other . It spreads with an amazing speed like a wild fire. employees are bound together in informal groups and develop a common set of norms. jungle toms. New employees who do not conform to the group norms may be ostracized. behaviour. and consequently. that are a part of the recognized communication system of the organisation. or it can defeat them. rubbed out. If we suppress it at one place. It may use smoke signals. intra-administrative.

but it will always be there. wheel and all-channel. 3.7 Grapevine: The grapevine is used by nearly everyone in an organisation at one time or another. in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role. The all channel network is most often characterized in practice by self-managed teams. 3. the structure of the wheel facilitates the emergence of a leader. The chain rigidly follows the formal chain of command. It may be utilized to clarify and spread messages which the management wishes to convey to its employees and to counter rumours and half. Good managers pay attention to grapevine. it does serve some useful functions: . It stimulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader. It is simply there. As the exhibit below demonstrates.6 Formal small group networks: Formal organization networks can be very complicated. Though the grapevine thrives on rumours. it does serve some useful purpose. The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other. include hundreds of people and half-dozen or more hierarchical levels. The wheel relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for the entire group‘s communication. This network approximates the communication channels you might find in a rigid three-level organization. Though they serve many useful functions. A manager can utilize the grapevine as a positive aid. It can convey accurate messages with amazing speed.‖ No management can ‗fire‘ it because it does not hire it. they become detrimental to the organisation. They can. for instance. and the chain is best if accuracy is most important. they do not allow us to describe the unique qualities of each. at times. we‘ve condensed these networks into three common small groups of five people each (as shown in the exhibit below). These three networks are the chain. The exhibit below leads us to the conclusion that no single network will be best for all occasions. the effectiveness of each network depends on the dependent variable you‘re concerned about.truths by feeding them the real facts. for a grapevine may turn out to be a barometer for the management as to what is ailing the employees and what ought to be done about it. For instance.method. It can also distort and filter messages beyond recognition. To simplify our discussion. Although these three networks have been extremely simplified. Rumours as well as facts are carried by the grapevine. the all-channel network is best if you are concerned with having high member satisfaction. Even though the grapevine‘s reliability can never be determined with complete certainty.

Passing a rumour along the grapevine is a way of expressing and releasing negative energy. 3. It helps workers to make sense out of their work environment especially in interpreting unclear orders from supervisors. Some people pass judgment on others to find out where they stand. therefore. they use grapevine to let out their anxieties. Since communication is at the heart of effective managerial functioning. 4. the existence of an unbalanced exchange. Grapevine is inevitable but at the same time. In this case. their fellow 2. he. When people are confused and unclear about what is going to happen to them. 2011 at 6:35pm 3. the manager has a high concern for himself and a low concern for the person with whom he communicates. represents an unbalanced exchange relationship.Tariq Malik on September 16. The production. there is usually a transaction . Grapevine properly used is a great help. they often pass judgments. it is imperative to identify and to analyze the styles of communication which are used in an organisation. Supervisors must show their people that they intend to do everything possible to keep them fully informed. valuable and an intelligent manager uses this form of communication by feeding accurate information at the right places and thus gains very quick communication around the establishment. The Controller Style of Communication: In this style. causes strains in inter-personal relationships. If there is no truth to a rumour or no information concerning it that should be said? Above all workers should be asked to never repeat a rumour.oriented manager often expects loyalty from workers in exchange for money. In business organisations. The best way to dispel grapevine is to give people the facts. Four basic communication styles may be characterized in the organisational situation in terms of the communicator‘s concern for self and concern for others. not openly or generally available to an employee. When people gossip about someone who is not present. 1. Neglecting grapevine is likely to lead to serious consequences in an establishment. Grapevine thrives on information.  Permalink Reply by M. It is a way of dealing with self-doubt and insecurity. It satisfies a need — employees have to enjoy friendly relations with employees.1.8 Styles of Communication A communication style may be defined as a specialized set of interpersonal behaviours which are used in a given situation. as in the controller style of communication. either because of its confidential or secret nature or because of the defective or inadequate formal communication lines. It acts as a safety valve.

9 Supervisory Communication: Supervisory Communication is an important dimension of management communication for proper functioning of an organisation. therefore.K. for it involves the avoidance of interaction. Since they have the life position of ―I am O. both for him and for others. of course. and builds in him self-confidence and esteem. 3. The Relinquisher Communicator: Here the communicator takes up a receptive rather than a directive position and evinces interest in others.. unlike the controller.K.from the critical parent-ego state to the child-ego state with the life position. depending upon the situation. The relinquishing manager has the life position of ―I am not O. his subordinates take the lead in decisionmaking and discussion. ―I am O. 3. They. The developmentorcommunicator understands the need for a two way communication by not assuming that he is always right. 2. You are O.. The Developmentor Communicator: The ideal type of communication is. You are O. Employees have asserted that where communication is lacking. The withdrawn communicator has the least concern. He is the one who. too.K. which involves a high concern for both himself and for others. for a relinquishing manager.‖. that of the developmentor. have a life position of ―I am not O.‖. You are not O. The Withdrawn Communicator: In withdrawn communication. allows the subordinate to make some mistakes in the process of learning. there is an unbalanced exchange.K. therefore. It is possible that. The communicator prefers to withdraw because he neither wishes to influence others nor wishes to be influenced.‖ The withdrawn style is rarely effective in communication. You are not O. Here. and feel that other people in the organisation are not interested in them.K.. the relinquisher believes it has nothing worthwhile to contribute. they neither feel it necessary to constantly assert their competence.K. there is the least amount of actual communication. because it blocks interaction.‖ The controller communication thus jeopardizes the interpersonal trust which is essential for effective communication. It is mainly the supervisor who is constantly in touch with the workers and.K. which is characteristic of the child. 4. nor do they refrain from leadership positions when the need arises.K. . ―Talking it over‖ is very important to an employee.. frustration and misunderstanding exist. Being humble and unsure. for the relinquishing communicator tends to be passive in an interchange. The Developmentor is an adaptable social type who can be a high or low participator in a group. it is necessary for him to acquaint himself with the importance of communication and the principles to be followed for effective communication.

First. Supervisors. Since communication provides the key to facilitate the exchange of ideas. (c) choose a proper place. – There are four factors affecting reception of messages: (1) Attention (2) Perception (3) Comprehension (4) Acceptance Attention refers to situations when individuals become voluntarily interested in the message. their communication tends to be more accurate and open. 3. When people trust each other.10 Effective Communication The key to effective communication is reception of messages. the perception of the same begins. Comprehension is to understand the message received. . and benefits an organisation in many ways. It means that the messages must be recognised in an unbiased manner. they are more likely to be secretive or hesitant to talk openly. Acceptance of message results in effective communication. (3) The sender‘s mobility aspirations. Listening is more intricate and complicated than the physical process of hearing. (b) keep the discussion frank and open. An effective communication serves several purposes. but also has an adverse effect on the total working of the establishment. Once attention has been drawn to the message. It then implies that the transmission of message sent and received does not presuppose that communication has occurred. Only on receiving the intended message that one can conclude that communication has occurred. it acts as a basic foundation for management. and (e) develop good attitudes and maintain good relations. (d) be fair and impartial. Effective listening habits prevent misunderstanding and rumours. It then appears that communication to be effective not only needs the skill of self-expression but also the skill of effective listening. should always: (a) discuss problems immediately with the subordinates.and that this condition not only reduces their productivity. it can aptly be described as the ―ears and eyes‖ of the management. The touchstone of effective communication is hearing of the meaning ―intended‖ and to carry out the message. and (4) The norms and sanctions of the groups(s) to which the sender and receiver belong. when they distrust each other. (2) The sender‘s and receiver‘s influence over each other. information as well as meeting of minds. Four aspects of interpersonal relationships influence communication in organisations: (1) The sender‘s and receiver‘s trust of each other. therefore.

therefore. q Consult everyone affected. The climate of communication in an organisation. a defensive climate prevails. The making of a plan requires facts and figures which can only be made available through effective communication. If organisation fail to provide careful attention to communication. this can be openly acknowledged. Fourth. The transformation of an organisation is conditional on the employees‘ involvement with commitment. Do not over communicate but just enough for the purpose in view. other people should try to be rational. others should try to be sympathetic and understanding.Second.meaning and transparent management that has the manifest image that it cares for its stakeholders. but others should be honest and open rather than trying to pay them back in their own coin. as well as building and maintaining employee morale. even though they are not concentrating at present (because they will resent not being consulted afterwards). Communication as a continuous process ensures this. When people are being emotional. Be sure your actions support your instructions. and scope of the organisation are almost entirely determined by communication techniques. it also plays a pivotal role in national decision-making. organisational control. it integrates the formal organisation structure and is responsible for holding together the members of a primary social group. Third. In many organizations. q When people are being manipulative or deceptive. common goals and shared purpose and vision. communication occupies a central place because the structure. Experts have laid down several guidelines to improve communication.Tariq Malik on September 16. it plays a vital role in planning. 2011 at 6:35pm . Consider the total physical and human situations whenever you give instructions. Listen attentively and develop the skill of listening. Concentrate on the problem rather than the people involved. It is said that communication gives life-blood to an organisation. Use simple language as understood by the receiver. extensiveness. q When people are misunderstanding and getting confused. They are: q q q q q q q q q Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating.  Permalink Reply by M. needs constant nurturing by a well. Follow-up on your communication: get feedback. be a good listener.

parent. and emphasize current issues that employees care about. An incomplete message is sometimes more dangerous than no message at all. ask employees how management can help them to do a better job. Transactional Analysis (TA) is a technique aimed at helping interpersonal transactions or communication between superior and subordinate. TA helps to identify one‘s own state and the state of the person with whom he or she is talking to and helps to improve communication between the two. 4. Other techniques for improving communication include transaction analysis and active listening. Here are some tips for them: q Understand that communication is a two-way street. Be concise in your message. It is not complete simply when information is given. It involves giving information and getting feedback from employees. q Listen to employees. 3. Managers who lack credibility and fail to create a climate of trust and openness are not believed . Do not leave out important information. Choose your words carefully and do not include unnecessary words. Most vagueness is caused by failing to be specific. 2. Don‘t rely mainly on bulletin boards. q Don‘t just talk open-door policy. They will feel part of the team and will tend to be more dedicated and productive. q Conduct one-on-one meetings.no matter how hard they try to communicate. memos and other written communication. q Put more emphasis on face-to-face communication with employees. The message has to be received accurately. q View information as ―service to‖ employees and not ―power over‖ them. Be correct in your message.and that the way a person communicates depends on the state he or she is in. It assumes that there are three ego states — adult. q Ask each time when an instruction is given whether the message is clear. even the best technique cannot save the message. Allow people to disagree and to come up with new ideas. Practice it by walking around and talking to employees. show respect for them when they speak. q Concentrate on building credibility with employees.There are four fundamental rules of communicating which can help anyone to get across messages more accurately: 1. If the information conveyed is false or misleading.  . and child . Communicating Better at Work: Experience shows there are many ways managers can improve internal communication. Active listening is another technique that can help to improve interpersonal communication.

4.11 Listening Listening can be described as a combination of: (i) Hearing — the physical reception of sound. such as obstinacy. Listening requires two ears. 8. 7. which is Gentle hint that they should listen more than they talk. Good listeners save time because they learn more within a given period of time and they learn about the person talking. but listening is with the mind. 6. Decision-makers who do not listen have less information for making sound decisions. . 5. Supervisors who jump to conclusions lose the respect of their subordinates.Permalink Reply by M. Everyone likes to feel important. as well as what the person is saying. Hearing is with ears. 2011 at 6:36pm 3. The correction of bad habits is a slow process and must be self-motivated. and so on. Help a person feel free to talk. people perform better when they know that their opinions and suggestions are heeded 3. Supervisors must use their expertise and experience of employees and be able to get them to exercise this expertise. supervisors must plan time for it in their busy schedules. one for meaning and one for feeling. and (iii) Remembering — the ability to retain what has been heard. Supervisors who don‘t get all the facts often make poor decisions. empathy.Tariq Malik on September 16.  Permalink Reply by M. 2011 at 6:36pm  The following guidelines are suggested in respect of listening: Put the talker at ease. 9. 10. Good listening is also good manners. Listening requires full attention to the speaker. it is impossible to listen intelligently while the mind is preoccupied with something else. (ii) Comprehending — the interpretation and understanding of the message. To do a good job of listening. people think more of us when we listen to them attentively. Attention paid to gripes often prevents their blossoming into big grievances. Listening habits are deeply embedded in the personality and are related to other personality traits.     Nature has given people two ears but only one tongue. 2. The Bureau of National Affairs has developed a ―laundry list‖ of the important concepts related to effective listening: 1. Effective listening helps receiver to take the exact intended message.Tariq Malik on September 16.

Go easy on arguments and criticisms. because all other guides depend upon it. These put people on the defensive. 4. don‘t interrupt. 7. or shuffle papers. Even if you win. Allow plenty of time. Look and Remove distractions. 3. 2. keep your lips closed). Some of the listening gains are: ü You get information that may help you. Ask questions. and aloud to the speaker. 6. 8. Learn to practice active listening. ü You get co-operation from people who know that you value their thinking and ideas.  . They are willing to be born to anyone willing to have them). An angry person takes the wrong meaning from words. 9. One must develop the art of listening. Focus on the person speaking. Overcome personal prejudgments and distractions. Hear the other person out. Stop talking. Keep your mouth shut (literally. Try to help yourself see the other person‘s point of view. Do not interrupt a talker. 5. You cannot do effective listening job while you are talking. not just for facts. ü You get ideas that you might never have thought. tap. Listen for ideas. It helps to develop points further. you lose. Be patient. This encourages a talker and shows that you are listening. Don‘t doodle. Listening Tips: 1. You get good listening on the part of others to what you have to say. Control your emotional reactions. Paraphrase frequently in your mind. ü ü You motivate action from people who have a part in your success. the more successful you are likely to be if you listen to others. Listen more than you talk. Hold your temper. Do not argue. Don‘t start for the door or walk away. 10. Keep an open mind. (Ideas have no pride. ü You develop understanding of people who are different from you in many ways.       Show a talker that you want to listen. The higher you go up in the organisational set-up. and they may calm up or become angry. This is first and the last. Will it not be quieter if you shut the door? Empathize with the talker.

Permalink Reply by M. Do you talk to your employees about non-work activities? 6. Organizing informal gatherings such as annual day. Do you speak to your employees before they speak to you? 4. Ensuring proper dissemination of information. Do you try to greet your employees every day? 2. Do you go out of your way to interact with your employees at least once each day? 3. rules. Sometimes you have to go out of your way to interact with your employees. The way you communicate with your employees demonstrates you care about them as people — not just as employees. Frequent interaction with employees tells them they‘re important. sports meets. 2011 at 6:36pm     3. procedures. Facilitating greater clarity of job role and relationships through job descriptions. and soon. Do you go to your employees‘ work areas to talk to them? 5. fact finding surveys. Strengthening formal communication through departmental/cross functional meetings along the suggested lines. but they always will notice how much effort you put forth to communicate with them. 1. Involving line personnel in conducting training classes to improve understanding of each other. and other personnel related matters to ensure clarity. Self-check — Communication Are you making the most of your opportunities to communicate with your employees? Answer the questions below in YES or NO to see how well you‘re doing. Are your employees welcome at your office at any time? . Exploring avenues for establishing a library which would act as a central point of information. other than through departmental meetings.12 HR Role in Communication. and the like to promote free interaction and exchange of views. Advising departments to maintain circulars and flies relating to their working for general consumption.Tariq Malik on September 16.         Developing a system of open communication policy to facilitate more openness and trust. and (b) conducting meetings. Conducting training programmes on (a) effective listening skills. Facilitating upward communication through personal contacts. Issuing manuals/guidelines detailing policies. Providing linkages with annual appraisals as a mode of facilitating meetings. and for creating healthy interaction at shop floor level.

7. And organizations are recognizing the value of e-mail for all workers. edited and stored. Do you frequently review goals and expectations? 12. duplicate and distribute comparable letter or brochure. Do you ask your employees‘ personal goals and aspirations? 13. And the cost of sending formal e-mail to employees is a fraction of what it would cost to print. e-mail ahs a long list of benefits.‖ list below things you can do to increase your interaction with your employees. Do you give frequent positive reinforcement? 11. 3. wants. Its growth has been spectacular.00. of course. Ford Motor Company. Most white-collar employees now regularly use e-mail. Do you know what your employees like to do when they aren‘t at work? 9. Reading. Do you understand your employees‘ needs. for instance. employee receives 31 e-mail messages a day. a recent study found that the average U. customers. Do you ask yourself what you can do to help improve your employees‘ performance? For any questions that you answered ―no. At the top of the list is information overload .13 Computer-Aided Communication Communication in today‘s organizations is enhanced and enriched by computeraided technologies. Do you have lunch with your employees from time to time? 8. printer and email account available for $5 a month to all of its more than 3. E-mail. goals and aspirations? 10. In fact. has dramatically reduced the number of memos. They can be read. for instance. recently made a computer. They can be distributed to one person or thousands with a click of a mouse.S. E-mail messages can be quickly written. . at the convenience of the recipient. in their entirety. As a communication tool. fears and concerns? 14. These include electronic mail. is not without its drawbacks. and phone calls that employees historically used to communicate among themselves and with suppliers. or other outside stakeholders. modem. Do you ask about your employees‘ problems. E-Mail: Electronic mail (or e-mail) uses the Internet to transmit and receive computer-generated text and documents.Its not unusual for employees to get a hundred or more e-mails a day. absorbing and responding to such an inflow can literally consume an employee‘s entire day.000 employees worldwide. letters.

Intranet and extranet links: Intranets are private. More recently cameras . It permits employees in an organization to have meetings with people at different locations. allowing Wall Mart buyers to easily communicate with its suppliers and for suppliers to monitor the inventory status of its product at Wall Mart stores. Similarly all Wall Mart vendors are linked into its extranet system. Finally e-mails tend to be cold and impersonal. Videoconferencing: Videoconferencing is an extension of intranet or extranet system. Employees are finding it increasingly difficult to distinguish important e-mails from junk mails and irrelevant messages. customers and strategic partners. hear and talk with each other. but to which only people in an organization have access. Live audio and video images of members allow them to see. Organization worldwide information networks that look and act like a web-site. although efforts have been made to create emotional icons.In essence e-mail‘s is of use has become its biggest negative.Using companies intranet IBMers must everywhere swapped ideas on everything from how to retain employees to how to work faster without undermining quality. As such it‘s the ideal means to convey information like lay-offs. In the late 1990s videoconferencing was basically conducted from special rooms equipped with television cameras located at company facilities. For instance an extranet allows GM employees to send electronic messages and documents to its steel and rubber supplier as well as to communicate with its dealers. IBM recently bought together 52 thousand of its employees online for what it called Worldjam. Intranets are rapidly becoming the proffered means for employees within the companies to communicate with each other. Another drawback of e-mail is that the lack emotional content. In addition organisations are creating extra net links that connect internal employees with selected suppliers. plant closings or other messages that might evoke emotional responses or social support. The nonverbal quest in a face to face message or the tone of voice from a phone call convey important information that come across an e-mail. Videoconferencing in effect allows employees to conduct interactive meetings without the necessity of all physically being in the same location.

The parking is sparsely used at 8am likewise at 5pm..L. And within three days Corners‘ stock price has plummeted 22%. As the cost of this technology drops in price videoconferencing is likely to be increasingly seen as an alternative to expensive and time consuming travel. one thing is certainly . Patterson.What are you doing as managers with this companies makes me sick.. Although one can argue about whether such harsh criticism should be communicated at all. others should try to be sympathetic and understanding.14 CHOICE OF COMMUNICATION CHANNEL Neal . q When people are being manipulative or deceptive. CEO at medical software maker Cerner Corporation likes e-mails. As managers-you either do not know what your EMPLOYEES are doing or YOU do not CARE …. Patterson‘s e-mail additionally suggested that managers schedule meetings at 7 Am. Within hours of this e-mail..  Permalink Reply by M. and Saturday mornings promised a staff reduction of 5% an institution of a time clock system and Patterson‘s intention to charge unapproved absences to employees vacation time. May be too much so. 6pm. q Consult everyone affected. even though they are not concentrating at present (because they will resent not being consulted afterwards). hen p4�ea�#���erstanding and getting confused. Upset with his staff‘s work ethics he recently sent an e-mail to his firm‘s 400 managers. . 2011 at 6:37pm 3.. copies of it had made its way on to a Yahoo website.and microphones are being attached to individual computers allowing people to participate in videoconferences without leaving their desks. but others should be honest and open rather than trying to pay them back in their own coin. this can be openly acknowledged. Here are some of those e-mails highlight: ―Hell with freeze over before this CEO implements ANOTHER EMPLOYEE benefit in this culture…. We are getting less those 40 hours of work from a large number of our Kansa City based employees.Tariq Malik on September 16.we has a problem and we will fix it or will replace you.

It is not just coincidence that more and more senior managers have been using meetings t5o facilitate communication and regularly leaving the sanctuary of their . That is. Referring back to our opening example at Cerner Corp. Evidence indicates that high-performing managers tend to be more media sensitive than low-performing managers. and the personal touch of ―being there ― Impersonal written media such as formal reports and bulletins rate lowest in richness. Why do people choose one channel of communication over another-for instance a phone call instead of face you face talk? Is there any general insight we might be able to provide regarding choice of communication channel? The answer to the later question is a qualified ‗Yes‘. Generally. The former types of messages tend to be straight forward and have a minimum of ambiguity. they‘re better able to match appropriate media richness with ambiguity involved in the communication. Such an emotional and sensitive would have been better received in a face to face meeting. That is.Others are lean in that they score low on these three factors. because of its no routine nature and complexity. face-to-face conversation scores highest in terms of channel richness because it provides for the maximum amount of information to be transmitted during a communication episode. immediate feedback. However.clear Patterson erred selecting the wrong channel for his message. (3) be very personal . The latter are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding. Managers can communicate routine messages efficiently through channels that are3 lower in richness. should have been conveyed using a rich communication medium. The media richness model is consistent with organizational trends and practice during the past decade. it appears that Neal patter sons problem was using a channel relatively low in richness to convey a message that. Research has found that channels differ in their capacity to convey information some are rich in that they have ability to: (1) handle multiple quest simultaneously (2) Facilitate rapid feed back. A model of media richness has been developed to explain channel selection among managers. it offers multiple information cues . The choice of one channel over another depends on whether the message is routine or non-routine. they can communicate non routine messages effectively only by selecting rich channels.

thus distorting upward communications. the more opportunities there are for filtering. Filtering Filtering refers to a sender‘s purposely manipulating information so it will be seen mare favorably by the receiver.1 BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION A number of barriers can retard or distort effective communication. merging. experience. As noted in our previous discussion of e-mail. These executives are relying on rich channels of communication to transmit the more ambiguous messages they need to convey. motivations. Receivers also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them.It is not surprising. The past decade has been characterized by organisations closing facilities. . background and other personal characteristics. he is filtering information. therefore to see the most effective managers expanding their use of rich channels . In this section. It appears again here because the receivers in the communication process see and hear based on their needs. of levels in the organization structure . regardless of whether the applicants feel that way or not Information Overload Individuals have a fine capacity for processing data. For example. when a manager tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear.  Permalink Reply by M.Tariq Malik on September 16. when the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity. But you can expect some filtering to occur whenever there are status differences. Factors such as fear of conveying bad news and the desire to please one‘s boss often lead employees to tell their superiors what they think those superiors want to hear.The more vertical levels in the organizations hierarchy. we highlight the more important of these barriers. Selective Perception We have mentioned it earlier. The major determinant of filtering is no. The employment interviewer who expects a women job applicant to put her family ahead if her career is likely to see that female applicants. 2011 at 6:37pm 4. consolidating and introducing new products and services at an accelerated paceall no routine messages in high ambiguity and requiring the use of channels that convey a large amount of information .executive‘s offices to manage by walking around.

If we knew how each of us modified the language. Language Words mean different thing to different people. The grouping of the employees into departments creates specialists who develop their own ―buzzwords‖ or technical jargon. we are most prone to disregard our national and objective thinking processes and substitute emotional judgments. The existence of vertical levels can also cause language problems. The same message received when you are angry is often interpreted differently from when you‘re happy. employees usually come from diverse backgrounds. Regardless. Age. members are also frequently widely dispersed geographically-even operating in different countries. In an organization. There problem is that the members in an organization usually don‘t know how those the words and terms they use mean the same to the receiver as they do to them This assumption is often incorrect. phone calls. more and more managers and professionals are complaining that they‘re suffering overload.And with e-mails. Or they may put off further processing until the overload situation is over. education and cultural background are three of the more obvious variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions he or she gives to words. communication difficulties could be minimized.the result is information overload . ignore. In such instances. Extreme emotions such as jubilation or depression are most likely to hinder effective communication. In large organizations. faxes. meetings and the need to keep current in one‘s field. pass over or forget information. What happens when individuals have more information than they can sort out and use? They tend to select out. the result is lost information and less effective communication Emotions How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication will influence how he or she interprets it. There point is that although you and I probably speak a common language-English –our use of that language is far from uniform. Communication Apprehension .

The use of the wrong medium . Several businessmen are extremely confident in the public's gaze. they may rely on memos or faxes to convey messages when a phone call would be not only faster but more appropriate. communication techniques. So we need to be aware that there is a set of people in the organization who severely limit their oral communication and rationalize this practice by telling that more communication isn‘t necessary for them to do their job effectively. So a poor structure to your message or delivery is therefore a major barrier to effective communication. Weak delivery It doesn't matter how important or impressive the subject of your communication is. But almost all jobs require some oral communication is a dominant requirement. the audience becomes increasingly confused and eventually frustrated by not being able to understand clearly and easily what on earth these businessmen are on about. they 'lose' their audience within minutes. People who suffer from it experience undue tension and anxiety in oral apprehensive may find it extremely difficult to talk with others face to face or become extremely anxious when they have to use the telephone. if you deliver it without any 'punch' you will not get as many people to take your desired action as you would like.an estimated 520% of the population-suffer from debilitating. very happy to be in front of an audience. A weak delivery is like the very funny joke with the badly-told punch line --.it is not as funny or as memorable as you remember the original to be. Although lots of people speaking in front of a group. It is important to not get confused between delivery and presenter. It's all in the delivery. But because their presentations and communications lack a suitable structure. Poor structure to the communication The structure of a communication is an essential factor in how well a business communication is received by an audience.Another major barrier to effective communication is that some people. We should expect to find some self-selection in jobs so that such individuals don‘t take positions such as teacher. Studies demonstrate that oral-communication apprehensive avoid situations that require them to engage in oral communication. And of greater concern is the evidence that high oral communication apprehensive distort the communication demands of their jobs in order to minimize the need for communication. It doesn't matter whether that audience is an audience of one or one million. As a result. good structure is essential if a communication is to be 'heard' amongst the advertising and marketing 'noise' of today's business environment.

or otherwise. irrespective of the number or volume of items produced? What are the variable costs -.You have to announce a temporary hold on non-essential stationery spending in your department. Similarly. broadcast or print fees that must be paid. or some similar print-based format that allowed the audience to digest the complexities at their own pace. it is wise to analyze the following:        What is the fixed cost of production? Are there ad agency fees. confuse them. tactile or visual (e. then upheld again. By using terms and phrases that are 'jargon'. would be the wrong medium if the message you were trying to communicate would be better served by a white paper. By trying to 'save time/paper' by rolling several different communication messages into one. Another barrier arising from mixed messages is when a previously-held stance is lightly overturned to meet some political or business expediency. If you deliberately. audio cassettes and printing costs? How long will it take to write.such as CDs.g. suggested When considering which medium to use for which type of message you wish to communicate. but then allowed . reading or images) modalities? How quickly do you need your audience to comprehend and take action on your message? A mixed message It is very hard for an audience -.whether an audience of 1 or 1 million to understand your communication if you unnecessarily confuse the audience. with 'obligatory' PowerPoint TM slideshow full of complex charts and data. It does this in two ways: 1. edit and produce your communication in your chosen medium? What percentage of your target audience is likely to have access to your chosen medium at the time you choose to publish/play/present it? What percentage of your target audience will be likely to pay attention to your chosen medium? Is your message a complex one? Would your message be more easily and readily comprehended through auditory. A HUGE barrier to business communication is the ability of 'business-speak' to confuse and alienate its audience. An example of this would be where the acceptance of corporate gifts is not allowed. the meaning of which are possibly recognized but probably not fully understood 2. DVDs. a public presentation. How do you communicate this? An advertising campaign on local radio would be a highly ineffective way of reaching the desired audience if the message was complex and really intended for a narrow niche audience.

The point is to do whatever you can.  . A distracting environment There's nothing worse than trying to communicate your message to a group of people who cannot 'hear' you. to concentrate on your report The room's air-conditioning is not working and the room is hot and stuffy The room's heating is not working and the room is cold and clammy Well. Be very careful of mixing your messages. or vibrating if they've set it to 'silent' instead of switching it off Their internet connection is slow Their internet connection keeps dropping out There are too many interesting people to look at while they are on the bus trying. but the very senior management is found to be traveling first class. Whether their inability to 'hear' you is because of:               Your voice not being strong enough Too many others talking in the room at the same time Police and ambulance sirens outside the venue Too many phone calls coming in to their office while they're trying to read your memo Interruptions while they try to read your report Incoming emails keep popping up while they are reading your web-based communication Their minds are full of other pressing matters They are supposed to be somewhere else at that moment Their mobile phone keeps ringing. there are of course a thousand possible distracting reasons why they cannot or will not attend to your business communication. as mixed messages are a very real barrier to effective business communication. whilst acknowledging that this might be next to nothing. Or a company-wide budget cut that stops all business-class travel.pick your audience then pick the medium that will best find them. Don't do it -. The wrong audience Presenting your message to the wrong audience for your business communication is a complete waste of your time and money.if it a brand new client who has contracted a large amount of money to your business. then not allowed again after the gift-giving and receiving season is over. to reduce the number of distractions your chosen audience might be subjected to. in vain.

of course. 2011 at 6:37pm 4. whereas women use it to create connection. Mutual understanding is symmetrical.Many women. doesn‘t apply to every woman. But giving advise is asymmetrical it sets up the advise giver as more knowledge. juggling the conflicting needs for intimacy and independence. and more in control. The essence of the research is that men use talk to emphasize status. What‘s happening is that when men hear a problem.not to get the man‘s advise. So for many men conversations are primarily a means to preserve independence ands maintain status in a hierarchical social order‘s few examples will illustrate this: Men frequently complain that women talk on and on about their problem. Women might say‖ Have you looked at the marketing research report on that point?‖ Men frequently see female indirections as ―covert ―or ―sneaky‖ but women are not vas concerned as men with the status and one-upmanship that directness often creates. But here‘s the kick Women speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy men speak and hear a language of status power and independence. A man might say ―I think you are wrong at that point‖. means ―a larger % of women or men as a group talk in a particular way. on other hand view telling a problem as a means to promote closeness‘s e women present the problem to gain support and connection . Why do men and women often have difficulty communicating with each other? What role does silence play in communication? What are implications of the ―politically correct‖ movement on communications in organizations? And how individuals can improve their cross culture communication? Communication Barriers between Women and Men Research by experts provides us with some important insights into the differences between men and women in terms of their conversational styles. more reasonable.2 CURRENT ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION In this section we discuss four current issues relating to communication in organization. Independence emphasis separateness and differences. This contributes to distancing men and women in their efforts to communicate Men are often more direct than women in conversation. or individual women and men are more likely to talk one way or the other.Permalink Reply by M. . Communication is a continual balancing act. Women criticize men for not listening. they frequently assert their for independence and control by offering solutions .Tariq Malik on September 16. Thus it . The conclusion.

―Watson surprised responds‖ But the dog did nothing in the night time. in which it implies agreement with majority. For instance.Women tend to be less boastful than men. It can be a way of employees to express dissatisfaction. silence is a critical element of group thinks. It can mean someone is thinking a response to question. It can be sign that someone is upset. It can mean a person is anxious and fearful of speaking. Holmes remarked to his assistant Dr . Finally men often critise women for seeming to apologize all the time .3 SILENCE AS COMMUNICATION: Sherlock Holmes once solved a murder mystery based on what didn‘t happen. dissent. The problem is that the women use often ―I m sorry‖ to express to regret and restore balance to conversations.‖ Silence—defined here as an absence of speech or noise-has been generally ignored as a form of communication in OB because inaction or no behavior . as when they ―suffer in silence‖. It can be a powerful form of communication.But it‘s not necessarily in action . ―Holmes concluded thwart crime had to be committed by someone with whom the dog was familiar because the dog didn‘t bark. That story is also an excellent illustration of the importance of silence in communication. about ―the curious incident of the dog in night time.Tariq Malik on September 16. In terms of Organizational Behaviour we can see several links between and work related behaviour.Watson. and anger. They often downplay their authority or accomplishments to avoid appearing as braggarts and to take the other‘s person feelings into account Men can interpret this and incorrectly conclude that a woman is less confident and competent than she really is. It can signal agreement. when he knows she‘s not to blame.Nor is silence as. 2011 at 6:37pm 4. many believe a failure to communicate. The dog that didn‘t bark in the night is often used to metaphor for an event that is significant by reason of its absence. For many women ―I m sorry ―is an expression of understanding and caring about the other person‘s feelings rather than an apology.  Permalink Reply by M.Men tend to see the phrase ―I m sorry‖ as a weakness because they interpret the phrase to mean the woman is accepting blame. as when a typically talking person says nothing .

but can you be sure that ―negative patient outcome‖ will be consistently defined as synonymous of death? Some critics for humor‘s sake enjoy carrying political correctness to the extreme. pauses. Astute communications watch for gaps. Most of us are aware of how our vocabulary has been modified to reflect political correctness. you probably know what these 4 terms mean: death. a harassment claim or a job. We must be sensitive to others feelings. post consumer waste materials. There is a downside to political correctness. You know what death means. We must be sensitive to know how words might offend others. they pay attention to what comes next. The Los Angeles Times. I know what death means. They hear and interpret silence. for instance. To illustrate. They treat pauses. visually impaired. hesitations. most of us have cleansed the words handicapped. garbage. allows its journalists to use the word old age but cautious that it varies from ―person to person‖. For instance. an employee. Is the person suffering from communication apprehension? Sometimes the real message in a communication is buried in silence. the greater opportunity to transmit messages. By removing certain words from our vocabulary we find it hard to communicate. When we eliminate words from use because they are politically incorrect. But our concern here is with how politically correct language is contributing a barrier to effective communication. a lawsuit. They‘ve been replaced by negative patient outcome. For the most part. 4. quotas women. Certain words can and do stereotype and insult individuals. and elderly from our vocabulary – and replaced them with physically challenged. who aren‘t thrilled at labeled ―bald‖ have to smirk when we‘re referred to as ―follicle challenged‖. Even those of us with thinning scalp. we reduce our options for conveying messages in accurate form. the larger the vocabulary used by sender. blind. But each of these words also has been found to offend one or more groups. senior.4 “POLITICALLY CORRECT” COMMUNICATION: What words do you use to describe a colleague who is wheel-chair bound? What terms do you use to address a female customer? How do you communicate with a brand new client who is not like you? Your answers can mean between losing a client.Failing to pay close attention to silent portion of a conversation can result in missing a vital part of the message. . Words are primary means with which people communicate. educational equity. and people of gender.

Words imply different things in different languages. language is formal. But we also have to be careful not to sanitize our language to the point at which it clearly restricts clarity of communication. informal style in situation in which a more formal style is expected can be embarrassing and off-putting Fourth. there are barriers caused by semantics.Tariq Malik on September 16.  Permalink Reply by M. 2011 at 6:38pm 4. As we‘ve noted. Second there are barriers caused by word connotations. in others it‘s informal. Thais perceive no differently than Americans because the former have no such word in the vocabulary. words mean different to different people. Using a personal. Don‘t translate between cultures.We must sensitive to how our choice of words offends others. However you should be aware of the trade-offs and the need to find a proper balance. In some. Understanding sisu will help you to communicate in Finland but this is non transferable to English. Some words. This is true for people from different cultures. tone changes depending upon the context: people speak differently at home. First.5 CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION: Effective communication is difficult under the best of conditions. Cultural Context: . Negotiations between Americans and Japanese executives are made more difficult because Japanese hai translates as yes but its connotation will be ―yes I m listening‖ rather than ―yes I agree‖ Third are barriers caused by tone differences in some cultures. People who speak different languages actually view the world in different ways. Cultural barriers: One author has identified 4 specific problems related to large difficulties in cross-cultural communications. A gesture that is well understood and acceptable in one culture can be meaningless or lewd in another. there are barriers caused by differences caused by perceptions. Cross – cultural factors clearly the potential for increased communication problems.

Managers are directed to be explicit and precise in conveying intended meaning. The 4 rules are helpful: (1) Assume differences until similarity is proven. What do these contextual differences mean in terms of communication? Actually quite a lot. A person‘s official status in society and reputation carry considerably weight in communications.A better understanding of these barriers for communicating across cultural can be achieved by considering the concepts of high and low context cultures. Once you‘ve developed an explanation for a new situation think your empathize with some foreign culture. Countries like china.  . A Cultural Guide: When communicating with people from a different culture what can you do to reduce misperceptions and misevaluations? You can begin by trying to assess context culture. Interpreting or evaluating what someone has said or done is based on observer‘s culture and background than on observed situation. your can also check with other foreign and home country colleagues to make sure that your interpretations are on target. Korea. Most of us assume that others are more similar to us than they actually are. (2) Emphasis description rather than interpretation or evaluation. Oral agreements imply strong commitments in high context cultures. Communication in high context cultures implies considerably more trust by both parties. Low context cultures value directness. (4) Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis. Japan and Vietnam are high context cultures they rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situations cues when communicating with others. Carefully assess the feedback by recipients to see if it confirms your hypothesis. But people from different countries often are different. (3) Practice empathy. Cultures tend to differ in importance to which context influences meaning that individuals take from what is actually said or written in light of who the other person is. upbringing or background? Try to see other person as she or he really is. People from Europe and North America reflect their low context cultures. For important decisions or communiqués. Before sending a message put yourself in the recipient‘s shoes what don you know about his or her education. What may appear to outsider as casual and insignificant is important because it reflects a desire to build a relationship and create trust.

Have continuity Read more: ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION PROJECT REPORT .Permalink Reply by M. a communication programmes must: 1. To be fully effective. It is considered as a crucial function of modern management. Be properly organized and integrated with the structure of the corporate enterprise.com/forum/topics/organisational-communicationprojectreport?groupUrl=hrm619finalprojecthumanresource&groupId=3783342%3AGroup%3A59257& id=3783342%3ATopic%3A870562&page=2#comments#ixzz2q3cTdYUE Read more at http://vustudents. Lack in organizational communication hampers the productivity of employees and in turn that of the organisation.ning. actions. Communication always involves a sender. 3.99 . The symbols of communication are words.Virtual University of Pakistan http://vustudents. It also plays an important part to build an organization structure. and numbers. 2011 at 6:38pm CONCLUSION Thus. Organization communication thus is one of the most important tools used by many Human Resource Development (HRD) managers to cut the communication gap in the organisation.com/forum/topics/organisational-communication-projectreport?groupUrl=hrm619finalprojecthumanresource&groupId=3783342%3AGroup%3A59257& id=3783342%3ATopic%3A870562&page=2#a08dpFjTUsKRmzRE. channel and receiver. Moreover. Have the support the support of top management to operate in a climate favourable to free and open exchange of views and attitudes. Communication is an exchange of information and transmission of meaning. 2.ning. pictures. the case studies also help to throw light on the important aspects of organizational communication and depict how useful it is in shaping the organization‘s future and helping it achieve its objectives.Tariq Malik on September 16.