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PERROTIS COLLEGE

AMERICAN FARM SCHOOL, THESSALONIKI, GREECE (Degrees validated b CARDIFF METROPOLITAN !NI"ERSIT#, !K$

Module title: %IOMETR# Module code: Module Leader: Dr& At'a(asi)s Gertsis Module instructor: Dr& "asilei)s ")*i+is Student name: Ese(ia De,ia( Module Level: Semester: . / Fall 012340125 Submission date: Research Project (100% of final grade-ma !ords"#000$ - %ord count: 0657

Title: Correlation between soil pH and plant development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)

Table of Contents
&able of 'ontents((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((() Summar* ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((+ ,ntroduction ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((+ Plant botan* descri-tion(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((+ 'ro- re.uirements((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((/ So!ing methods0 de-th0 time and rate(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((1 Pests and diseases((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((1 2arvest(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((3 %orld!ide -roduction(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((3 4sage((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((5 6arieties(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((10 Stud* area ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((11 Location(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((11 'limate(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((11 7bjective(s$ (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((1) Materials and Methods(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((1) Results: ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((1# Statistical evaluation of -roject((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((1+ 8iscussions:(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((19 Major 'onclusions: (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((19 References (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((1/ :--endi 1((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((()0 :--endi )((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((()1 :--endi #((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((()) :--endi +((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((()# :--endi 9((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((()+ :--endi /((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((()9

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Declaration of plagiarism: I certify that this assignment is a result of my own work and it has not been submitted in whole or major parts of it in any other module. . Student: . All sources have been acknowledged.senia 8emian Signature: Page 3 of 0.

place and climate where it is sown. rainfall. 3.. improved * fi$ation by legumes... (addel and his coauthors stated in their work that decreased yields. and reduced solubility of to$ic elements -e. +enefits of sustaining appropriate soil pH for crop production by spreading lime consist of. However. depending on variety and climate -Alfalfa 4579. leaching. . Republic of &oldova. Introduction *itrogen fertili"ation. /. 1hang. H. 0. and (a. #he e$periment was conducted on a field from %erpeni.. &ost favorable pH for plant growth differs with crop species and with soil physical and chemical properties. from soil than most other forage crops and corps harvested for grain -(addel.. 4556.. and 2ise.Summary Alfalfa is one of the most useful and widely grown hay crops in the world. and has a deep root system of two to four meters. -(addel. Plant botany description Alfalfa generally grows four to eight years8 however it can grow more than 45 years. )ata that resulted from our statistical analysis showed and proved our hypothesis that there is a high correlation between soil pH and plant development. '. increased percent base saturation. and harvest of crops are the main factors of soil pH declines. sometimes e$tending more than 7: m -Alfalfa Page 5 of 0.g. organic matter decay. shorten stand life of the crop. Al and &n. and reduced alfalfa competitiveness against weeds are the effects of low soil pH and nutrient deficiencies in acid soils. &o. /. H. improved availability of essential nutrients -e.. 1hang. and 2ise.. or this pro!ect we chose alfalfa crop as it is widely adapted and probably the most popular forage legume for hay and being also used in pasture for gra"ing. Alfalfa harvested as hay removes larger quantities of nutrients -see the Appendi$ 7. or this pro!ect we chose to analy"e and find if there is any correlation between soil acidity and plant development. 4556. #he soil samples were brought at the 'errotis (ollege laboratory and analy"ed their acidity. known from era of the ancient Greeks and Romans.. 0. 3. its yields and quality of production are affected by different factors such as deficiency of one or more crop requirements.g. outbreak of diseases or/and pests.. #he plant matures to a height of up to 7 meter..

all. 4579. narrowly obovate. #his crown has many shoot buds that allows alfalfa to regrow many times after being gra"ed or mowed -Alfalfa 4579. ?nflorescences are compact racemes up to 65 mm. borne in a$ils of upper leaves8 purple florets. glabrous or pubescent8 pods turn from green to brown as they mature. @ mm. However after some months of establishment.. establishment alfalfa Autoto$icity may happen when alfalfa is replanted into Page . %eed pods spirally coiled. yellow or brown seeds= . #he deep root system makes the plant to be very resistant. 95 mm. usually serrate= . . ... toothed in upper third with a mucronate tip8 stipules linear<lanceolate.4579.glabrous plant with alternate trifoliate leaves8 leaflets.rame /.crown is the central source of stems produced after defoliation8 a$illary buds above ground develop into branches. especially to droughts and frost.. 4579. Alfalfa is a . -0oo (h. alfalfa creates a strong >crown> at the top of the root system. Alfalfa is a plant that e$hibits autoto$icity. et. ?n the Appendi$ 4 it is shown the plant development within 95 days.8 and these growth to$ins of new are decreasing plants.. Alfalfa seedling grows slowly because it emerges from a very small seed -appro$imately 655 seeds per gram. of 0. Autoto$icity happens when established plants produce to$ins -medicarpin.rame /. 4579. and hold 4<: kidney< shaped. typically papilionacious. &oreover.

et. D &unter R...rame /. % < 75 mg/kg. et. %oils that are low in fertility have to be enriched with compost. Crop re uirements For soil Alfalfa grows better on well<drained soils with high levels of fertility and a neutral pH of A. 4557. the amount of water needed for the plant varies depending on the season and crop type. 0. ?t should be applied into the soil 74 months before sowing. 'hosphorus. and Roberts (. wheat or corn. 1hang. and *itrogen -Endersander.rame /. Alfalfa varieties suited to warm temperate regions are more efficient water users than the cold<tolerant types .. For nutrients Adequate levels of nutrients will increase the seedling establishment by encouraging root development. for root development is 47<4:5 (. stand survival and yield of alfalfa are. 3 < 5. or when alfalfa is sown into an e$isting alfalfa plot to thicken it -+agg /.. all 4577. manure or a chemical fertili"er. 4579. alfalfa fields are suggested to be interchanged with other species -for e$ample. ). ). +oron and &olybdenum also should be applied..9 m... %chmitt &. 4579. /. equiv. et.. all.of 0. However. high quality alfalfa stands= -Endersander. all 45778 0issbrant %. all 4577./755g8 ' < 4: mg/kg. 4579. For temperature An optimum temperature for seedling growth is 4C5 (. 45558 Husman %. Fther main nutrients that improve stand establishment. ?f the soil is wet or flooded for a long time it creates conditions suitable for diseases. 4579.0ime is the single greatest important fertility preoccupation for establishing and maintaining high yielding. 4579. #he nutrient level should be maintained at a level of. et.H.. .: -(addel. but the most important thing is the correction of pH -Rehm G. or that reason. before reseeding -/ennings /. 4555. the soil has to be deep enough for an adequate water<holding capacity -Endersander. 'otassium. ?n addition to this. ?t is moderately sensitive to salt levels in both the soil and irrigation water -0ory /..@ B C... .. %ulfur -converted as sulfate. ?n the Appendi$ 9 is presented the difference between normal plant and the dwarf plant affected by to$ins. H. Page . 3. and 2ise. Higher temperatures reduce forage digestibility and lower than 75 5 ( temperatures make the plant to harden and go dormant . 3allenbach R. For water Having a deep tap<root system alfalfa is an efficient user of water supply. A..an old alfalfa field rather than being rotated. ). 4556. because it reacts very slowly with soil acids.

455:8 rame /.rame /. however this rate may be different based upon region. #he diseases can strike independently or in combination and from time to time may appear in comple$es with other pathogens and pests . .. ?n some cases these grasses are replaced with barley -Hordeum vulgare. Sowing met!ods" dept!" time and rate #he seed is generally drilled after conventional seedbed cultivations8 however the seed can also be spread and covered with a light but firm soil of 75<7: mm .. soil type. However.. ?n!ured plant parts might also be the central point for fungal or bacterial outbreak moreover8 some pests are carriers of plant viruses.... it can be sown in autumn.rame /. . all. 4579. oat -Avena sativa.rame /. #he best time for alfalfa seeding is spring due to the temperature and moisture conditions that are useful in seeds germination and have a good efficiency of Rhizobium action. all 4577. Pests and diseases 0ike many other crops. as long as there is enough time for the plants to grow in order to withstand winter cold and possible frost of the soil. 4579. ?n order to decrease weed problems and soil erosion alfalfa seeds are sown with a companion crop such as smooth brome grass -Bromus inermis. 'ests may invade alfalfa field and produce damages at all stages of growth and development of the plant. A detailed list of most known alfalfa pests and diseases are showed in the Appendi$ 6 and :. and seeding method -Rankin &. #hese damages are often covert and insidious but might also be highly visible and devastating leading to plant death and loss of yield . et. or wheat -Triticum spp.because their deficiency affects young tissue growth -+. ?t should be applied before seeding at a rate not more than C tons/acre as solid manure -Endersander. 4579... A great source of macro and micro nutrients needed by alfalfa is manure.rame /. viruses and diseases. alfalfa is e$posed to pests. cocksfoot -Dactylis glomerata. or reed canary grass -Phalaris arundinacea.. Page 7 of 0. meadow fescue -Festuca pretense.. 4579. 0ots of diseases may attack the crop from the seedling to the seeding stages and might in!ure both foliage and roots. #he seeding rate of these grasses should be 4<6 kg/ha in order not to create competition for light. . 4579... ). and nutrients -)i$on '. et. and reduces the functioning of the nitrogenase en"yme in the *<fi$ation process -&o.. 4579. Generally are recommended to use 79 B 45 kg of seeds per hectare as seeding rate. 4579.. water.rame /..

Fther strategies include. #he most important strategy is the maintenance of high soil pH and fertility required for strong stand growth and development.. alfalfa is harvested three to four times a year. . #otal yields are usually around eight tons per hectare in temperate locations8 however yields have been recorded up to 45 t/ha -2iersma ).optimal cutting frequency. but has a reduced nutritional content -%hewmaker G. D Iuegao H. -(ash ). et. all. 4579. different locations. .. et.H million hectares. 455H. and Russia -7. disease and pest control8 prevention of physical and biotic stresses as much as possible8 rotation with arable crops= . alfalfa was produced on appro$imately 95 million hectares worldwide. Harvest ?n most climates and due to its variety.#here are different management strategies that might be implemented to avoid or decrease disease infestation and its effects. ?f the alfalfa is cut at a later stage of maturity it improves the yield. Page 6 of 0. (anada -4 million hectares. E% being the largest alfalfa producer in the world by area with H million hectares followed by Argentina -A..@ million hectares. but it can be mowed up to 74 times per year in Ari"ona and southern (alifornia. 4579. intensity and timing with respect to the region and utili"ation aims8 appropriate weed. directly influence the alfalfa yields.. 2eather. all. 455C. and the crop>s stage of maturity when cut. G. #orldwide production ?n 455H..rame /.

4579. 4579. or fed as green chop -(ertified Alfalfa %eed (ouncil ?nc. which are effective for coloring egg yolk and body lipids= -Heu"e J.. 4579. .. et. horses. such as tablets.$sage Alfalfa is very often mowed and harvested as hay. due to their high content in carotenoids.3ing of odders= due to its high nutritional value -see the Appendi$ A. et. (. Humans also eat alfalfa sprouts in salads and sandwiches -&ueller %h.. )ried out alfalfa leaf is commercially offered as a nutritional supplement in quite a few forms.. -(alifornia Alfalfa 45798 /ennings /. ?t is used as food for high<producing dairy cows. Alfalfa is considered . powders and tea Page 8 of 0. all.. gra"ed. sheep.. all. 455@. but may also be prepared into silage.Alf alfa hay is the most e$tensively used fiber source in rabbit diets. #he alfalfa field is not recommended to be used as pasture because it may provoke bloating in livestock -'lantde$ 4579. ?t is also applied in poultry diets for pigmenting eggs and meat. beef cattle. and goats .

?ndirectly. 7HH9. >*ondormant> varieties can be higher<yielding. but they are vulnerable to winter<kill in cold climates and have poorer persistence -(ash )... and the *ortheast. &ost varieties go dormant in the fall.. alfalfa is a source of honey.. >*ondormant> varieties that grow through the winter are cultivated in long<seasoned locations such as &e$ico.-&edline 'lus 4579.R. . Enderwood /. %ignificant research and development has been done with this vital plant over the last decades.. and the production of more leaves per plant. D )unn R. Page 21 of 0.. D Henderlong '. )itterline R. because bees gather substantial quantities of nectar from alfalfa flowers. (anada. 7HH9.. better resistant ability to cold temperature in cold climates. while >dormant> varieties are cultivated in the Epper &idwest. . H. D )unn R.4579. Ari"ona. and %outhern (alifornia. %arieties Flder varieties have been used for many decades8 however in the last few years appeared many better public and private varieties that are better adapted to particular climates -Rhodes 0. &ultileaf alfalfa varieties have more than three leaflets per leaf. &ost of the improvements in alfalfa have consisted of better disease resistance on poorly drained soils in wet areas. )itterline R. giving them larger nutritional content by weight because there is more leafy matter for the same amount of stem -(ash ). this meaning that they have a reduced growth due to low temperatures and shorter days.

Page 22 of 0..574@K* and 4H. #he coordinates of the field are 6C.. which might melt several times during winter= -2orld 2eather and (limate ?nformation 4579.Study area Location As the study area we chose an alfalfa field which is situated in the south part and 75 meters above sea level in the village %erpeni. .#he dry temperate continental air from the Gastern and %outh<Gastern parts of the Gastern Guropean 'lain causes drought and the cold Arctic air causing dramatic weather changes. Ftherwise in the region we also have temperate continental climate with the four seasons of the year which are clearly set. 4579. 2e have mild short winters and long hot summers with many sunny days. #here are 45A5B49A5 hours of sunshine per year in &oldova8 temperatures above free"ing are registered 7A5B455 days per year8 and precipitation ranges between 9C5 and :A5 mm/year and more than 75M falls as snow. ?t is also situated appro$imately 7755 meters away from the )niester River..9:7@KG -%tott /. Republic of &oldova. . #he atmospheric air circulation is described by the predominance of the western warm and sometimes very humid air masses from the Atlantic -2orld 2eather and (limate ?nformation 4579. 2arm and humid air masses from the &editerranean come to &oldova bringing with them abundant rainfall. Climate #he climate in the village is the same as the countryLs climate8 the only difference is the 4<9 degrees of temperature and the rates of precipitation that vary from the north and south part of the country.

%oil samples were brought at the 'errotis (ollege laboratory where further analysis was conducted. Page 20 of 0. ?t also proposes some treatments if there is any relation between soil acidity and plant development. .:K( and ground to pass a 4<mm sieve. with a mean initial pH ranging from :.7 soil<to<water suspension. about 7:M content in the upper layers of humus. high natural fertility. %oil samples were oven< dried at A:. Materials and Met!ods #he e$periment was conducted on a field of (herno"em soil -soil with lumpy or granular structure.6 #he field was divided into a grid of :5$74 meters from where were collected 76 soil samples consisting of 7: cm. intensive and high humification. ?n order to find the correlation coefficient we used the statistical software /&' 'ro 75.&b'ective(s) #he ob!ective of this paper is to find if there is any correlation between soil pH and plant development of alfalfa. %oil pH was determined by using a pH meter and combination electrode in a 7.H to C.

@ :. Gach number represents pH of the soil and the plant height in centimeters.: A.: 46.(esults) %oil pH C.6 C.9 C.: A.9 A. from the soil analysis and plant height.9 C. +y careful observation you can notice that where the pH is higher the plant is higher.: 4: 4: 47 49 49 7H 7H 45 7C 7C 7C.H A 'lant height in cm 4: 46.9 C.: #able 7 ?n the table above.6 C.H :. . Page 23 of 0.9 C. you can see all the collected data.4 C.

H5945A 5.69AC6A9 6.7C77C 5. 5.5C6:9H O 5.5557P Q.9A7C6@ 5.:74764H Mean Square 6.5557P )umber 76 An important thing is the correlation between soil pH and plant development.7CA:A5APplant height in cm Summary of Fit R%quare R%quare Ad! Root &ean %quare Grror &ean of Response Fbservations -or %um 2gts.Statistical evaluation of pro'ect Bivariate Fit of pH by plant height in cm Linear Fit pH N 9.5C:65 5.@A64@A 76 Analysis of Variance Source &odel Grror (.@H:76 5. #otal DF 7 74 79 Sum of Squares 6.6A64H A.59A65 F atio 777.7CA:A5A St% #rror 5.:5 75.5C6:9H 5.5557P 'orrelation Variable plant height in cm pH Mean 47.:@ !rob"&t& Q.:@H764 'orrelation 5.7H5CCA A.HC:4 !rob " F Q.5557P !arameter #stimates $erm ?ntercept plant height in cm #stimate 9. Page 25 of 0.H:59C4 Signif( !rob Q. .@A64@A St% Dev 9.5C:9HA: 5.57AA@: t atio @.

As recommendation. the R %quare is relatively high and e$presses the H5M of the estimated correlation. . where the soil pH is higher the plants are higher. )ata that resulted from our statistical analysis showed and proved our hypothesis that there is a high correlation between soil pH and plant development.Discussions) /ust having a simple look at the results we easily can observe the variance of plant height which is affected by the soil pH. Major Conclusions: or this pro!ect we chose to analy"e and find if there is any correlation between soil acidity and plant development. Esing the bivariate normal ellipse of 'N5. because the lime can correct the acidity. Page 2. the plants are dwarf having few stems of a light green to yellow color. ?n order to have a deep analysis and confirm our hypothesis we run the statistical analysis on /&' 'ro 75 software . we found that the plant height and soil pH are highly correlated8 the correlation being represented by H:M. Having the same look on the field we can see the difference that. Republic of &oldova. Fn the other edge of the field where the soil pH is lower. As we can observe. #he soil samples were brought at the 'errotis (ollege laboratory and analy"ed their acidity. #he e$periment was conducted on a field from %erpeni. of 0.H5. #he results showed above confirm our hypothesis that there is a high correlation between soil pH and plant development . having more stems of a dark green color. #his information might be useful to farmers who observed any difference of plant development on their fields. known from era of the ancient Greeks and Romans. healthier. #he plant we chose is alfalfa. which is one of the most useful and widely grown hay crops in the world. we propose to analy"e the field and the spot where the pH is low should be applied amendments such as liming.

Premium $uality Al al a. and 2ise.//msue$tension.(eferences 7. (alifornia Alfalfa 4579.htmlR 5. 4579.britannica.//www. (addel. D )unn R. (ash ).org/publications/Agand*aturalResources/&#455:56AG.caf. ER0 Q http. 2est Jirginia Eniversity. 4579. #e$as. 455:. 4579. ER0 Qhttp. Hay E%A ?nc. (ash ).//www. 1hang.org/ag/agp/AG'(/doc/ning$iaSguide/chapter7.. 3. 4579. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Al al a Autoto!icity" &inistry of Agriculture and ood.net/alfalfa. ER0 Qhttp. )i$on '. et.pdfR 8.htmR 3. ER0 Q http.on..hayusa.//msue$tension.fao.ca/english/crops/field/autoto$.//www. 455H. &ontana %tate Eniversity G$tension. all.pdfR 7. )ata viewed Fctober 4H. 4579. . ER0 Qhttp. +agg /. (ertified Alfalfa %eed (ouncil ?nc. Retrieved *ovember 59. Al al a in the %outh. Retrieved *ovember 5@.edu/Tforage/library/forglvst/bulletins/salfalfa.//www.pdfR Page 2. Al al a %anagement &uide or 'ing!ia" (nited 'ations Food and Agriculture Organization" Retrieved *ovember 5@.of 0. 4556.org/pub/fg/research/4556/treat/ R 4. D Iuegao H.//www. 4557. H. 7HH9.plantmanagementnetwork. 4579. &ontana %tate Eniversity G$tension. Retrieved *ovember 5@. Fntario. 4579. Al al a )ariety *election.org/publications/Agand*aturalResources/&#7HH959AG. 4579.com. Alfalfa 4579. ER0 Q http.omafra. E%A* Retrieved *ovember 5@. Retrieved )ecember 59.. ER0 Qhttp.pdfR 6. Responses o al al a" red clover" and #hite clover to soil pH and lime treatments" orage and Gra"inglands. +ritanica.//www. 0. ER0 Qhttp. /.. Retrieved *ovember 5@.com/G+checked/topic/76:H:/alfalfaR 4.wvu. 4579. )itterline R.gov. Establishing a *uccess ul Al al a +rop.

e$tension. A. 0oo (h. ?*RA. 4579.edu/e$tmedia/AI/AI<997< 2.htmlR 18. (?RA). ER0 Qhttp.pdfR Page 27 of 0. .//www. Al al a or industrial and other uses. 4579. 0ory /. ER0 Q http. all. %edicago sativa . et. Retrieved *ovember 5@. ER0 Qhttp. ER0 Qhttp.edu/ces/forage/wfc/proceedings4557/understandingSautoto$icitySinSalfalfa.org/ag/agp/AG'(/doc/gbase/data/pf55596A.//e$tension. 4579.. Retrieved *ovember 5@.H.//www..gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/7H.ucerne . 4579. 4579.uae$.org/node/4C:R 77. Retrieved *ovember 5:. Husman %.ucdavis.H. 4579.//www. 4579.pdfR 12.ari"ona. 4579.//www. 4579. (. Retrieved *ovember 5@.feedipedia. et.//alfalfa.au/ob!twr/importedSassets/content/past/lucerne. Qhttp.pdfR 7:.%edicago sativa/" )epartment of Agriculture and Government of 2estern Australia. 4555. ?rrigated Alfalfa &anagement in &editerranean and )essert 1ones. and Roberts (. /ennings /. Alfalfa -&edicago sativa. (hapter 7H. Agriculture and *atural Resources. 455@. &ro#ing Al al a or *eed in Arizona" Eniversity of Ari"ona (ollege of Agriculture. Retrieved )ecember Qhttp. 3allenbach R. 'ublication @95:. ER0 10.agric. ER0 Qhttp. 0issbrant %.nlm. Fakland.asp$U'NG6:::R 7A.-" AF.//www. all. 4579.edu/publications/)isplay'ub.//www.edu/FtherSAreas/publications/') / %A< 6555. et. Heu"e J. ER0 17.wa. Retrieved *ovember 59. Retrieved *ovember 5@. 4579.nih. Retrieved *ovember 5@. %anaging %anure on Al al a Hay" &issouri Eniversity G$tension. ER0 Q http. all.missouri.fao.gov. /ennings /. 4579. 'urdue Eniversity. rame /.purdue. Eniversity of (alifornia. et.pdfR 79. 4579. 4579. all. Al al a" 'atural %edicines +omprehensive Database" Retrieved *ovember 5@.edu/pubs/crops/a"774H. Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization o Al al a . 4579.edu/?rrigatedAlfalfa/pdfs/E(Alfalfa@95:?ndustrialSfree.//ag. Retrieved *ovember 5@.htmR 59.//www.org. Al al a or Dairy +attle" Eniversity of Arkansas. )ivision of Agriculture. 4579. (nderstanding Autoto!icity in Al al a" Eniversity of Arkansas (ooperative G$tension %ervice.pdfR ood. . ER0 Qhttp. A 1 and AF. eedipedia. ER0 Q http. &ueller %h. 4579.ht mR 14.uwe$. &edline 'lus 4579.

edu/agf<fact/5576. D Henderlong '. 4579. ER0 Qhttp.') R Page 26 of 0.//www.//www. . Retrieved *ovember 5:. Republic of &oldova. 4579.%edicago sativa/.uwe$.org/pdf/Alfalfa M45forM45HorsesM45-lowM45res.%. ER0 Qhttp. . )epartment of Horticulture and (rop %cience.htmlR 49. all 4577. Rhodes 0. et.19. %hewmaker G.. ertili"ing Alfalfa in Minnesota. all. 4555. all.e$tension.plantde$.//www. Endersander.//www. Al al a2 the high34uality hay or horses" Eniversity of ?daho D Eniversity of 2isconsin.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/)(9@76.tension* Retrieved *ovember 5@. ER0 Qhttp. 4579. H.pdfR 4A. 4579. 'lantde$ 4579.htmlR 22...htmR 21.//www.edu/(G%/crops/Alf%eedingRate. The .. ). G.org/R 4:. et.//ohioline. 4579. %erpeni.osu.//www. Al al a )ariety +haracteristics" Fhio %tate Eniversity G$tension. Retrieved *ovember 5@. Find elevation5 Height above sea level. (rop %cience %ociety of America.4579. )ata viewed Fctober 4H.agronomy. ER0 Qhttp.pdfR 46. 4579.earthtools.//www. D &unter R. and %oil %cience %ociety of America. et. ER0 Qhttp. 4579. +niversity of Minnesota #.. 2iersma ). Al al a . Retrieved *ovember 59.A. Retrieved *ovember 5@. ?nc. ?nc. 4579. ER0 Qhttp.alfalfa.edu/ces/crops/uwforage/Alf(utHt. Rankin &. Rehm G..com/inde$. 4579.R. ?nc. %chmitt &. ER0 Q https. ER0 Q http. Al al a %anagement &uide" American %ociety of Agronomy. 4579. %tott /. 455C. E.. Enderwood /.org/files/publications/alfalfa< management<guide. 4579.ong and *hort o Al al a +utting Height" Eniversity of 2isconsin< &adison G$tension.php/species<growing<guides/grasses/465<alfalfa<medicago< sativaR 20. Al al a seeding rates0 ho# much is too much1 Eniversity of 2isconsin G$tension.uwe$. Retrieved *ovember 5@. Retrieved *ovember 5@.

Average #eather and climate in %oldova" Retrieved *ovember 5@. 4579.4C. . ER0 Qhttp.com/average<monthly< Rainfall<#emperature<%unshine<in<&oldovaR Page 28 of 0.//www. 2orld 2eather and (limate ?nformation 4579.weather<and<climate.

3ilograms of nutrient removed per ton of alfalfa produced. . dry matter basis Page 01 of 0.*ppendi+ .

.*ppendi+ 'lant development within 95 days Page 02 of 0.

. Gffect of autoto$icity on root development of alfalfa Page 00 of 0.*ppendi+ .

*ppendi+ / !rincipal %iseases of alfalfa an% causal agents Disease +acterial leaf spot (ommon leaf spot Iellow leaf blotch *temphylium .eptosphaerulina leaf spot )owny mildew %pring black stem Alternaria +acterial stem blight *tagonospora leaf spot Rust %ummer black stem %pring black stem Fusarium wilt )erticillium wilt +acterial wilt *clerotinia crown and stem rot Rhi"octonia Phytophthora root rot Anthracnose Fusarium root rot Aphanomyces root rot Agent 6anthomonas al al a Pseudopeziza medicaginis . medicaginis Alternaria solani Pseudomonas medicaginis or syringae *tagonospora meliloti (romyces striatus +ercospora medicaginis Phoma medicaginis Fusarium o!ysporum )erticillium albo3atrum +lavibacter michiganense subsp-insidiosum *clerotinia tri oliorum Rhizoctonia solani Phytophthora megasperma +olletotrichum tri olii Fusarium sppAphanomyces euteiches Page 03 of 0. .eptosphaerulina briosianna5tri olii Peronospora tri oliorum Phoma medicaginis var.eptotrochila medicaginis *temphylium botryosum .

Page 05 of 0. meadow.*ppendi+ 0 Alfalfa pests Foliage Alfalfa weevils -larvae. Bruchophagus roddi . Agromyza rontella Empoacea abae Philaenus spumarius %eloidogyne hapla Pratylenchus penetrans Ditylenchus dipsaci *itona hispidulus Otiorhynchus ligustici Tipula spp. +olias eurythene Eu!oa au!iliaris Epicauta spp.ygus spp. %elanophus spp. %potted alfalfa 'ea +lue alfalfa (lover weevils Grasshoppers 0eafhoppers 'otato leafhoppers %pittlebugs -e. Root knot Root lesion Alfalfa stem (lover<root curculio -larvae. . Roots/crowns *ematodes . &irids Hypera spp. (aterpillars (utworms/army worms +lister beetles Aphids . %nout beetle -larvae. Therioaphis maculata5tri olii Acyrthosiphon pisum Acyrthosiphon 7ondoi *itona spp. 0eather!ackets Seed pods Alfalfa seed chalcid -larvae.g.

7@@ mg -HM.*ppendi+ 1 Alfalfa see%s* sproute%* raw )utritional value per -. Jitamin +A 5. 1inc 5.:A9 mg -77M.6@7 mg -9M.C g 'rotein 6g #hiamine -vit.596 mg -9M. +9.7 g < )ietary fiber 7. 5. %ource.74A mg -77M. ?ron 5. *iacin -vit. 'antothenic acid -+:.5CA mg -CM. 'otassium CH mg -4M. %odium A mg -5M. Riboflavin -vit. olate -vit. E%)A *utrient )atabase Page 0.. +H. &agnesium 4C mg -@M. 5. (alcium 94 mg -9M. 9A Vg -HM.: Vg -4HM. 5.4 mg -75M. .H4 mg -75M. +4. 5. &anganese 5.H g at 5. g /0(1 o23 Gnergy HA k/ -49 kcal. of 0. +7.HA mg -CM. 'hosphorus C5 mg -75M. Jitamin ( @. Jitamin 3 95. (arbohydrates 4. 0ink to E%)A )atabase entry 'ercentages are roughly appro$imated using E% recommendations for adults.