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What is OLAP? OLAP is abbreviation of Online Analytical Processing.

This system is an applicat ion that collects, manages, processes and presents multidimensional data for ana lysis and management purposes.

What is the difference between OLTP and OLAP? User and System Orientation OLTP: customer-oriented, used for data analysis and querying by clerks, clients and IT professionals. OLAP: market-oriented, used for data analysis by knowledge workers( managers, ex ecutives, analysis).

Data Source OLTP: Operational data is from original data source of the data OLAP: Consolidation data is from various source. Process Goal OLTP: Snapshot of business processes which does fundamental business tasks OLAP: Multi-dimensional views of business activities of planning and decision ma king Queries and Process Scripts OLTP: Simple quick running queries ran by users. OLAP: Complex long running queries by system to update the aggregated data. Database Design OLTP: Normalized small database. Speed will be not an issue due to smaller datab ase and normalization will not degrade performance. This adopts entity relations hip(ER) model and an application-oriented database design. OLAP: De-normalized large database. Speed is issue due to larger database and de -normalizing will improve performance as there will be lesser tables to scan whi le performing tasks. This adopts star, snowflake or fact constellation mode of s ubject-oriented database design.

View OLTP: focuses on the current data within an enterprise or department.

very detail-oriented. T hat data is transaction data and the related system is a OLTP system. Simply stated the ER model is a conceptual data model that views the real world as entities an d relationships. when we pay the prices at the check-out counter. The goal of Dimensional model is not to achive high degree o f normalization but to facilitate easy and faster data retrieval. stores information at different levels of granularity to support decision making process. Example Comparsion: In a departmental shop. the sal es person at the counter keys-in all the data into a "Point-Of-Sales" machine. HR. A basic component of the model is the Entity-Relationship diagr am. In addition. provides facilities for summariz ation and aggregation. the model can be used as a design plan by the d atabase developer to implement a data model in specific database management soft ware. the utility of the ER model is: it maps well to the re lational model. OLAP: manages large amounts of historical data. Since Chen wrote his paper the model has been extended and today it is commonly used for database design f or the database designer. . integrates information from many organizational locations and data stores Data Contents OLTP: manages current data. What is ER Diagram? The Entity-Relationship (ER) model was originally proposed by Peter in 1976 [Che n76] as a way to unify the network and relational database views. It is simple and easy to understand with a minimum of trai ning. Thes e data marts can be built on top of the data warehouse. What is dimensional modeling? Dimensional model consists of dimension and fact tables. which is used to visually represent data objects. On the other hand. so that he can place purchase order for them. The constructs used in the ER model can easily be transformed in to relational tables. Fact tables store diffe rent transactional measurements and the foreign keys from dimension tables that qualifies the data. Such report wil l come out from OLAP system What is data mart? Data marts are generally designed for a single subject area. Marketting etc. the database designer to communicate the design to the end user can use the model. An organization may have data pertaining to different departments like Finance.OLAP: spans multiple versions of a database schema due to the evolutionary proce ss of an organization. the manager of the store might want to view a report on out-o f-stock materials. stored in data warehouse and each department may have separate data marts. Therefore.

customer and dates are so me dimension that qualified the measure ... Physical modeling . E.. Dimensions are mutually independent..... ....... it does not mean anything. If there will be DHW of bank then there can be one data mart for accounts.......... If you want to read a quick and simple guide on dimensional modeling. What is Dimensional Modeling? Dimensional Modeling is a design concept used by many data warehouse designers t o build their data warehouse...... What is dimension? A dimension is something that qualifies a quantity (measure)...g. The n metadata will contain information like how many columns.......Facts table and Dimension table..... This i s high-level definitions..............g..... a dimension is a data element that categorizes each item in a data set into non-overlapping regions........ if in data mart we are receiving any file............ How ever.Dimensional modeling is used for de-normalizing the ROLAP/ MOLAP design... These product.... the dimensions on which the facts are calculated. .. For an example.. Dimension mo deling is a method for designing data warehouse............. data mart focuses on one subject area generally. . E-R modeling is used for normalizing the OLTP database design.... Conceptual modeling 2.. please che ck our Guide to dimensional modeling. Facts are typically (b ut not always) numerical values that can be aggregated... one for Loans etc..... data types of field etc... E................... "20kg of Rice (Product) is sold to Ramesh (customer) on 5th April (date )".. Three types of modeling are the re 1. file is fix width/lim ited. Fact table contains the fact s/measurements of the business and the dimension table contains the context of m easurements i......... .........e.................... .. DWH contain many subject areas...... In this design model all the data is stored in two types of tables . Technically speaking. ordering of fields.. What is Meta data? Metadata is data about data.......... Logical modeling 3.....Ralph Kimball is one of the strongest proponents of this very popular data model ing technique which is often used in many enterprise level data warehouses.. consider this: If I just say 20kg .............. What is Fact? A fact is something that is quantifiable (Or measurable)........ But i f I say.... What is Difference between E-R Modeling and Dimensional Modeling? Basic difference is E-R modeling will have logical and physical model..20kg.... Briefly state different between data ware house & data mart? Data warehouse is made up of many datamarts.. then that gives a meaningful sense.. Dimension al model will have only physical model.

level of granularity would mean what detail are you willing to put for each transactional fact... Explain What are snapshots? What are materialized views & where do we use them? What is a materialized view log? Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table located on a remote node which is periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table........ What is a level of Granularity of a fact table? Level of granularity means level of detail that you put into the fact table in a data warehouse...What is the difference between view and materialized view? View ............. Also known as a summary or aggregate table.... A View can be updated/deleted/inserted if it has only one base table if the view is based on columns from one or more tables then insert....... Now.. Materialized view .. Data will be loaded directly.... . SQL statement only ex ecutes once and after that every time you run the query..... update and delete is n ot possible...................... Product sales with respect to each minute or you want to aggregate it upto minute and put that data. the stored result set i s used..st ores the results of the SQL in table form in the database..... Explain What are the Different methods of loading Dimension tables? Conventional Load: Before loading the data... ....... For example: Based on design you can decide to put the sales da ta in each transaction...... .........store the SQL statement in the database and let you use it as a table.. Views are built using the columns from one or more tables......................... .. Direct load:(Faster Loading) All the Constraints will be disabled...Later the dat a will be checked against the table constraints and the bad data won't be indexe d......... the SQL statement executes. Pros include quick query results............................ ... all the Table constraints will be checked against the d ata............ Snapshots are mirror or replicas of tables. Materialized view A pre-computed table comprising aggregated or joined data from fact and possibly dimension tables............... The Single Table View can be updated but the view with multi table cannot be updated.... Ev ery time you access the view...