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PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION OF SHIP

(R.M.Newton)

PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION OF SHIP .................................................................. 1 Introduction....................................................................................................................... 15 Figure 0-1:strains experienced by ships................................................................... 20 Figure 0-2:Midship Section Frigate ......................................................................... 21 Figure 0-3: Midship Section Frigate ........................................................................ 22 Conversion factor..................................................................................................... 23 Part 1: ................................................................................................................................ 24 General.............................................................................................................................. 24 1 Shipyard layout and facilities......................................................................................... 25 Figure 1-1:Shipyard Layout..................................................................................... 31 Figure 1-2:Plate production Shop ............................................................................ 32 Figure 1-3:Pipe Shop layout .................................................................................... 33 “Setting up the Ship” ............................................................................................. 34 2 The building slip ............................................................................................................ 36 The groundways....................................................................................................... 37 The building blocks.................................................................................................. 38 Erection of building blocks...................................................................................... 41 Equipment of the slip ............................................................................................... 41 Building in dry dock ................................................................................................ 43 Figure 2-1:The Building Slip ................................................................................... 44 Figure 2-2:Obtaining Height of Building Blocks .................................................... 45 Figure 2-3:Elevation of Building Blocks................................................................. 46 3 Launching arrangements................................................................................................ 47 The cradle................................................................................................................. 48 Greasing the ways .................................................................................................... 51 Setting up the ship.................................................................................................... 53 Release arrangements............................................................................................... 54 Electrical release gear .............................................................................................. 54 Hand release gear..................................................................................................... 54 The launch................................................................................................................ 55 Sideways launching ................................................................................................. 56 Figure 3-1:Forces acting during launch ................................................................... 57 Figure 3-2:Launching Cradle-Forward .................................................................... 58 Figure 3-3:Section showing stopping up and method of turning in sliding ways ... 59 Figure 3-4:Electrical launch trigger ......................................................................... 60 4 Graving docks ................................................................................................................ 61 Docking.................................................................................................................... 61 Destroyers ................................................................................................................ 66 Excessive list or trim................................................................................................ 67 Ship with damaged bottom plating .......................................................................... 67 Undocking................................................................................................................ 67 Figure 4-1:Docking.................................................................................................. 69 Figure 4-2:Docking.................................................................................................. 70 Figure 4-3:Docking.................................................................................................. 71 5 Floating docks................................................................................................................ 72 Figure 5-1:Typical Floating Dock ........................................................................... 75

Figure 5-2:Floating Docks ....................................................................................... 76 6 Caissons ......................................................................................................................... 77 Floating caissons...................................................................................................... 77 To remove caisson ................................................................................................... 78 To replace caisson.................................................................................................... 78 Sliding caissons........................................................................................................ 79 To remove caisson for maintenance ........................................................................ 80 To replace caisson.................................................................................................... 80 Gate caissons............................................................................................................ 80 Figure 6-1:Floating Caisson..................................................................................... 81 Figure 6-2:Sliding Caisson ...................................................................................... 82 7 Sequence of events in the design and construction of a warship................................... 83 Research and development ...................................................................................... 83 Design stage ............................................................................................................. 84 Tendering stage........................................................................................................ 86 Building stage .......................................................................................................... 86 Preparatory work...................................................................................................... 87 Work at the building slip.......................................................................................... 87 Fitting-out ................................................................................................................ 88 Inspection and trials ................................................................................................. 90 Record of weights .................................................................................................... 92 Figure 7-1................................................................................................................. 93 8 Planning and scheduling: network analysis ................................................................... 94 Network scheduling of main structure weldments................................................... 99 Figure 8-1:Network Analysis................................................................................. 102 Figure 8-2:Network Schedule for Hull Weldments ............................................... 103 9 Materials, their properties, uses and treatment ............................................................ 104 Structural materials ................................................................................................ 104 Wood...................................................................................................................... 104 Khaya. .................................................................................................................... 105 Agba....................................................................................................................... 105 Steel........................................................................................................................ 105 Steel sections.......................................................................................................... 106 Aluminium alloys................................................................................................... 106 Plate thickness........................................................................................................ 106 Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) .......................................................................... 107 Components ........................................................................................................... 107 Properties ............................................................................................................... 107 Moulding processes ............................................................................................... 108 Application to ship construction ............................................................................ 108 Treatment of steel structural materials................................................................... 109 Lifting and slinging................................................................................................ 110 Shot blasting, pickling and the application of temporary protectives to steel ....... 110 Metallic materials for systems and fittings ............................................................ 111 Materials for anchors and cables............................................................................ 112 Nuts and bolts ........................................................................................................ 112

Wire ropes.............................................................................................................. 112 Figure 9-1Steel Sections ........................................................................................ 118 Part II .............................................................................................................................. 119 Structure.......................................................................................................................... 119 10 Framing ...................................................................................................................... 120 Double bottom ships .............................................................................................. 121 The Keel................................................................................................................. 121 Longitudinals ......................................................................................................... 122 Transverse framing ................................................................................................ 123 Single-bottom ships ............................................................................................... 123 Framing in way of hawse pipes ............................................................................. 124 Figure 10-1:Framing in double bottom ship .......................................................... 125 Figure 10-2:Framing in single bottom ship ........................................................... 126 Figure 10-3:Details of Connections ....................................................................... 127 Figure 10-4:Framing in way of Hawse Pipes ........................................................ 128 11 Outer bottom plating .................................................................................................. 129 Figure 11-1:Part Outer bottom expansion.............................................................. 131 12 Inner bottom plating................................................................................................... 132 Figure 12-1:Part inner bottom expansion .............................................................. 134 13 Decks.......................................................................................................................... 135 Wood planking....................................................................................................... 137 Figure 13-1Part plan ForeCastle ............................................................................ 139 Figure 13-2:Compensation at Hatch Opening ....................................................... 140 14 Bulkheads................................................................................................................... 141 Transverse watertight bulkheads............................................................................ 141 Longitudinal bulkheads.......................................................................................... 142 Minor bulkheads .................................................................................................... 143 Figure 14-1:Typical Transverse W.T.Bulkheads................................................... 144 Figure 14-2:Typical Longitudinal Bulhead ........................................................... 145 15 Beams, brackets and pillars........................................................................................ 146 Beams and brackets................................................................................................ 146 Pillaring.................................................................................................................. 147 Figure 15-1:Pillaring.............................................................................................. 149 Figure 15-2:Auxillary Machinery Support ............................................................ 150 16 Machinery seatings .................................................................................................... 151 Engine bearers........................................................................................................ 152 Erection of machinery seatings.............................................................................. 152 Boiler seatings........................................................................................................ 153 Figure 16-1:Machinery Seatings............................................................................ 155 Figure 16-2............................................................................................................. 156 17 Watertight subdivision ............................................................................................... 157 Figure 17-1:Air Craft Carrier-WaterTight-Sub-Division ...................................... 160 Figure 17-2:Guided Missile Destroyer-WaterTight Sub-Division ........................ 161 18 Watertight doors, hatches, etc.................................................................................... 162 Figure 18-1:Standard W.T.Door ............................................................................ 165 Figure 18-2:W.T.Door to Protective BKD ............................................................ 166

Figure 18-3:Typical Hatch in W.T.Deck ............................................................... 167 Figure 18-4:Protective Deck Hatch ....................................................................... 168 Figure 18-5:Side Scuttle ........................................................................................ 169 Figure 18-6:Pipe & Rod Glands in W.T.Bulkheads .............................................. 170 Figure 18-7:Cable Glands in Water-Tight BulkHeads .......................................... 171 19 The stem and stern ..................................................................................................... 172 The stem................................................................................................................. 172 The stern................................................................................................................. 172 Figure 19-1:Welded Stem ...................................................................................... 174 Figure 19-2:Welded Stem Twin Screw Ship ......................................................... 175 20 Propeller shaft supporting arrangements ................................................................... 176 Stern tube arrangements......................................................................................... 177 Shaft brackets......................................................................................................... 178 Figure 20-1:Propeller Shaft Assembly................................................................... 180 Figure 20-2:Stern Tube & Fabricated End Fittings ............................................... 181 Figure 20-3:Shaft Brackets .................................................................................... 182 21 Supports to weapon and director seats....................................................................... 183 Figure 21-1:Gun Support Structure ....................................................................... 185 22 Superstructures........................................................................................................... 186 Figure 22-1:Super Structure................................................................................... 187 23 Bilge keels and side docking keels ............................................................................ 188 Bilge keels.............................................................................................................. 188 Side docking keels ................................................................................................. 190 Figure 23-1:Bilge Keel-Frigate.............................................................................. 191 Figure 23-2:Docking Keel-AirCraft Carrier .......................................................... 192 Part III: ............................................................................................................................ 193 Building processes .......................................................................................................... 193 24 Metal arc welding ...................................................................................................... 194 Introduction............................................................................................................ 194 Welding processes ................................................................................................. 195 Manual Metal ARC Process................................................................................... 195 Submerged ARC process ....................................................................................... 196 Automatic continuous covered electrode process.............................................. 197 Gas shielded bare wire process .............................................................................. 197 Tungsten inert gas welding (tig) ............................................................................ 198 Machine stud welding ............................................................................................ 198 Process selection and planning .............................................................................. 199 Weldability............................................................................................................. 200 Types of joints........................................................................................................ 202 Butt joints............................................................................................................... 202 Fillet Joints............................................................................................................. 203 Intermittent fillet welds.......................................................................................... 204 T Butt joints ........................................................................................................... 204 Prepared fillet welds .............................................................................................. 204 LAP joints .............................................................................................................. 204 Application to ship structures ................................................................................ 204

Workmanship and supervision............................................................................. 205 Joint preparation..................................................................................................... 206 Weather conditions ................................................................................................ 206 Pre-heating ............................................................................................................. 206 Assembly and transport of weldments................................................................... 206 Minor weld deposits and stray arcing .................................................................... 206 Back-gouging......................................................................................................... 207 Cleaning between weld faces in multi-pass welds................................................. 207 Replacement of defective welds ............................................................................ 207 Distortion ............................................................................................................... 207 Weld defects........................................................................................................... 210 Dimensional defects............................................................................................... 210 Incorrect weld profile............................................................................................. 210 Undercutting .......................................................................................................... 210 Overlapping............................................................................................................ 210 Surface irregularities.............................................................................................. 211 Material defects...................................................................................................... 211 Parent metal cracks ................................................................................................ 211 Weld metal cracks.................................................................................................. 211 Incomplete fusion................................................................................................... 211 Slag and other non-metallic inclusions .................................................................. 212 Gas inclusion.......................................................................................................... 212 Non-destructive examination of welds .................................................................. 212 Safety in welding ................................................................................................... 214 Welding of aluminium alloys................................................................................. 215 Electric welding equipment ................................................................................... 216 Manual metal arc welding with covered electrodes............................................ 216 D.C. Equipment ..................................................................................................... 216 A.C. Equipment ..................................................................................................... 217 Electrical circuit for manual metal arc welding..................................................... 217 Automatic and semi-automatic welding processes ................................................ 218 Submerged arc and continuous covered electrode processes ................................ 218 Gas shielded consumable bare electrode processes ............................................... 219 Figure 24-1:Welding Process................................................................................. 219 Figure 24-2:Typical Butt Joints ............................................................................. 221 Figure 24-3:Typical TEE Butt Joints..................................................................... 222 Figure 24-4:LAP Joints.......................................................................................... 223 Figure 24-5Sequence for Welding Framing to Plating .......................................... 224 Figure 24-6:Typical Welded Connections ............................................................. 225 Figure 24-7:Orthogonal Stiffener Interconnection ................................................ 226 Figure 24-8:welding Positions ............................................................................... 227 Figure 24-9:Common Weld Defects...................................................................... 228 Figure 24-10:Typical Shop or Berth Distribution Scheme .................................... 229 Figure 24-11:Welding Circuits .............................................................................. 230 25 All welded construction by prefabricated method ..................................................... 231 Sequence of processes in prefabrication of the hull............................................... 232

Division of hull into weldments............................................................................. 232 Information required for planning ......................................................................... 232 Development of shape of components................................................................... 233 Methods of construction of prefabricated main hull weldments ........................... 234 Maintenance of form of weldments ....................................................................... 236 Sequence of welding .............................................................................................. 236 Transport of weldments ......................................................................................... 237 Scheme of erection of weldments on the slip ........................................................ 238 Method of joining weldments at the slip................................................................ 238 Figure 25-1:Disposition of Weldments.................................................................. 241 Figure 25-2:D.B. Weldments................................................................................. 242 26 Plate development, marking off and mocking up ...................................................... 243 Plate development.................................................................................................. 243 The mean normal method ...................................................................................... 243 Centre spot squaring method ................................................................................. 247 Marking-off plates from development sheets ........................................................ 250 Marking off flat plates from framing sheets ......................................................... 250 Optical marking of plates..................................................................................... 251 Mocking up ............................................................................................................ 252 Figure 26-1:Plate Development Mean Normal Method ........................................ 254 Figure 26-2:Plate development Centre Spot Squaring method.............................. 255 Figure 26-3............................................................................................................. 256 Figure 26-4:Framing Sheet for D.B Weldment ..................................................... 257 Figure 26-5:Mocking Up a Sheel Plate.................................................................. 258 27 Small scale lofting for automatic cutting machines................................................... 259 Automatic ratio oxygen cutting machines ............................................................. 260 Frame bending ....................................................................................................... 261 Figure 27-1:Plate Cutting Machine........................................................................ 262 Figure 27-2............................................................................................................. 263 28 Shaping of plates and frames with curvature............................................................. 264 Plating .................................................................................................................... 264 Keel plates.............................................................................................................. 265 OB and IB plates.................................................................................................. 266 Moderate curvature or twist ................................................................................... 266 Heavy curvature or twist........................................................................................ 266 Framing .................................................................................................................. 267 Plate rolls ............................................................................................................... 268 Figure 28-1:Shaping of Keel Plates ....................................................................... 270 Figure 28-2:Shaping of O.B.Plates ........................................................................ 271 Figure 28-3:Shaping by Puckering Method........................................................... 272 Figure 28-4:Stem Plate Shaped by Rolling & Puckering ...................................... 273 Figure 28-5:Plate Bending Rolls............................................................................ 274 29 History of a weldment................................................................................................ 275 Assembly of the weldment using the cradle construction method ........................ 276 Erection at the slip ................................................................................................. 277 Figure 29-1:Line out of Welding grid & Arrangement for Cradle Construction .. 279

30 Sighting through centre line of shaft.......................................................................... 280 Figure 30-1:Sighting in centre line of Shaft .......................................................... 282 31 Testing of compartments............................................................................................ 283 Water testing .......................................................................................................... 283 Air testing............................................................................................................... 284 Air test of citadel.................................................................................................... 285 Figure 31-1:Water Testing of Compartments ........................................................ 287 32 Maintenance of form whilst building......................................................................... 288 Figure 32-1:Plumbing & Horning BulkHead ........................................................ 294 Figure 32-2:Section of SternWeldment ................................................................. 295 Figure 32-3:Fabrication of Weldments.................................................................. 296 33 Fabrication of ring bulkhead structure and machining of weapon seatings............... 297 Fabrication of ring bulkhead weldment ................................................................. 297 Datum levels and lines ........................................................................................... 298 Planing roller path seatings.................................................................................... 299 Tilt test ................................................................................................................... 300 Figure 33-1:Clinometer.......................................................................................... 301 Figure 33-2:Datum Levels ..................................................................................... 302 34 Deflection of the ship................................................................................................. 303 Sighting battens method......................................................................................... 303 Telescope method .................................................................................................. 304 Figure 34-1:Deflection of ship............................................................................... 306 35 Prevention of deterioration of the structure ............................................................... 307 Corrosion................................................................................................................ 307 Oxidation or Rusting.............................................................................................. 307 Galvanic corrosion ................................................................................................ 307 Protection against oxidation................................................................................... 308 Protection against galvanic corrosion .................................................................... 311 Fouling ................................................................................................................... 313 Steel vessels ........................................................................................................... 313 Wooden vessels...................................................................................................... 314 Figure 35-1:Galvanic corrosion ............................................................................. 315 Figure 35-2:Cathodic Protection............................................................................ 316 Part IV:............................................................................................................................ 317 Fitting out Ship systems and equipment ......................................................................... 317 36 Main propulsion machinery and auxiliaries............................................................... 318 Steam turbine machinery ....................................................................................... 318 Turbines ................................................................................................................. 318 Main boilers ........................................................................................................... 319 Diesel machinery ................................................................................................... 320 Gas turbines ........................................................................................................... 322 Combined propulsion plants .................................................................................. 323 Auxiliary machinery .............................................................................................. 324 Electrical generators............................................................................................... 324 Air conditioning plants ........................................................................................ 325 Evaporators ............................................................................................................ 325

Other auxiliaries..................................................................................................... 326 37 The propeller.............................................................................................................. 327 Fixed pitch type...................................................................................................... 327 Controllable pitch type........................................................................................... 329 Figure 37-1:Propeller Features .............................................................................. 331 Figure 37-2............................................................................................................. 332 38 Salt water system ....................................................................................................... 333 Pumping, flooding and draining ............................................................................ 333 Valves .................................................................................................................... 335 Seacock or valve .................................................................................................... 335 Screw-down valve.................................................................................................. 336 Screw-down non-return valve................................................................................ 336 Screw-down non-return and flood valve................................................................ 336 Screw-down diaphragm valve................................................................................ 337 Plug valve............................................................................................................... 337 Butterfly valve ....................................................................................................... 337 Sluice valve............................................................................................................ 337 Screw-down and non-return drain valve................................................................ 338 Storm valve ............................................................................................................ 338 Non-return valve .................................................................................................... 338 Reducing valve....................................................................................................... 338 Constaflo units ....................................................................................................... 338 Gearing................................................................................................................... 339 Draining arrangements........................................................................................... 340 Pumping ................................................................................................................. 341 Routine suction duties............................................................................................ 341 Salvage duties ........................................................................................................ 342 Ballasting and de-ballasting................................................................................... 342 Flooding ................................................................................................................. 342 Rapid flooding ....................................................................................................... 343 Air escapes ............................................................................................................. 344 Figure 38-1:Salt Water System.............................................................................. 345 Figure 38-2:SeaCock ............................................................................................. 346 Figure 38-3............................................................................................................. 347 Figure 38-4:Ball Plug Valve .................................................................................. 348 Figure 38-5............................................................................................................. 349 Figure 38-6:Gearing to Valves............................................................................... 350 Figure 38-7:Pumping & Flooding inside Machinery spaces(Air Craft Carrier).... 351 Figure 38-8:Pumping & Flooding -Crusier............................................................ 352 39 Salt water service ....................................................................................................... 353 Pumps..................................................................................................................... 354 Sanitary arrangements............................................................................................ 354 Bathrooms .............................................................................................................. 355 Sewage treatment plants ........................................................................................ 356 Figure 39-1:Sanitary Arrangements....................................................................... 358 Figure 39-2:Plan of typical Bathroom ................................................................... 359

40 Fresh water system..................................................................................................... 360 Continuous running pump system ......................................................................... 361 Pressure tank system .............................................................................................. 361 Hot water service ................................................................................................... 362 Figure 40-1:fresh Water Service............................................................................ 363 41 Fuel oil filling arrangements...................................................................................... 364 Non-compensated furnace fuel oil system............................................................. 364 Water compensated diesel oil filling system ......................................................... 366 Ballasting/deballasting FFO system ...................................................................... 367 Figure 41-1:fuel Oil Filling Arrangements ............................................................ 369 Figure 41-2:Water Compensated Fuel Oil Filling System .................................... 370 42 Air conditioning and ventilation ................................................................................ 371 General considerations........................................................................................... 371 Design conditions................................................................................................... 372 Assessment of requirements for air. Conditioned spaces ...................................... 374 Assessment of requirements for non-air conditioned spaces................................. 374 Fan supply and natural exhaust.............................................................................. 374 Fan exhaust and natural supply.............................................................................. 375 Fan supply and fan exhaust.................................................................................... 375 Types of air conditioning plant .............................................................................. 375 Types of fans.......................................................................................................... 376 Trunking................................................................................................................. 378 Adoption of efficient shape of section ................................................................... 379 Minimization of the number of bends and changes of section .............................. 379 Layout of trunking ............................................................................................. 380 Inlets and outlets to fans ........................................................................................ 380 Outlets and inlets in trunking within the compartment.......................................... 381 Arrangements in typical compartments ................................................................. 381 Figure 42-1:Basic Air Conditioning System.......................................................... 384 Figure 42-2:Air Conditioning Plants ..................................................................... 385 Figure 42-3............................................................................................................. 386 Figure 42-4:Direction Louvre ................................................................................ 387 Figure 42-5:Typical Air Conditioning and Ventilation System ............................ 388 Figure 42-6:Plan AT.No.2 Deck............................................................................ 389 Figure 42-7:Boiler Room And Engine Rom Ventilation....................................... 390 43 Funnel uptakes ........................................................................................................... 391 Gas turbine uptakes................................................................................................ 391 Boiler uptakes ........................................................................................................ 392 Figure 43-1:GAS Turbine uptakes......................................................................... 394 44 Fire protection............................................................................................................ 395 Water flooding or spraying systems ...................................................................... 396 Magazine spraying or flooding arrangements........................................................ 396 Hangar spraying systems in aircraft carriers........................................................ 398 Smothering systems ............................................................................................... 399 Steam drenching..................................................................................................... 399 Methyl bromide and cb/refrigerant 12 installations......................................... 399

Carbon dioxide installations .................................................................................. 399 Foam systems......................................................................................................... 400 Fire-fighting equipment ......................................................................................... 402 Water supplies........................................................................................................ 402 Hose couplings....................................................................................................... 403 Fire-fighting equipment trials ................................................................................ 404 Figure 44-1............................................................................................................. 405 Figure 44-2:Section of AirCraft Carrier Hanger Spray System............................. 406 Figure 44-3:Typical Arrangements of Emergency Rising Main ........................... 407 Figure 44-5............................................................................................................. 408 45 Steering gear .............................................................................................................. 409 The steering control system ................................................................................... 409 The power system .................................................................................................. 410 Hunting Gear.......................................................................................................... 410 Figure 45-1:Electric-Hydraulic Steering Gear....................................................... 411 Figure 45-2:Operation of Hunting Gear ................................................................ 413 46 The rudder.................................................................................................................. 414 Figure 46-1:Rudder With Detachable Stock.......................................................... 417 Figure 46-2:Fabricated Rudder For Frigate ........................................................... 418 Figure 46-3:Shipping & Unshipping Rudder......................................................... 419 47 Replenishment at sea.................................................................................................. 420 Methods of transfer ................................................................................................ 420 The Derrick Method............................................................................................... 420 The Heavy Jackstay Method.................................................................................. 421 Light jackstay method............................................................................................ 421 Replenishment by helicopter.................................................................................. 422 Astern fuelling ..................................................................................................... 422 Arrangements in different ships............................................................................. 422 Figure 47-1:Fueling at Sea-Large Derrick RIG ..................................................... 425 Figure 47-2:Fueling at Sea-Jackstay RIG .............................................................. 426 Figure 47-3:Storing at Sea-Heavy Jackstay RIG ................................................... 427 Figure 47-4:Fueling at Sea-Astern RIG................................................................. 428 48 Anchor and cable arrangements................................................................................. 429 Anchoring .............................................................................................................. 431 Weighing anchor.................................................................................................... 431 Towing ................................................................................................................... 431 Being towed ........................................................................................................... 432 Survey and testing of cable gear ............................................................................ 432 Figure 48-1:Anchor & Cable Arrangements(Crusier) ........................................... 434 Figure 48-2:Anchor & Cable Arrangements G.M.Destroyer ................................ 435 Figure 48-3:Towing Arrangements........................................................................ 436 49 Capstan gear............................................................................................................... 437 Electric operated capstan gear ............................................................................... 437 Electric-hydraulic capstan gear.............................................................................. 438 Brake Gear ............................................................................................................. 439 controls................................................................................................................... 439

Windlasses ............................................................................................................. 439 Figure 49-2:Electric after Capstan ......................................................................... 442 Figure 49-3:Electric/Hydraulic after Capstan........................................................ 443 50 Accommodation, messing arrangements and sick bay .............................................. 444 Accommodation..................................................................................................... 444 Messing arrangements ........................................................................................... 446 Sick bay.................................................................................................................. 447 Figure 50-1:typical Mess for 36 petty officers ...................................................... 449 Figure 50-2:Typical cabin for three chief petty officers........................................ 450 Figure 50-3:Typical Mess for 24 junior ratings..................................................... 451 Figure 50-4:Small Ship Galley .............................................................................. 452 Figure 50-5:Class 5 Sick Bay ................................................................................ 453 51 Stowage for provisions and stores ............................................................................. 454 Cold and cool rooms .............................................................................................. 454 Provision rooms and flour stores ........................................................................... 455 Spirit room ............................................................................................................. 456 Potato and vegetable stores.................................................................................... 456 Beef screen............................................................................................................. 456 Other storerooms.................................................................................................... 456 General................................................................................................................... 457 Figure 51-1:Cold & Cool Rooms........................................................................... 458 52 Masts and spars .......................................................................................................... 459 General................................................................................................................... 459 Mast fittings ........................................................................................................... 459 Guest warp or swinging booms.............................................................................. 460 Figure 52-1:Guest Warp Boom.............................................................................. 461 Figure 52-2:Plated Mast......................................................................................... 463 Figure 52-3:Plated Mast......................................................................................... 464 53 Ships' boats, stowage, hoisting arrangements........................................................... 465 Ships' boats ............................................................................................................ 465 Types and functions ............................................................................................... 466 Materials and methods of construction .................................................................. 468 Wooden boats......................................................................................................... 468 Clinker.................................................................................................................... 469 Carvel..................................................................................................................... 469 Glass reinforced plastic boats ................................................................................ 471 Boat stowage arrangements ................................................................................... 473 Boat working arrangements ................................................................................... 473 Sea Boats................................................................................................................ 473 Foul weather pendant............................................................................................. 474 Types of davits..................................................................................................... 474 Hinged screw type.................................................................................................. 474 Gravity type ........................................................................................................... 475 Pivot torque type .................................................................................................... 475 Traversing gantries................................................................................................. 475 Lifesaving equipment............................................................................................ 476

Figure 53-1:Ships Boats......................................................................................... 477 Figure 53-2:Boats’ Crutches .................................................................................. 478 Figure 53-4:Gravity Type Davit ............................................................................ 479 Figure 53-5:Pivot Torque Davit............................................................................. 480 Figure 53-6............................................................................................................. 481 Figure 53-7:20 Man Inflatable liferaft ................................................................... 482 PartV: .............................................................................................................................. 483 Submarines...................................................................................................................... 483 54 General description .................................................................................................... 484 Figure 54-1:submarine General Arangements ....................................................... 490 Figure 54-2............................................................................................................. 492 55 The pressure hull........................................................................................................ 493 Figure 55-1:Typical Midship Section (Submarine) ............................................... 496 Figure 55-2:Torpedo Hatch Trunk......................................................................... 497 56 External structure ....................................................................................................... 498 Bridge fin assembly ............................................................................................... 498 Stern fin and tail assembly..................................................................................... 499 The casing .............................................................................................................. 500 Figure 56-1............................................................................................................. 502 Figure 56-2............................................................................................................. 503 Figure 56-3:Submarine Stern Fin Assembly-Single Screw ................................... 504 Figure 56-4:Submarine Casings............................................................................. 505 57 Prefabrication of hull structure .................................................................................. 506 Figure 57-1:Pre Fabrication of Submarine Hull .................................................... 509 58 Watertight subdivision ............................................................................................... 510 Figure 58-1:Submarine Main Transverse BulHead ............................................... 513 Figure 58-2:Submarine Watertight Door ............................................................... 514 Figure 58-3:Submarine Escape Hatch ................................................................... 515 Figure 58-4:Battery Ventilation Hull Valve .......................................................... 516 59 Ventilation and air conditioning ................................................................................ 517 Conventional submarines....................................................................................... 517 Ship ventilation, air conditioning and air purification ........................................... 517 Battery ventilation.................................................................................................. 519 Snort arrangements ................................................................................................ 520 Nuclear submarines................................................................................................ 521 Figure 59-1:Sub Marine –Ship Ventillation .......................................................... 523 Figure 59-2:submarine Exhaust Ventilation of Batteries....................................... 524 60 The telemotor system................................................................................................. 525 Figure 60-1:Telemotor System .............................................................................. 528 61 Periscope hoisting arrangements................................................................................ 529 Figure 61-1:Perescope Elevating Gear-hydraulic ram type................................... 531 62 Pumping and trimming systems................................................................................. 532 Figure 62-1:Pumoing & trimming system(Sub Marines) ...................................... 534 63 High pressure and low pressure air systems ............................................................. 535 Figure 63-1:L.P.Blower System ............................................................................ 537 Figure 63-2:H.P.Air System .................................................................................. 538

Part VI:............................................................................................................................ 539 Special types of ship ....................................................................................................... 539 64 Aircraft carriers.......................................................................................................... 540 Aviation arrangements ........................................................................................... 541 Structural design .................................................................................................... 544 Flight deck as strength deck................................................................................... 544 Hangar deck as strength deck ................................................................................ 544 Special structural features ...................................................................................... 545 Side lift opening..................................................................................................... 545 Catapult retardation structure................................................................................. 546 Services .................................................................................................................. 546 Rapid water transfer system................................................................................. 547 Figure 64-1:AirCraft Carrier.................................................................................. 548 Figure 64-2:AirCraft Carrier-Hanger Structure ..................................................... 549 Figure 64-3:Typical Electric AirCraft lift arrangement......................................... 550 Figure 64-4:AVCAT System ................................................................................. 551 65 Assault ships and landing craft .................................................................................. 552 Landing craft.......................................................................................................... 553 Landing craft personnel (LCVP) ....................................................................... 553 Landing craft mechanized (LCM) ......................................................................... 554 Figure 65-1:Assault Ship-General arrangement .................................................... 555 Figure 65-2:Assault Ship-typical structure Section ............................................... 556 Figure 65-3:Landing Craft Personnel .................................................................... 557 Figure 65-4:landing Craft Mechaniser................................................................... 558 66 Minesweepers ............................................................................................................ 559 Coastal minesweeper ............................................................................................. 559 Figure 66-1:Coastal Mine Sweeper ....................................................................... 562

Introduction
The structure of modern ships is for the greater part comprised of steel plating, sections and built-up girders inter-connected in various ways to provide sufficient strength in all parts to withstand the forces acting upon the vessel under every condition of service. Before proceeding to the study of the methods employed to achieve this object it is necessary to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the general arrangement of the structure and the functions to be fulfilled, not only by the several parts of the structure considered locally but also by the ship structure as a whole. The completed ship is required to float in a stable condition and withstand the heavy strains induced under all conditions of loading during any kind of weather. The problem of stability is treated fully in theoretical works and it is enough here to state that warships are designed with sufficient stability to render them perfectly safe in any weather conditions and allow a margin of safety against the possible effect of enemy attack. The second requirement, strength to resist straining actions, is also fully dealt with in theoretical works and a brief explanation only will be given. A warship at sea can be likened to a beam of varying section and weight per foot carrying loads such as oil fuel, gun mountings, ammunition and stores which vary both in magnitude and position, according to the type of ship and conditions of service. The forces of buoyancy the distribution of which is constantly changing according to the wave formation and the relative position of the ship on the waves support her. Sea wave systems are irregular and a full study of a ships' structural response in waves involves an understanding of a complex dynamic situation. It is usual, however, to assume a simple static condition with the ship poised on the crest or in the trough of a wave of her own length. The former case is called 'hogging' and is analogous to a beam supported in the middle and loaded at the ends, the buoyancy exceeding the weight over the amidships portion and being exceeded by the weight at the ends, the ship thereby bending to a curve convex upwards. In the trough of a wave the buoyancy exceeds the weight at the ends and is exceeded by the weight over the amidships portion. This

condition, termed 'sagging', is analogous to a beam supported at the ends and loaded in the middle. The results of such calculations indicate that the maximum bending moments are likely to occur near amidships and the maximum shearing forces at about a quarter of the length from each end. Considering any one section of the ship, the maximum direct stresses occur in those longitudinal members farthest from the neutral axis. The neutral axis at any section of the ship passes through the centre of gravity of the material comprising the section, and is usually situated at about mid-depth. Thus the topmost continuous deck or 'strength deck', the upper strake of the shell plating each side called the 'sheer strake', the vertical and flat keels, the lowest strakes of outer bottom and inner bottom plating, and the longitudinals on the flat bottom, are generally thicker than the other strength members of the section. The thickness of longitudinal bulkheads, which are usually designed to afford protection to machinery, magazines or shell rooms, is not governed by this general rule; such bulkheads contribute significantly to longitudinal strength, however, and thereby serve a dual purpose in the design. Regarding the structure as a whole the bending moments decrease towards the ends so that, broadly speaking, the longitudinal structure gradually decreases in strength from that amidships. The stresses are calculated for typical sections of the ship and if found to be too high, by comparison with other ships, those members which contribute the most to strength are suitably increased in thickness. When carrying out such calculations on longitudinal strength only those members of the structure, which are continuous for a considerable portion of the length of the ship, should be taken into account. The actual longitudinal deflection experienced is quite appreciable, amounting to several inches in the whole length but occurring well within the limits of elastic strain. Longitudinal stresses are highest at the corners of the section and consequently the sheer strakes, and the outermost strakes of the deck plating called the 'stringer plates', are made thicker than the neighbouring strakes. The ability of the structure to withstand longitudinal bending is assessed by comparing the stresses calculated for these two conditions, assuming the heaviest loading to be expected in each case, with stresses obtained for previous successful ships. The more severe shearing forces occur in the neighbourhood of the neutral axis at positions about one-quarter the length from each end. The connections of the various members at these positions require to be well designed to ensure that they fulfill their functions adequately. Racking

strains, tending to change the transverse form of the ship, are set up when the ship rolls heavily, and are resisted by the main transverse bulkheads and the connections between the beams and frames. Two other structural straining actions to which the ship is subjected are of sufficient importance to merit special consideration, viz. launching and docking. During the launch of a vessel the structure undergoes a change in the distribution of the forces supporting her, and temporary internal fortification is fitted to prevent any undue strain, which might arise at those positions where the greatest forces occur during launch. When a vessel is docked the weight of those portions which overhang the blocks causes tensile forces in the decks. To lessen the distortion, which would otherwise occur, the sides and bottom are properly supported by shoring as the water recedes. These 'two cases are dealt with more fully in later chapters. Local considerations give rise to the necessity for additional strength over short portions of the structure. At the forward end of the ship the side plating undergoes a 'panting’ action, i.e. an in-and-out working due to the impact of the seas, and the plating and side framing are strengthened to counteract this, particularly over the bottom at about one fifth of the length from the bow, generally known as the 'slamming area'. More massive framing is required to support heavy concentrated weights such as gun mountings, engines, boilers, etc. and to withstand the stresses due to gunfire and propeller thrust. No rigid rules can be quoted for the strength of warships, each portion of the structure requiring consideration from several points of view. The structure must be so arranged that no sudden discontinuities of strength occur, otherwise stress concentrations and serious local strains may result. Succeeding chapters will illustrate for instance how all longitudinal girder forms are gradually tapered before termination to avoid such discontinuities and how openings in decks must be strengthened. There are many aspects of the design of warships, which make the problem different from that of merchant ships. The layout of compartments is necessarily different in order to incorporate such items as righting equipment, armament and ammunition, and to provide protection, as far as possible, for items of greater importance, A higher standard of watertight subdivision is required to allow at margin of safety in the event of damage by gunfire, underwater explosion or aerial -attack. In comparing construction, therefore, it is advisable to adhere to one type, except in matters of principle, as for instance schemes of riveting and welding, methods of obtaining water tightness, general principles of ships' services, etc.

To indicate to the less experienced student the arrangement of the structure, a diagrammatic outline sketch is given showing the principal strength members of the structure. The object of this drawing is merely to indicate the positions of the principal components of the structure. It does not actually resemble the arrangement of the structure in any particular type of warship. Two methods of working the beams and deck girders are shown, one in which the beams are deeper than the girders and slotted over the latter and the other precisely the reverse. It does not follow that either method is applicable to any deck, this being a matter for consideration of local conditions in the ship. Two decks are shown, but there will be more or less than two according to the position in the ship and again according to the type of ship, e.g. in destroyers there is only one deck above the machinery spaces, whilst in large ships there may be two or three. Superstructure and bridge decks are not shown as generally these are designed so as not to contribute to structural strength. In the interests of space available and the need to emphasize only the broad principles of construction no attempt has been made to present the sketches provided in the book to the requirements of Defence Specifications 33A, such as third angle projection, one drawing being confined to one part, and scale accuracy. The sketches do, however, conform to the usual conventions for line work used in shipbuilding. For instance a plate viewed on edge is shown as a single line except where necessary to illustrate detail dimensions, and sections viewed on end are indicated by their general shape such as T for Tee Bar, but in both cases not strictly to scale. The thickness of plates is indicated in inches and built up girders are specified by the dimensions and thicknesses of the web and rider plates. Rolled sections, such as L, E, I and T bars are specified by width of flange x depth of web x weight in Ibs per foot run. Special long stalk (web) tee bars are used extensively in modern all-welded warships. A study of the midship sections given for the principal types of warship will indicate the major differences in the arrangement of the structure to meet the requirements outlined above. In comparison with other types aircraft carriers possess a more rectangular section amidships, and are heavily protected with armour against the effect of shell and bombs. They are fitted with side docking keels to lessen the transverse strains, which occur on docking. Cruisers, G.M. destroyers and frigates possess a more rounded form amidships, whilst the last two have, in addition, a long cut-up at the stern. Modern ships of these types have square cut 'transom' sterns to achieve maximum speed.

The decks and bulkheads are more numerous in a large ship, but the heights between decks are about equal in all types. The scantlings of the various portions of the structure are more or less commensurate with the size of the vessel, but the methods of connection are similar. Large ships possess an inner skin called the inner bottom, which, with the outer bottom, encloses a space called the double bottom. This space is subdivided by longitudinal and transverse plate frames into a number of cells or compartments which provide stowage for oil fuel and reserve feed water as well as affording additional protection from damage by grounding or underwater explosion. The depth available in smaller ships does not permit of an inner bottom being worked. The beams, which support the decks transversely and form strong ties between the transverse frames, are single sections or built-up sections of depth and size to suit the load supported. Similar remarks apply to the transverse frames and longitudinals outside double bottoms. In aircraft carriers deep longitudinal bulkheads, contributing largely to longitudinal strength, are worked abreast the main machinery spaces to divide the latter from the wing oil fuel tanks and watertight compartments and to provide underwater protection. Pillars are incorporated in the general arrangement of the structure to assist the beams and deck girders in supporting particularly heavy loads and to distribute the forces due to gunfire. The sketches accompanying the chapters, which follow, have not been prepared accurately to scale although they are, generally speaking, in proportion individually. The text on each subject is followed directly by the sketches relevant to that subject. For clearness of description structural scantlings have been omitted, as far as possible, from the text and where necessary the reasons underlying the principles adopted are given.

Figure 0-1:strains experienced by ships

Figure 0-2:Midship Section Frigate

Figure 0-3: Midship Section Frigate

Conversion factor

Part 1: General

1 Shipyard layout and facilities
Most of the shipbuilding centres in the traditional shipbuilding countries are developments of areas chosen many decades ago which were then considered to be the best for technical and economic reasons, such as proximity to sources of raw materials and centres of population. The greatly improved methods of transport and building techniques and, most recently, the rapid growth in the size of ships, render the sites of some shipyards far from ideal. The majority of shipyards in the United Kingdom are situated on narrow rivers and, even though the building slips are angled acutely to the river frontage, the launching run is shorter than desirable and in some cases limits the size of ship that can be built. Similarly an inability to extend existing slipways and machine shops has limited the capacity to deal with large ships and prevented the layout and shape of the yard from being developed on the most efficient lines. Given a completely new site with suitable civil engineering and economic conditions, adequate width and depth of water and protection from the weather, it should not be a difficult task to produce the 'ideal' shipyard. Except that a free choice of site or the necessary capital rarely present themselves so that in creating a new shipyard or modernizing an existing one it is usually necessary to accept a compromise arrangement depending on all such aspects. Some idea of the working of a modern shipyard can be obtained by studying a typical layout, noting the various departments and following the sequence of events during the building of a ship. Such a layout is shown in the sketch. When a shipyard is awarded a contract to build a ship, a period of time is required be-fore building can commence, during which the various departments are engaged in collating information and acquiring materials and equipment, starting with -the steel plates and sections of the hull. The planning department has to produce a programme, which incorporates the activities of all departments in order to complete the ship by the contract date. This programme needs to be related to those for other ships in the yard programme in order that the shipyard's resources may be allocated to the best advantage. To ensure that the production departments receive their drawings when required, the drawing offices prepare schedules for the preparation, submission, approval and issue of drawings. Similarly the

purchasing department prepares programmes for the ordering and delivery of materials and equipment and the quality control department prepares programmes of inspections and tests. In both cases critical path technique may be employed to ascertain possible holding items. The sequence of events in the design and construction of the ship is described fully in a separate chapter. In the context of that chapter the building of a ship can be divided, broadly, into two stages, namely, construction on the building slip and fitting out. For the latter stage, when the ship is afloat, a wet basin is necessary, though not all shipyards possess this amenity and some have to make use of a fitting out berth in the near vicinity. Suitable craneage and services such as water, compressed air and electric power at the fitting out berth are essential. , Some shipyards possess their own dry docks, but most make use of publicly owned docks in the area. The construction of the ship commences when the steel plates and sections arrive in the stockyard. The material is delivered from the steel makers either by road or rail and the plates and sections are stowed in predetermined positions, depending upon the order in which they are required for working. Plates are un-loaded and stacked horizontally by a large overhead crane of the magnet or air suction type, by which the whole operation can be conducted by two men, including the crane driver. When the plates are required for working they are stacked into a pile at the head of the captivator track. The captivator is an electrically operated trolley, which transports the plates, one at a time, to the shot-blasting machine in the plate production shop. The captivator is fitted with an electro-magnet, which lifts each plate from the stack on to itself. The plate production shop is equipped with two shot-blasting machines, one for plates which, when prepared, pass down one side of the shop, and the other for sections which pass down the other side. These machines are fitted with an automatic paint spray attachment so that as the plates are blasted, they are immediately coated with the specified primer. This primer ensures that the steel is preserved against corrosion immediately it has been cleaned of mill scale and rust by the shot-blasting process. At this stage any visual defects in the material can be detected and if necessary the material is rejected. Heavy and light rolls are provided adjacent to the plate shotblasting machine to straighten plates that may become wavy during their passage through this machine. From this stage the plates and sections pass further into the production bays where they are fashioned into the shapes required for building into the prefabricated units. Plates are cut to shape on automatic burning machines,

which usually operate nowadays on a tenth scale system. The loftsman in the tenth scale mould loft produces transparencies, i.e. small sketches one tenth of the size of the actual piece to be cut, and these are placed on a perspex table in the control room associated with the burning machine. The burning heads on the machine are controlled by a photoelectric eye, which follows the lines on the transparencies. Flat plates can. be edge-prepared for welding on these machines, i.e. the plate is actually cut with a prepared edge. On leaving the machine these flat plates are dressed and stacked in piles in a cross handling bay in readiness for fitting into the prefabricated units. Plates which require to be curved, e.g. some of those for the outer and inner bottom and gun supports are passed to the bending machines, which could be in the form of large or small rolls, or large or small presses. A large edge-planing machine is provided for the preparation of edges for welding. This machine can only be used for straight edges, so that plates with a shaped profile have to be edge-prepared in the automatic burning machine. Steel sections required for frames, beams and girders are bent to their required shapes in a cold frame bending machine. Now a days bars or plates are seldom worked hot. Other machines for other processes, such as cutting machine, guillotine, shears (large and small), punching machine, drilling machine, hand operated profile burning machine and small planing machine are necessary, according to the item being worked. All these machines are sited in such a manner as to allow sufficient space for handling and ensure a continuous flow of material through the production shop. When all the components required for assembling into the prefabricated units have been prepared, they are transferred by overhead travelling cranes into the prefabrication shop. In deciding on the size of unit account must be taken of| the capacity of the overhead cranes and of the trolleys which transfer the units to the slip. To assist in maintaining form in the assembly of the units, shaped grids and jigs are erected on which fabrication takes place. For instance, a standard grid for deck units is made, hollowed to the camber of the deck. Jigs are constructed in such a way that they can be adjusted for any likely shape. The prefabrication shop contains all the necessary services such as compressed air and electric current, burning and welding equipment and pneumatic cutting and caulking tools. Each unit is assembled in such a manner as to enable the maximum amount of welding to be carried out in the down hand position and as much welding as possible is completed in the shop. When complete, the unit is transported to the building slip on a large trolley. The building slip and the processes of assembly of the hull there are described elsewhere.

The foregoing briefly describes the facilities necessary for the construction of the main hull of a ship. The fitting-out of the ship usually commences prior to launching at a convenient time when sufficient structure has been completed to enable this operation to commence economically. Some of the smaller items of equipment and a large proportion of the fittings required in the fitting-out by the various trades in the shipyard, i.e. fitters, boilermakers, pipe workers, joiners, sheet iron workers, smiths and shipwrights, are manufactured on site. For this purpose additional shops to those mentioned previously are provided. In addition various store houses are necessary. The principal buildings involved are: Engine shop. This usually consists of a light machine section, heavy machine section, erection bay and test bay. The light machine section produces small components for engines and gearing, such as valves, valve boxes, coupling bolts, pads, studs, nuts and flanges and is equipped with capstan and turret lathes, drilling machines and grinding machines. The heavy machine section may, ac-cording to the size of the shipyard, produce such large components as propeller shafting, rudder stocks, turbine and diesel engine casings and gear boxes and is in any event equipped with shafting and turbine lathes, boring machines, lathes, gear wheel cutting machines, drilling machines and grinding machines. The components for the engines and gear boxes are erected in the erection bay ready for shop trials in the test bay. Boiler shop. This produces funnels and funnel uptakes and also deals with the bending, pressing and welding operations required for the Engine shop. It may also produce the actual boilers. It is equipped with bending machines, pressing machines, guillotines, drilling machines, mechanical saw, rolling and flangining machines, welding machines and annealing furnaces. Blacksmiths' shop. Since the introduction of cold bending machines into ship-yards the blacksmith's role in the building of a ship has lessened somewhat, but he still has a part to play in the production of fittings which require to be forged. The plant includes a drilling machine, buffing machines, profile burner, forges, electric power hammer, hydraulic rams and hydraulic testing machine for chain cable, etc. Sawmills. This workshop carries out the rough preparation of timber for the use of shipwrights and joiners such as that for furniture, wooden templates, patterns, launching cradles and ways, shores, blocks, etc. It is equipped with

large and small circular saws, band saws, cross cutting machines and planing machines. Joiners’shop. This produces wooden furniture, desks, benches, cupboards cabinets, wardrobes, etc. panelling and lining to compartments, false floors, ceilings, timber grounds for lining and ceilings, wood gratings, etc. It is equipped with plane machines, cutting machines, band saws, jointing machines, facing edgers, circular saws, cross cutting machines, turning lathes, jalousie machines, belt drum and disc sanding machines, grinding machines, portable band saw and plastic bending machines. Included in the joiners' shop is a section in which french polishing is carried out. Pipe shop. Cleanliness of the pipe systems fitted in a modern warship is most important for the efficient functioning of the ship, i.e. to prevent failure of a system which could jeopardize her fighting efficiency at a crucial moment. For this reason it is essential that great care be taken in the manufacture and installation of pipes to ensure that they are free from defects and maintained in a thoroughly clean condition. The sketch shows a typical arrangement of a pipe shop in a modern shipyard. The path of the pipes as they are processed, from the storage area to the dispatch area, is indicated by arrows. For each pipe manufactured a sketch sheet is made out which states the system for which it is destined, material, test pressure, machining required, number of pipe and any other information relevant to manufacture. This sheet accompanies the pipe through its various processes and is initialled by the inspector when manufacture is complete. Each pipe undergoes a hydraulic test pressure and one of the flanges is stamped with this test pressure, system identification, number of pipe, date and inspector's initials. The pipe then passes through the cleaning process and on completion the ends are blanked. The blanks are not removed until installation commences at the ship. A separate shop is provided alongside the main pipe shop for the production of small-bore pipes. Light plate shop. This produces articles made of sheet steel or aluminium such as furniture, benches, lockers, ventilation trunking, doors, metal gratings, cable tray, light metal and wire mesh bulkheads. The shop is equipped with light shearing machines, guillotine, pressing machines, drilling machine, flanging and bending machines and plant and tools for welding, burning, riveting, pop riveting, etc.

Stores. These may consist of a general store, timber store, joiners and furniture store, electrical store, cable store and engineers' store. In addition most ship-yards possess an outfit store in which all items of equipment which are supplied by sub-contract are stored before they are required for fitting into the ship. The sketch of a shipyard layout given is typical of a shipyard in which the fabrication shop is some distance from the building berth so that the prefabricated weldments have to be moved by special transporters and cranes to the ship for assembly. A modern development of the system of building, viz. building in a dry dock, which in effect is a continuation of the main assembly line of the fabrication shop, is described briefly in the chapter on the building slip.

Figure 1-1:Shipyard Layout

Figure 1-2:Plate production Shop

Figure 1-3:Pipe Shop layout

“Setting up the Ship”

2 The building slip
The chief factors influencing the choice of a suitable site for a slipway are the hardness of the ground, sufficient depth and width of water for the safe launching of vessels, direction of tideway and the variation in height of tide. If the ground is so soft as to be incapable of sustaining the weight of the vessel it must be piled over those areas which support the ship during building and launching, i.e. under the positions to be occupied by the building blocks upon which the vessel is built and under the groundways down which she is launched. This is necessary to ensure that no subsidence of the ground will occur, particularly during the actual launch when a deformation of the ways might have disastrous consequences. Usually it is necessary only to pile the lower end of the slipway since the greatest pressures experienced during the launch occur there. The strength, arrangement and extent of the piling necessarily depend upon the launching weight of the heaviest ship expected to be built on the slip. If it is desired to build a vessel much heavier than that for which an existing slip is designed, the question of additional piling will need consideration. The depth of water into which vessels are to be launched must be adequate to suit the maximum draught of the vessel during her travel down the slipway, ob-serving that it may be desired to launch vessels at tides lower than high tide. Dredging of the sea or river bed may be necessary initially and at subsequent intervals. The width of water must be sufficient to ensure the vessel does not ground and to permit her being manoeuvred by tugs. Consistent with the foregoing conditions, if the direction of the slipway is chosen as nearly as possible east and west, magnetization of the structure by the earth's magnetic field is minimized and this has two advantages. First, it lessens the corrections which have to be made to the magnetic compasses and, secondly, it lessens the risk of the ship setting off magnetic mines. In the royal dockyards the floors and sides of the large building slips are constructed of masonry, a typical slope of floor being 4/6 1/4 inches to a foot, descending partly below and projecting partly above the sea level. Baulks of oak 12-in x 6-in section, called 'land ties,' are set in the floor across the slip at intervals of 5 ½ feet, their upper surfaces being flush with the floor. The land ties are used for securing ways, building blocks, shores, etc. and are convenient for the permanent marking of reference lines used in

building by inserting screws with their slots in the line which they represent. The pictorial sketch of a portion of the slip indicates the general arrangement of the building blocks and ground-ways. The groundways The groundways must be laid at such slope that the component of the launching weight down the ways is amply sufficient to overcome the initial friction of the grease on the ways plus the force required to trip a certain number of building blocks which are usually kept in place at the forward end of the ship. The number of blocks tripped is decided by experience of previous launches and the tendency of the vessel to ' creep' after setting up. Further, the component of weight down the ways must be amply sufficient to overcome the friction of the grease plus the resistance of the water in the final stages of launch. If the ways are cambered the effect of the camber must be considered concurrently. On the other hand the slope must not be excessive, otherwise the fore end of the vessel will be at considerable height above the ground, thus increasing the amount of staging and supports required, and making the forces on the holding and releasing arrangements and on the fore poppets undesirably large. The groundways are built up of baulks of fir about 12 in square section, laid tier on tier crosswise and surmounted by a 'sliding plank' of teak 4 in thick. They extend down as far as the low-water mark and parts of them are thus covered by the water almost all the time. At the after end, where considerable pressure occurs in the later stages of launch, they are built solid. The upper surface of the ways is not plane, but is curved upwards longitudinally to an arc of a circle of great radius, i.e.' cambered.' The camber is measured by the amount, which the top of ways rises above the chord, and for a cruiser is about 8 in in 900 ft. The camber may be as much as 18 or 24 in 700 ft. Although cambering of the ways was introduced originally with the object of avoiding any possibility of the ways becoming hollow due to the ground subsiding, its other effects are more important. It decreases the initial velocity and increases the final velocity of launch. Compared with ways having no camber the ship takes the water at an increased angle with the result that the buoyancy and moment of buoyancy about the fore poppet are increased, and hence the stern lifts earlier, i.e. the vessel has not to travel so far before the moment of buoyancy about the fore poppet becomes equal to the moment of weight about the fore poppet. At this position and thereafter the stern gradually lifts until the ship finally leaves the ways. It is clear, therefore, that by cambering the ways shorter groundways can be adopted.

It should be noted, however, that camber of the ways is not essential and re-verse camber may be adopted for other reasons, although such cases are rare. Hollow ways may be used when the launching draught of the vessel is not much less than the depth of water in which she is launched. The effect of reverse camber is to cause the ship to approach the water more gradually. The slope of the ways may be defined as either the slope of the chord or the tangent at the after end. In Devonport dockyard the tangent to the after end of ways is sloped at4/6 9/4 in to a foot. The spread of the groundways centre to centre is usually about one-third of the beam of the ship, and their breadth depends upon consideration of the maxi-mum safe pressure they can withstand, varying from 3 ½ ft for a G.M. destroyer or Cruiser to 1 ½ ft for a frigate. The dockyard practice is to build them of sufficient breadth and width apart, that vessels of varying size up to the largest the slip can accommodate can be launched without having to move them. For large ships, it is usual to build the groundways at least 12 in deep at the after end. Generally speaking, no alteration is necessary to the existing arrangement of groundways and building blocks unless a vessel of very different size and launching weight to the previous one is to be built. If such is the case, it is necessary to determine the height and extent of the blocks and ways suitable for the safe launch of the vessel in precisely the same manner as when the slip is originally prepared. The building blocks The building blocks support the keel and a large part of the weight of the ship. The blocks are laid midway between the groundways and are spaced the same distance apart as the land ties. To avoid the risk of the blocks tripping whilst the ship is being built, they are erected in a vertical plane and not square to the floor of the slip; as an additional precaution spur shores may be fitted between each set of blocks. These shores heel against the lower fixed block of the succeeding set of blocks. The blocks above the ground block are only temporarily secured together as they have to be removed to permit riveting, or welding, and painting of the flat keel plates to be carried out. The general practice is to include two wedges in each set of blocks to facilitate this. Wedges of the ordinary form are sometimes difficult to withdraw and it becomes necessary, particularly in the case of large ships, to resort to splitting out the blocks. This has led to the development of a collapsible sliding type block, a typical example of which is shown. Each set of blocks is surmounted by a hardwood capping piece about 6 in thick, these

being renewed as necessary when the blocks are sighted for fairness prior to laying down a new vessel. The height of blocks is decided from the following considerations: a) There must be sufficient space between the bottom of the vessel and the groundways to get the launching cradle in place, particularly amidships. b) The forefoot of the ship must not strike the floor of the slip at any position of the ship in her travel down the ways. As the ship travels down the ways the forefoot gradually approaches the floor of the slip at a rate depending upon the differences in declivity between the ways and the floor of the slip. For instance, if the ways are inclined at 4/6 9/4 in to a foot, and the slip at 4/6 1/4in to a foot then, after travelling 300 ft, the clearance between the forefoot and the slip has decreased by 300 x 8/64in. Cambering the ways has an opposing effect since the ship turns on the circumference of the circle of ways, thereby tilting the fore end upwards. This must also be accounted for. At the moment when the stern lifts and thereafter until the ship is fully waterborne, the ship hinges about the fore poppet, i.e. the fore end of the launching cradle, thus further lowering the forefoot towards the floor of the slip. If the fore poppet reaches the end of the ways before the vessel is fully waterborne, the forefoot will drop. The amount of this drop will exceed the difference between the forward draught of the vessel just before she drops off the end of ways, and when floating freely, because of the dynamical effect. If the estimated drop exceeds the clearance under the forefoot, the floor of the slip must be recessed accordingly. c) The after end must clear the sea bottom. In this respect it should be noted that the position when the stern lifts does not necessarily coincide with the position of maximum draught aft. Usually, however, there is adequate depth of water to render special investigation of this point unnecessary, and the maximum draught aft can be taken as that when the stern lifts. d) There must be sufficient height between the keel and floor of slip to allow men to work. e) The ship must clear the sides of the slip. This is quickly proved by comparing the widest section of the ship showing bilge keels and docking keels with the section of the slip. f) Consistent with the foregoing, care must be taken to avoid excessive height of blocks or there will be risk of tripping.

Dealing with the first consideration of having sufficient space between the ways and bottom of ship to allow of fitting the cradle the method adopted is as follows. Draw a profile of the ship on tracing paper showing the projection of a bow and buttock line through the inner edge of groundways as shown. Place this drawing on a profile of the slip to the same scale so that the buttock line just touches the top groundways amidships, keeping the L.W.L. at the correct declivity, which is usually about f in to one foot. Now move t he tracing up a distance equal to the combined depth of sliding ways, stopping up, slivers, grease and estimated crush of blocks. This position gives the least height of blocks amidships for getting the cradle in place. The minimum height of blocks required from considerations of the second condition that the forefoot must clear the slip is obtained as follows. The launching weight and waterline are estimated, knowing the desired extent of progress in building up to the time of launch, and by reference to any previous records of weight taken during the construction of earlier vessels of similar type. Place the tracing of the ship on the profile of the slip so that the estimated waterline coincides with the tide line and the forefoot clears the floor of the slip by the minimum permissible amount, having regard to whether the vessel may or may not drop off the end of ways. The position of the fore poppet having been chosen to permit a practicable arrangement of the cradle forward, its position can be marked. Now the point P on the keel abreast the fore poppet moves along a curve parallel to the top of groundways during launch and its height from the top of ways is constant. Set off this distance at the position occupied by the fore poppet with the ship at rest on the slip and so obtain the height of blocks required abreast the fore poppet. By simple calculation, knowing the declivity of the keel relative to the slip, the height of blocks amidships is obtained. We have thus obtained two values for the minimum height of blocks amid-ships from separate considerations, and whichever is the larger must be adopted in order that both conditions may be satisfied. This height is usually sufficient to satisfy conditions c and d.

Erection of building blocks The height of the blocks having thus been calculated, the next step is to lay the blocks so that their top surfaces lie in a true plane at the declivity of the keel. The foremost, amidships and aftermost sets of blocks are set up at their correct heights as calculated. A horizontal base is erected midway between the foremost and amidships block, and its lower edge sighted in with the top surfaces of these two sets. A set of blocks can now be built up to this height. The procedure is repeated between the amidships and aftermost sets of blocks and between successive sets as they are erected until the distance between sets will permit the use of a declivity base. This is a board, the edges of which are inclined to one another at an angle equal to the declivity of the keel, so that when it is placed over the top of the blocks the upper edge is level. Intermediate blocks are set up to the heights given by the declivity base. Finally, when all the blocks are laid, a line is stretched along the upper surface and sighted from end to end. Any unevenness is at once detected and corrected. A further check can be obtained by using the U tube described in the chapter on maintenance of form whilst building in Part III. Abaft the cut-up a gantry of fir baulks or girders has to be built to carry the blocks, which support the overhanging stern. These blocks are erected to the shape of a contour mould supplied by the mould loft floor. Equipment of the slip The slipway must be adequately equipped with the means of hoisting into position the many and various portions of structure and equipment, differing widely in size, shape and weight. Modern building berths are equipped with one or two travelling cranes on each side of the berth, having a working radius adequate to span the ship as it is assembled. These travelling cranes have superseded the previous practice of using fixed tower cranes necessarily designed with larger working radii and so positioned that their radii overlap to cover the deck area of the largest ship that can be built on the -berth. The heights of the tower cranes have to be arranged so that the arms of adjacent or opposite cranes can pass each other. Winches are fitted at the sides of the ship at appropriate

positions to facilitate the manipulation of weldments or other parts of the structure into position. As building progresses scaffolding is erected around the ship to carry staging. Steel towers with landings at 8 ft vertical intervals are provided each side of the ship to facilitate access to the staging and ship. The more important services required in the construction of a vessel are air-pressure supply for pneumatic machines, water supply for testing of compartments and in case of fire, and electricity supply for lighting and arc welding. At convenient positions abreast the slip welding 'grids' on which portions of the structure can be assembled and welded are erected. The grids are usually about 30 in high and built up of angle and other sections, the top surfaces being arranged in a horizontal plane. The legs of the grids are not permanently fixed in the ground but heel on small pieces of plate so that removal of the grids to more convenient sites is a simple matter. Each grid is separately and properly earthed for the purpose of welding and is fitted with a roof to protect the work and welding operators from the weather to a large extent. Most shipyards are now equipped with prefabrication shops, away from the slip, where the fabrication of the weldments can be carried out under complelete protection from the weather, so that only the joining operation has to be effected at the berth. At some yards, where space is not available, a compromise is strucked some weldments being assembled, sandblasted and zinc sprayed in the prefabrication shop and others on welding grids at the side of the ship. The other facilities, machine shops, smithery, stores, etc. associated with the slip are described in the chapter on shipyard layout. The above notes on the building slip constitute a general description of the arrangements in the Royal Dockyards and must not be regarded as typical of all shipyards. The construction of the building blocks and groundways, the arrangement of cranes and the general equipment of the slip vary considerably in the many shipyards in existence. In the dockyards vessels are built on the same berths, and the blocks, groundways and other arrangements are permanently fixed in position. In private shipyards, on the other hand, it is the usual practice to lay the blocks and groundways in whatever berth is vacant - or convenient It should also be borne in mind that the arrangements described above are suitable only fry launching vessels stern first. In some shipyards the tideway is not sufficiently broad to allow this and vessels have to be launched sideways. Consquently the arrangement of the slipway is entirely different.

This method, how-ever, is not used to launch warships but is sometimes used to launch small auxiliary craft. Building in dry dock The practice of building in a dry dock has been introduced in some private ship-yards in recent years. In a completely new or modernized yard circumstances such as expansion of production to ships of such size that the normal method of building on a slipway cannot be employed, because of depth of water or length of run, may be the reason for adopting the practice. In the most modern yards the building dock is arranged in line with the prefabrication hall so that the weldments, in this case being lengths of the complete section of the ship, emerge from the prefabrication hall direct into the building dock, 'conveyor-belt' fashion, each length being joined to the completed portion of the ship before moving out of the hall. The main advantage of this practice is that the usual launching arrangements and associated calculations are obviated, the completed hull merely having to be floated up and thereby subjected to less strain than by the normal launching from a slipway. Against this has to be offset the very considerable initial cost of such arrangements in a new yard, or, in existing yards, the loss of dry docking facilities.

Figure 2-1:The Building Slip

Figure 2-2:Obtaining Height of Building Blocks

Figure 2-3:Elevation of Building Blocks

3 Launching arrangements
Concurrently with the calculations to obtain the desired height of building blocks to ensure that the forefoot will not strike the slip and that there is sufficient space between the bottom and the groundways to fit the cradle, calculations are made to investigate the stability of the vessel both during and after launch. The forces acting on the vessel when travelling down the slip are the weight vertically down through the centre of gravity, the upward thrust from the groundways and the buoyancy of the water. As the travel increases the buoyancy increases and the upward thrust of the groundways correspondingly decreases, the weight being constant. When the centre of gravity passes the after end of ground-ways the moment of the weight about the end of ways tends to ' tip' the ship up by the stern. At this position and thereafter, it is most essential for the moment of buoyancy to exceed the moment of weight about the after end of the ways, thus causing a resultant moment keeping the fore end of the cradle on the ways. If this did not obtain the excess of weight over buoyancy would be concentrated at the ends of the ways, causing excessive local pressure, which might crush the bottom. If, by calculation, it is found that the minimum moment against tipping at high tide, and tides near this, does not provide sufficient margin against the risk of tipping, various means of ensuring against it may be adopted. The ways can be extended thereby increasing the travel of the ship before the centre of gravity passes the end of ways or, alternatively, the declivity of the ways 'may be increased so that the buoyancy, for the same travel, is increased. A more practical method, which avoids the considerable labour and expense involved in alteration of the groundways, is to fill some of the foremost tanks, thereby shifting the centre of gravity forward and delaying the moment when the latter passes the end of ways. This method has the added advantage of increasing the launching draught and stability when floating freely, but of course increases the pressure at the fore end of the cradle during the final stages of the launch. At a certain position of the ship in her travel down the ways the moment of buoyancy becomes equal to the moment of the weight about the fore poppet. At this position the stern lifts and continues to lift until finally the buoyancy equals the weight and the ship is fully waterborne. At the moment

when the stern lifts and thereafter the upward thrust from the ways is concentrated over the fore poppets, and calculations must be carried out to determine the maximum pres-sure on the ways. Usually this is well within the limits of safety, but if not, the width of the bearing surfaces of the ways must be increased. The above calculations are carried out for two or three heights of tide which, from previous experience, it is estimated will include the minimum height of tide for safe launching. The position of stern lift and the pressure which then occurs on the fore poppet are obtained from the launching curves constructed as shown in the sketch. Although the ship is launched at light draught the transverse stability when floating freely is usually adequate, but care is taken to secure all loose weights before launch, and any water ballast must completely fill the compartment it occupies to obviate any possible loss of stability due to free surface of the water. The strength of the ship, both as a whole and locally, must be determined, and internal fortification will usually be found to be necessary at the fore poppet as shown. The strength of the launching ways and cradle must be considered and, as mentioned previously, the suitability of the berth for the loads that have to be taken during building and launching must be investigated, additional piling and concrete being provided as necessary. Many of these theoretical investigations are unnecessary when the vessel being launched is similar in size and launching weight to previous vessels, full records being kept of the behaviour of all vessels during launch for reference purposes. We now turn attention to the practical arrangements for the safe launch of a vessel. As early as possible after building commences the sliding or bilgeways are hauled up the groundways and secured to the latter by stop cleats so that the erection of the structure in way of the flat bottom can proceed without interruption. A stop cleat is a shore about 6 ft long fitted at intervals on the inside of the sliding and groundways to keep them in their correct position. The cradle When construction has been far enough advanced, i.e. when the outer bottom compartments immediately above the ways have been water tested, the work of building up the cradle is started. Commencing from the bottom the cradle consists of the sliding ways, or bilgeways, wedges or slivers, and either the poppet board and poppets, or the stopping up. Stopping up is fitted

over the amidships portion of the cradle where there is little distance between the bilgeways and the bottom. At the forward and after ends the considerable height between the bottom and the bilgeways is bridged by the poppets which are solid baulks of fir tenoned or keyed into the poppet board at the heel and housed at the head under a special housing plate built out from the ship's side. This housing plate is secured by connecting angles and brackets to the shell plating either by welding or riveting. If the shell plating is thick, the housing plate and brackets can be welded direct. If the shell plating is thin, or if it is preferred to use riveting, the housing plate is connected, by riveting or welding, to a special launch plate riveted to the outer bottom. This latter method is illustrated in the sketch. The housing plate extends from the fore poppet as far aft as necessary, according to the form of the ship, and from that position where the section of the ship is suitable to the purpose, a housing angle only is fitted. In small vessels a housing angle only is required forward and aft and may even be in short lengths at the heads of the poppets or stopping up. For similar vessels the same sliding ways can be used repeatedly without alteration, but the poppets need to be carefully moulded for each and every vessel to ensure good fitting of the heads and heels. In many cases previously use poppets can be adapted for a new ship by slight alterations to length and bevel at the head and heel. Similar remarks apply to stopping up. New slivers are always used. The whole of the arrangements of the cradle must be designed to withstand the upward thrust from the groundways during launch. The most severe forces are experienced in way of the fore poppets where, at the moment of stern lift, the maximum pressure occurs. The riveting or welding in the launch plate and brackets connecting it to the housing plate must be adequate to with-stand the considerable shearing force acting here. The fore poppets are prevented from spreading forward by the fore-poppet cleat which is firmly bolted to the sliding ways. Similarly, the after-poppet cleat prevents the after poppets from spreading aft. Keys are fitted between the poppets and poppet cleats to prevent lateral movement of the poppets. Relative movement of the poppets is prevented by two or three steel plates about 1 ft wide called ' dagger plates,' which are se-cured to each poppet by Blake's screw bolts, and by fir packing pieces tightly fitted in the gaps between the poppets. The stopping up is usually solid throughout and built up of 20-30-ft lengths of fir baulk. For small vessels it may comprise a number of short length or vertical baulks spaced so that the baulks come under the frames of the ship. It must be trimmed to the shape of the bottom so that it bears

properly and distributes the thrust evenly. The housing angle can be omitted where the bottom is flat. To guide the sliding ways as they slide over the groundways a continuous baulk of teak or oak called the 'ribband' is securely fitted to the top of the groundways outside the sliding ways and slightly clear of the latter. The clearance increases uniformly from f in forward to1 ½ in aft in the case of a cruiser of launching weight about 4000 tons. This increase of clearance is essential to obviate any possibility of the sliding ways jamming should the ship have any tendency to move laterally during launch. Iron 'ribband keys,' about 12 in number, are inserted at intervals down the length between the ribband and sliding ways to keep them the proper distance apart, and these are not removed, except when turning out the sliding ways for greasing, until the day of launch. The ribbands are shored from the sides of the slip to resist any lateral movement of the ship, a shore being fitted at each butt. For vessels of light launching weight these ribband shores need not be fitted. To ensure against splintering as the ship slides down the ways the butts of the sliding plank and ribband are cut to slope down the slip and the edges rounded off as shown. At intervals between the two sets of sliding ways to prevent any tendency of the latter to approach each other, spread shores of fir baulk about 14-in + 7-in section are fitted. To counteract any opposite tendency tie chains fitted with a slip and screw are connected between eyebolts secured to the sliding ways. Longitudinal movement of the sliding ways over the groundways is prevented by stop cleats and the after cleat, which is firmly bolted to the groundways at the end of the sliding ways. These cleats, as we shall see later, are not removed until the day of launch, when the ship has been set up and is held only by the dog shores or trigger mechanism. A sketch is given of the sling-plate method of arranging the forward part of the launch cradle, which may be used in preference to that already described. Its advantage is that the whole of this part of the cradle is free to come away after launch. The method of building up the poppets is precisely similar, but there are no connections to the hull itself. The housing plate and brackets are riveted to sling plates wrapping around soft fir wood packing fitted between the hull and the sling plates. The number and strength of the sling plates depends upon the weight of the vessel and the extent of the poppets. For a frigate a sling plate 5 to 6 ft wide of 0.75 in plate is usually sufficient to take the foremost main group of poppets. The heads of the poppets abaft this are housed against lengths of angle bar welded to the hull. The fir packing prevents the shell plating being damaged and distributes the pressure over a large area of the bottom. For vessels of similar form the

same sling plates and poppets, etc., can be utilized by small alterations in the thickness of packing. After launch the forepart of the cradle is removed by releasing wires previously secured to the sling plates and led inboard or connected to the hull. The close fitting of the cradle and the pressure developed in launching sometimes makes the cradle adhere so firmly that it must be pulled out by tugs after launch, to make the vessel ready for docking. For this purpose steel wire hawsers are attached to the forward and after ends of the cradle and to the stopping up when all is ready for launching, the ends being led inboard on the upper deck till wanted. Whilst the fullest use is made of the structure of the ship to prevent any alteration of form under the strain borne during launch, it is necessary in large vessels to provide internal fortification, to distribute the forces over the hull. A sketch is given of a typical arrangement of temporary pillars and shoring. Such fortification is usually fitted in way of the forward and after poppets and sometimes in the main machinery spaces; over the latter the whole of the deck plating cannot be finally riveted or welded as certain areas of it may subsequently have to be removed for shipping engines and boilers. Instead the plating is secured by bolts. Greasing the ways Greasing the ways is commenced several weeks before launch or just prior to launch, depending on the method adopted in fitting the cradle. One method adopted to obviate the work of turning out the sliding ways is to fit the poppets and stopping up only approximately to shape first. They are then removed and the lubricant is applied to the groundways, inside surface of the ribbands and sliding ways. The sliding ways are then placed in position and the cradle is finally shaped to the outer bottom. Alternatively the cradle may be fitted in place first and afterwards supported in position whilst the sliding ways are 'turned out' on trestles for the application of the lubricant. In the latter case, as the application of the lubricant takes place at a later stage, there is less risk of injury to the surface of the grease. The type of grease chosen depends upon the season of the year and the estimated pressures, experiments being carried out to determine its ability to withstand the estimated maximum pressure per square foot, and suitability of coefficient of friction. The full depth of grease is made up of two layers.

The first and much deeper layer, called the 'base coat', is of comparatively solid grease and the second, called the 'slide coat', is much thinner and oily but of the same type. If there is room under the bottom of the ship, it is preferable to turn out the sliding ways inboard and thus avoid removing the ribband. If they have to be turned out, outboard stops are fitted to the groundways to ensure the ribband being replaced in its correct position. Stops must also be fitted to ensure that the sliding ways come in their correct position when replaced. It should be noted that when the cradle is built up in the first instance, allowance is made for the thickness of grease and slivers by fitting packing pieces between the sliding ways and the poppet board or stopping up. Before hauling out the sliding ways the cradle is suspended by means of hangar plates secured to the outer bottom plating and bolted to the cradle as shown. The packing pieces are then removed, the sliding ways hauled out and short shores fitted under for additional support. Shores are also erected, at the side of the sliding ways. Next the groundways are thoroughly cleaned and dried either by burning shavings on them or by blowlamps. To prevent the grease running off the ways bat-tens are fixed along the top inner edge and at the position of the ribband, projecting above the latter a distance equal to the thickness of grease required. Melted base coat is now poured and smeared over the groundways as evenly as possible to the desired thickness, and then scraped off level when cold. The base coat is then covered by a layer of slide coat. The bottom of the sliding ways is also coated with base coat and slide coat. The shores under the cradle are now removed ready for the sliding ways to be replaced. In order that the grease shall not be disturbed when sliding the bilge-ways back into place ' grease irons' are laid over the grease at intervals of about 20 ft. These grease irons consist of plates slightly longer than the breadth of the ways and 6 in wide. They are tapered in thickness and fitted with a small angle lug at the thick end to prevent them being carried with the sliding ways as the latter are hauled into place. The grease battens are removed and the sliding ways replaced to the position indicated by the stops mentioned previously. Next the grease irons are removed and the slivers inserted and driven up ' hand tight' to take the weight of the poppets or stopping up above them. If the ways have been turned out outboard the ribband and ribband shores have also to be replaced to correct position. The spreadshores can now be rigged between the sliding ways, the stop cleats replaced and the shores supporting the cradle removed. To prevent any foreign matter, dirt, bolts, etc., finding its way between the

ribband and sliding way a batten is tacked on top of the ribband with its inner edge bearing closely against the latter, recesses being cut in way of the ribband keys. Setting up the ship This is the term applied to the process of transferring the weight of the ship from the building blocks on to the groundways and is carried out by driving in the wedges or slivers of the cradle ; lifting the ship in fact just sufficient to enable the removal of the building blocks. The slivers are placed. in pairs and the usual procedure is to 'man up' each four pairs by two men, one on the inside and one on the outside of the ways. In the process of setting up these men use mauls to strike each pair of slivers in turn. For a vessel of launching weight say 4,000 tons, about 160 men are required in all to set up the ship, the setting up being done in two stages. Usually the ship is set up within the twenty-four hours preceding the launch. In the first stage the aftermost two-thirds of the length are set up and in the second stage the foremost two-thirds, so that there is an overlap of one-third over the amidships portion. This overlap is necessary as the amidships portion of the ship is much heavier per foot run than the ends, and it also ensures an even distribution of pressure on the ways. The bilge and bottom shores are set up con-currently with the cradle. The amount of setting up is a matter for experience and actual conditions at the time. It is enough to say that it should be sufficient to permit of easy removal of the majority of all the building blocks consistent with observation of the ' liveliness' of the ship. After the setting up is completed, the bolts securing the forward and after pop-pets to the bilgeways are driven. Two bolts are driven through the forward pop-pets and after poppets each side and of such length that they do not protrude into the groundways. As a final check on this latter contingency wires are drawn along between the bilgeways and groundways in way of the bolts. During and after setting up the tendency of the vessel to 'creep' is closely watched by means of creep battens registering the amount that the vessel moves down the ways by compressing the timbers holding her. This, in large measure, decides the number of blocks left under the fore end to resist the tendency to creep. After first removing the bilge, bottom and cut-up shores the removal of the building blocks is commenced from aft to forward, until such time as the vessel displays a noticeable tendency to creep. From this point onwards the remaining blocks are removed according to experience with the particular

type of release gear in use, until the creep reaches a maximum permissible amount when the remaining blocks are left, to be tripped by the ship at launch. Spur shores between these blocks are removed immediately before launch. At the last low tide before launch the ungreased portions of the groundways are cleaned, dried and greased before they again become covered. As the tide advances the after cleats, stop cleats and ribband keys are removed and placed in a conspicuous position at the head of the slip where they can be checked numerically to ensure that none remain. All connections with the ship, such as brows, electric leads, air pipes, etc., are removed and all is now ready for the actual launch. Release arrangements Several methods of releasing the ship are in use, of which two are illustrated diagrammatically in the sketch. Electrical release gear This consists of a heavy trigger T2 bearing against a specially constructed projection on the side of the sliding ways, and pivoted in the groundways. It is pre-vented from turning about its pivot by a lever L3 which is also pivoted to the groundways and whose lower end engages with a recess in the vertical arm of a second smaller trigger. The small trigger carries a lever L1 the end of which is fitted with a pin sliding in a groove circumferential to the pivot of the lever L1The lever L1 Carries a weight W at its upper end which is prevented from falling by an electrically released hook. A second safety hook is secured to the weight until just before the moment of launch as a precaution against accidental release. When the electrical release is operated the levers and triggers fall in the order L1 L2, Tl, L3 and T2, the ship moving down the ways in the direction of the arrow. Hand release gear This is similar in principle to that already described except that it is not mechanic-ally operated. The trigger is supported by the levers B, C and D, and the whole system is held in position by a flexible steel wire rope led from a shackle to the lower end of the lever D to the launching platform. A bottlescrew is fitted to the wire to adjust the tension. As a precaution against accidental release a hardwood chock is fitted under the lower end of the

lever D. This chock is removed just prior to launch and the trigger gear is operated by releasing a slip in the rope. The levers then turn about their respective pivots in the order D, C, B and finally the trigger. The ship is then free to move down the ways. With either of these last two methods there may be two or four triggers as necessary, depending upon the launching weight of the vessel and the declivity of the groundways, for it is clear that the combined arrangements must be capable of overcoming the component of the weight of the ship down the ways. Other work required for the safe launch of the vessel, of which a full description is not necessary here, is enumerated below. a) Outer and inner bottoms watertight. All manholes closed, underwater fittings screwed down or blank flanged, side-scuttles closed. b) Watertight doors and hatches to all compartments not required for access during launch closed and watertight. c) All fairleads and bollards required to be used after launch fastened off. Anchors and cables rigged for use if necessary to arrest the ship for taking in tow. The rudder is locked amidships. d) All gear cleared from under the bottom of the ship and keel blocks from the after end of the slip. The number of sets of keel blocks which are not removed, but left for the ship to trip, is indicated on a board at the head of the slip. All grease irons and ribband keys are properly numbered so that they can be accounted for on removal, by being placed, alongside their numbers, on an-other board. e) Any loose gear secured and temporary ladders and guards fitted to hatchways as necessary. f) The time of launch is decided some weeks before by estimates depending upon previous observations of tide behaviour and on the actual day of launch staffs are rigged at the after end of the slip to indicate the height of tide. By comparing the estimated tide with that registered on these staffs it can be decided whether or not the time of launch should be altered. The staffs are removed before launch. The launch All being ready and the tide having reached the desired height, the signal is given 'Stand by to launch.' The spur shores between the remaining blocks under the fore end are knocked away, the shores under the dogweights removed and the triggers taken from under the dogshores. It remains only to

sever the rope to release the dogweights on to the dogshores. Similar remarks apply in the case of other release arrangements. In the event of the ship failing to move under the force of her own weight, hydraulic jacks are used to give her initial momentum. These jacks are placed on the groundways bearing against a jack cleat recessed in the latter, and exert pressure on the fore end of the sliding ways. The ordinary means of arresting the ship after launch, when there is sufficient space of water into which she is launched, is to drop one or two anchors as necessary. This is the method used in the dockyards, but in some private yards where the ship is launched into a channel of comparatively small extent compared with her length and the distance she would travel if free, other means must be adopted, for instance, by ranging chain cable on either side of the slip, the ship having to drag these chains with her as she travels down the slip. As mentioned previously, steel ropes are secured to the bilgeways, stopping up and poppets and led inboard. When the ship is under control these ropes are passed to the tugs and used to pull the cradle clear prior to berthing the ship. In many cases this is done at more leisure on days subsequent to the launch while the ship is berthed or in dock. Sideways launching The foregoing described the arrangements for the normal stern first method of launching in this country. In some shipyards, particularly for small ships where launching takes place into narrow rivers or canals, it is sometimes necessary or preferable to launch the ship sideways. The ways in this case are usually square to the M.L. plane of the ship and are generally spaced about 10 to 15 ft apart. Ribbands are fitted to about every other one of the ways and there are several dogshores, or releasing triggers, which are simultaneously released from a central position on the landward side of the ship. The outer ends of the ways are in line and parallel to the M.L. plane of the ship to ensure that the ship clears all the ways at the same time. The ship must be launched at a considerable speed to avoid striking the ends of the ways during the large roll which the impact of the water produces. The declivity of the ways is therefore much greater than is required when launching stern first. Sideways launching has the advantage that the ship can be built on an even keel and it is supported in this position by a cradle built up in a similar way to that already described.

Figure 3-1:Forces acting during launch

Figure 3-2:Launching Cradle-Forward

Figure 3-3:Section showing stopping up and method of turning in sliding ways

Figure 3-4:Electrical launch trigger

4 Graving docks

Docking The first step is to ascertain whether the dock will accommodate the ship. For, each ship a drawing called the 'docking plan' has previously been prepared and comprises profile, deck plan and sections of the ship, indicating any projections, which might foul the dock masonry or blocks when the vessel is being docked. For example, bilge keels and propellers. The sections are drawn at the positions where the breast shores are to be fitted so that the lengths and bevels of the shores can be quickly determined for any dock in which the vessel is to be accommodated. The profile of the ship, shown on the docking plan, is placed on the blocks on the longitudinal section on the dock on the same scale, noting if the extreme ends. of the ship clear the bilge of the caisson and the head of the dock and that there are sufficient blocks to take the length of straight keel when the ship is in position. The positions of the stem, stern and cut-ups are taken from the plan and painted in white on the dock side, together with the position of any projections below the keel. In destroyers, for example, the blades of the propellers project below the straight line of the keel. Should there be any projections or fittings in way of the docking blocks, for instance the hull fittings for a bottom log, blocks have to be omitted locally. The largest section which is shown on the docking plan is placed over the section of the dock to ascertain that all side projections, such as bilge keels, gun sponsons, etc., will clear the sides of the dock or dock steps when the ship is resting on the blocks. In most docks the blocks are higher than the sill of the dock entrance and this point must not be lost sight of. The midsection of the ship is tried for clearance over the section of the dock entrance, the waterline of the ship being made to coincide with the tide line at the time of the ship entering the dock. The tide line is obtained by setting up the height of tide, obtained from tide tables, above the chart datum, which is marked on the plan of the dock entrance. In ascertaining that the keel of the ship will clear the blocks when being brought into the dock, the fore and aft trim of both the ship and blocks must be taken into account.

In many cases the top surface of the blocks is inclined towards the head of the dock, and it is necessary to make sure that the keel or any projections there from will not touch anywhere along the length. The lengths of shores are obtained from drawings in the drawing office and sent out four or five days before docking. The shores are arranged to come on bulkheads, watertight frames, decks or armour in order to prevent local straining.

The upper tier of shores, called the breast shores, are usually almost horizontal, sloping slightly upwards from the dockside to ship's side and are spaced 40 ft apart for a large ship. Shores are selected from stock as far as possible, to avoid cutting, and should be about 6 in short to allow for packing pieces and wedges. The lower shores, called the bilge shores, are generally arranged with their heads on the turn of bilge, as the name implies, and usually under the lower plate of the bilge keel as shown. These shores are erected after the dock is dry. Special' cut up' shores are fitted under the forward and after cut up to support the weight of the overhang. For submarines it was previously the practice for a diver to erect these shores under the forward and after cut ups before the dock was drained. They are now erected immediately the dock is drained. Bottom shores are fitted under the flat bottom as necessary, the heads of these being arranged on longitudinals, bulkheads or transverse frames. The number and size of shores provided varies with the size and class of ship. With capital ships the middle-line blocks are reinforced in way of concentrated weights, such as barbettes, at the after cut up, etc., except within the length of bearing on the side blocks. In the case of a submarine the waterline is usually about 2 ft below the top of the pressure hull, so that the breast shores, which are erected with their heads at about half depth of the pressure hull, cannot be got in place until the water has fallen about 7 ft. The initial operation of docking down' is therefore carried out by the use of steadying shores each side, arranged with their heads on the strongest frames of the casing above the pressure hull. Before flooding the dock previous to docking the. blocks are examined thoroughly to see that they are properly cribbed in way of the after cut up, and secured throughout. As a general rule dock blocks are sighted about every six months, and it is generally only necessary to rig a rope sighting line a day or so previous to docking to see if any slight alterations to the height of any of the blocks are necessary. When the dock is flooded the blocks must be watched carefully to see that they are not disturbed by the inrush of water, particularly those in wake of the culverts. Before the ship is brought into the dock a number of steel wires called 'tripping lines' are stretched across the dock from bollard to bollard to prevent the hawser used for hauling the ship in position from sinking to the bottom when slack, and so disturbing the blocks. These tripping lines are released and drawn in one by one as the bow approaches them.

After the dock is flooded the caisson is floated and hauled clear of the dock entrance. If the vessel to be docked has heel or considerable trim, this must be corrected by flooding or emptying suitable compartments. The ship, with the rudder locked amidships, is brought into the dock by means of hawsers at the bow and stern led through the fairleads at the ship's side to the fail-leads and capstans on the basin and dockside. The caisson is then replaced and sunk in its groove in the sill of the dock entrance. Pumping out is then commenced. The ship is kept in position in the dock by means of four steel wire guys, two at the bow and two at the stern, a jigger tackle being attached to each guy as shown in the sketch. As the level of the water falls these jigger tackles are gradually slacked as necessary to keep the ship central. To check the position of the ship a plumb-bob is suspended from the bow and stern at the centre line, and aligned with a 'mouse' floating on the water. The latter is a wooden float at the centre of a chain marked with tallies so that the mouse can be kept equidistant from the dock sides. If the stem or stern is straight and the centre line well defined the plumb-bob is not necessary. The jigger tackles must be slacked or hauled as necessary to keep the ship central. The tallies on the mouse chains must always be checked for number and position before and after rigging them across the dock. As soon as possible after the ship is in position the breast shores are hoisted over the dockside by crane and suspended above their ultimate position by means of a tackle attached to the head and led inboard and a heel rope led to a dockside bollard. When the keel is within, say, 18 in of the blocks, the pumps are stopped and a diver sent down, if considered necessary, to examine the blocks and bottom for projections. During the time the diver is down, or at the corresponding time if a diver is not employed, the shores are arranged in their proper position with the head in place on the ship's side and the heel resting on the altar of the dock. If it is judged that a shore has insufficient clearance and may jam, it should be cut before the ship sues. Suing marks are chalked on the stem and stern at the waterline, it being usual to mark two lines above that at the waterline and 6 in apart as shown. These marks are closely observed as the keel approaches the blocks to ascertain when the ship 'sues,' i.e. touches the blocks. For example, suppose the ship to be trimming by the stern, then the keel will first touch or sue at the after cut up, and at this moment the water will be observed to leave the after suing mark. When it is seen that the ship has sued aft, the aftermost breast shore each side is set up hand tight to hold her steady as she trims down to the blocks

(conversely if the ship first sues forward the foremost shores are set up hand tight). Close observation of the forward suing mark is necessary to ascertain when the ship is touching all along. After suing aft the water will be seen to rise above waterline mark forward. Hence the object of the extra marks mentioned above. Directly the water is seen to fall from its highest mark on the ship's side the ship has sued all along. A short time later this is made very clear by a wet line or band on the ship's side above the actual waterline. The remaining shores are now packed up and then the whole of the breast shores rallied up simultaneously. Later, when the dock is dry, the bilge shores and cut-up shores are erected. Head ropes are kept on the shores to prevent them falling into the dock should they become slack. The heels are examined frequently, particularly during dry weather, to ensure they remain tight. In the case of large ships with side docking keels no breast shores are necessary in a graving dock. Resting on wooden blocks the ship is insulated and to provide against damage from lightning wire hawsers are led from the ship into the water of the basin. If the vessel has ammunition on board, dry dock flooding bonnets are fitted to the inlets to magazine sea-cocks as the water recedes, the hoses being taken to the shore hydrant. Special precautions are necessary in particular cases and the following are typical. Destroyers In destroyers the propeller tip circles fall below the U.S.K. line, and it is necessary to make sure that the blocks are of sufficient height to allow the propeller blades to clear the bottom of the dock, due allowances being made for any fore and aft trim. Before entering the dock the propellers are turned so that one blade is at twelve o'clock, thus obtaining the maximum clearance. Destroyers and submarines are often docked abreast in a large dock, and to ensure the ships being kept centrally over the blocks as pumping proceeds the arrangement illustrated is used. It consists of a deal plank with two grooves, G, equidistant from the centre mark, into which the stem bars of the ships fit. Observation is kept on the mouse and centre mark. When docking abreast it is necessary to have the draughts of the two vessels within about 3 in of each other so that the vessels will sue together or nearly so. Four intermediate breast shores are fitted between the ships arranged horizontally and placed on bulkheads, decks or longitudinals.

In destroyers five shores are generally fitted under the after cut up, viz. one on the M.L., one each side under the counter, and one each side under the shaft brackets. Excessive list or trim When the list or trim cannot be corrected by rilling or emptying tanks or other means, great care must be exercised in docking. The breast shores over the position where the ship first touches must be got in position at once (but not set up) and kept ready to hold the ship should she show any tendency to list more. Sufficient clearance must be allowed between the ship's side and the heads of shores to prevent the risk of them jamming as the level of the water falls. If the vessel has excessive list it is advisable to send down a diver to see if she is centrally over the blocks. Ship with damaged bottom plating Previous to the ship being brought into the dock, the position of the damage is ascertained by a diver, and the dock blocks removed in the vicinity. When the ship is in position in the dock a diver is again sent down to examine the bottom to see that all jagged or loose plating is clear of the blocks. It may be necessary to cut away some of the damaged structure if this is liable to touch the bottom of the deck or the top of the blocks. Undocking Before flooding the dock it is necessary to ascertain that all openings in the bottom, such as inlets and discharges, are closed, and all zinc protectors properly secured. The bilge shores and cut-up shores are removed about an hour before flooding, except in the case of submarines, in which case the bilge shores are lashed to the dockside so that they can be hauled clear when the ship floats of the blocks. Before flooding, the bottom is touched up with composition in way of the heads of bilge shores as these are removed. It is also usual to examine the docking blocks to ensure that they are properly secured. In all cases the shores under the cut up forward and aft must be removed before flooding the dock to avoid the risk of crushing the bottom plating, for instance if the vessel when rising from the blocks trims by the stern, a consider able pressure would be exerted on the shores under the after cut up,

and a this pressure would be localized over the area of the heads of the shores, crushing of the bottom plating would result. Whilst the vessel is in dock a careful record is kept of all weights removed shifted or placed on board in order to estimate the draughts at undocking. As a result of the calculations involved, it may be found necessary to load the vessel to prevent any appreciable trim or heel which would otherwise occur on undocking.

Figure 4-1:Docking

Figure 4-2:Docking

Figure 4-3:Docking

5 Floating docks
A floating dock is usually made up of a rectangular pontoon, divided into a number of watertight compartments or tanks both longitudinally and transversely, surmounted on each side by a vertical wall, the lower portion of which normally forms part of the outboard line of pontoon tanks. Each of the pontoon tanks is fitted with an air escape pipe running to about six feet above the weather deck of the walls. The air escapes to the side wall tanks terminate about 2 feet below the top of the tank so that, should the pumping equipment break down or be damaged and the sinking operation become uncontrolled, a cushion of air is trapped below the top deck of the tanks. This limits the flooding of the tanks and prevents the dock from sinking and so provides adequate time for the trouble to be located and rectified. For this reason this top deck of the wall tanks is termed the safety deck. In floating docks built for dockyard use, workshops fitted with shearing, punching and drilling machines and woodworking machinery are provided in the walls of the dock together with other facilities such as compressed air main for operating pneumatic tools and welding points at intervals along the length. One or two travelling cranes are provided on each side of the weather deck to facilitate the work of repair on the ship. Capstans, bollards, fairleads, etc. are fitted on the side walls, as for a graving dock, to carry out the usual operations for bringing ships into and out of the dock. Additional facilities are provided in the case of floating docks designed to be operated as a unit of the fleet. The tween decks are fitted out to the latest warship standards to provide accommodation for both the dock crew and all, or some, of the crew of the docked ship. Personnel and light equipment lifts are fitted. This type of dock, while not capable of carrying out a refit, is an independent unit capable of servicing and carrying out minor repairs to ships within its dimensional capabilities. A fore and aft line of piping known as the main drain is fitted on the inner bottom of the pontoon immediately under one of the walls. Branch pipes are led from this drain to each tank of the pontoon, and also to sea inlets at the side of the dock. Each branch pipe has its own D.F.S. valve. In modern floating docks these valves are operated by electro-pneumatic power, the controls being grouped together in the control house where

electric indicators show whether the valves are open or shut. Hand-worked valve operating gear is also provided as a safeguard against defects arising in the electro-pneumatic system. The main pumps are usually fitted in the wall immediately above the main drain and are of the centrifugal impeller type with vertical shafts rising to the lower deck where they are coupled to electric motors. The latest trend is to fit the pumps and motors in watertight compartments inside the pontoon with a trunk access to the safety deck, thus avoiding the long driving shafts between motors and pumps. The motors are driven by diesel generators in the dock or by shore power supply. Sinking the dock is effected by admitting sea water through the inlet valves to the main drain and thence via the branch pipes to the pontoon tanks until the dock has sunk far enough to allow the ship to be brought to position over the keel blocks. To raise the dock after the ship has been positioned and all is ready for docking, the main pump discharge valves are opened and the pumps started up. The valves in the tank branch pipes are opened and the tanks pumped out in a predetermined order, such that the pontoon deck is brought as nearly as possible parallel to the keel of the ship which therefore sues ' all along' on the keel blocks, and is finally lifted clear of the water. Before undertaking to dock a ship in a floating dock it is essential to ensure that the lifting capacity and strength of the dock are adequate for the purpose. A weight curve of the ship in the deep-load condition together with a tabular statement of drafts, tons per inch immersion, height of the centre of gravity above the keel and a graph showing the position of the longitudinal centre of buoyancy of the ship for various draughts and trims have usually been prepared previously and attached to the ship's docking plan. Every floating dock is provided with a curve showing its lifting capacity per foot run when the pontoon deck is out of water. A tracing of this curve is applied to the weight curve of the ship, and the differences either of excess weight of the ship or excess lift of the dock carefully noted. These differences are eliminated or reduced as much as possible by removing stores or other weights from the ship before docking, or by retaining the requisite amount of ballast water in the pontoon tanks of the dock when the ship is lifted, or both. In addition it is necessary to arrange that when the ship is placed for lifting the longitudinal centre of gravity of the ship and dock comes at the centre of buoyancy of the dock which is generally at the middle of the length of the dock, The fore and aft position of the longitudinal centre of gravity of

the ship will coincide with its longitudinal centre of buoyancy, the latter being easily determined by reference to the curve referred to above. When the ability of the dock to raise the ship has been established the dock is sunk to the necessary depth over the keel blocks by allowing water to enter the pontoon tanks. The ship is then brought to position as described for a graving dock, after which the dock is pumped out to raise the ship. To check that the predetermined order of emptying or filling the tanks is maintained and thus to ensure that the dock structure is not strained, waterlevel indicators are fitted to each tank. They consist of an inverted bellmouth fitted at the bottom of each tank from which a small bore pipe is led to a mercury column indicator in the control house. As the water level rises or falls in the tank the pres-sure of air trapped in the bellmouth and piping increases or decreases, causing an increase or decrease in the height of the mercury column, and registering the corresponding depth of water in the tank on a graduated scale. This type of indicator has the disadvantage that the height of the mercury column corresponding to the depth of water in the tanks makes it difficult to read the graduations, particularly as the tank reaches its full capacity. The latest control consoles use pneumatically operated gauges of the usual clock face type. Deflection indicators fitted on the deck at the top of the side wall on which the control house stands are used for checking the longitudinal deflection of the dock. The arrangement consists of a number of steel sights firmly secured to the deck plating by welding, the upper edges lying in a plane when the dock is straight. Any differences occurring during the docking operation can be noted immediately and the pumping of the dock adjusted as necessary. The deflection is observed from a position inside the control house by means of a telescope fitted especially for the purpose. When docking a ship with side docking keels in a graving dock breast shores are not necessary, but in floating docks it is usual to use breast shores as a pre-cautionary measure against undesirable transverse deflection of the dock structure. Docking a damaged ship with heavy list and trim would involve the risk of serious damage to the dock, and for this reason such an operation must not be undertaken.

Figure 5-1:Typical Floating Dock

Figure 5-2:Floating Docks

6 Caissons
There are three types of caisson in general use for closing dock entrances: Floating caissons A floating caisson, or ship caisson, is a floating vessel constructed with sloped ends to fit the’ batter' or slope of the sides of the dock entrance. The amount of batter is such that sufficient clearance is obtained between the sides of the dock entrance and the caisson when the latter is floated up to enable it to be' angled out' and berthed clear of the entrance while the ship is brought into dock. The caisson has a continuous keel of rectangular section extending up to the top at each end. When the caisson is in position and flooded down the keel engages in a groove or bears against a stop formed in the masonry of the dock entrance. The sea pressure from the basin forces the keel against the sides of the grove and so prevents water passing into the dock. The caisson illustrated in the sketch is divided into the following compartments: a) An air chamber, sometimes subdivided into several compartments, constituting the main buoyancy of the caisson, extending the whole length and breadth, and occupying approximately the lower half of the section. The bottom part of the air chamber is used to stow iron ballast. A middle-line watertight bulk-head is usually fitted. b) A tidal chamber, occupying the upper half of the section, which can be flooded or drained through the valves A as the caisson is sunk into, or raised from, the groove in the dock entrance. A middle-line watertight bulkhead is normally fitted. When afloat the bottom deck of the tidal chamber, called the tidal deck, is only a few inches above water level. The freeboard can be adjusted if required by adding or removing iron ballast. c) A cylindrical water ballast tank, built within the air chamber, which can be flooded or emptied through the sluice valves B. The capacity of the

tank is more than adequate to sink the caisson the few inches to bring the tidal deck below the normal waterline. The tank must be placed low down so that the stability of the caisson is maintained throughout the sinking. After the caisson has been sunk into the groove the water ballast tank is completely filled to hold it there against any increase of buoyancy due to an unusually high tide. An air system is incorporated for blowing the water from the ballast tank. The air is admitted through the three-way valves ' C' which also serve to control the rate of entry of water when sinking the caisson. To remove caisson Connect the shore air supply to the caisson air main by portable hose, and check that valve D in the caisson air line is closed and valve C at the blow position. When flooding the dock has commenced, open the tidal valves A on the dock side of caisson so that water can flood over the tidal deck when it reaches there. When the levels of the water inside and outside the dock are equal, open the valves B and then open the main air valve D so that air enters the ballast tank and expels the contained water through the valves B causing the caisson to rise. The rate of rise and trim can be regulated by adjusting the entry of air with the valve D. A rush of air bubbles in the sea at the side of the caisson indicates when the ballast tank is empty. Shut the main air line valve D and then close the ballast tank valves B. Operate the valve C to the vent position to relieve the air pressure in the tank and then return it to the blowing position. The caisson should finally float at the designed freeboard of about 3 in to the tidal deck, and in this condition, after disconnecting the air line; it can be angled out of the entrance. To replace caisson Angle in the caisson, keeping one end in the groove, or against the stop, in the entrance. Connect the caisson air main by hose to the shore supply. After checking that valves D are closed, open valves B to flood the ballast tank and put the three-way valves C to vent. Control the rate of sinking and trim by means of valves C. As the caisson sinks into the groove or stop, as the case may be, water will flood over the tidal deck through valves A, which were left open on raising the caisson. When the caisson is fully 'grooved' some water is usually ejected from the valves C indicating that the ballast tank is full. Finally, close the valves A and B, place valve C to low and close valve D.

Sliding caissons A sketch indicating the shape and subdivision of a typical sliding caisson is given. There are three main compartments; an upper and lower tidal chamber with an air chamber between. The latter is well subdivided. A stringer deck at the bottom of the lower tidal chamber is used to carry ballast. Watertight tanks connect the upper and lower tidal chambers, both of which are open to the sea but covered with steel mesh to prevent the ingress of flotsam. A scuttling tank and an emergency tank are fitted at each end of the air chamber and cross connected so that the caisson keeps on an even keel. Only the former tanks are normally used for sinking the caisson, the emergency tanks being for use when unusually high tides are expected. By means of a system of hinged linkages and counterweights, as shown in the detail sketch, the roadway deck is made to fall below the road level and clear the roof of the caisson recess, or' camber,' when the caisson is hauled into the latter; hence the description' falling deck.' Just before the caisson reaches the end of its travel across the dock entrance a roller at the end of an arm fixed to the deck makes contact with a cam plate built into the coping at A. As the caisson finishes its travel the roller rides up the cam plate forcing the deck to rise, hinging about the pivots indicated. The force required to do this is minimized by making the moment of the weight of the deck only slightly more than that of the counter-weights C. When removing the caisson into the camber the roller slides down the cam plate allowing the deck to fall under the excess moment of its weight. The caisson slides on timber runners at the lower edges in a recess in the sill of the dock entrance. The hauling is done by a winch with extended sprocketed ends engaged in an endless chain. The caisson must have sufficient negative buoyancy to prevent it jumping during hauling and the scuttling tanks have adequate capacity for this. A pump, fitted in the air chamber, is used to pump out the scuttling and emergency tanks and these can be flooded direct from sea. Other sliding caissons are made to slide down an inclined recess in the sill of the dock, into the camber and in some the roadway deck is raised and lowered hydraulically to facilitate the operation of housing. As in the case of the ship caisson the pressure of the sea keeps the caisson tight against the edge of the side recess when the dock is pumped out. When the dock is not in use and it is desired to carry out repairs to the caisson it can be floated out.

To remove caisson for maintenance Level the water inside and outside the dock to the lowest possible maneuvering level and haul the caisson across the entrance. Remove all dunnage from the deck, lash the falling deck in position, and disconnect the hauling yoke. Pump water from the emergency and ballast tanks until the caisson rises to its full floating level which is usually between 3 in and 6 in below the top deck of the air chamber. The caisson now floats with satisfactory stability as assessed in design and can be angled out. To replace caisson Angle the caisson into the dock entrance at the lowest maneuvering level and then open the sluice valves to the scuttling tanks so that the caisson sinks into the entrance face. Connect a hauling bar or' yoke' to the hauling chains and un-lash the falling deck. The caisson can now be hauled into the camber. Gate caissons There are two types in general use. The first comprises two rectangular section gates strongly constructed of plates and sections to withstand the sea pressure and remain watertight. Each gate is pivoted on the dock side, usually termed the quoin, and the' clapping' or inner edges of wood close hard against each other as the dock is pumped dry. The lower edges of the gates are wood faced and fit closely against the masonry of the dock sill. The vertical joint of the inner edges can be caulked with oakum or other suitable material if required to reduce leakage into the dock. The second type takes the form of a single gate, horizontally hinged along its lower edge. The upper edge is pushed off by a hydraulic ram, or rams, and lowered away by wire ropes from the dock entrance until it lies horizontal. The gate is hauled up into position by a winch, bringing rubbers of greenheart wood along the side and lower edges to bear against a fine axed masonry face. As the dock is pumped out the pressure from the sea is sufficient to make a watertight seal be-tween these rubbers and the masonry face.

Figure 6-1:Floating Caisson

Figure 6-2:Sliding Caisson

7 Sequence of events in the design and construction of a warship

Research and development New types of warship embody the results of long term research and development in the shape of new guns or weapons, together with their associated control systems including more effective types of radar and sonar, new types of main and auxiliary machinery, advanced electrical power and electronic systems, improved methods of structural design and techniques for preserving structure, and improved standards of habitability to enable the personnel to operate the ship more efficiently. The research and development work for many of the new items incorporated in a design occupies as long as, and sometimes longer than, the actual building of the ship. In many cases it involves the production of prototypes, which have to be modified to achieve the designed performance. This is, if possible, followed by tests of the prototype equipment at sea under service conditions. Successful development of this nature leads to the manufacture of production equipments, machinery or systems as appropriate and the quantity and rate of production has to be phased into the installation programmes of the class of ships concerned. Development does not end with completion of trials of individual prototype equipments because the design of the ship includes several such equipments or systems which may be linked and, being brought together in the ship for the first time, may raise new problems. These remain to be solved when the lead ship of the new class has been built, and her inspection and trials programme is appropriately longer than that of repeat ships in order to solve any problems which may arise and introduce the necessary modifications into the equipments and systems of the repeat ships. For this reason the first order to build follow-on ships may be 12 to 18 months behind that of the lead ship.

Design stage The design of the ship starts with the formulation by the Naval Staff of the' Outline Requirements' which describe the functions and main features required of the completed ship, such as the armament, speed, endurance, types of radar, sonar and communications equipments, the complement and the climatic conditions in which she has to operate. These outline characteristics form the basis of several design studies, or outline designs, prepared by the professional directorates of the Ship Department of the Ministry of Defence (Navy), consulting other departments and authorities as necessary. These studies present different compromises between the given outline requirements in terms of achievable speed and endurance depending on the type of propulsion machinery employed and they may vary somewhat in displacement and principal dimensions. The latter and basic form of hull must of course be suitable to provide adequate strength, stability and seaworthiness judged on the particulars of previous ships of similar size. Consideration of the design studies leads to the choice of the best compromise between the original outline requirements and the formulation of more detailed 'sketch staff requirements' on which further studies, usually variants of previous studies, are prepared and lead to the establishment of ' approved staff requirements' which define all the features of the design in still more detail and include any additions or reductions found necessary as a result of previous investigations. A sketch design is next prepared embodying these approved staff requirements and entailing detailed calculations for strength and stability. Models are made and tested at the Admiralty Experiment Works to determine more accurately the speed at different displacements and powers up to full power, the behaviour in waves and the turning and maneuvering qualities to be expected with the full scale ship. Model propellers are made and tested for efficiency in the cavitation tunnels at this establishment. As a result of all such model experiments the form of the hull and design of the propellers may be modified slightly. Concurrently experiments are being conducted at the Naval Construction Research Establishment to develop and prove new techniques for structural design, welding of the parts, and strength to resist blast and underwater explosion.

The space and weight analyses of the design study are repeated in greater detail, outline layout drawings of machinery spaces, operational spaces, accommodation, etc., are prepared from information provided by authorities’ concerned and preliminary arrangements for ships' services, electrical and other systems prepared. Stability calculations include investigations to ensure that the finished ship will possess an adequate margin of stability in certain conditions after damage by enemy attack. In small ships, like frigates, there is usually little weight to spare for protection purposes. On the other hand in very large ships, like aircraft carriers, weight can usually be afforded for protective plating or armour around vital machinery or equipment and control positions. The finished sketch design represents a well balanced comprehensive integration of the requirements, sometimes as a compromise between some of the latter, capable of being developed into a full design and as such it is submitted to the Admiralty Board and Defence Committees for approval before proceeding further. The next stage in the process of design is to prepare the building drawings and specifications which form part of the contract documents for building the ship. The building drawings include typical structural drawings, general arrangement drawings showing the disposition of machinery and equipment in all important spaces, a lines plan of the required form to achieve the specified speed, a drawing of the rig showing masts, spars, communication aerials, radar arrays and funnel(s), and guidance drawings of important systems or services where advanced principles or techniques are involved, or where orthodox design procedures are departed from. The building specifications comprise separate parts describing the hull, machinery, electrical installation, armament, radar, radio and sonar requirements in considerable detail with references to standard specifications and drawings already established for MOD(N) practice. In cases where the equipment specified is still in the development or prototype stage, the specifications are necessarily expressed in broader terms and those parts of the contract documents affected are suitably worded to cover negotiations after the order to build has been placed. During this stage more sophisticated model experiments are carried out, and development contracts for special machinery or equipments progressed and orders placed by MOD(N) for special items and others which must be ordered to ensure that they are delivered to the builders at the correct time for installation in the ship.

The building drawings, after inspection by all authorities concerned with their preparation, are submitted for approval, technically and financially, following which the process of tendering can commence. Tendering stage The object of inviting tenders is to ensure the building drawings, specification and other technical information included in the contract documents is used to the best advantage by the successful builder, viz. to produce a ship which will fulfil the functions and performance for which she has been designed, albeit at the most economical cost. The invitations are necessarily limited to those firms possessing the requisite design and drawing ability, building facilities, and manpower for the overall task. Each firm is required to satisfy the MOD(N) in this respect by means of a tentative programme indicating the phasing of important 'cardinal dates' in the building process, together with assurances that quality control of the materials, equipments and fittings used will be exercised in a regulated manner, and that the specified schedule for preparation of detailed working drawings can be met. When the order is placed the contractor is required to produce more detailed programmes of this nature to which both he and his sub-contractors, and the MOD(N) so far as those items for which the Ministry is responsible are concerned, are expected to adhere under normal circumstances, apart from any changes to the design which may arise for operational or tactical reasons. Building stage Although the overall task is so sophisticated or complex, the work of building the ship can be subdivided broadly into several categories which overlap on a time basis:

Preparatory work Obviously one of the fast tasks on receiving, the order to build is to prepare the building slip and overhaul any lifting or transporting arrangements or other plant as necessary. Detailed notes on the slip and yard facilities are given in other chapters. At the same time a programme of orders to be placed with subcontractors for a very large amount of hull, mechanical and electrical material must be prepared. This involves considerable technical and clerical work and a period of three or four months may elapse before the first deliveries of plates and sections arrive at the shipyard, and another 3 months before the keel or first weldment is 'laid' at the slip. Working drawings are put in hand, starting with the main hull structure, soon after the order to build, when the lines of the ship have been laid off and faired on the l/10th scale loft (or full scale mould loft if still in use). Concurrently the necessary information for the machinery and cutting to shape of the shell and frame plates is prepared as described in another chapter, and full scale wooden moulds for plates with heavy twist and curvature made. Detailed layouts of the main machinery compartments, operations room, and other spaces where congestion of equipment is inevitable, are started as soon as possible to enable the construction of full-scale wooden 'mock-ups' to be built, inspected, and modified as early as practicable, so that erection and installation of plant can take place in accordance with the comprehensive programme. Work at the building slip The preparation, machining and assembly of structural parts into weldments and incorporation of the latter into the ship on the launching berth is described in the chapters on prefabrication and associated processes in Part II. Processes such as checking the form, fixing permanent datums for planing of gun and director seatings, sighting through centres of shaft and so on, take place as the main hull grows or reaches a degree of completeness in terms of strength or rigidity as appropriate. All the main structure of the hull up to the upper deck is completed before launch, thereby providing the maximum strength to resist the forces imposed during the actual launching operation. At many shipyards the main machinery and other large equipment is installed prior to launch, thus avoiding the necessity of having to leave loose deck plating over large areas. According to the time spent on the slip it may also be possible to erect parts

of the bridge and other superstructures, but this is not essential and may, in fact, make the work of fitting out more difficult if effected too early. The water testing of the compartments of the hull which contributes to the buoyancy and reserve buoyancy of the completed ship must be completed before the ship is launched. This is necessary not only to ensure that the ship will remain seaworthy after launch but also to ensure that the subsequent fitting-out work is not delayed by having to rectify structural defects or leaks revealed on test. Protection of the structure against corrosion by abrasive blasting, by the application of protective paints or compositions, or other measures, is a process extending throughout the period on the slip and thereafter, particular attention being paid to the outer and inner bottom and the main structural members. A separate chapter is devoted to this process. The arrangements for the launch of the vessel, described in detail in the relevant chapter in Part I, are commenced some weeks before the event, after completing the testing of all compartments on which the cradle bears. As soon as the requisite drawings have been prepared the runs of main cables, and of pipes for fuel, water and air services, are lined off and in many cases the work of erection and fitting of valves commenced before launch as the water-testing of compartments progresses. Fitting-out By this time the detailed layout drawings of the compartments and those of the ship's services, such as ventilation, pumping and flooding arrangements, main electrical power systems, fuel oil filling and supply services, steam systems, etc., will have been completed and much of the material for them delivered and prepared ready for installation. The trunks, pipes, cables, etc and their associated valves, junction boxes and other apparatus, must be fitted before siting the multitudinous items of equipment, but only after the steel structure has been painted, or otherwise protected against corrosion. Installation of the equipment commences with the largest and heaviest items such as the main machinery, below decks, so that the latter can be finally welded as early as possible. Smaller items of machinery and equipment such as pumps, electrical and engineering auxiliaries, ventilation fans, etc. etc., can usually be shipped through hatchways or comparatively small openings arranged for the purpose. The latest practice, developed as a result of experience with the building of modern complex warships, is to produce large scale plans (1/2 in = 1 ft or 1 in = 1 ft) for accommodation, offices, passageways and compartments

where the degree of congestion demands it, before attempting to install services or equipment. For each compartment a deck plan, overhead plan, elevations of boundaries and sections are drawn. These show all items in the compartment such as pipes, valves, sounding tubes, air escapes, gearing, cables and junction boxes, ventilation trunks, access for withdrawal of equipment. In some cases photographs of mock-ups or completed compartments are used. The object is to ensure the optimum arrangement in respect of standardization, accessibility for maintenance and repair, and comfort. If the congestion of equipment in any important compartment, such as the operations room and bridge, warrants it, each item is 'mocked-up' in wood and tried, collectively, in place to obtain the most efficient disposition. In most cases, however, the compartments are 'lined-out' from the drawings to indicate the runs of cables and pipes and the positions of fittings, with wood representations of equipment where necessary. These 'line-outs' are then inspected, modifications decided upon, the drawings modified, and then fitting out is proceeded with. The modified large scale drawings are supplied to the builders of repeat ships so that all vessels of the class are standardized to a large degree as regards general layout. The large-scale drawings, as finally modified to accord with the completed compartments and spaces form part of the 'as fitted drawings' which are carried by each ship. For very large ships it may be necessary to reduce the scale of the 'as fitteds 'to 1/16 in = 1ft. As each service is completed pressure tests are applied to the piping and valves to ensure that all joints are tight, and that no restrictions to the flow of fuel, water or air are present. Previously, the auxiliaries will have been subjected to tests at the maker's works to prove their performance and strength to resist shock due to underwater explosion. In this period the ship has to be docked to instal external parts of the sonar anchors and cables, complete the stabilizer gear and any other work not effected before launch. The opportunity is taken to 'touch-up' the outer bottom compositions in readiness for speed trials. In some cases a second docking may be arranged closer to these trials. At the same time the installation of equipment, auxiliary machinery, store-rooms, operational spaces, is going on apace, all the superstructure completed and masts and aerials rigged. Every compartment which is specified to be watertight is air tested as it completes fitting out with equipment. The programme of air testing is a long one which is completed only a short time before trials.

The laying of deck coverings and final painting out is carried out as late as possible in this stage, if possible after the contractors' sea trials mentioned below to avoid damage due to transport of equipment. Any deck coverings and equipment installed are suitably ordered to protect them. Finally the office equipment, furniture and soft furnishings are installed. A high standard of cleanliness throughout the ship during the whole period of construction is called for, and in particular during fitting out when complex and valuable machinery and electrical equipment are being installed, to avoid any possible risk of contamination by dirt, and by grit blasting or similar operations. A 'clean ship' date marks the end of abrasive blasting and the beginning of installation of machinery and electrical equipment Inspection and trials A series of inspections, tests and trials is carried out on the systems and equipment over a large part of the fitting out stage. For sophisticated warships the programme is extensive and drawn up in four parts, viz.: Part I-Preliminary inspections, tests, trials and key events prior to contractors' sea trials. Part II- Contractors' sea trials. Part III. Examination of machinery, final inspections, tests and trials of various descriptions leading to acceptance of the vessel into naval service. Part IV. Shake down, testing and tuning of weapons' systems, final sea and harbour acceptance trials. Part V includes such items as survey of hull structure and fittings, preliminary inspections of compartment layouts, weather deck fittings, damage control arrangements, aircraft arrangements, machinery and electrical installations and performance trials of all services and equipments including preliminary tests of air conditioning arrangements, inspections of radar, wireless and fire control systems, tests of deck machinery such as anchors and cables, winches and cranes are also included to ensure that each and every item is capable of carrying out its design function to the standard required by the specification. Basin trials of the main machinery and auxiliaries are performed at low powers. Gunnery trials are preceded by a 'tilt test' to check that the seatings of the main and auxiliary armament and associated directors have been accurately planed to a common datum.

At the conclusion of the equipment trials an inclining experiment is carried out to obtain data with which to check stability calculations. When all preliminary trials and tests are considered satisfactory the ship can proceed to sea for Part 2 trials. Contractors' sea trials (Part 2 of the programme) are the responsibility of the shipbuilder and are carried out to prove the ship satisfactory in all respects. The trials start with adjustment of compasses and tests of the anchor and cable arrangements and then a work up of the main engines progressively to full power, during which the speed is recorded at different powers over one of the officially recognized measured mile courses. The time taken to change from full ahead to full astern is measured. The steering gear is tested at full astern power and during turns to port and starboard at maximum speed to measure the turning circle. Other trials include noise and vibration trials of machinery, habitability of machinery spaces, ballasting and sullaging of fuel tanks, stabilizer trials, calibration of the speed log and echo sounding equipment, weapon installation test firings and blast trials. After sea trials it is usual to' open out' the main machinery for close inspection to determine any defects or possible weakness not disclosed during previous trials which might lead to early failure of the system or part of it. A full power trial is then carried out finally to prove the machinery, make good defects, and test any modifications effected. This third part of the programme also includes such items as final inspections of accommodation and domestic arrangements, workshops, stores, offices, hull fittings and equipment, air conditioning and ventilation systems, damage control arrangements, setting to work and commencing testing and tuning of weapons and radio systems. On completion of these Part 3 trials the ship is accepted from the contractors, concurrently with a machinery demonstration at full power for an hour. The final sea trials are essentially those for which the ship is required to be manned by RN personnel, but there still remain other trials (Part 4 of the programme) which are carried out in a working-up period after the acceptance which are essential to bring the ship to full operational fighting efficiency. These include the testing and tuning of weapon control systems and radio systems. In the case of aircraft carriers, aircraft operational trials, including the working of lifts, flying off and landing on of aircraft, are necessary. For submarines special trials to determine the ability of the vessel to operate underwater are conducted.

Record of weights Throughout the entire time of building the first ship of a new class at any shipyard an accurate check of the weight of all structure, equipment, machinery, stores and incidentals worked into the vessel is maintained. Every portion of structure, item of machinery, piece of equipment, or other article is weighed before being placed on board and its weight recorded in special books kept for the purpose. The weights are recorded in groups and reported, on special forms, to the Ship Department of MOD(N) where they are compared with the designed weights and adjustments made to the design calculations. These records provide valuable guidance in the design of other classes of ship of the same type.

Figure 7-1

8 Planning and scheduling: network analysis
The increasing complexity of the armament and equipment of warships has led to the need for more detailed planning and control of the erection or installation of the multitudinous parts in orderly sequence, to effect the quickest practicable programme of building with the most economic and reliable results. This need is fulfilled by the technique known as network analysis, which is now employed widely in all branches of engineering. It is equally applicable to large projects, like the building of a complete ship, as to different parts of a project, such as the assembly and erection of the structure or the installation of the power and control systems. The programmes for earlier less complex ships were carried through by the use of bar charts, which set out in line diagram form, on a calendar date scale, the major events and processes in a building programme. The chart given in the chapter on sequence of events in the design and construction of a warship is, in effect, a bar chart drawn up in a particular way merely to illustrate, in broad fashion, how the various processes and events in a large complex project overlap and are inter-related. This particular form of presentation however has the same limitations as any bar chart, as regards usefulness in the detailed planning and control of the work. A bar chart cannot, for instance, be used to develop a logical sequence for the work to be carried out; it cannot take full account of the interdependence of one operation or process on others; it-does not provide a means of assessing the times required for the several parts of a process and-their influence on the overall programme; lastly it cannot readily identify those parts which are' critical' to the achievement of the whole programme in the shortest time. Nevertheless, bar charts are still used as a convenient means of displaying the more important events or processes in a project as determined from the information derived from the modern planning techniques described below. The practical application of network analysis, as the modern methods are termed, has been made possible by the development of the electronic computer and the facilities which it provides. It is based fundamentally on a network or flow diagram technique for planning, scheduling, and monitoring and originates from two basic developments known as the program evaluation and review technique (Pert) and the critical path method (CPM). These, and similar techniques, are now generally referred to as network

analysis. These advanced techniques of planning and programme evaluation and control are in use in most shipyards for the construction of new ships and for major refits and conversions. The broad principles only are described in this chapter and for a fuller treatment of the subject reference should be made to specialist works on this subject. The basic elements of a network are the event and the activity. An event is a milestone or control point in the network which defines the beginning or completion of an operation or activity and is a clearly defined point in time, events are denoted in the network by circles in which identification numbers and symbols are inserted. An activity is an operation or job of work which requires time for its accomplishment and it must therefore have a starting event and a finishing event. Activities in the network are denoted by arrowed lines joining the events on which are inserted a brief description of the operation and the estimated time for carrying it out. The time is known as the activity time. The preparation of a network requires the production of a diagram showing the various activities involved arid their sequential dependency or inter-relationship The diagram is not drawn to scale but indicates the logical sequence and the order in which the activities must be carried out. Adherence to the principle of dependency is essential. An event cannot be achieved until the activity or activities preceding it are complete, nor can an activity start until the event preceding it has been achieved. Events are numbered sequentially and each activity is identified by the number assigned to its preceding and succeeding event. It is found in practice that there are often two or more activities that have a common starting or finishing event or that there are a series of parallel activities that may have a common event. To indicate the relative dependence of these activities and events a dummy activity or restraint is introduced. A dummy activity absorbs^ no time but simply indicates the dependency between one event and another and ensures that activities on separate paths are properly synchronized. A dummy activity, which has no work content or time duration in itself, but nevertheless indicates that one activity can either start after another is only partially completed, or that one activity cannot start until a given time has elapsed after the start of another activity, is called a restraint. Restraints are often referred to as realtime dummies since they absorb no time in themselves but indicate a time element or lag between one event, and another. A simple network for a portion of a ventilation system is given in the sketch to illustrate these definitions. In actual practice the descriptions of the

events and activities are abbreviated. This is done in the more detailed but hypothetical network given for the erection of hull weldments, When the network diagram has been completed and the logical sequence and dependence of the several activities and events checked it is necessary to estimate the duration of the time to accomplish each individual activity. This is the most important aspect of the whole process, because unless the activity times are accurately and realistically estimated the results can be misleading if not useless. It demands reliable judgment born of wide experience in the art of ship design, production and engineering generally. In preparing the data for computer processing single time estimates for each activity are made and used. In the case of very complex or unusual projects of which there is little or no previous experience, and consequently reliable time estimates are unlikely to be possible, the full pert three time estimates are made. These are an optimistic time which is the minimum time estimated if all goes unexpectedly well, a pessimistic time which is the maximum assuming that everything goes badly, and a most likely time which is the best possible judgment. In such cases these three time elements are included in the computer input data sheets from which the expected activity times are calculated using the weighted average formula:— Te = To+4Tm+Tp 6 where Te = expected activity time To = optimistic time Tp = pessimistic time Tm — most likely time The network is now in a suitable form for processing by a computer. This involves transcribing the information in the network on to the computer input data sheets in the form for, and using the abbreviations and codes required by, the particular computer being used. The information, tabulated on the input data sheets, includes the start and end event numbers for each activity, the description of the activity and the estimated activity times. Any specified commencement or completion dates for the project, or schedule dates for the activities are added together with code numbers required. This information is then transferred from the input data sheets on to punched or magnetic tape as appropriate for processing by the computer. The computer carries out a series of calculations on the times for the activities and produces a printed output form called a print-out. This consists of the activities on the critical path, the calculated completion time

for the project, the earliest and latest start dates, the earliest and latest finish dates and the float for each activity. Float can be denned in two ways: FREE FLOAT is the length of time that an activity can be delayed without affecting the earliest possible starting time of any activity immediately following it and is given by TE (s)-(TE(p)+te) where TE — Earliest starting time TL = Latest starting time te = Activity time (S) = Succeeding event (p) = Preceding event TOTAL FLOAT is the length of time that an activity can be delayed without affecting the critical path activities or the completion of the project and is given by TL(s)-(TE(p)+te) The simple ventilation network in the sketch has been annotated in accordance with these formulae and the floats for some activities worked out. As stated above, these calculations are carried out by the computer. The critical path is, as the name implies, the one along which the, total float is either zero or negative, indicating that the project can just or cannot be completed in the scheduled time. The computer is usually programmed so that results on the print-out are arranged in ascending order of total float, i.e. the critical path is identified first. The information obtained from the computer print-out is transferred back on to the network and the critical path plotted. If, as is usually found in initial runs, the critical path or any other paths have negative total floats it will be necessary to examine again the work content and the time estimates of the activities making up these paths to determine whether the work can be reorganized to enable it to be completed earlier. Modern computers can be programmed to present the print-out in bar chart form thus saving considerable time and effort required to do this by hand and also greatly simplifying the task of monitoring and analysing, which would otherwise involve sorting through numerous sheets of tabulated print-out. The application of network analysis to the construction and fitting out of a ship project generally requires the ship to be divided into a number of control areas for each of which individual networks are prepared, as a fully

detailed network for the entire process of building the ship would not only be too comprehensive for the average computer but also would be difficult to prepare and costly to process and review. The control areas are selected to identify distinct tasks, processes, or other elements in the overall project and from which a family of compatible networks can be produced. Each individual network for a control area is linked into the overall network for the ship by suitable dummy activities or restraints. The selected control areas may cover such tasks in the overall programme for the ship as the following: The scheduling of working drawings. The fabrication and erection of the main structure. The lining out and fitting out of compartments. The fabrication, installation and testing of ship services such as fresh and salt water, fuel, ventilation and air conditioning. The installation, testing and trials of the main propulsion and generating ship as follows: The scheduling of working diagrams The fabrication and erection of main structure The lining out and fitting out compartments The fabrication installation and testing of ship services such as fresh and salt water and fuel, ventilation and air condition. The installation, testing and trails are made propulsion and generating machinery The installation and testing of electrical systems. The installation and testing of weapons systems. The actual number of individual networks for a particular ship will depend on the type of ship. The larger and more complex the ship the greater the number of individual networks into which the project will be subdivided. A typical simplified sub-network for the fabrication and erection of the weldments of a ship's hull is given at the end of this chapter. The information obtained from the computer output sheets is used not only for planning purposes but also to enable production work to be controlled and monitored. The data is usually produced in the form of schedules listing in order of date the operations or activities to be carried out, the planned start dates for, each operation, which are usually the network earliest activity start dates, and the planned finishing dates. These data sheets can, of course, only be produced, by computers which have the necessary sorting facilities in the form required for production work. monitoring and reviewing is carried out by bringing the programme up to date, or updating it, as it is called, periodically. The computer input data sheets are amended or altered to record information received from the yard

by inserting details of the actual start or completion dates that have been achieved for activities or amended by inserting revised time estimates for activities that may have been reviewed. The amended data sheets are then used for processing the information again through the computer. It will be appreciated that the level and depth to which the network analysis for a particular ship is carried out will depend on the use to which the information obtained is to be put. For the higher echelons of management an abridged comprehensive or overall network covering major activities and events such as those in the chart in the chapter on sequence of operations will be required. The more detailed networks will be required for the planning, controlling and monitoring of the production work. These can also be used as a means of monitoring and updating the overall programme of cardinal events for the ship. Network scheduling of main structure weldments Apart from the importance of the achievement of watertight integrity and design strength criteria by the adoption of proven welding processes, sequence of welding operations to minimize distortion, use of the correct materials, and quality control throughout by the employment of fully trained skilled welders and frequent inspection, the time taken to complete the main hull and associated tasks ready for launch is a critical factor in the building programme. According to the lifting and transporting facilities in the assembly shop and at the slip, so the number of weldments which together form the main hull will vary. The higher the number the more valuable it is to apply network analysis techniques which take account of such factors as: a) Sequence of erection of weldments, which may number between 50 and 100 for a frigate say, to minimize distortion. b) Grit blasting and metal spraying of the weldments partly or wholly in the assembly stage as may be appropriate to the available facilities. c) Water testing of compartments as the erection of the weldments at the slip progresses. d) Completion of the stern structure with stern tubes and 'A' brackets in time for sighting through centre of shaft and, in most cases, installation of tail shaft(s) and propeller(s). f) Preparation for the launch.

The network can be extended back in time to cover other processes such as delivery of structural drawings, timing and receipt of mould loft information phasing of shop work like machining of plates, frames, brackets and so on, and others, any one of which could be critical to the smooth control of progress up to launch. For the purposes of illustrating the technique the example given is based on the following data: a) The ship is to be fabricated in twelve weldments as shown. b) Each weldment has part of its structure shot blasted and metal sprayed. c) Each weldment is to be 'married' to its neighbours at the slip. The fitting and subsequent boring of shaft brackets has been included in this simple network as one of the essential items of work outside the actual steel work, that must be achieved before launch. The logic of erecting on the slip is to lay down the midship weldment with subsequent weldments being erected aft and forward, and with the emphasis on completing the stern as early as possible to allow sufficient time for fitting 'A' brackets, stern tubes, boring out and fitting tail shafts. In the example given it has been assumed that only three weldments can be commenced at the start of fabrication. Delay time estimates have therefore been placed on the other weldments because of such features as: a) Waiting for mould loft information. b) Insufficient labour to man up other weldments. c) Insufficient space to assemble other weldments For instance there is a restraint (or real time dummy activity) of 3 weeks on starting the activity 1-6 (fabrication of No. 4 unit). Other dummies, involving no time or work content but indicating that an item of work cannot be started until another has been completed, are shown, e.g. the dummy between events 30 and 32 indicates that the slipwork on unit No. 6 must wait until the slipwork on unit No. 4 has been completed. The network is built up showing the sequence of fabrication, shot blasting, slipwork, etc. It should again be emphasized that the numbering of the network and the length of activity arrows or restraints is not to any form of scale. It will be seen that Activity 47-48, 'Fit and bore 'A' brackets', cannot be started until work on the after end of the ship, i.e. No. 12 weldment, has been completed -hence the dummy 45-47 on starting this item of work. The launch cannot be achieved until Activity 47-48, fit and bore 'A' brackets, has been completed, hence the dummy, 48-49, on launching.

When the network has been completed the critical path is determined, using a computer as described previously.

Figure 8-1:Network Analysis

Figure 8-2:Network Schedule for Hull Weldments

9 Materials, their properties, uses and treatment
A table is given of the principal materials used in warship construction with particulars of specified mechanical properties and tests. Selection of the correct material, and avoidance of its maltreatment during fabrication, is essential if the desired service performance of the ship's structure and equipment is to be achieved. Structural materials Wood Wood was used for warship hulls up to about 1859. It has the advantage of being buoyant and, weight for weight, is more capable of resisting local damage than steel. In its natural state, however, the strength of wood is unreliable, it is difficult to make efficient joints with it and it cannot be used to support heavy machinery owing to its lack of rigidity. The advent of resin glues has created a new concept in the use of timber for ship construction. Frames of any shape can be made by gluing together thin laminates to produce much stronger and more reliable members than the sawn timbers used for ship construction in the last century. Planking can also be made | from laminates laid in different directions to make a continuous shell of adequate bending and shear strength. In addition sheets of factory made plywood can be joined by scarph joints to make large flat areas suitable for bulkheads and decks. The high strength/weight ratio obtained by this technique enables very light hulls to be produced for fast patrol boats and similar craft. Laminated timber construction is, however, costly, about three times the cost of steel on a weight basis. To overcome the problem of wood rot a durable timber must be used and great care taken in the design of the craft to ensure a good air flow over the whole of the inside of the structure. The marine borer problem is combated by externally sheathing the hull with either nylon or glass reinforced plastic and painting with normal anti-fouling paint.

Timbers used in this country for the structure of small military craft are: Khaya. This is commonly known as African Mahogany and is a moderately durable, medium weight, hardwood of generally high quality with good strength and gluing properties. Agba. This is an African timber of similar weight and strength properties to Khaya but more durable, i.e. more resistant to rot. Its use to date has been limited to areas where a high degree of rot resistance is required, e.g. decks, but it is suitable for framing and planking as well. Two main types of glue are used: phenol-formaldehyde resin which is a hot setting glue used in plywood manufacture and resorcinal-formaldehyde resin which is cold setting and is used for gluing together the planks or sheets forming the hull, or other parts, on the building site . Steel In general the hull structure of modern warships is of steel. Mild steel is the basic material; it has good strength and ductility and is easily worked to shape either hot or cold. However, experience has shown that under certain conditions of stress and temperature welded structures built of thick mild steel (MS) can fail at an unacceptably low stress in a brittle manner; this is known as brittle fracture. Experimental work has shown that the resistance of a steel to brittle fracture can. be measured by the Charpy or Izodtest in terms of the ft lb of energy required to fracture a specimen at a particular temperature. The so-called 'notch tough' steels have been developed with better resistance to brittle fracture than normal MS; those used in warship construction are designated A and B quality and QT28. A and B quality steels are alurnmium grain-controlled carbon-manganese (C-Mn) steels, basically similar to MS, but with guaranteed notch toughness. QT28 is a low alloy carbon steel of guaranteed notch toughness and high strength; this is achieved by a combination of alloy content and quenching and tempering heat treatment. The use of thick MS is confined to structures where brittle fracture is not considered to be a problem; its use in all other important hull structures is restricted to a maximum thickness of 3/8 in. For the hulls of surface warships,, where a thickness above 3/8 in is required, A or B quality steel is used according to the necessary strength level required. QT28 is used in limited quantities in surface ships in areas of high stress, but their use is kept to a minimum in view of their high cost and greater difficulty in working and welding. Development of this type of high yield point, notch-tough steel

is continuous. The main use of such steels in warships is in the pressure hulls of submarines to achieve deeper diving depth. Cast iron is not used in warships because of its very poor resistance to fracture under shock loading. Cast steel is used for structural castings such as hawse pipes, shaft brackets, stern tubes, rudder frames, etc., and for fittings such as fairleads, winch beds and parts of machinery items. Class I forged steel is used for anchors, arrester gears, eyebolts, rudder stocks, winch shafts, shaft brackets, steel valve bodies, etc. Class II steel forgings are used occasionally where a higher strength is required provided that the poorer weld ability can be accepted. Mild steel tubes are used for pillars. Steel sections A table of principal sections and where they are used is given. These sections are available in MS and B qualities. MS sections are used in association with MS but 'B' quality sections are used in association with both 'A' and 'B' quality plate Rolled sections are not available in QT28 or other high yield point steels; if sections are required they must be fabricated by welding. Rolled sections are specified by linear dimensions and weight per foot length. Thus, T-bar 3inx6inx10.951b represents a T-bar with a 3 in flange and 6 in web, weighing 10.95 Ib/ft length. Fabricated sections are specified by dimensions and thicknesses of the web and rider plates. Aluminium alloys Commercially pure aluminium has a limited use for small rivets and tallies. Where weight saving is of critical importance or when non-magnetic properties are essential, the wrought aluminium alloys N5, N6 or N8 are used structurally. These alloys are of the non-heat treatable aluminiummagnesium (Al-Mg) type having the necessary strength and good corrosion resistance in a marine atmosphere. The similar, but slightly weaker N4 alloy is used for such items as furniture, mess racks, ventilation trunking, etc. All these alloys are available in sheet, plate and extruded sections Plate thickness Past practice has been to specify steel plate by its weight per sq ft, e.g. 40 Ib plate, meaning plate weighing 40 Ib/sq ft. Present practice is to define plate by its actual thickness in inches, e.g. 0.75 in plate. A 1 in thick steel plate weighs 40.8 Ib/sq ft. Steel plate below 0.2in thickness is normally called

sheet. Aluminium alloy is called plate in thicknesses above 0.252 in and is ordered by actual thickness in decimal inches; thicknesses below this are called sheet and are specified by gauge number. Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) A material which is rapidly gaining importance in the structural field is glass reinforced plastic (GRP). Consisting essentially of filaments of glass in a matrix of resin, it possesses properties which make it a very attractive material for many marine applications. Components Glass has the advantages over other fibrous reinforcements that it has a high strength (about 100 tons/in2 breaking strength), dimensional stability, resistance to chemical attack and is relatively cheap. The fibres or filaments, each about 0.003 in diameter are made by drawing molten glass from the bottom of a small furnace. Normally filaments are drawn about 200 at a time to form a bundle of filaments known as a strand. A variety of glass cloths are woven from these strands The resin normally used in GRP is known as polyester resin It is a thin, syrupy liquid which can be made to set hard by the addition of a liquid catalyst, the time taken being adjusted from about twenty minutes to many hours by the addition of a liquid 'accelerator'. For some special applications, epoxide resins are used. These are more expensive and more difficult to use, being thicker than polyester but have the advantage of higher strengths and better heat resistance. Properties The glass fibres contribute the strength; the resin protects the fibres, locates them, and transmits the load from one fibre to the next. The tensile strength of the glass/resin composite is less than that of the glass filaments, partly because of damage caused to the filaments during weaving and laying up, and partly because of the widely differing properties of the glass and resin. The material properties vary with the type of fabric, the proportion of glass to resin, and also with the care with which the moulding is made. Typical values for well-made specimens are given in the following table. .

Moulding processes Structures such as boats are moulded as described in the chapter on boats. A mould is built of metal or wood to the shape of the structure, coated with a release agent, and layers of glass cloth laid in, each layer being wetted with resin and then rolled to remove air bubbles. Other single mould processes include the pressure bag method, where resin wet cloth is compacted by a rubber diaphragm forced against the laminates by pressure, and the vacuum process, also using a rubber diaphragm, where resin is drawn through the glass by vacuum. Where close dimensional tolerances and high strengths are required, matched die moulding is used. Two strong dies have to be made, the precise numbers and shapes of glass cloth placed in one, the other located, and resin drawn through under vacuum or forced in under pressure. Pipes and pressure vessels can be made by filament winding. In this process, bundles of strands, known as rovings, are wound on a mandrel, resin (usually epoxide) being applied by brush or by drawing the rovings through a resin bath. The angle of wind to the axis can be adjusted to place the rovings in the direction of the principal stresses. Application to ship construction The principal advantages of GRP as a shipbuilding material are that it does not corrode, its strength is not affected by prolonged immersion to any appreciable extent provided the type of resin, glass cloth and lay-up technique are chosen intelligently, it has a high strength/weight ratio, it is immune to marine biological attack and it can be formed easily into complicated shapes of varying thickness.

Its main disadvantages are its low strength modulus compared with steel which results in large deflections. It has virtually no yield point so that very careful design is necessary to account for stress concentrations, it involves less fire risk than either wood or aluminium but more than steel, the bonding together of finished parts is difficult though not insuperable and closer attention to quality control is necessary. None of these disadvantages is sufficiently significant, or cannot be designed out, to prevent the application of GRP to members or items which do not contribute to structural strength. Consequently, as described in other chapters, it is already being used extensively for submarine casings and bridge fins, ropeguards and eddy plates in surface ships, pipes for certain water systems, sonar domes, radomes and miscellaneous fittings. Nor have these disadvantages prevented the successful development of GRP construction for boats. Its successful application to larger craft or indeed ships, involving problems posed by flexure and high stress, quite apart from the economic aspects, depends upon such problems being overcome by planned development of design and construction techniques. Treatment of steel structural materials Some of the structural steel of a ship requires to be formed to shape; for example, transverse frames, boundary angles to bulkheads and decks, plates with curvature and twist. MS, A and B quality steels, can be curved, bent, or joggled cold, i.e. at normal ambient temperature, but, in the case of 'A' and 'B' quality, if the amount of cold working is excessive the material should be subsequently 'normalized' by heating to a temperature between 880°C-910°C and then allowed to cool in still i air. These steels may also be hot worked if large deformations are required. Hot working should be done in the temperature range 800°C-1250°C and, in the case of A and B quality, normalized afterwards. QT28 may also be worked cold but the maximum deformation should not exceed 3.3 per cent strain, i.e. the plate should not be bent to a radius less than fifteen times its thickness. No subsequent heat treatment is necessary. If greater deformations are required, the material should be hot worked in the temperature range 800°C-1000°C and, subsequently, quenched and tempered in the same manner as its original manufacture.

Welded joints in all the above steels are subjected to restrictions as to the amount of cold work which can be done upon them after welding, and hot working of welded joints is generally not permitted, except in the use of MS where again it is allowed in restricted amounts. Stress relieving of all the above steels and welded fabrications when used structurally, is not normally necessary, but when it is necessary to do so the stress relief temperature for QT28 should not exceed 525°C. Gas cutting of all the above steels is permitted in all thicknesses but only the thinner materials may be sheared. In the case of QT28 gas cut edges which have not been incorporated into a weld joint must be dressed smooth by grinding. Similar treatment applies to other types of high yield point notch-tough steels. Lifting and slinging In dealing with long plates and sections it is possible, by improper slinging, to induce stresses comparable with the yield strength of the material, particularly under conditions of oscillation or jerky working of the lifting appliances. For this reason, plates are slung vertically from the edges or, if this is not possible, they are supported along their length by strong-backs. Long sections are similarly supported when slinging. Modern lifting cranes, such as those of the suction OF electro-magnetic type, ensure that no undue distortion of the plate occurs because they provide a large number of points of support. Shot blasting, pickling and the application of temporary protectives to steel As mentioned briefly in the chapter on shipyard layout, steel plates and sections, as received from the steel mill, have mill-scale and rust on them which must be removed to permit satisfactory welding and to give the most efficient adhesion of subsequent protective coatings (e.g. paint). This scale was formerly removed by pickling in a hydrochloric acid bath, but for reasons of efficiency of scale removal, cost and time saving, and to provide the most satisfactory surface for subsequent paint adhesion; pickling has now been very largely superseded by shot blasting. The plates and sections are passed through an automatic shot blasting machine, which entirely removes all scale and rust leaving a clean matt metal finish, which is an excellent keying surface for paint. In order to prevent the steel rusting again during the fabrication period, shot blasting is followed immediately by automatic spraying of the plates and sections with a temporary protective primer; this is a thin film of special paint which has adequate short term, about 6 months, protective properties, but which can be welded without

detriment to the quality of the welded joint. Both the shot blasting and application of the primer are sometimes done manually. Pickling and hot air drying is still retained for plates below 3/16 in thick which have not been supplied in the bright condition, because it has been found that shot blasting has deleterious effects on such thin plates . Metallic materials for systems and fittings 90/10 copper-nickel is used for salt water systems in warships because, compared with the previously used galvanized mild steel, it has better resistance to impingement attack, reduced maintenance, less weight and better anti-fouling properties. MS piping has been used for hydraulic systems but is being replaced by copper-nickel. Copper piping is used for hot and cold fresh water services, pipes, etc. Copper sheet was formerly used for sheathing the bottoms of wooden boats in view of its good corrosion resistance and ease of shaping but is now too expensive. Where sheathing is necessary to prevent rot and marine biological attack it is usual to use nylon sheeting or GRP. Gunmetal is a very good general purpose copper based alloy for castings, having good corrosion resistance. It is used for valve bodies, pump and heat exchanger casings, boat's fittings etc. Aluminium bronze and high tensile nickel aluminium bronze is available in wrought and cast forms, having good corrosion resistance and superior performance to gunmetal under both static and shock loading It is used for such items as valve bodies, fittings and screwed fasteners. Phosphor bronze is used to a limited extent for fittings for valves, and as a bearing material for rudders, journals, etc. Naval brass is also used to a limited extent for minor fittings, but its use is not favoured in contact with sea water because of its tendency to corrode by de-zincification. All the copper based alloys are non-magnetic. The propellers of modern warships are usually made of a non-ferrous alloy from the aluminium bronze or phosphor-bronze family. Stainless steel is used extensively for equipment and fittings in bathrooms, laundries, galleys, serveries and similar 'wet' or very humid spaces.

Materials for anchors and cables The use of wrought iron chain cable has been superseded by Class II forged steel electrically flash butt welded. When used for this purpose Class II forged steel is restricted to a maximum C of 0-3 per cent or an' equivalent carbon' con- tent (C+Mn/6) of 0-45% and the cable must be normalized. Aluminium bronze anchors and cables are used where non-magnetic properties are important. Cast steel is used extensively for chain cable components such as the bodies of carpenters SWR stoppers and swivel eyes of mooring swivels. En 27, a special nickel-chrome-molybdenum (Ni-CrMo) hardened and tempered steel is used for such items as lugless anchor joining shackles and securing-to-buoy shackles. Nuts and bolts Both ferrous and non-ferrous materials are used. For most normal structural applications UNC threaded black bolts of MS quality are used to BS2708 (below i in diameter) or BS1769 (i in diameter and above). These are electrolytically zinc plated, where necessary, to avoid rusting. Where greater strength is required high tensile bolts to BS1768 are used. Wire ropes A wire rope is a combination of wires arranged around a central core. Wires are twisted ('laid') round a wire or fibre centre to form a ‘strand’; these strands are then twisted ('closed') round a central core to form a rope. In describing a rope's construction, the number of strands is quoted first and then the number of wires in the strand. Hence a 6 x 7 rope is a rope of six strands, each strand consisting of seven wires as illustrated in principle by the sketch on p. 78. Most wire ropes have six strands over a fibre main core. For certain special purposes, multiple strand ropes are manufactured with layers of strands laid in opposite directions to give the rope certain nonrotating properties. In addition to fibre, ropes having strand or independent wire rope cores are also made. Wire ropes used in the Royal Navy, with the exception of certain special ropes, fall into the following groups: a. Steel wire rope (SWR) is used for standing rigging, such as shrouds and fun' nel guys, and so is not required to be flexible. Examples of this type of rope are 6x7 construction, 7x7 construction and 6x19 construction.

b. Flexible steel wire rope (FSWR) is used for running rigging, hawsers and other ropes in which flexibility is needed. To make it flexible necessitates sacrificing a certain amount of its strength. Each strand consists of a number of wires wound round a large fibre core; the strands themselves are made up round a fibre heart. Examples of this type of wire rope are 6x12 construction and 6 x 24 construction. c. Extra special flexible steel wire rope (ESFSWR) is used where both strength and flexibility are essential. The term 'extra special ' refers more to the quality of the steel than to the flexibility of the rope. An example of this type of rope is 6 x 37 construction. A sample from each rope length made is subjected to a test to destruction at the time of manufacture. Torsion tests and thickness checking of galvanizing of individual wires is carried out at the same time. Wire rope which is to be used as a part of a lifting appliance and which has not been tested in conjunction with that appliance is subjected to a proof load test of two-fifths of its nominal breaking load before it is accepted into service.

Figure 9-1:Steel Sections

Part II Structure

10 Framing
The framework which stiffens the hull is built on a combination of two systems of framing, viz. the longitudinal and transverse systems. Longitudinal framing here includes all continuous girders running fore and aft which contribute to longitudinal strength. To fulfill this function such members require to be conbnuous for a considerable length of the ship over which the longitudinal strength is being considered, e.g. a short longitudinal deck girder amidships, worked between successive main transverse bulkheads, cannot be regarded as contributing to longitudinal strength amidships. Transverse framing comprises all girders, which cross the longitudinal framework athwartships and afford transverse strength. In this chapter only those girders which stiffen the outer and inner bottom, viz. the longitudinals and transverse frames, will be dealt with, other members such as beams, deck girders, etc., being more appropriately dealt with elsewhere. In warships the longitudinal framing amidships is made continuous to effect the greatest possible resistance to the large bending moments which occur over this portion, the transverse framing being worked intercostally. At the ends of the ship where the bending moment is small, longitudinal strength is not of primary importance but transverse stiffness is required to resist shearing forces afloat and in dock, to resist impact forces due to slamming in a seaway, and to minimize panting of the shell plating under the pounding of seas. The two systems interwoven and welded at their intersections form a far more effective composite system, or grillage, than was previously achievable by the use of riveting. The spacing of the longitudinals and frames is important and depends to a large extent on the thickness of outer bottom plating and the loading it has to sustain. If the panels between the frames and longitudinals are too large, the plating may not be able to resist the stresses imposed on it under the forces of the sea and so could buckle or fracture. On the other hand a very close spacing of frames would be inconvenient and uneconomical in weight and labour of erection. The disposition of framing is also affected by local considerations such as the requirements for supporting machinery. These considerations lead, generally speaking, to the heaviest framing being worked at the bottom of the ship amidships where large and relatively flat areas have to sustain heavy water pressures, maximum longitudinal

bending moments on the ship in a seaway and the weight and thrust of the propulsion machinery. In small ships the outer bottom plating does not need to be so thick as in larger ships since the longitudinal bending forces are smaller. Because of the thinner plating, however, a closer spacing of frames is necessary to prevent large panel stresses under sea pressure and buckling by compression. In larger ships the spacing of the transverse frames varies from 4 ft to 6 ft, in destroyers from 1 ft 9 in to 3 ft 6 in, and in frigates from 2 ft 6 in to 4 ft 6 in. In large ships with double-bottoms the longitudinals and transverse frames over the length of the inner bottom take the form of deep plates extending the full depth between the inner and outer bottom, the number of longitudinals varying from seven to nine each side of the vertical keel for vessels in which the inner bottom extends up the sides. Larger ships like aircraft carriers are provided with continuous protective longitudinal bulkheads abreast the machinery spaces, the inner bottom extending only as far out as these so that the number of deep longitudinals is correspondingly less. Outside the limits of the double bottom, the longitudinals comprise single sections or built-up sections of strength and disposition to suit the particular ship and position in ship. This applies also to vessels not constructed with double bottoms. The run of longitudinals along the shell plating is arranged on the half block model in the first instance, and it is necessary to ensure that they do not cross the outer bottom plate edges at an acute angle as such an arrangement leads to unsatisfactory welding. To avoid this the butts of the outer bottom plates are arranged at right angles to the longitudinals. The construction of the different schemes of framing adopted will now be described in more detail. Double bottom ships The Keel Sometimes described as the 'backbone' of the hull because of its important contribution to resistance to bending action, the keel comprises the vertical keel, the middle line strake of the outer bottom or 'flat keel plate' and middle line strake of the inner bottom called the gutter strake. The plates forming all three members of the keel are worked continuous and continuous butt welded, and the joints between them are continuous

fillet welded. A wide shift of plate butts is not necessary, the shift being nominal and sufficient only to avoid difficult or complicated junction welds. The vertical keel is usually watertight within the length of the double bottom, to conserve strength and sub-divide the fuel or water tanks. Towards the ends access and lighting holes are cut as necessary in frame spaces where butts do not occur. The access holes are cut of shape and size suitable to the depth of the longitudinal, the edges being finished with a narrow welded strip to reduce stress concentrations in the plating around the hole. Longitudinals The number and disposition of the longitudinals within the double bottoms are decided from two main considerations—longitudinal strength, which is of primary importance over this portion, and the layout of main machinery or boiler bearers. Where at all practicable plate longitudinals are arranged to run directly under these bearers to give adequate support to the machinery or boilers. Where this is not possible arched frames are worked between main transverse frames under the machinery bearers to distribute the load evenly over the inner bottom. In ships fitted with side docking keels, the latter are usually fitted under the third longitudinal each side, which is constructed similarly to the vertical keel. The main machinery space bulkheads in ships so fitted are placed over these longitudinals and serve to transmit the upward thrust to the main structure of the vessel when in dry dock. The remaining watertight longitudinals are of similar construction to the vertical keel. Generally speaking, the longitudinals, with the exception of those over the side docking keels, are of lighter scantlings than the vertical keel. Those under main longitudinal bulkheads are of the same poundage as the bulkheads. For purposes of strength and ease in erection they are arranged as far as possible normal to the outer bottom. Considerations of watertight subdivision determine whether a longitudinal shall be worked watertight or non-watertight; in the latter case access, limber and airholes are cut as necessary. It is not necessary to carry all the longitudinals right forward and aft beyond the limits of the double bottom owing to the decreasing girth of the ship and the decreased requirements of longitudinal strength. Those that are carried on extend for approximately the full length of the vessel and are ended at transverse bulkheads or run into flats or longitudinal bulkheads, whichever method is most practicable.

From the extremities of the double bottom the depth of those longitudinals carried on is gradually decreased to avoid discontinuity of strength, and after a length of about five frame spaces they continue as side stringers. A typical method of connection is indicated in the sketches. The inner bottom plating is carried on for about one-and-a-half frame spaces to form brackets to the longitudinals as shown. Transverse framing Similar remarks apply to transverse frames as for longitudinals as regards scheme of welding, tightness, cutting of access holes, etc. The frame plates are worked intercostal to the longitudinals and are continuous welded to the latter and to the inner and outer bottom. Panel stiffeners are welded direct to the frame plate as shown in the sketch. In non-watertight frames access holes are cut of shape and size suitable to that of the frame, and the edges are finished with a narrow welded strip which provides some compensation for the loss of strength resulting from cutting the hole. Under particularly heavy loads, such as the main machinery, intermediate arched frames are introduced to give added support where the machinery bearers are not directly over the main frames. Outside the double bottom the frames consist of continuous tee bars, passing through some of the decks, and worked between others. In the former case the deck is slotted and a welded plate collar fitted to effect water tightness. "Widely spaced frames often take the form of built-up sections, consisting of a plate welded direct to the hull and carrying a flat bar rider welded along the inboard edge. Whereas the longitudinals outside DBs are gradually tapered in depth and scantlings towards the ends, this is not the case with the transverse framing, the strength of which depends largely upon local conditions, e.g. in way of gun' mountings, machinery, shaft brackets and stern tubes. The last two cases are dealt with separately in later chapters. Single-bottom ships In single-bottom ships the keel, longitudinals and frames perform the same functions as those in double-bottom ships and are of similar but lighter construction.

The keel comprises the same members as in a double-bottom ship except that a rider plate replaces the middle line strake of the inner bottom. All the members are worked continuous throughout the length of the ship. The longitudinals, either tee bar or a plate with rider, are disposed around the girth as required for the class of ship and are also worked continuously throughout their length. The frames are of tee bar section, changing to a plate frame with rider at the bottom of the ship. The plate frames are worked intercostal to the plate longitudinals but with both rider plates continuous as shown in the sketch. Framing in way of hawse pipes The anchors are stowed in massive steel castings called the hawse pipes, which must be strongly incorporated with the ship's structure in the vicinity so as to avoid any local straining action whilst the vessel is anchored or moored in rough water. The hawse pipes are carbon quality steel castings formed in the shape indicated by the sketches. A wooden 'mock-up' of the ship's structure in the near vicinity is built to determine the exact form of the castings, to arrange an efficient lead of cable to the cable holders, and to ensure the anchors will stow snugly in the hawse pipes. Full-size wood patterns are prepared from this mock-up and used to make the mould for the castings. To support the hawse pipes, special deep frames, replacing the ordinary side frames, are worked in the manner shown. The forecastle (No. 1) deck is fitted with insert plates in way of the upper end of the hawse pipe, and as shown in the sketch the frames in way of the middle portion of the hawse pipe are made in two pieces.

Figure 10-1:Framing in double bottom ship

Figure 10-2:Framing in single bottom ship

Figure 10-3:Details of Connections

Figure 10-4:Framing in way of Hawse Pipes

11 Outer bottom plating
The outside shell plating, while performing the duty of a watertight skin, contributes largely to the structural strength. Its weight forms a good proportion of the total weight of the hull and in this respect considerable economy has been effected by the use of high tensile steel. It is subjected to two main straining actions, viz. pressure of the water normal to the surface and longitudinal bending action. The water pressure varies according to the depth and motion of the ship, and the longitudinal stresses set up by bending action vary considerably according to the type of ship and position in the ship, as described previously. The thickest strakes are worked over the flat bottom, at the turn of bilge and at the top of the section each side which is called the sheer strake. The thickness of plates, generally speaking, is decreased towards the ends consistent with the height from the neutral axis. Local considerations give rise to relatively thicker plating at such positions as in way of shaft brackets and stern tubes, at the breakdown of forecastle, connections to stem and stern castings, in way of the after cut up, and forward where panting strains are experienced under the impact of heavy seas. Heavy insert plates are worked where the anchors are liable to chafe. The girth of the ship is considerably less at the ends of the vessel than amidships and in order that the strakes shall not become inconveniently narrow their number is decreased by the introduction of ' stealers. A stealer plate replaces two plates in adjacent strakes and involves these two plates ending at the same place. Stealers are never worked in the sheer or garboard strakes. The edges and ends of outer bottom plates are always connected by butt welds, plates of different thickness being worked so as to present a flush inside surface to obviate any necessity to joggle or notch the frames or longitudinals. Exposed plate edges on the outer surface are chamfered to a slope of 1 in 5 down to the thinner plate thickness. The disposition of plate butts is arranged to avoid complicated junction welds, as follows: a. Longitudinal and transverse weldment butts are staggered by about twelve inches. b. Longitudinal plate butts positioned at least six inches clear of longitudinals. c. Transverse plate butts positioned at least twelve inches clear of frames or bulkheads.

In way of large openings such as main inlets and outlets, stabilizers and sonar domes, where corrosion is likely to arise, thicker plates are worked with the opening cut in the centre of the plate.

Figure 11-1:Part Outer bottom expansion

12 Inner bottom plating
In ships so fitted, the inner bottom plating in conjunction with the outer bottom encloses a shallow space called the double bottom, which is divided into a large number of tanks or compartments, the majority of which are used for the stowage of fuel oil and reserve feed water. The remainder are used as watertight compartments, air spaces or ballast tanks. The inner bottom plating may be regarded as an inner skin, the primary function of which is to maintain the watertightness of the ship if the outer bottom plating is damaged in any way, by grounding, for example. It is, of course, constructed to be watertight and extends over the length of the machinery spaces and in some large vessels beyond this. The provision of watertight flats towards the ends virtually constitutes a continuation of the inner bottom proper. Being worked continuously it contributes to longitudinal strength of the ship. The breadth to which the inner bottom extends varies with the class and type of ship. It is generally carried round more or less parallel to the outer bottom up as far as the deck over the machinery spaces. In very large ships such as aircraft carriers it extends only to the main longitudinal bulkhead abreast the engine and boiler rooms. The plating is welded in a similar manner to the outer bottom, similar rules being applied to the disposition of butts. Insert plates are worked in way of large openings. On no account is the plating pierced by machinery holding down bolts, girders or pads being fitted to take these. Pockets or' sumps' are fitted as necessary for the collection of loose water and provided with pump suctions; the plating here is slightly thicker than the surrounding plating. At the ends of the inner bottom continuity of strength is obtained by continuing the gutter strake and the strakes over plate longitudinals for a short distance, the plates being tapered gradually in width and forming riders to the longitudinals. Access must be provided to all compartments in the double bottom to facilitate periodical examination of the condition, of the bottom plating and framing. Transverse frames or longitudinals separating one compartment from another need to be made watertight only, but reserve feed tanks are separated from adjacent oil fuel tanks by an air space to prevent leakage of oil fuel into the reserve feed water or vice-versa. Two access manholes are provided for each double bottom compartment, placed as far as possible in

opposite corners to provide good ventilation when occupied for cleaning or other purpose. The manhole covers are fitted on heavy coamings of angle section welded direct to the edge of the access hole, as shown. They are bolted to the flange of the coaming and bedded on suitable material according to whether the tank is oiltight or watertight. An air plug is fitted in the covers to those watertight tanks normally kept empty so that by unscrewing the plug air can be allowed to escape if the tanks have to be flooded. This is necessary to ensure that the tank is completely filled and that no undue pressure is brought to bear upon it. No such provision is necessary for oil tanks as these are provided with two 2-in air escape pipes which are well separated longitudinally and led from the highest parts of the tank to the open air. Slot headed naval brass nuts, which can only be removed with special spanners, are fitted to oiltight manholes. The reserve feed tanks are similarly fitted with two 2-in air escape pipes led to the underside of the uppermost deck.

Figure 12-1:Part inner bottom expansion

13 Decks
Decks contribute to structural strength and preserve watertight integrity. In warships all decks are made watertight, the plating being worked in fore and aft strakes and stiffened by the beams and longitudinal girders. Details of the connections are illustrated in the sketches. The usual practice is to construct the deck in large panels, the size depending on the lifting facilities of the shipyard. Depending on the scheme of erection the panels may extend across the whole or part width of the deck. For instance in a frigate it may terminate at the inboard seam of the deck stringer plate, the latter being erected in conjunction with the sheer strake and strake below, the stringer plate of the deck below and sometimes the wing plate of a transverse bulkhead. The lowest deck is constructed as part of the outer bottom weldment connected to the floors, longitudinals and shell plating. The deck panels are welded complete with beams and girders attached forming a grillage together with the curtain and coaming plates of bulkheads before erection at the slip. In destroyers and frigates the beams and girdars are generally rolled steel tee bars, toe welded, the beams being slotted to enable the girders to be worked continuously. In addition some deep fabricated girders, consisting of a continuous web plate with a rider plate welded on the lower edge, are worked to meet the requirements for longitudinal strength. The tee bar beams are slotted through the fabricated girders. At positions where additional local strength is required, e.g. in way of gunbays, mortar seats and machinery uptake openings, both beams and girders may be of the deep fabricated type. Special precautions are taken to ensure that the deck panels line up correctly with adjacent weldments such as the use of insert pieces at the ends of longitudinals. Details of the methods used are dealt with in other chapters. Weather decks and above are given 'round down' transversely, i.e. the surface is slightly convex upwards, to assist drainage. The round of beam also provides slight additional strength to support deck loads. The round down, or camber, may be parabolic or a straight line and is of the order of 1/8 to 1/4 in per foot of beam amidships. Decks may also be given 'sheer', i.e. a longitudinal section has concavity upwards. The amount of sheer varies for different ships but in destroyers and

frigates the run of the sheer line forward is made as high as practicable to reduce the incidence of shipping green seas. When a ship is in a seaway the maximum stresses in the deck plating occur in the outermost strakes, and for this reason the scantlings of the plating are usually greatest for the stringer plate and decrease towards the middle line strake. The main departures from this general rule are around funnel uptakes and other large openings in way of local heavy weights such as gun supports, and where additional protection is desired. Comparing all decks the uppermost continuous deck, being farthest from the neutral axis of the ship's section and therefore the most highly stressed, is worked as a strength deck and the scantlings suitably increased. Only really essential openings are permitted to be cut in this deck, such openings have to be carefully disposed to avoid lines of weakness and the corners of each opening are radiused to reduce the concentration of stress which occurs there. Amidships some of the plates have to be removed after launch for shipping machinery, the size of the necessary openings being arranged by agreement with the machinery contractors. These plates are securely bolted for launch and are not finally welded until the machinery has been shipped. A sketch is given of the method adopted to compensate for the loss of strength where openings in decks such as hatches and large vent trunks occur. The severed beams are cross-connected to the nearest complete ones by similar sections known as' carlings'. The carlings are also cross-connected at the ends of the openings by' half-beams'. The compensation fitted at funnel uptake openings is described in a separate chapter. Superstructure decks and sides, being well above the neutral axis, are subjected to severe strain if built continuous throughout their length. For this reason the plating of the main superstructure deck and side must be of such scantlings that they are equivalent to a strength deck. Short lengths of superstructure do not need to be treated in this manner. Deck plates are connected to each other, and to the shell, by butt welds and the beams and girders are connected to the deck by continuous fillet welds. Where longitudinals pass through beam slots they are connected thereto by welded plate lugs. To obtain watertight joints where transverse frames pass through the decks, plate collars, which fit closely around the periphery of the frame, are welded all round.

Wood planking Wood planking is laid on the weather decks of large ships, if the weight can be spared, partly for appearance, but primarily to keep the temperature in living spaces more equable. Teak is now rarely used because of its high cost and density. It is essential that the wood used shall not easily warp or contain an acid which will corrode the deck plating. The wood now used in the Service which best fulfils requirements is Borneo whitewood. The waterways only are of teak. The planks are laid parallel to the middle line and end on a Borneo whitewood cutting plank which butts against a flat bar running parallel to the ship's side so forming a gutter. The butts are well shifted with themselves and those of the deck plating. The usual practice is to secure the planks by studs welded to the plating as shown in the sketch. Through bolts are used only for thin decks. Planking is 5 in or 7 in in width and 2 in to 2 ½ in finished thickness generally. Briefly, the procedure of laying the planking is as follows. First the edges and butts are lined off on the deck. Next the holes for the fastenings are drilled through the plank, which is then laid in position to transfer the positions of the holes to the deck. The plank is removed and the studs welded to the deck. Any necessary trimming of the underside of the plank is done, after which both plank and deck are given a coat of red lead and the plank secured in position. When all the fastenings are complete caulking is commenced. The top edges of the planks having been chamfered previously, a strand of oakum is driven into the seam with mallet and caulking iron. A second or third strand follow and the whole is driven hard home with a 'beetle' and 'horse iron'. The seams are finally filled with marine glue pitch. This is allowed to remain for a period after which the pitch is raked out, the oakum again hardened down, fresh oakum being inserted where required, and the seams again pitched. The trimming and planing of the deck is usually left as late as possible before trials. In small ships, or large ships in which the weight for wood planking cannot be spared, the weather decks are shot blasted and coated with epoxy paint. Abrasive tread strips, arranged in a diagonal pattern, are fitted in the walkways and in way of armament and deck equipment such as capstans and cable gear. In way of the cable gear an alternative is to fit a special type of plating with a non-slip tread in lieu of the normal deck plating. This practice avoids the necessity of replacing abrasive tread strips, which wear out rapidly in this vicinity.

In ships where wood decks are not fitted and which serve in very hot climates the weather decks are coated with a latex composition to reduce the transfer of heat from the steel deck to accommodation or working spaces below.

Figure 13-1Part plan ForeCastle

Figure 13-2:Compensation at Hatch Opening

14 Bulkheads
Besides contributing to the watertight subdivision of the ship bulkheads are required to have the strength necessary to withstand the loads caused by docking, by the required test pressure, by axial and racking loads and to provide adequate Structural strength for local loads, such as superstructures, masts and gun mountings. The thickness of the plating and the spacing of the stiffeners are made to satisfy the most severe of these requirements. It is important for the maintenance of watertight subdivision that the main bulkheads should not be pierced below the deep waterline except for the passage if essential items such as shafts, main steam pipes, main cables, etc. In way of large items thicker insert plates are fitted, if necessary, to compensate for the loss if strength caused by cutting the opening. To minimize the effect of underwater explosions an outer strake of approxitely 2 ft width is provided of thickness approximately 80 per cent of the hull plating to which it connects. In way of this outer strake radial stiffeners connect the shell longitudinals to the nearest convenient vertical bulkhead stiffener, these radial stiffeners being normal to the hull plating. In a ship built by prefabrication methods, the bulkheads form part of the numerous weldments and are formed into a complete boundary when the weldments are joined on the slip. Between-deck bulkheads are got in place as the erection of the various decks progresses. When a compartment is flooded the pressure and bending moment on the boundary bulkheads is proportional to the depth, and for this reason the lower strakes of deep bulkheads are slightly thicker than the upper strakes. The plating alone, however, is not sufficiently strong to withstand the water pressure and at the same time maintain watertightness, and it is necessary to stiffen the bulkhead by vertical and sometimes horizontal stiffeners to minimize deflection and so prevent leakage. Transverse watertight bulkheads The foremost main transverse bulkhead is called the collision bulkhead. It is continuous from the keel to No. 1 deck and well stiffened vertically. In the narrow portion horizontal stiffeners are sometimes worked along the plate edges.

Main transverse bulkheads are generally worked in horizontal strakes with vertical stiffening. Between main machinery compartments the bulkheads extend from the strength deck to the inner or outer bottom without support from decks or fiats. Consequently the plating and stiffening is much heavier. The stiffeners are arranged as far as possible to meet the deck girders and the longitudinals. Where for any reason the stiffeners do not line up with girders or longitudinals thick doubling plates are welded to the hull and deck plating in way of the stiffeners. Doubling pads are also used where the bulkhead stiffeners are worked intercostal between decks to ensure continuity of loading in the event of the stiffeners above and below the deck being slightly out of alignment. Lift trunks and cable passages attached to a bulkhead are designed to serve as stiffeners. Between-deck tranverse bulkheads are worked in vertical strakes with vertical stiffeners to facilitate erection. Bulkheads at the after end of the ship in way of stern tubes, shaft brackets and the cut up are specially stiffened. Where bulkheads are pierced by longitudinal deck girders, watertightness is obtained by a shaped collar plate welded to the inner faces of the girder and the bulkhead plating in similar manner to that for decks pierced by side frames. Where bulkheads are pierced for doors, manholes, portable plates, cable glands etc., the openings are cut with radiused corners to reduce stress concentrations and the plating stiffened by carlings. Longitudinal bulkheads As noted in the chapter on watertight subdivision in large ships like aircraft carriers continuous longitudinal protective bulkheads are fitted over a good length amidships, embracing the main machinery spaces, the compartments so formed being used for stowage of fuel and water and arrangements being made for some wing spaces to be rapidly flooded to reduce heel in the event of damage. In smaller ships longitudinal bulkheads are fitted, forward of the main machinery spaces, to divide fuel, water and water ballast tanks. They are of comparatively robust construction to withstand the test pressure of the tanks; A sketch is given of part of such a bulkhead in a frigate.

Minor bulkheads These are required primarily for divisional purposes only and consequently can be constructed of very light plating usually about 0.07 in thickness with 3 x 3 in rectangular 'swaging' about 18 in apart. These bulkheads, when welded or riveted to thicker curtain and sill plates, contribute to the strength of the ship. In way of gun blast or elsewhere where local strength is required the minor bulkheads are thicker, usually 0.125 in, with 1 x 3 in x 2.45 Ib T-bar stiffeners where no strength considerations are involved minor bulkheads are constructed of aluminium alloy plating and angle stiffeners.

Figure 14-1:Typical Transverse W.T.Bulkheads

Figure 14-2:Typical Longitudinal Bulhead

15 Beams, brackets and pillars

Beams and brackets The transverse framing is completed by the beams, which act as strong ties and struts preventing any tendency of the side frames to approach or recede from each other, at the same time stiffening the decks and assisting the latter to support the loads on them. To resist racking strains when rolling heavily, the beams and frames must be efficiently connected at the corners. Racking strains induce large bending moments in beams and frames and it is therefore essential to obtain continuity and depth of section where the junction is made. The majority of the beams to the various decks are of rolled or fabricated T-bar sections, worked continuously from ship side to ship side. Stronger beams are required under thick decks in way of heavy loads where 'deep beams' built up of plates are worked. By this method increased depth and better disposition of the material of the section of the beam is obtained, with consequent increase in the amount of inertia of the section, and therefore strength of the beam. The ideal section is a tee section and it is a comparatively simple matter to fabricate the beam from a web plate welded direct to the deck and a rider plate welded to the lower edge of the web plate, the complete beam being symmetrical. This latter point is important since symmetry of section results in the elimination of secondary stresses. The design of the connection between beams and frames has developed considerably in recent years, the previously used large plate brackets being replaced by bracketless connections with a thick doubler welded to the web of the frame. The principles of this type of connection and the conventional type of bracket when fitted are shown in the sketch accompanying the chapter on welding. The use of conventional plate brackets is now mainly confined to spreading the load in way of machinery seatings and other heavy weights, and as tripping brackets at the endings of pillars. The tendency to buckle necessitates careful consideration when deciding whether or not lightening holes may be cut and where this is authorized care is necessary in positioning the hole. Similar precautions are necessary in the positioning of lightening holes in deep beams and it is essential for the edges of the holes to be smoothly cut as any small discontinuity amounts to a notch

in the edge which may propagate cracking. Particular care is taken to avoid this possibility in transverse and longitudinal plate frames in double bottoms, the edges of lightening and access holes being stiffened by welding narrow flats on the insides of the holes. Such flats serve to prevent buckling of the free plate edge where compressive stresses occur round a large hole. The same practice is applied for main machinery bearers and auxiliary machinery seating supports. A typical arrangement of the latter is given in the sketches. Where conventional brackets are necessary in way of unsupported hull, bulkhead and deck plating a doubler is fitted and welded to the plating and bracket to minimize the possibility of the plating being pierced by the bracket by the effect of underwater explosion. Where deck girders pass through deep beams it is essential to obtain a good connection between beam and girder. Beams and girders are, as already stated, normally T-bars or built-up sections. Where deck girders pass through deep beams, the latter is slotted and collars fitted. If the depths of the girder and beam are the same it is usual to work the girders intercostal between the beams. Pillaring An adequate and well-distributed system of pillaring in conjunction with the bulkheads is essential to assist in supporting the decks, maintain the latter at their proper distance apart, and generally assist in maintaining form under all conditions of loading. The fitting of pillars is essential where large areas of deck plating cannot be supported by bulkheads from considerations of sub-division, such as over engine and boiler rooms. In these spaces the pillars are arranged to heel on the longitudinals or transverse frames as far as practicable, and where this is not possible owing to the layout of machinery, special frames are worked in the double bottoms. Elsewhere pillars are arranged with their heads on beams or deck girders and their heels on the steel deck over other pillars or bulkheads in order to obtain a continuous line of support until a firm foundation is reached. Although normally only loaded in compression, pillars may sometimes be subjected to tension, e.g. during shock due to gunfire or explosion, and thus pillars must be capable of acting as ties as well as struts. It follows that they must not be stopped on wood decks. If a wood deck is fitted, this must be cut away to allow the heel of the pillar to be secured direct to the steel deck.

In way of gun mountings a system of pillaring is arranged in conjunction with the bulkheads, deck girders and beams to effect an efficient distribution of the forces due to gunfire over the neighbouring structure. In this and similar cases bulkheads which are included in the general arrangement of pillaring must be well stiffened in order to perform the function of pillars, and for this reason it can often be seen that the stiffening to some minor bulkheads is much heavier than necessary from considerations of local strength or watertightness alone. The pillars are formed of steel tubes varying from 31/2 to 10 1/2 in external diameter, according to their duty, and are fitted at each end with pads welded to the tube. These pads are welded to the deck or inner bottom at the lower end and to the deck beam or girder at the upper end. It is important to arrange the head and heel connections so that no eccentricity of loading occurs and so that the thrust is spread over a fair area of plating. The methods adopted to achieve this are illustrated by sketches of typical cases.

Figure 15-1:Pillaring

Figure 15-2:Auxillary Machinery Support

16 Machinery seatings
The main engines and boilers are supported on seatings which generally take the form of thick plates. These seatings are in turn supported by special longitudinal and transverse framing often termed 'machinery bearers' which are of welded construction. All welding is continuous and no intermittent welding is adopted. In addition to supporting the weight of machinery the bearers must also be designed to withstand the stresses which arise due to the thrust of the propellers, vibration, motion in a seaway or underwater shock, as the case may be, according to the component of machinery supported. Further, they must be sufficiently rigid to ensure permanent alignment one with another particularly when the ship is at sea and manoeuvring at full power. The formation of the bearers depends upon whether or not the ship is fitted with an inner bottom but in either case they are so arranged in conjunction with the longitudinal and transverse framing of the hull that they contribute to the structural strength of the ship. To achieve this object early consideration is given to the disposition of the main longitudinals in order that they can be aligned with the seatings for the main machinery and boilers. The primary difference between the formation of the bearers in single- and double-bottomed ships is that in the latter the girders are built on top of, but do not pierce the inner bottom, full reliance being placed on the structure forming the double bottom to distribute the loads effectively and efficiently. All plates butt metal to metal on the inner bottom and on the underside of the top plates. Where essential to provide adequate support under engine and boiler bearers, special intercostal longitudinals or partial frames are worked in the double bottoms but such additional stiffening is avoided wherever possible. The arrangement of bearers and seatings must permit efficient welding of the various parts, facilitate access to the structure and services beneath the machinery and boilers and ensure adequate drainage. To maintain strength all edges of access openings are fitted with flat bar rim stiffeners. Where practicable, small bore piping, electric conduits, etc. are run before the installation of machinery and larger pipe systems to achieve maximum accessibility. To minimize corrosion the plating of bearers as well as the inner bottom is shot blasted and zinc sprayed on completion of welding and before installation of any services or machinery.

Engine bearers The sketches illustrate the arrangements in a ship with combined steam and gas turbine propulsion machinery (COSAG). Dealing with one propeller shaft the main components of machinery in the engine room which require to be supported are the HP and LP turbines, the gear case and gas turbines. The arrangements for supporting the propeller shaft and maintaining its alignment, by plummer blocks, bulkhead bearings, at the stern tube and shaft brackets are described in a separate chapter. Particular attention is given to the design of the supports to the thrust block which takes the full thrust of the propeller and prevents this thrust from acting on the gearing. The design must take account of fluctuations in propeller thrust which arise due to rolling and pitching in rough weather. Special attention is also needed to the design of the supports to and bolting down arrangements for the gear case since they will be constantly subjected to similar alternating stresses. The machinery bearers consist of longitudinal plates supported by transverse web plates. The seating plates fitted to take machinery bearing pads and holding down bolts also contribute to strength. All connections to the top plates are arranged, in conjunction with the machinery bolting plan, to avoid cutting of transverse webs to accommodate bolts. To provide continuity of strength with the longitudinals and floor of the double bottom, the fore and aft bearers are always worked continuously. A typical layout of engine seatings is illustrated in the sketch. Erection of machinery seatings The method of erecting machinery seatings may differ slightly between shipyards and may depend to some extent on the type of machinery to be installed. The principles involved are the same, however, and are described below. The centre line of shaft is the only available datum line which can be used to ensure machinery seatings are fitted to their correct heights at ship. A preliminary sight line is therefore provided in the early stages of construction by setting up two datum points, which lie on the centre line of shaft. One point is on the forward engine room bulkhead and the other is located at the position of centre of propeller. Later in the building stage a final and more accurate sight line is obtained to enable measurements to be taken to determine the thickness of each machinery chock.

During building, longitudinal and transverse datum lines are cut on small plates welded to hull structure to facilitate erection of structure generally. The use of these datum lines eliminates any possible error which might be caused by working from structure such as transverse bulkheads which contain small irregularities in fairness. It is now common practice to prefabricate units of machinery bearers based on information contained in the detailed working drawings. These units, know as weldments, are shipped separately with an additional or 'green' amount, usually one to two inches, of material left at the bottom for final shaping and cutting at ship. The top plates are machined to take thick machinery bearing pads which are already welded in position on the weldment. After each weldment is placed onboard in its approximate position, longitudinal and transverse piano wires are erected to give a datum plane which passes through the centre line of shaft and is square to the middle line plane of the ship. The weldment resting on the inner bottom is then correctly positioned with the aid of plumb lines from the piano wires sited over the seating making allowances for the declivity of the building slip floor and slope of propeller shaft. Use is also made of the datum plates mentioned previously. The difference between the specified dimension of the distance of top plate below the centre line of shaft and that actually measured at ship gives the amount of weldment which has to be cut off. In marking off the plating care is taken to ensure the edge to be cut follows the true shape of the inner bottom. After the weldment has been lifted and cut to shape it is placed back into position, checked and welded. When the engine seatings have been completed, the heights and distances are again checked and any small irregularities along, the top surfaces of the machinery pads are removed by filing or grinding. Any errors in height after the final centre line of shaft has been sighted through are corrected by adjusting the thicknesses of the machinery chocks on which the machinery feet will ultimately be bolted. Some machinery feet are arranged to slide to allow for expansion. Boiler seatings The type of boiler generally adopted is the water tube type requiring, as shown in the sketch, three sets of supports to take the weight and forces

imposed by movements of the ship in a seaway. Most of the boiler weight is taken by strong supports erected under the feet of the water drum. The construction of the boiler and its seating arrangements is such that no other structural connections are required to steady it against rolling and pitching. From the sketch it will be seen that the feet at one end of the boiler are fixed and the remainder are arranged to slide to allow for expansion. Grease grooves are cut in the bases of sliding feet and the holding down bolts work in elongated holes. Each boiler seating is usually made up as a complete weldment ready for shipping as soon as the inner bottom is completed. The specified height of the top of the supports above the ship's base line is reduced by about 3/4 in to enable correct levels to be obtained by the fitting of packing pieces. Though required to be accurately erected to lie in a horizontal plane the tops of the supports need not be machined for this purpose.

Figure 16-1:Machinery Seatings

Figure 16-2

17 Watertight subdivision
The fundamental properties by virtue of which a ship is made seaworthy an buoyancy and stability. Preservation of these properties in the event of damage from any cause, by adequate subdivision of the ship into a number of separate watertight compartments, is an essential feature of design. To preserve the buoyancy, all the volume of the ship below the waterline and a considerable volume above it, must be constructed watertight, so that loss of buoyancy due to flooding a compartment or compartments below water is counteracted by a gain of buoyancy above the original waterline. This watertight volume above the waterline is termed the ' reserve of buoyancy' and in warships may be greater than the watertight volume below water. The condition of the ship as regards stability is intimately connected with the condition of buoyancy, but it does not follow that the stability will be preserved all the while buoyancy is maintained. On the contrary, the loss of buoyancy generally results in a disproportionate loss in stability, and the ship becomes un-stable before losing all her reserve buoyancy. This fact alone, without a detailed explanation of the complex subject of stability, is sufficient to indicate the essential importance of proper subdivision to limit flooding from any cause. Watertight subdivision of the ship is obtained by the following watertight structures: a. Main transverse bulkheads. b. Main longitudinal bulkheads. c. Watertight between-deck bulkheads. d. Decks and watertight flats. e. Double bottom, further subdivided by the watertight longitudinals and transverse frames. The closer the subdivision, the more nearly will the ship become ' unsinkable,' but other factors have an important effect upon the actual extent of subdivision decided upon, such as efficiency of communications, expenditure in weight, complication in the design of pumping, flooding and ventilation arrangements, disposition of machinery and fighting equipment, etc. In addition, the scope for subdivision is largely dependent upon the type of vessel and the functions she is designed to perform. The small size and high speed of frigates necessitates the full depth and breadth being devoted

to the installation of machinery and such vessels are not designed with longitudinal bulkheads or an inner bottom. It is important to note that the inclusion of longitudinal bulkheads in the design introduces the possibility of asymmetric flooding due to damage, with the risk of heavy list and large reduction in transverse stability. Flooding between transverse bulkheads has a relatively small effect upon trim and longitudinal stability. From this aspect, therefore, it is advisable not to include longitudinal bulkheads unless necessitated by other considerations, e.g. strength. Generally speaking the horizontal subdivision of G.M. destroyers and smaller ships is by transverse bulkheads only, but in the former the inner bottom is carried up to the lower deck as additional provision against underwater explosion. In larger ships continuous longitudinal bulkheads are worked for a considerable portion of the length and one of these is made particularly robust and termed the protective bulkhead. The space outside this bulkhead is further subdivided by other bulkheads, the compartments thus formed being used to carry fuel or water, or kept empty, as may be considered necessary to contain the effects of an underwater explosion and limit the resulting heel as far as possible. Where such longitudinal subdivision is provided arrangements are made to allow the wing spaces to be rapidly flooded to reduce the heel arising from damage. It will be seen from the plans given for an aircraft carrier and G.M. destroyer that the largest spaces are, of necessity, the machinery spaces, and that as the ends of the ship are approached, the size of the compartments decreases - an effect which results partly from the form of the ship and partly as a result of deliberation in design. This has the advantage of minimizing the effect on the trim of the vessel caused by damage to compartments distant from amidships. Vertical subdivision is provided by the decks, the number of which is dependent on the size of the vessel. Amidships the height of the lowest continuous deck is decided by the height necessary for the installation of machinery. In small vessels this deck is the uppermost watertight deck, and in larger ships there may be one or more decks above it. The number of decks outside the machinery spaces is largely decided by the allowance of reasonable headroom between them and requirements for ammunition stowage. In all ships the main transverse bulkheads are carried up as high as convenience in communication will allow, in any case well above the waterline and, if possible, up to the uppermost watertight deck.

Between this level and the waterline, penetration of the main bulkheads is necessary for access and communication, and for passage of ship's pipe and ventilation systems. Penetrations near the waterline in areas where immediate flooding could occur are only made when this is unavoidable and at sea strict control is kept of these openings. Where pipe and ventilation systems must penetrate main watertight structure in this area, valves are provided close to the main division bulkheads to restrict the spread of flooding to other WT subdivisions following damage. Some relaxation is allowed in areas where immediate flooding following damage is unlikely but every effort is made to keep the number of doors to a minimum. The sills of these doors are made as deep as practical consideration and access will allow in order to prevent the spread of water from one compartment to another before the doors are shut, and so minimize the loss of stability which occurs due to the free surface of the water. Similarly any hatches which are essential for access through watertight decks are surrounded by deep coamings as illustrated in the next chapter. Compartments below the waterline which are occupied in action and to which access would be difficult, or would involve opening several hatches or doors with the risk of jeopardizing watertight integrity, are provided with special watertight trunks for access. The trunks extend from the compartment to well above the waterline or to a deck from which access is easy. Such trunks are usually pro-vided for the steering compartment and in magazines the ventilation trunks are sometimes adapted for the purpose.

Figure 17-1:Air Craft Carrier-WaterTight-Sub-Division

Figure 17-2:Guided Missile Destroyer-WaterTight Sub-Division

18 Watertight doors, hatches, etc.
Only where essential to the proper working of ship's services are the main transverse bulkheads pierced by pipes, trunks or gearing. Access openings are not fitted in main transverse bulkheads below the deep waterline. Hatchways and other openings in the decks are reduced in size and number to minimum practicable. All watertight compartments not normally occupied or containing water or oil fuel are kept closed at sea. Typical sketches indicating the method of obtaining watertightness where electric cables, pipes and gearing rods pierce the bulkheads and decks are given. Sketches of the watertight valves fitted to waterpipes, oil fuel pipes, and ventilation trunks are given in the appropriate chapters dealing with these services. Access openings in watertight bulkheads and decks are fitted with hinged doors and hatches which can be closed to obtain watertightness and also to maintain gas tightness in the citadel and other gas-free compartments. The edges of the openings are fitted with coamings to compensate for loss of strength and the door or hatch is suitably designed to withstand the water pressure which would be exerted on it if the compartment on either side were flooded. Doors or hatches in wake of gun blast are suitably stiffened against the effects of this, and those in protective decks are made of plating of the same thickness and quality as the bulkhead. Watertight doors and hatches are standardized as much as possible as regards size and method of construction. The ordinary type of door takes the form of an embossed steel plate 5 ft 6 in high and 2 ft 6 in wide. It is provided with two hinges and secured by means of clips which can be operated from either side of the bulkhead. A PVC coated tubular lever, stowed in spring brackets, is provided in the vicinity of the door on each side of the bulkhead for tightening down the clips. Spring clips are fitted above the door to permit the top clips from fouling the dear opening when the door is in the open position. There is sufficient lateral movement in the hinge to allow the door to bear evenly on its rubber seating against the coaming. The frame of the door, which consists of an angle bar bent to shape, forms the coaming of the opening when welded to the bulkhead. Other details are given in the sketch. Doors on the weather deck are designed to resist blast and green seas; they are hinged on the forward side in longitudinal bulkheads and on the outboard side in transverse bulkheads. Internal watertight doors in main longitudinal bulkheads are hinged on the side

nearer amidships and open outboard and in main transverse bulkheads are hinged on the side nearer the middle line and open towards the ends of the ship. Heights of sills of W.T. doors vary with size of ship and position in ship. A sketch is also given of the type of door fitted to protective bulkheads. The weight of these doors necessitates the provision of gearing to open and close them. This usually takes the form of a worm and wormwheel mechanism, operating on an overhead rack. The pitch of the teeth at that end of the rack over the opening is made slightly larger than that of the pinion teeth to provide sufficient free movement of the door in the closed position to enable the clips to be operated efficiently. The hinges, also, have free lateral movement as in the case of the ordinary type light pattern door. Except in protective decks hatches are fitted on raised coamings to prevent ingress of loose water when open. In protective decks a light watertight coaming is fitted to the deck around the hatch for the same purpose. Generally the heights of these coamings are the same as the sills on watertight doors on the same deck. Broadly speaking hatches fall into two categories, viz. those which are normally kept closed at sea and those which give access to compartments occupied by personnel at sea in action, or at other times. Those in the first category are secured by hinged tumblers fitted with butterfly nuts and those in the second category are fitted with clips similar to those for watertight doors, operable from both sides of the cover. Where a hatch is too heavy to operate from below it is fitted with a quick-acting circular escape scuttle. Alternative means of escape are provided in compartments from which personnel may need to escape. The number of alternatives depends on the size of the compartment and these are always sited as remote from each other as possible. The usual means of escape is by a flush emergency escape scuttle normally kept closed and operable only from below by means of a hand wheel. Heavy hatches in protective decks are provided with an escape manhole in the cover as shown. These escape scuttles and manholes are fitted with spring-loaded hinges to facilitate opening and closing. Large and heavy covers are raised and lowered by chain purchase if fitted with a manhole. If a manhole is not fitted in the hatch it is provided with balance weights to enable one man to open it. Spring-loaded retaining catches are provided to keep the hatch covers open. 'Preventer' chains are fitted to heavy hatches which are opened and closed by chain purchases. Their purpose is to prevent the hatch from falling unless the weight has been taken by the lifting purchase. Air-test plugs are fitted to all hatch and manhole covers to watertight compartments. Doors and hatches leading to magazines, storerooms, etc. are

provided with locking arrangements. Doors open into the compartments which they serve and not into passageways; when serving storerooms and provision rooms, doors open outwards. Handgrips are fitted to the ship's structure above hatchways and to the underside of deck opposite ladders. Circular side scuttles are fitted in the ship's side to give light and air to mess spaces, workshops, recreation space, WCs and urinals, cabins, etc. These are placed between 5 ft and 6 ft above the deck and are constructed as shown in the sketch. The rim casting and illuminator frame are made of naval brass and the deadlight of special malleable cast iron. The hinge of the deadlight is peculiarly shaped, as shown, to enable it to be closed over the glass illuminator if the latter is broken, or if it is advisable not to open the illuminator for fear of shipping water. The two hinged lugs allow the deadlight to be closed without releasing the illuminator fully. Above the weather decks and away from the blast of guns, light covers are used instead of deadlights. Side-scuttles are not fitted in protective or armoured sides. For reasons of damage control, structural strength and resistance to blast, side-scuttles are kept to a minimum. They are not fitted below No. 1 deck (or the hangar deck in aircraft carriers and commando ships) and above this only as few as are essential are fitted. In air-conditioned spaces, any side-scuttles fitted are of the fixed illuminator type. Rectangular ports, usually 2 ft deep and 1 ft 6 in wide, fitted with laminated glass, are fitted to mess spaces which may be sited in the superstructure. Where subjected to gun blast hinged steel shutters with circular illuminators of toughened glass are fitted in lieu. The construction of manhole covers to double bottom compartments is dealt with in the chapter on the inner bottom.

Figure 18-1:Standard W.T.Door

Figure 18-2:W.T.Door to Protective BKD

Figure 18-3:Typical Hatch in W.T.Deck

Figure 18-4:Protective Deck Hatch

Figure 18-5:Side Scuttle

Figure 18-6:Pipe & Rod Glands in W.T.Bulkheads

Figure 18-7:Cable Glands in Water-Tight BulkHeads

19 The stem and stern

The stem The stem in all modern warships is fabricated by welding, with considerable saving in labour and cost compared with the casting previously adopted. The stem is formed of a single plate bent in the form of a U and butt welded to the shell plating each side. Three weldments usually form the stem unit, butt welded together, the lower one extending around the forefoot and butt welded to the outer flat keel. To assist in the fabrication of the forefoot portion a wooden cradle mould is made from the lines on the mould loft floor and steel sections welded together, over which the U-shaped plates can be smithed to shape. Considerable care is necessary when welding the various parts together to avoid distortion and thus ensure good fitting with the neighbouring shell plating and adjacent portion of the stem plating. The method of shaping the stem plate is described in Part III. Around the forefoot in medium-sized ships such as GM destroyers, of which the sketch given is typical, a three-inch diameter bar is worked, rabbeted each side to take the shell plating. This is done to overcome the difficulty of shaping to a U the heavier plating used in these ships. The stem is stiffened at each deck level by a web, butt welded to the deck plating, and between decks by 'breasthooks' interconnected by lightened floor plates. These webs and 'breasthooks' are welded all round inside the Ushaped plating. The various portions of the stem are assembled and welded together to form a single weldment and erected at the ship in one operation. The procedure for assembling the weldment and erecting it in position at the ship is similar to that described in Part III in the chapter on history of a weldment. The stern The form of the stern is decided from many considerations. It must be of sufficient width and depth to house the steering gear, and at the same time allow sufficient height above the underside of keel to accommodate the

rudder below. The departure from the lower pintled type rudder to a fully' overhung' or' spade' type has obviated the need for a stern casting and this, combined with a welded construction, facilitates achieving a smooth hull form in the vicinity. The stern is built to ' overhang' from the after cut-up and its framework needs to be specially arranged and carefully designed to enable it to support its own weight, to withstand the impact of heavy seas and to withstand the forces caused by turning and thrust of the propellers. The change in transverse section must be carried out in such a manner as to obtain a good flow of water to the propellers and good turning qualities of the ship, consistent with the minimum resistance to motion ahead. Frigates usually have a 'transom' stern with broad flat sections, ending in a knuckle. Such sections lead to flat buttocks with a good flow of water to the propellers and a small advantage as regards hull efficiency. A refinement of this type of stern is fitted to some ships in which the' transom' is faired into the shell plating and eliminates the knuckle. The contoured transom plating is stiffened by cant frames connected to the plate longitudinals and vertical keel. The sketch given is typical of this type of stern for a vessel of the size of GM destroyers.

Figure 19-1:Welded Stem

Figure 19-2:Welded Stem Twin Screw Ship

20 Propeller shaft supporting arrangements
The propeller, or propellers, which propel the ship through the water, are situated a considerable distance from the engines, turbines or motors which produce the torque to rotate them. In warships the main machinery compartments are usually sited within the amidships length and consequently the propeller shaft(s) is quite long, say between one-quarter and one-third the length of the ship. The various parts of the propeller shaft system required to transmit the thrust and torque of the propeller support the weight and maintain alignment of the shaft throughout its length, distribute the resulting forces uniformly over the hull structure and to maintain watertightness, are indicated in the key diagram given. The full length of propeller shaft is made up of three or more lengths, viz. the tailshaft' which extends from the propeller, through the stern tube and stern gland; one or more lengths called 'intermediate shafts' extending from before the stern gland through and beyond the plummer blocks; and the "thrust shaft’' of the thrust block immediately before the gearbox. The thrust of the propeller which forces the ship through the water must be transmitted to the hull before reaching the gearing which transmits the engine torque to the propeller. This function is carried out by the thrust block, the essential feature of which is a large collar mounted on the shaft rotating between a forward and after set of pads mounted in the thrust block. The forward set of pads takes the ahead thrust and the after set takes the astern thrust. Actual metallic contact between the thrust collar and pads is prevented by the circulation of lubricating oil between them in such a manner that when the ship is moving ahead the after pads are idle, and vice versa. In some ships the thrust block may incorporate a thrust meter by which the magnitude of the thrust can be measured. In the most modern ships the thrust block is incorporated in the gearbox. According to the total length of shaft it may be necessary to have more than one bearing to support the weight and maintain alignment between the thrust block and stern gland. Each of these bearings is incorporated in a 'plummer block', which may be of the self lubricating or split roller type. Where the propeller shaft passes through main transverse bulkheads watertight integrity is achieved by means of flexible or self-aligning bulkhead glands which are assembled in two halves and which are designed to allow for linear .movement and angular distortion.

The arrangements for supporting the shaft where it leaves the ship through the stern tube, and at the end immediately before the propeller, at the shaft bracket, are described in more detail in subsequent paragraphs. Stern tube arrangements To provide a rigid support and bearings for the shaft where it leaves the ship and to obtain watertightness at this position the shaft passes through a' shipbuilders' tube' which is formed of a steel tube connected to a steel casting, forging or thick plate at each end. These end connections are fitted with webs to connect to the adjacent structure, i.e. to the shell in bossing and associated web plating and to a thick insert plate in the gland compartment bulkhead. A typical arrangement for a frigate is given in the sketches. Bushes are fitted at each end of the stern tube and are of gunmetal or steel, made in halves and arranged so that they can be withdrawn without disturbing any shafting. The bushes are lined with lignum vitae, hard rubber strip or white metal. Lignum vitae and hard rubber strip bearings do not require any special lubricating arrangements being self-lubricating by seawater but white metal bearings have to be oil lubricated. The side framing and shell plating have to be swelled before, and recessed abaft, the station where the tube actually leaves the ship, in such a manner as to permit the minimum clearance for practical erection, i.e. access around the tube for riveting, welding, etc. consistent with the maximum permissible enlargement from considerations of resistance and flow of water to the propeller. To keep the local enlargement of the hull within reasonable limits some of the side frames are severed and the shell plating faired into the tube in the manner indicated. The tube is open to the sea via the spaces between the strips of hard rubber or lignum vitae at the after end. To secure watertightness of the ship the bush at the forward end is fitted with a gunmetal stuffing box and gland secured to a thick facing ring machined square to the axis of the shaft. An eddy plate is fitted on the after end of the shaft bossing, fitting around the shaft and fairing in well to the shell plating. These eddy plates are made portable for examination of the shaft glands and painting of the shafts and have drain holes cut in them to provide free access of water to the bearings. The water is essential to the lubricating properties of the lignum vitae or rubber strip and also serves to keep the bearings cool. Zinc protectors are fitted inside the recess to prevent corrosion of the shell plating by galvanic action in ships not fitted with cathodic protection.

When sighting through the centre line of shaft, as described in another chapter, a sight is arranged on temporary steel framing just abaft the tube and another on the nearest frame or bulkhead before the tube. A piano wire is stretched between these two positions through the tube when the latter has been temporarily fixed in its approximate position. By means of this wire the tube is brought as nearly as possible concentric with the centre line of shaft consistent with good fitting to the frames and within the limits allowed for the final machining of the castings. This practical adjustment is usually well within the permissible allowances for machining. When the stern ,of the ship has been completed at a later stage and the stern gantry supporting it is removed, the overhanging portion drops by an amount which varies in different types of ship. An allowance, decided upon by previous experience, must be made when adjusting the final position of the stern tubes and shaft brackets, i.e. they are raised slightly from the position found as described above before finally securing in place. Shaft brackets In large ships these are cast in Grade I quality steel. In cruisers and smaller ships they may be cast, or forged, or fabricated by welding. They are formed with arms of'streamline' section surmounted by wide thick palms by which they are connected to the structure. The brackets are positioned so that the arms lie in the line of flow of the water and so offer the minimum resistance to ahead motion. This position is found by experiment with a scale model of the ship. The palms are firmly riveted to thick fore and aft plates, called the palm plates, which are strongly connected to the outer bottom and the top of the palm compartment. To secure watertightness of the hull where the palms enter the ship, a heavy angle smithed to shape is fitted around the palms and connected to the shell plating as shown. Each palm is enclosed in a watertight 'palm compartment' consisting of strong watertight transverse and longitudinal frames. A watertight manhole is fitted to this compartment to provide access for examination and painting. It is now common practice in submarines, destroyers and other small ships to fit fabricated shaft brackets which are made on the principle indicated in the sketch. The arms and barrel being thick, it is essential for them to be 'pre-heated' before and during welding to ensure that a satisfactory joint is made. Where the palms enter the ship a doubling plate, made in halves, is fitted around the arms and welded to both the arms and the shell plating. This replaces the smithed angle used in riveted construction. In many ships the shaft tubes of the inner shafts pass

through the palm compartments of the outer shafts and the special framing in the vicinity therefore serves the purpose of supporting both. The lower palms of the inner shaft brackets are sometimes secured to the base of the stern casting which is suitably rabbeted to take them, the palms of the port and starboard brackets themselves being rabbeted and scarphed to fit closely to each other. A similar procedure is followed in erecting the brackets to that adopted for the shaft tubes, a wire being stretched between the centre of shaft at the propeller and a position just before the barrel. The barrel is cast about 1 ½ in long each end to admit of any facing off found necessary when erected, and so that the shafts of ships of the same class may be interchangeable. To fix the position of the bracket in a fore and aft direction the length of the shaft must be accurately taken by stretching a steel measuring tape through all the sight holes. A rabbet is formed in each end of the barrel to take rope guards. Zinc protectors are fitted at each end of the barrel as shown where cathodic protection is not fitted. The occasion may arise when the tail shaft has to be removed and replaced in dry dock. To do this the propeller has first to be removed, then the bearings from the shaft bracket and stern tube, thus allowing the shaft to be canted clear of the rudder (if fitted abaft the propeller) and drawn aft out of the stem tube and then canted clear of the latter and drawn forward out of the shaft bracket. In some twin screw, twin rudder ships the rudders are offset from the shaft line and this facilitates the process of removing the tailshaft.

Figure 20-1:Propeller Shaft Assembly

Figure 20-2:Stern Tube & Fabricated End Fittings

Figure 20-3:Shaft Brackets

21 Supports to weapon and director seats
The structure supporting a main gun armament mounting must be designed to fulfil several functions. In the first place it must be sufficiently strong to support the mounting against its own weight and the forces arising from roll, pitch to heave of the ship. Secondly it must be able to withstand the recoil forces when the gun is fired on any bearing at any elevation of which it is capable. Thirdly it must compensate for the loss of transverse and longitudinal strength which would otherwise occur by reason of the large opening in the deck on which it is mounted and giving access to the gun bay. Finally it must be able to fulfil all these functions without distortion as otherwise the accuracy of the roller path on which it rotates might be disturbed and so cause the accuracy of fire to be reduced or even lead to jamming of the training gear. Earlier battleships and heavy cruisers carried massive large calibre main armament for which correspondingly massive and strong 'barbette' structure was incorporated in the hull. For smaller calibre armament the supporting structure is much lighter but the same design considerations apply. A sketch is given of the type of structure suitable for a 4.5 in twin mounting. The main support member is a ring (or cylindrical) bulkhead fitted around the gun bay between the deck on which the mounting rotates and the deck which forms the floor of the gun bay. This main support is continued down to a firm foundation, usually the deep framing above the outer bottom, by a series of pillars between successive decks as shown. Deep beams and girders are worked in the area to transmit and distribute the forces noted above to the hull structure. The pillars are sited below deep vertical web plate girders which form part of the stiffening to the ring bulkhead. There are usually four pillars, two in the transverse and two in the longitudinal plane. The ring bulkhead stiffeners may number as many as sixteen. These web girders are carried round, cantilever fashion, to stiffen the gun deck and provide the support to the roller path of the mounting, the latter being supported locally by double web plates as shown. The roller path seating, called the gun ring, is a thick annular insert plate welded to the deck plating. The actual roller path assembly is bolted to this insert plate after the latter has been accurately machined in situ at the ship as described in another chapter.

All the welding of the structure must be continuous and efficiently carried out, This is facilitated by the modern technique of prefabrication by which the whole of the ring bulkhead including the cantilever web stiffeners, an area of the gun mounting deck and the gun ring, are fabricated in the assembly hall as one of the weldments of the hull structure. A brief description of the assembly of such a weldment is given in a later chapter. As there are no large forces to counteract in firing a guided missile, nor any comparable weight to support, the structure supporting the launcher is lighter than for a main armament gun. Nevertheless the seating must be sufficiently rigid as to remain accurately aligned with the director under the forces of rolling and pitching. The seating which takes the training rack is usually supported by a cylindrical pedestal inside which the training gear and firing circuits, etc. are housed. Access to these is by small manholes in the side of the pedestal. Local strengthening of the structure by carlings between the beams of the deck is usually sufficient, no ring bulkhead or pillaring being necessary. Small calibre secondary armament guns or weapon launchers are similarly supported on pedestals and require only local deck and bulkhead stiffening. The directors which control the fire of the guns or weapons are placed high in the ship and as clear of obstructions as possible to obtain the maximum all-round view. They are supported on trunks or ' stalks' which may be square or circular at the base but the top is, in either case, circular to take the seating on which the training rack is mounted. A walking platform is fitted at the level of the seating, supported by brackets from the side of the trunk, to facilitate maintenance of the director. The seatings of all gun mountings, weapon launchers and their directors are planed parallel to a common datum, the designed waterplane, and the process for this is described in a later chapter in Part III.

Figure 21-1:Gun Support Structure

22 Superstructures
The superstructure comprises all of the structures above the topmost continuous strength deck of the ship. Although it contributes very little to structural strength it is subjected to longitudinal bending and racking strains. Consequently care must be taken in its design especially since it is built of light scantlings in order to conserve top weight. Particular attention is given to the design of the longitudinal bulkheads and their supports and to the breakdown and endings of the superstructure. The superstructure has also to help support the masts and funnel and must withstand gun-blast in way of the main gun armament. The supports to the mountings or director seats are described in detail in a separate chapter. The longitudinal bulkheads are supported by deep longitudinal girders under No. 1 deck, these girders being in turn supported by bulkheads or pillars to transfer the load to the main structure of the ship. The arrangement is such that these supports are continuous and in line and carried down below No. 1 deck. The breakdown of superstructure must be made gradually as shown in the detail to avoid any rapid change of section which could lead to stress concentrations. The side breakdown plate is made thicker than the adjacent plating and stiffened by a suitable welded rider plate. The edge of the breakdown plate is also ground smooth to remove any notches, which may have been caused when the plate was cut to shape, before the rider plate is welded to it. Additional local stiffening is provided in way of boat davits, replenishment at sea high points and storing derricks. Aluminium structure is used in way of the compass positions and, in cases where top weight is important, for minor bulkheads within the superstructure. The area enclosed by the superstructure is used for various purposes such as accommodation, offices, bridge and charthouse. The bridge is designed to give the maximum angle of all-round coverage for the pelorus through the bridge windows. It is usual for an area of No.02 deck abaft the bridge to be used as a signal deck and equipped with 20 in searchlight/signaling projectors, flag lockers, etc. The arrangements shown in the sketches are typical of frigates and similar in principle to guided missile destroyers, destroyers and other surface warships of commensurate size.

Figure 22-1:Super Structure

23 Bilge keels and side docking keels

Bilge keels For increasing the resistance to rolling of a vessel fin-like projections called bilge keels' are fitted to the outer bottom at the turn of bilge each side. Narrow bilge keels usually comprise a single plate, whilst deeper bilge keels are built up of two plates as shown in the sketches. Roundness of form is one of the chief factors which determine whether a vessel is liable to roll in a seaway and generally it will be found that the ratio of depth of keel to beam decreases with squareness of section amidships. For instance, in large ships which present a very rectangular section amidships, the bilge keels appear as quite shallow projections when compared with those in frigate or destroyers. Indeed, the squareness of form associated with these ships constitutes a large resistance to rolling, and increases the effect of the bilge keels. The major portion, and sometimes the whole of the bilge keel each side, is arranged to lie in a diagonal plane intersecting the M.L. plane of the ship in a line parallel to the designed W.L. and passing through or near to the C.G. of the ship. Generally speaking, this position offers the least resistance to motion ahead and the greatest resistance to rolling. In some cases the forward and after portions of the bilge keel are curved away from the diagonal plane to follow more closely the line of flow of the water past the hull as found by trials on a model in the experiment tank. The bilge keels usually extend for between one-third to one-half the length of the ship over the midship portion. The depth of the keel is limited by docking considerations and in no case is allowed to project below the underside of keel or outside the maximum beam of the ship. The ends are tapered off in breadth and depth. A sketch is given illustrating the construction of a bilge keel. The lower plate lies wholly in a diagonal plane and is approximately normal to the shell at the turn of bilge. The keel is of all-welded construction and comprises a top and bottom plate stiffened internally by diaphragm plates in way of the butts of the plates and flat bar stiffeners spaced approximately 6 ft apart. The keel is connected to the bottom by a flat bar welded to both shell and keel plating as illustrated.

The inside surfaces of the keel are coated with bituminous solution and a series of 1-in holes are drilled at the top of the upper plate and bottom of the lower plate to facilitate drainage and flooding. To line in the position of the bilge keel at the ship three moulds are made, one near each end and one amidships. More are required if the bilge keel does not lie wholly in a diagonal plane. These moulds are made from the lines on the mould loft floor so that their upper edges out wind when set up with the base level with underside of keel and square to middle line. A spiling is marked on the mould to fix its distance from M.L. so that the upper edge represents the tracedof the diagonal plane in which the lower plate lies. The three moulds are set up at the ship on baseboards level with the underside of keel and square to the middle line and at the required distance from the M.L., so that their upper edges out wind. The intersection of the upper edge with the outer bottom is then marked. Intervening spots on the intersection with outer bottom are obtained by erecting sighting battens at intervals and making them outwind with the moulds. The intersection of the upper plate with the outer bottom is obtained by measuring off the breadth of keel as given by sketches. The assembly commences by welding the top and bottom boundary flat bars to the shell plating. The bars are intercostal to, and stopped 3 in short of, the welded butts of the outer bottom. Next the bottom plates, complete with stiffeners and all diaphragm plates in way of top plating butts, are connected to the lower boundary flat bar. The inside of the plates and brackets, etc., is then coated with bituminous solution. The top plates, complete with stiffener and diaphragm plates in way of lower plating butts, and already coated with bituminous solution are then welded to the upper boundary flat bar and bottom plate edge. Finally the top and bottom plating butts are welded to the diaphragm plates. Watertight bilge keels are similarly constructed except that the diaphragm plates are more closely spaced to take the increased external pressure and are air pressure tested on completion. No internal coating of the plating or any holes for drainage purposes are necessary. Single-plate bilge keels are connected to the outer bottom by welding, the lower edge being rounded off by a segmental bar each side.

Side docking keels When a vessel is docked on a single line of blocks, the weight of the structure overhanging the blocks each side tends to alter the transverse form. In large ships of wide beam it is necessary to provide additional support, other than bottom shores, to obviate the considerable strains which would otherwise occur. Aircraft carriers are therefore provided with side docking keels which, in order to distribute the upward thrust of the side docking blocks to the structure, are positioned under a main longitudinal bulkhead each side. In a ship with no 'rise of floor' amidships, the side docking keel each side comprises two portions, the undersides of which are faired into the intervening flat outer bottom plating. The sketches show details of the side docking keels of an aircraft carrier with' rise of floor,' in which case the keel each side is one continuous appendage. Docking keels, including that portion formed by the intervening flat O.B., usually extend for between onequarter to two-fifths the length of the ship, and are sited longitudinally with due regard to the shape of the hull and distribution of weight. In the case illustrated the keels extend for one-third the length of the ship with about two-thirds of the keel lying abaft amidships. Except for the endings, the keel is formed of 0.625 in dished plate stiffened with diaphragm plates of the same thickness spaced about 2 ft apart. The endings, which are comparatively deep, comprise side plates lap welded to a dished bottom plate. The ends are tapered and faired into the hull as shown. One-inch diameter holes are drilled in thee keel plates as shown in the sketch to facilitate flooding and draining. In cases where the docking keel comprises two portions each side, a tapered forging is used to fair into the flat bottom.

Figure 23-1:Bilge Keel-Frigate

Figure 23-2:Docking Keel-AirCraft Carrier

Part III: Building processes

24 Metal arc welding

Introduction Welding is a study on its own and space will permit only a brief outline of the principal methods applied to the construction and repair of ships. The majority of this chapter is devoted to the welding of steel but the welding of aluminium warrants brief mention since this material is used in fairly large quantities to save weight. In metal arc welding an arc is formed between a wire electrode and the material lobe welded by passing an electric current between them. In the intense heat of the arc the wire and the parent metal are locally brought to a state of fusion. Metal from the electrode is deposited on, and united with, the parent plate. By depositing one or more runs of weld metal, which can be done not only down-hand but also vertically, horizontally or overhead, rigid joints can be built up between the steel plates and sections forming parts of a ship's structure. The process of welding, however, is far from being as simple as the foregoing makes it appear. Sound welds are possible only by the most careful attention to detail in the preparation of the joint, the choice of electrode and many other welding conditions, apart from the skill of the operator. Nevertheless, the process has completely replaced riveting as a means of connection, and today all merchant ships and warships are being completely welded by prefabrication methods. Its application has extended to many varieties of steel, to armour, aluminium alloys and other non-ferrous material. The use of welding in place of riveting has revolutionized shipbuilding methods by permitting the unit or prefabrication system of building to be introduced. Prefabrication reduces time on the slip, permits the maximum amount of construction to be done under cover under the best conditions and considerably reduces the overall time required to build a ship's hull. Before the introduction of welding, intricate parts of the structure, such as the stern and stem and parts such as bollards and winch beds, had to be specially smithed or cast and this required the preparations of costly patterns and moulds. By means of welding most items of this nature can be fabricated with comparative ease and usually at less cost.

Welding processes The following is a brief outline of the principal welding processes currently in use for warship construction. A number of other welding processes are available but these are not in common use at present for warship construction. It is important to remember that all welding consumables (electrodes, wires, fluxes and gas) are tested before use on MOD(N) work and only those combinations of consumables and processes found suitable for each material in each position of welding are permitted to be used. Manual Metal ARC Process This is the most versatile welding process available and it is used for the greater part of welding on warships. The electrodes used for MOD (N) work are steel rods, usually 18 in long, coated with a non-metallic flux. The electrode is held in a special holder through which an electric current is passed and which strikes an arc between the end of the electrode and workpiece. The heat generated melts both the electrode tip and a small portion of the work-piece. The metal and flux from the electrode are transferred to the work-piece forming a molten pool of metal protected from the atmosphere by a covering of molten slag formed from the flux. The flux also provides a gaseous shield, which steadies the arc and protects it from the atmosphere. The electrical power source may be either a.c. or d.c. as described later. The composition of the electrode filler wire and coating is chosen to give a good sound weld metal which is easy to deposit and which matches the strength of the parent material being welded. The full classification system for electrodes is contained in BS 1719 and only those classes of electrode which are of importance for warship welding are mentioned here. The 2xx and 3xx classes have coatings of the rutile type, containing a large percentage of titania (titanium dioxide), and were developed for ease of welding in all positions. They are good general purpose electrodes suitable for welding steels up to a carbon equivalent value of about 0-4, where heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking is not a problem. The 6xx class electrodes have flux coatings of the basic type with a strictly controlled maximum moisture content. They deposit weld metal of superior notch toughness to that of the rutile electrodes and they introduce less hydrogen into the weld zone. Hence they are commonly referred to as low hydrogen electrodes. They are particularly suitable for the welding of high strength notch tough steels where the presence of hydrogen can cause cracking.

A large proportion of modern electrodes are of the 'all positional' type, i.e. they can be used either in the flat, horizontal-vertical, vertical, overhead or inclined position (see sketch) and this is clearly advantageous as regards general organization of the work and distribution of electrodes, to use these types as much as possible. Care is necessary in the packaging and storage of electrodes to avoid damage to the flux coating or moisture pick-up. The latter is particularly important in the case of the low hydrogen electrodes which are normally supplied in special packages and baked at a temperature between 150°C450°C, according to type and usage, for a period of 1-3 hours before use, in order to remove the maximum amount of moisture. Submerged ARC process This is normally an automatic process, the essentials for which are shown in the sketch. The electrode takes the form of a continuous bare wire fed to the job at such a rate that the heat generated keeps it continuously melted. The arc is covered by a 'blanket' of gravity-fed granular flux, some of which is melted, floats on the surface of the molten pool of weld metal and then solidifies as slag on top of the weld. The entire welding action takes place beneath the flux, without sparks, spatter or flash. The equipment is usually self-propelled; and high currents and welding speeds can be used and the welds have a smooth profile, excellent quality and deep penetration. The process is only suitable for welding in the flat and horizontal-vertical positions. It is suitable for structural steels and many other materials. For the welding of structural steels a bright bare mild steel wire is generally used for the electrode, alloying elements being added to the granular flux to give the desired composition and mechanical properties of the deposited weld metal. In a variation of this process a continuous coated electrode is used with gravity fed granular flux also. In warship construction the process is suitable for the welding of butts and seams in flat sub-assemblies and decks onboard and for fillet welding in the flat or horizontal-vertical position. Accurate fit-up is required to ensure good joint quality with freedom from lack of fusion. The accuracy of fit-up required is such as to make the process difficult to apply on board a vessel where the plating is relatively thin and consequently does not present a level surface.

Automatic continuous covered electrode process In this process, which utilizes similar basic equipment to the submerged arc process, the continuously fed electrode consists of a core wire surrounded by a number of spirally wound auxiliary wires into which the flux is extruded. These auxiliary wires reinforce the flux coating and provide a pick-up surface for the welding current. As in the case of submerged arc welding, the electrode is melted at the same rate as it is fed, but the arc is exposed. The process is suitable for similar applications to those of the submerged arc process. Similar welding techniques are used, accurate fit-up is again necessary, but the process provides a greater tolerance toward poor plate surfaces. Surface finish of the weld is not so smooth as with submerged arc welds. In a variation of this process a carbon dioxide gas shield is provided in addition to the flux coating on the wire; this permits faster welding speeds. Gas shielded bare wire process This process, which is shown diagrammatically in the figure, has been introduced in shipbuilding comparatively recently and its use is growing rapidly because of its versatility and the greater speed of welding which can be achieved with it. A consumable bare wire electrode is fed through a welding 'gun' into the weld zone at a controlled rate, whilst a continuously flowing 'blanket' of gas is also ejected from the gun to shield the heated zone from the atmosphere. The welding current is impressed on the continuously fed electrode as it passes through the gun. The gun may be hand-held, in which case the process is termed semi-automatic welding, or propelled on a carriage, in which case it is called automatic welding. The composition of the shielding gas depends upon the material to be welded and the position of the welding, but the more common gases are C02 for normal all-positional welding of mild steel, A and B qualities, argon for aluminium alloys and argon plus one to five per cent oxygen for higher strength steels where optimum notch toughness is required in the weld metal. When argon gas is used, the process is called MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding. The welding wire and gases are usually fed to the gun through tubes from remote power units. The higher current-carrying guns are water cooled. The electrode wire is similar in composition to the material to be welded but deoxidants are added if the shielding gas is carbon dioxide. In the commonly

used process no flux is used, but another development is the use of tubular bare wires containing a flux; in this process the gas shield is still retained. The process is suitable for ' all positional' welding of aluminium alloys, mild steel, A and B quality steels but its use is restricted to the flat and horizontal-vertical positions for higher strength steels. Special care must be taken in preparing for, and carrying out, the welding operation. Welding wires and surfaces to be welded must be scrupulously clean because the process is less tolerant of contaminants than processes employing a flux. Operator technique is important to avoid lack of fusion defects, particularly with the argon plus oxygen shielded process. Draughts should be avoided as these disturb the gas shield. A development of the argon plus oxygen shielded process is known as pulsed arc welding. In this process, two electric currents are supplied to the electrode-a background current and a superimposed current pulsed at 30-50 cps. This gives the operator much greater control of the welding process and enables it to be used for thin aluminium sheet. Tungsten inert gas welding (tig) This is similar to MIG welding, but a non-consumable tungsten electrode is used to strike and hold the arc and the filler wire is fed in separately by hand. The process is suitable for welding light gauge metals, e.g. aluminium alloy for ventilation trunking. Machine stud welding This is a process by which metal studs can be welded automatically to most structural materials and it provides a fast and economic method of attaching fastenings for such items as electric cable and pipe supports. Fundamentally it is an arc welding process by which an electric arc is struck between the end of the stud and the work-piece; a molten pool of metal is formed into which the stud is plunged under the force of a spring. The whole process is carried out automatically once the stud has been placed in the stud welding gun, the gun held against the work-piece and the trigger pulled. The process requires a source of d.c. welding current. Stud welding is permitted on the majority of MOD (N) structural materials, with certain restrictions in the case of the higher strength steels.

Process selection and planning Many factors affect the choice between the processes described to suit a particular job in terms of efficiency, time and cost. The principal advantages and disadvantages of the different processes on which the choice depends, are summarized in subsequent paragraphs. Automatic welding gives a high quality weld relatively independent of operator skill, comparatively little distortion and high speed. Its disadvantages are that it requires superior fit-up to that for manual welding, the equipment is generally bulky, the process suitable only for flat or horizontal-vertical welding and longer setting up times for manual welding. The latter, combined with the high speed achievable makes it more suitable for long runs of welding. Because of its high quality, automatic welding should always be used where other factors permit. Semi-automatic welding has the same advantages as automatic welding but to a lesser degree, and quality is more dependent on operator skill, although less so than in the case of manual welding. The equipment tends to be bulky and less portable than manual equipment but more portable than fully automatic equipment. Less preparatory time before welding is required than in the case of fully automatic welding. For A and B quality steels carbon dioxide gas shielded semiautomatic welding is often a good choice. Welds of good quality can be made economically with less distortion on the thinner structural steels than with manual welding. The process is all positional. However, the setting of the controls on the power source is more involved than in the case of manual welding. Manual welding. This is the most versatile process. The equipment is simple, easily portable and of relatively low cost. The process is therefore suitable for ship and site work where access is difficult and where the qualities of welding are relatively small. The process is all positional and suitable for an extremely wide range of materials including all structural steels. Amongst the disadvantages are the relatively low speed of welding, greater distortion than in the case of automatic welding, and the fact that quality is very dependent upon operator skill. The selection of the process most suitable for a particular application is only part of the overall task of planning which must take account of such factors as the availability or cost of equipment and whether special training of the welding operators is necessary. In the drawing office all welding

details necessary for the work, i.e. particulars of joint preparation and welding specification are prepared at the same time as the scheme of prefabrication described in the chapter describing the latter. The specification of the welding requirements for a particular joint, called a weld procedure sheet, comprises the following: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Classification and size of electrode. Current, and, for automatic welding, arc voltage. For gas shielded welding the type of gas and flow rate required. Length of pass per manual electrode or, for automatic welding, the speed of travel. Edge preparation. Number and arrangement of passes in multi-pass welds. Welding positions to be used. Welding sequence. Pre-heating temperature required and means of application. Back-gouging procedure. Any other relevant information.

Weldability The weldability of a steel is denned as the ease with which joints can be made in it by arc welding free from defects and of adequate strength. Weldability depends upon such factors as the chemical composition of the steel and of the weld metal, the amount of hydrogen introduced during the welding process, the stress/strain system produced by the degree of restraint within the structure, the rate of cooling of the welded joint, the heat input of the welding process, and the preheat applied. The narrow band of parent material surrounding the molten pool of weld metal is raised to a very high temperature and then allowed to cool rapidly. This band of material is known as the heat affected zone (HAZ), which, as described below, can be a source of defects if the necessary precautions are not observed. Generally speaking, no difficulty is experienced in producing joints whose yield and ultimate tensile strength are greater than the parent material, and whose ductility is adequate, although often less than that of the parent material. The property of notch toughness is discussed briefly in the chapter on materials. On common structural steels no difficulty is experienced in

producing joints of adequate notch toughness provided the heat input used is not too great. Maximum values of heat input are laid down for different types of notch tough steels. Hot cracks, meaning cracks which occur at temperatures above 1000°C, can occur in the weld metal or HAZ of the parent material. They may be caused by stresses induced by restraint of the joint, the presence of sulphur, or a combination of both. Those caused by sulphur can be prevented by the presence of sufficient manganese. In steels used in warships the Mn/S ratio is kept high (greater than about 35) in order to prevent hot cracks occurring in the HAZ. Cold cracks in the HAZ (usually called HAZ cracks or hydrogen cracks) occur as the joint cools down to 300°C or lower and are the result of not following the approved welding procedure correctly. The cause is a combination of the effects of the hardness of the microstructure in the HAZ, the amount of hydrogen present and the stresses across the HAZ. The hardness of the HAZ depends upon the alloy content of the steel and its cooling rate after solidification of the weld metal. Carbon is the most critical alloying element. Various others have a similar effect to carbon, but to a lesser degree, and the total effect is usually expressed by a 'carbon equivalent' thus: c.e=C+Mn/6+Cr/5+Mo/4+Si/24+Ni/40 The higher the c.e. value the more the precautions which have to be taken to avoid HAZ cracking. The cooling rate is primarily dependent upon the thickness of the items being welded and the pre-heat used. The amount of hydrogen present is controlled by the moisture content of the electrode coating or flux. Thus 'low hydrogen' electrodes, or an inherently low hydrogen process such as gas shielded bare wire welding, are specified for all critical applications. Based upon such considerations of weldability detailed instructions in the form of an official welding handbook, continually kept up to date with latest practice, are enforced in the welding operations employed for RN warships. Broadly speaking the main rules which emerge from these instructions are: a) Mild steel may be welded with rutile electrodes, without special precautions and without preheat, for thicknesses up to about 1 in. Above 1 in preheat and low hydrogen electrodes or a low hydrogen welding process must be used.

b) A' quality steel may be welded with rutile electrodes for thicknesses up to 1/2 in and without preheat up to 1 in. Low hydrogen electrodes or a low hydrogen process must be used above 1/2 in thick with greater preheat than in the case of'A' quality for thicknesses above 3/4 in. Heat input must be controlled within certain limits for all thicknesses. c) For special, quenched and tempered steels of high strength, low hydrogen electrodes or a low hydrogen process must always be used, together with preheating to higher temperatures than that required for ' B' quality. Heat input must be carefully controlled. With all these types of steel the greater the thickness to be welded the higher the preheat temperature necessary. Types of joints The design of welded joints is an essential part of welding procedure. Correctly applied it will help to control distortion, reduce shrinkage, facilitate good workmanship and produce sound welds economically. The dimensional details and access must be arranged to suit the chosen welding process. The sketches illustrate the principal types of welded joints used in the construction of warships. They are: Butt joints This type of joint is used mostly to connect plates in the same plane. From the point of view of strength, particularly under bending, cyclic and dynamic loadings, the butt weld is superior to all others and consequently is adopted wherever practicable for connecting structural members. Butt welds are usually built up of several runs so that a slight ' over-fill' or 'reinforcement' exists on both surfaces of the finished weld. Excessive over-fill however, is undesirable and can impair fatigue performance. As will be seen from the sketches, the edge preparation used depends upon the thickness of material being joined and the welding process used. For manual welding square butts are used to about 3/16 in thickness, single V

preparations between 1/4-5/8in double Vs between5/8-1 ½ in and U or double U preparations for thicker material. Square butt joints can be used for greater thicknesses if the higher current automatic processes (submerged arc and continuous covered electrode) are employed. Where the thickness of the plates to be joined differs by more than 1/8 in, the thicker plate is tapered down before welding, at a slope of 1 in 4, to the thickness of the thinner member. In the event that, through some fault in erection or lack of attention to weld shrinkage, the gap between adjacent plates is excessive, no attempt should be made to weld the butt in this condition. One of the plate edges should first be built-up by welding and then chipped or ground to give the correct edge preparation and gap. Plate build-up by, welding in this manner is a very skilled operation. In all butt joints it is essential for the back of the initial root run to be cut out with a round-nosed cutting tool to show bright sound metal before the back runs are deposited. After each run the joint is cleaned of slag by mechanical or hand wire brushing before depositing the next run. By this means lack of fusion and slag inclusions can be avoided. Fillet Joints Fillet joints are employed between plate surfaces which normally abut at right angles, but may vary between 60°-120°. Generally speaking no special plate preparation is required provided the mating edge and surface are reasonably true, smooth and free from rust or other contaminants. The size of a fillet weld is specified by its leg length, and, provided the dimensional relationships shown in the sketches are met the resulting joints will match the full static strength of the plates. Fillet welds are used extensively in warships but they are replaced in critical applications by the T butt welds described later. Should there be a gap between the two members to be fillet-welded together; no attempt should be made to weld. Instead, one of the following procedures shown in the sketches should be adopted: a) Burn the abutting member back and fit a liner in the gap. b) If the gap is too wide for method 1 or if optimum structural performance is required, then the abutting member should be cropped right back and a flush insert piece fitted.

Intermittent fillet welds Intermittent fillet welding is less costly and causes less distortion than continuous full strength fillets and consequently is advantageous where fairness is desirable. It is not permitted, however, for use on structural strength members, nor where corrosion may be a problem (bathrooms, attachments of weather deck fittings etc.). Its use is strictly limited to minor structure and in any event the ends of intermittent welded members must be continuously welded for the last 12 in. T Butt joints These are used in place of fillet welds where optimum performance under cyclic and impulsive loading is required, and where it is essential that the internal quality of the welds requires to be examined by non-destructive methods.The smoothness and surface contour of the finished welds is important and the aim is to obtain a profile closely approximating to the shape shown in the sketch by the manner in which the final runs are deposited. Where the abutting member is not at right angles to the passing member, the angles of bevel each side are chosen to give proper electrode manipulation without resulting in an excessively large dd. T preparations on one side may be preferable for large thicknesses. Prepared fillet welds These are a compromise between twin fillet welds and full penetration T butt welds and are used occasionally for joints of thick members. LAP joints These are used only for joints of minor importance, e.g. collars for making decks watertight where pierced by frames.The fillet welds should be continuous and of equal size on both sides of the joint. Application to ship structures Some typical welded connections for general ship structure are illustrated in the sketches. The position of joints and the sequence of fabrication should be such as to give maximum accessibility to the operator and to permit as much

welding as possible in the flat position, where automatic processes may be employed to the fullest extent. The amount of weld metal in a structure should be kept to a minimum and plates of the largest practicable size employed, in the interests of economy and the reduction of distortion. Structural discontinuities should be avoided as much as possible to reduce the possibility of cracks which may occur at points of stress concentration caused by discontinuities, particularly if weld deposit of inferior quality is present.' Bunching' of weld deposits should be avoided as the cumulative shrinkage stresses may cause cracking. Examples of 'bunching' are: parallel lines of welding close together, and the welding of fittings on or near structural welds. Scallops, as shown in the figures, are only required where necessary to give access for the welding or non-destructive examination of the passing weld. Welds should be continued around the ends of scallops. No weld should be continued across an unwelded joint in an adjacent member. Where a seam meets an unwelded butt, the welding of the seam should be stopped approximately 12 in from the butt and not continued until the butt is complete. Workmanship and supervision The efficiency of a welded joint depends to a large degree upon the technique and care of the welder, and this in turn depends upon the quality of his training. The importance of good training, followed by strict and reliable supervision, cannot be stressed too highly, although it cannot be expected that even the best training is a guarantee of efficient welding under poor conditions such as bad weather, poor accessibility of the joint, or poor fit-up. The training of operators should include the welding and examination of test pieces, simulating in respect of form, position of welding, welding process, etc the types of joint on which the welder is to be employed. Experienced supervision is essential at all stages of the welding process. Specifically, inspection should be carried out at the following stages: a) b) c) d) Edge preparation and fit-up before welding. On completion of root pass. After back-gouging. On completion of all welding after all temporary attachments etc. have been removed.

Joint preparation The preparation of joints must be in accordance with approved drawings. The fit-up must be good and the surfaces of prepared edges free from contaminants such as rust, paint, oil, water and dirt before welding commences. Joint preparation may be done by chipping, machining, gas cutting or grinding. Gas cutting should always be done by a mechanically guided torch. Weather conditions Welding should on no account be carried out when the surfaces are wet or when the ambient temperature is lower than 0°C. The welder and his work should be protected from rain, snow, wind, etc. Draughts must be prevented when using gas shielded welding processes. Pre-heating When pre-heating is specified it must be carefully controlled to give a correct and uniform temperature over the whole of the joint to be welded and for a minimum of 6 in in all directions from the joint. The pre-heat temperature must be attained before welding commences and maintained during welding employing measuring devices such as Tempilstiks. Pre-heat may be applied by electric or gas strip heaters, oxy-acetylene or propane gas heaters. The former are preferred for most applications because of the greater uniformity of heat and degree of control which they afford. Assembly and transport of weldments The means of assembly of the parts to be welded should be adequate to maintain the parts in their correct relative position. Consistent with this requirement, the number of tack welds and temporary attachments should be kept to a minimum. Care is necessary when transporting prepared material to ensure that it is not distorted. However well the edges may have been prepared, they cannot be made to align with the adjoining edges if distorted, without difficulty and delays. Minor weld deposits and stray arcing These reduce the capacity of the structure to withstand impulsive loading by introducing 'hard spots' and should therefore be avoided.

Back-gouging This may be done by a pneumatic chipping tool, machining, arc-air gouging, grinding or a combination of two or more of these methods. It is important that the back-gouging should remove all slag or other foreign matter from the root of the previous weld on the opposite side of the joint. It is also important for the finished surface of the gouge to reveal solid bright metal free from defects and tot the profile of the gouge is such as to allow adequate access for the next run. These precautions are of critical importance with gas shielded welding. Cleaning between weld faces in multi-pass welds Care must be taken to ensure that all slag is removed from each pass. Undercutting or excessive convexity of sub-surface passes should be avoided as they promote slag entrapment. Replacement of defective welds Welds shown to be defective by non-destructive examination should be removed by the use of the same processes as for gouging. The cutting out should be of sufficient depth to remove the defect entirely and to permit the sound metal to be properly shaped for re-welding. Distortion All metals expand and contract when heated and cooled. Because the application of heat in welding is of a local nature, there is little possibility of free movement and some changes in shape inevitably occur. In a welded joint there are three principal types of distortion which are illustrated in the sketches. These are: a) Transverse shrinkage caused by contraction across the weld on cooling. b) Angular distortion caused by asymmetric contractions on opposite faces of a joint. This is governed by differences in heat input on either side of the neutral axis of the joint. To keep angular distortion to a minimum in the case of butt welds, edge preparations should be used which provide equal balanced weld deposits on each side of the joint; this does not necessarily mean using symmetrical edge preparations. c) Longitudinal shrinkage caused by contraction along the weld deposit on cooling. The effect of this is to cause a visible buckling or waviness of the free edge of a thin plate. If a thin panel is welded all round it takes up a bowed form. In the case of T joints this aggravates the buckling caused by the contraction across the fillets.

As a result of 1 and 3 above, general shrinkage takes place in all welded fabrications. Transverse shrinkage is not uniform along the length of a weld and to minimize this effect, alternate runs in short butt joints should be made in opposite directions. Allowances for shrinkage must be made at the assembly stage, and these allowances are best based upon previous experience. The principal factors affecting distortion are: a) Heat input: The lower the heat input, the less will be the distortion. The total heat input depends upon the amount and position of welding and the welding process used. b) Spread of heat: The less the heat is allowed to spread, the less will be the distortion. The spread will depend upon the speed and continuity of welding. c) Speed and continuity of welding: The higher these are, the less will be the distortion. They depend upon the welding processes, and automatic welding processes, which give high welding speeds and good continuity, also give less distortion. d) Rigidity: The geometry and restraint of the joint will affect distortion. The greater the rigidity the less the distortion, but the more severe the residual (shrinkage) stresses. e) Type of joint: Continuous fillet welds produce more distortion than intermittent fillet welds of the same leg length. In butt welds the amount and type of distortion is affected by the edge preparations. Butt welds which are asymmetrical about the neutral axis of the joint cause angular distortion, Shrinkage across butt welds is proportional to the amount of weld metal deposited, which, in turn, is affected by the edge preparation and accuracy of fit-up. f) Fit-up: This is of considerable importance. Good fit-up minimizes the amount of weld metal deposited and, therefore, the distortion. Consideration of these factors gives rise to the general principles to be observed in the welding specification for the structural weldments and their assembly at the ship to produce fair form and surfaces: a. Design for the minimum number of joints and volume of weld metal and for as much automatic welding as practicable. b. Adopt an assembly sequence based upon previous successful practice and in particular one which limits distortion by permitting contraction without restriction. Generally speaking this means that welding commences at the centre and proceeds outwards and the stiffest members should be welded first,

c. If, on previous experience, undesirably large distortion is expected, e.g. a rise of the keel at the ends, this can be corrected or reduced to small proportions by pre-setting the members in the opposite direction before welding. d. Adopt a suitable welding sequence based on previous experience. The primary consideration should be to permit each part freedom of movement in one or more directions for as long as possible as the assembly grows to ensure that the joints which undergo the greatest contraction are welded first. The second consideration is to balance welding, wherever possible, about the neutral axis. The 'step-back' weld sequence should be used where appropriate. In this sequence weld metal is deposited in increments usually of length equal to that deposited from one electrode, such that each increment is deposited in a direction that is opposite to the general direction of welding. This tends to balance the residual stresses. e. Use forcible restraint, i.e. temporary clips, lugs, strong backs, etc. but with discretion. This is an effective way of reducing distortion, but the greater the restraint the greater will be the residual stresses left in the structure. Such fairing aids should be designed to reduce f. angular distortion whilst still allowing contraction in the plane of the plates being welded. Welding jigs are essential if maximum freedom from distortion is a primary objective. g. The application of these general principles for prefabricated subassemblies of plating and framing is illustrated in the sketches. The method adopted to reduce distortion in welded bulkheads is described in the chapter on bulkheads. This method is typical of the principles adopted for other structures in surface ships. The procedure for controlling and accounting for the distortion of large weldments of a ship is described in the chapter dealing with prefabrication and also in the chapter on maintenance of form whilst building. h. In the case of low strength non-heat treated steels, distortion can sometimes IK corrected, after welding, by the use of carefully designed spot heating procedures. This practice, however, should only be used as a supplement to the general principles outlined above.

Weld defects The chief defects encountered in welded joints are illustrated in the sketches and listed below. Cracking and lack of fusion are considered to be the most serious because they reduce the strength of the joint under any type of loading and are consequently generally unacceptable in the main structure of warships. The acceptability of the other defects such as gas inclusions, slag inclusions, undercut, surface defects and dimensional defects, depends upon their severity and the particular service application. The defects may be divided into two main groups, viz. dimensional defects and material defects. Dimensional defects Incorrect weld size is usually a consequence of incorrect procedure. Undersize welds obviously provide inadequate strength; over-size welds will not generally add to the strength of the structure, but will increase distortion and may adversely affect fatigue strength. With fillet welded joints, a poor assembly with a wide gap will give a false impression of dimensions if only the apparent leg length is noted. Incorrect weld profile Examples are excessive or inadequate 'overfill' in a butt weld, excessive concavity or convexity in a fillet weld, and irregular profile. Achieving a satisfactory profile depends upon strict adherence to a proven weld procedure. Failure to achieve a satisfactory profile can be caused by errors in current, electrode manipulation, edge preparation, gauge of electrode and welding speed. As in the previous case, it can affect static strength and it has an adverse effect upon fatigue Undercutting This can be caused by too high a current, faulty electrode manipulation or incorrect type of electrode. It has an adverse effect upon fatigue strength. Overlapping This can be caused by too low a current or welding speed, faulty electrode manipulation or too large a deposit. It also has an adverse effect on fatigue strength.

Surface irregularities These may be in the form of ripples caused by incorrect welding technique, wrong current or arc length; spatter caused by wrong arc length, too high a current, damp electrodes or frequent interruptions of the arc; bad joins caused by lack of care. All forms of this defect have an adverse effect upon fatigue strength. Material defects These are discussed in their approximate order of seriousness. Parent metal cracks These are generally situated in the HAZ and most commonly are of the type referred to as 'cold' or HAZ cracks, previously described under weldability. Radiography or ultrasonic examination is needed to determine their presence unless they happen to break the surface. They cause loss of strength under all types of loading. Weld metal cracks These can be caused by high restraint, high welding speed, too small a first run, long intervals between runs in multi-pass welds, presence of other defects such as slag inclusions, wrong electrode, poor edge preparation and fit-up, too high a sulphur content in the weld metal or improper match of the relative strengths and ductilities of the weld metal and parent plate. The cracking may sometimes be detected visually, but usually some form of nondestructive examination is necessary. The cracks cause loss of strength under all types of loading. Incomplete fusion This is the failure to fuse together adjacent layers of weld metal, or weld metal and base metal. Lack of penetration is a form of lack effusion. It can result from lack of access to the root of the weld, wrong size of electrode, too low a current, too high a welding speed, incorrect electrode manipulation, dirty surfaces, failure to thoroughly de-slag between runs, incorrect edge preparation and incorrect back gouging profile. Incomplete fusion can generally be detected by radiography or ultrasonics, but side lack effusion, included to the plate surfaces, may escape radiographic examination. The defects cause loss of strength under all types of loading.

Slag and other non-metallic inclusions These may be caused by dirty surfaces, failure to thoroughly de-slag between runs, faulty electrodes (damp, cracked coating), wrong current, incorrect or irregular edge preparation, insufficient arc shielding, insufficient back gouging. Inclusions are best detected by radiography. The presence of small isolated globular inclusions will not seriously affect the efficiency of a joint, but lines of inclusions may cause cracks. Gas inclusion Which give rise to porosity, blowholes or piping, may be caused by high sulphur in base material or electrode, damp electrode flux or base material, wrong arc length or electrode polarity, incorrect current or electrode manipulation, defective gas shielding, or too rapid cooling of weld metal. Gas inclusions are best detected by radiography. Isolated gas inclusions will not seriously affect the service performance of a joint. Non-destructive examination of welds The object of non-destructive examination (NDE) is to ensure that the quality of the welding is adequate for the intended service. There are two basic standards. In submarine pressure hulls all (meaning 100 per cent) of the plate and frame welding is examined in order to ensure that no unacceptable defects are present. In the somewhat less critical application to surface warship hulls, visual examination is made of all welding but other methods of NDE are used as a check on general quality by selecting a number of welds for examination. Acceptable standards for the results of the examination are laid down in both cases. The following NDE techniques are available: a. Visual examination for surface defects. b. Magnetic particle examination for surface defects. The weld surface is covered with a fluid containing finely divided magnetic particles which, when magnetized, show visible patterns around the edge of surface cracks and other flaws. c. Radiography. X or gamma rays are used to produce a photographic three-dimensional image of the weld on film. The length and breadth of any defect is shown on the radiograph, whilst the depth is interpreted by the increase in blackening of the film emulsion in way of the defect. X-ray pictures which are

produced by relatively high voltage electrical equipment give better definition of defects than gamma ray pictures which are produced by a nuclear source which is reasonably portable and requires no external power supply. d. Ultrasonics. High frequency vibrations are transmitted into the weld and reflected from defects within the weld. Techniques a and b can only reveal flaws which break the surface of thewelds,Techniques c and d can reveal defects within the interior of the welded joint.The most commonly used NDE techniques on surface warships are visual and radiography, with restricted amounts of magnetic particle detection and ultrasonics. The latter is employed extensively on submarines. The following remarks apply specifically to the examination of welds in surface warships. As stated above, the two most commonly used NDE techniques are visual and radiography. Visual examination of all welding is important and becoming more so because there is considerable evidence to show that a significant factor in determining the efficiency of a weld is the quality of the surface layers. For checking the quality of the interior of welds on surface warships X-ray radiography is used almost exclusively. The total number of radiographic shots per hull is specified, to be distributed over all the main structural items. The value of the radiographic examination can be greatly enhanced by careful selection of the positions examined, particular attention being paid to highly stressed joints and \ to joints which present difficulty in execution, e.g. joints difficult of access, joints welded in the overhead position, junctions of butts and seams in the main hull. Where automatic welding is used particular attention should be paid to the starting and finishing lengths of runs. It is, of course, desirable to carry out radiographic examination at an early stage in building when access to the work is easy and any necessary repairs can be done without difficulty or delay. Obviously it is advantageous for as many positions as practicable to be examined on weldments before erection. Any unacceptable defects revealed by the radiographs should be cut out, re-welded and again radiographer, until satisfaction is obtained. Radiography can play an extremely important role in the training and testing t of welders, who can be shown those radiographs which indicate faulty technique, Certain safety precautions have to be observed both by the personnel operating radiography units and any others who may be in the vicinity in order to avoid the effects of radiation.

Safety in welding Attention should be paid to the following risks: Fires. The welding process is such that fires are always a risk. Suitable precautions, such as avoiding welding in way of combustible and providing adequate fire fighting equipment, should always be taken. Handling of welding gases. Various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and propane, which can form inflammable or explosive mixtures, are used for welding and heating processes, and suitable care must be taken in their storage and use. Electric shock. The voltage between the electrode and earth rises to its maximum value when the arc is broken, i.e. in the open circuit condition. This open circuit will not normally exceed 100 V, which is safe. However, in certain conditions, e.g. in confined spaces which may be warm and damp, extra care is necessary. For manual welding, safety devices which automatically limit the open circuit voltage are available and are to be used in such conditions. With alternating current the effect of electric shock is likely to be more severe than with direct current. The insulation of cables and welding plant should be maintained in perfect condition in order to minimize the dangers. Efficient earthing arrangements are essential. Burns. Protective gloves and other clothing must be worn to protect the welder from burns by contact with hot metal or by exposure to the rays emitted by the welding arc. Eye injuries. To prevent the ultra-violet and infra-red rays from reaching the eyes and to reduce the intensity of the visible light rays, glass niters of suitable properties must be interposed between the eyes and the arc. The eyes must also be protected from pieces of hot metal and flying slag when de-slagging. Obnoxious fumes. Adequate ventilation must be provided to remove the fumes produced when welding on bare steel plate. Paint and galvanizing when heated gives off vapours which are both inflammable and toxic; welding on to paint and galvanizing also adversely affects the quality of the welds. Therefore, for both these reasons all paint (except approved

temporary primers) and galvanizing should be removed from both sides of the weld for at least 2 in on either side of the line of weld before welding takes place. Welding of aluminium alloys The'N' series of aluminium magnesium alloys used in warship construction may be welded by either the MIG or TIG processes, the latter being suitable for thin materials (say 1/8 in thick and less) and MIG for the remainder. The oxy-acetylene process and manual electrodes are not used because of the corrosion hazards of the fluxes. For the MIG process the shielding gas is argon of high purity ('welding quality' argon), and it is essential that very high quality filler wires, specially treated for welding, of NG6 quality, to BS 2901, be used. Welding wire must be thoroughly clean and bright when used.. Edge preparation of materials is normally done by mechanical means, although arc cutting, using TIG or MIG processes, can be used, and it must be followed by thorough degreasing and wire brushing, preferably with rotary stainless steel brushes, immediately prior to welding in order to remove the oxide film or other contaminants which can very easily cause excessive porosity in the welds. Aluminium alloy structures should be prefabricated as far as practicable in order that the maximum amount of welding can be done under cover in favorable conditions. This is even more important than in the case of steel. The maximum amount of welding should be done in the flat position. Backing bars of mild steel, stainless steel or copper, or backing strips of aluminium alloy, are sometimes necessary on thin material. To minimize distortion, tack welds are required at more frequent intervals than on comparable steel work. Edge preparations are basically similar to those for steel, except that no gaps are used. Radiographic examination of aluminium alloy weldments can be done with the same equipment and materials as used for steel. Complete freedom from porosity is extremely difficult to achieve, but with proper control of welding conditions and extreme care in the cleanliness of all materials, the porosity can be kept within acceptable limits.

Electric welding equipment Manual metal arc welding with covered electrodes Both a.c. and d.c. welding equipment can be used for manual metal arc welding of steel. Under good conditions and using correct equipment there is little to choose between the results of a.c. or d.c. welding. However, for the welding of non-ferrous metals, the use of d.c. is essential. In practice the governing factor in choice of equipment is the available power supply. From the National Grid system the voltage is too high so that the first consideration must be to reduce the voltage to 70-100 V for a.c. welding or 55-70 V for d.c. welding by means of a transformer or a.c./d.c. motor generator respectively. Having reduced the voltage some means of regulating it must be provided to cover the range of currents required. For general structural work a range from 30 amps to 350 amps will suffice but when welding with large gauge electrodes 600 amps or more may be required. The general arrangement of multi-operator sets is shown in the figure. Each operator is provided with a separate regulator connected in series with his welding lead. The operator having selected the correct current from the regulator must now control this current for welding by skilled manipulation of the electrode, regarding speed of travel, angle of electrode and distance at which the arcing end of the electrode is held from the work piece. Maintaining this latter dimension, known as arc length, is of major importance in achieving stable welding conditions. Since an increase in arc length will cause an increase in voltage, it is essential to use a power source which is tolerant to voltage changes. Consequently power sources used for manual arc welding are designed to have a drooping characteristic so that fairly large alterations in arc length will cause only small variations in current as shown diagrammatically in the sketch. D.C. Equipment Various types of motor and engine-driven single operator generating sets, rated from 30 to 600 amps, are in general use. Single and double operator sets and some of the smaller multi-operator machines up to about 30 kW are frequently mounted on a wheeled undercarriage to form mobile units with the motors arranged for connection to the shipyard mains supply at any suitable point. These portable sets are used for isolated welding, emergency

repair work or for supplementing existing capacity at short notice. Multioperator motor generator sets varying from 15 to 200 kW capacity, delivering current at a constant voltage in the range 55-70 V are commonly used, the motor being constructed to suit the voltage of the shipyard mains. The larger machines, with the driving motor quite often connected direct to the high tension a.c. supply are located in conveniently placed sub-station buildings, from which suitable conductors are led to carry the welding current to distribution boards placed near the job. A.C. Equipment Transformers are necessary to convert the a.c. mains current to d.c. These are normally supplied from the 3-phase main at 440 V. They are oil-cooled to give freedom from overheating, long life and quietness of operation. The inherently low power factor associated with a.c. welding can be improved to a satisfactory value by the installation of suitable static condensers. A unit of the required capacity is usually incorporated with each transformer Multi-operator transformers are installed at suitable positions in the shops and around the building berths. The usual practice is to connect their primary windings by flexible cables to the 3-phase distribution system, thereby facilitating speedy removal of the apparatus when required elsewhere. Single and double-operator transformer sets arranged as self-contained mobile units, supplying from 30 to 900 amps, are used when mobility is an important factor. Electrical circuit for manual metal arc welding Of the many factors which can influence results in the arc welding process, those concerning the electrical requirements are of primary importance. It is essential to secure and maintain the proper conditions in this respect. Cables and apparatus carrying the actual welding current, which may amount to hundreds of amps, require careful installation and maintenance. Welding can only take place when a circuit is completed between the output terminals of the power source, the welding equipment, electrode, welding arc, work piece and return lead to the power source. If the current carrying capacity of any of these circuit components is inadequate correct welding conditions will not exist, since either insufficient current will be available or the losses due to heating will reduce the voltage at the arc and so give unsatisfactory welding. Furthermore, if the return leads from the ship's structure or weldment are not

adequate to carry the total welding current used by all the welders, serious corrosion of underwater parts of the ship can occur when using a shoreside d.c. power source. This corrosion is caused by electrolytic action. Even with adequate return leads alternative conducting paths through the water are difficult to avoid, although their effects can be minimized by paying special attention to the cleanliness, siting and arrangement of the electrical connections of return leads which should be as heavy as possible. Also, to avoid corrosion, d.c. power sources should not be used to supply welders on more than one vessel afloat, neither should they be used to supply welders on a vessel afloat and welders ashore at the same time. Detailed instructions on the precautions to minimize these corrosive effects should always be consulted. Corrosion is absent when the d.c. power source is placed on board or when welding with a.c. For these reasons the use of a.c. for welding on board ship should be encouraged. Connecting the work to earth is an essential requirement for the safety of personnel. The sketch shows a typical building berth distribution scheme which can cater for both a.c. and d.c. manual metal arc welding. Automatic and semi-automatic welding processes It is not intended to deal in detail with all the intricacies associated with automatic and semi-automatic welding power considerations which, owing to the complexities and variations of each process, is a study on its own. However, the whole concept of automatic welding is based upon using the correct power source and electrical conditions and it is necessary to outline the salient electrical principles concerning the processes described in this chapter. Submerged arc and continuous covered electrode processes These are electrically similar to each other and to the manual metal arc process. For arc stability, a drooping characteristic power source (a.c. or d.c.) is used, so that the current can be pre-set whilst the electrode feed is matched to the burn-off. Whereas in manual metal arc welding electrode feed, and therefore arc length, is controlled by the welder, in automatic processes electrode feed is controlled by a simple servo system which used the arc voltage to control the speed of the electrode feed motor; if the arc burns back the electrode, with a consequent increase in arc length, the increase in arc voltage causes the feed speed to increase and so restore

equilibrium. The power source determines the arc current whilst the electrode feed is governed by the arc voltage or length. Gas shielded consumable bare electrode processes These processes are characterized by the use of a fine wire electrode operated at a relatively high current. A 'flat' characteristic (in fact slightly drooping - see sketch) volt/amp power source is used and the electrode is fed at a constant predetermined speed. This combination gives the process a self-adjusting capacity -hence it is called a 'self adjusting arc' process which is explained by reference to the volt/amp characteristic. If the electrode feed is faster than the burn-off rate then the arc length will shorten; this will reduce the arc voltage which will cause increase in amperage, which in turn will increase the burn-off and thus restore the arc length to a stable condition. In contrast to the submerged arc and continuous covered electrode processes, the power source determines the arc voltage (length) and the wire feed sets the burn-off rate or current. A.C. current is not in general suitable for gas shielded welding because the arc is inherently unstable; the current and voltage pass through zero many times per second causing the arc to extinguish each cycle.

Figure 24-1:Welding Process

Figure 24-2:Typical Butt Joints

Figure 24-3:Typical TEE Butt Joints

Figure 24-4:LAP Joints

Figure 24-5Sequence for Welding Framing to Plating

Figure 24-6:Typical Welded Connections

Figure 24-7:Orthogonal Stiffener Interconnection

Figure 24-8:welding Positions

Figure 24-9:Common Weld Defects

Figure 24-10:Typical Shop or Berth Distribution Scheme

Figure 24-11:Welding Circuits

25 All welded construction by prefabricated method
In step with the development of the technique of electrically welding steel joints, considerable progress has been made with the method of assembling the parts of the hull structure to the best advantage. The method associated with riveted construction, of building up the ship as a single unit on the building berth, has been displaced by what is now commonly known as the prefabrication method In this system relatively small units or weldments are prefabricated away from the building berth before being assembled there into a complete ship. Some of the advantages of this method can be summarized as follows: a. A higher proportion of work may be done under shop conditions. This avoids the difficulties of inclement weather and reflects in both a time saving and an improved standard of workmanship, particularly in reduction of wind and rain effects on welding. b. Supervision, inspection of erection and non-destructive testing of the welding is facilitated. c. Easier access to structure is obtained both for personnel and equipment (e.g. welding leads and pneumatic hoses). d. All necessary essential services can be laid on close at hand. e. The handling time for each component is reduced. This is an important factor in minimizing costs since perhaps 50 per cent of the labour costs of structural building may be attributed to material handling. f. The time of occupation of the building berth is shortened considerably. This is important in shipyards which are not well served with slipways, building docks or sheds, in relation to overall capacity. g. Each unit can be built more accurately to form than would be possible for that part of the ship if it were built on the slip. This is because of the better control over the form made possible by the building of the units in the design trim attitude. This means that the frames are vertical and the waterline planes are horizontal. h. The weldments may be partly or wholly fitted with fittings before transport to the slip, thus reducing the time devoted to fitting out after launch. This is important owing to the increasing complexity of equipment, particularly electrical and electronic, in modern warships. It is, of course, necessary to ensure that when a partly

equipped unit is incorporated in the ship the welding at the boundaries does not damage any of the pipes, fittings, or cables, etc. Sequence of processes in prefabrication of the hull The processes and techniques adopted for the prefabrication of the hull varies between shipyards but the principles involved are similar, some being more modern than others. Those employed for the building of a frigate at one of the Royal Dockyards employing full-scale mould loft technique are outlined below. Division of hull into weldments The chief factors determining the number and disposition of weldments are the lifting capacity of the cranes in fabrication shops and on the slipway, the arrangement of the structure and compartments of the ship, the disposition of the butts of the weldments to obtain continuity of strength and the availability of suitable plate sizes from steel manufacturers. Information required for planning To plan the fabrication of weldments, certain information is required from the designers. This includes the lines plan, table of displacement offsets, structural guidance drawings and a building specification. Using this information the ship is faired, in chalk, on the mould loft floor in profile, half breadth and body plans, adjustments being made as necessary to the original table of displacement offsets. The faired offsets are forwarded to the MOD(N) for approval on receipt of which the moulded shape of the vessel at each frame station is scrieved in on the body. The 'moulded offsets' are lifted from the body and recorded in tabular form for future use. The following drawings are required by the mould loft in order to meet this programme: a. b. c. d. e. f. Scheme of weldments and order of erection. Vertical and flat keels. Transverse and longitudinal framing. Main transverse and longitudinal bulkheads. Deck plating. Shell plating, details of shaft swells, recesses and shaft brackets.

Development of shape of components Laying off, the term applied to the process of developing the ship's form must still be employed to obtain the shapes of the component parts which have to be cut from plates and sections, formed into weldments and finally erected on the slip. A large proportion of the components of a weldment have to be shaped and the method of development to be used is decided by reference to the moulded body plan. Laying off is used for all components having curvature or twist, e.g. shell plating and longitudinals. Both processes are described in some detail in the next chapter but are mentioned'here as they form part of the overall process of prefabrication. Development sheets are generally used to convey the shape of plates developed by laying off, and framing sheets for the shape of frames or flat plates, to the smithery or fabrication shop as appropriate. Full-scale moulds have to be supplied with the development and framing sheets for items of more intricate shape. These include, for instance, dish and flight moulds for shell plating; moulds for steel sections required to be smithed, e.g. boundary angle on transom; cradle moulds of furnaced plates, e.g. after cut-up, flat keel plates and radius plates at forecastle deck at side; moulds for anchor recesses; moulds for main inlets and discharges, and templates for shaft brackets. In addition, whether or not a full or l/10th scale loft is used, the usual moulds for checking form are required. For instance, round of beam moulds, declivity base’ to check the level of building blocks, flight mould giving the profile shape of the after cut up to erect the stern gantry, stem contour mould and station batten for checking frame stations as erection at the slip proceeds, are required. A half block model is required when the ship is the first of a new class, its main uses being to prepare a drawing of the OB expansion and obtain the demand sizes of OB plating and longitudinals. While the mould loft are producing the information to enable the production centres to mark, cut and form structural components, the materials section are ordering all the plates, T-bars, angles, castings, etc. All these activities in the mould loft and drawing office commence very soon after the order for the ship has been received and approximately four months before beginning fabrication. On arrival at the stockyard and plates and section bars are grit blasted and sprayed with primer paint to minimize corrosion during building, as described in the chapter on shipyard layout.

Methods of construction of prefabricated main hull weldments There are three basic methods: a. Upside-down using frames as formers. b. Upright using frames as formers. c. Upright using a cradle (external frames) as a former. The method selected depends on a number of factors among which structural design, weight of the units and yard facilities are important considerations. In general, the weldments are arranged to be as large as the lifting capacity of the cranes will permit. Weights of up to about 60 tons for a frigate, the launch weight of which may be 850 tons, would be reasonable. A serious disadvantage in building a large weldment upside-down lies in the fact that it has to be righted, usually by two cranes. This is a rather difficult operation and may well cause deformation of the structure. Thus this method is more appropriate to small units of up to say 10 tons which may be turned over fairly easily. An advantage of this method is that plates are lowered on to the frames which are used as formers. The upright method using frames as formers has the main disadvantages that (a) the plating has to be offered up to the frames and (b) the supports for the frames have to be temporarily moved to enable this to be done. It is difficult to maintain form under these conditions. The third method using cradles as formers has the disadvantage of the additional cost involved in supplying and forming the material for the cradles. Apart from this, it has advantages over the other two methods since it enables form to be checked and maintained more effectively. It is also a relatively easy process to build the structure in the cradle, and therefore it is probable that the initial cost of the cradles is partly recovered by a faster building time. On receipt of the information from the mould loft and drawing office, the framing sheets are sent to the plate shops and smithery to enable them to commence cutting out floor plates and frame plates and to cold bend or smith longitudinals and framing bars. A programme of requirement for the frame plates and bars, in accordance with the critical path schedule is given to the machine shops. Similarly all plates required for the OB, tank tops, longitudinals, bulkheads, main seatings, etc. for the lower weldments are sent to the marking-off bays of the machine shops, where they are marked with the weldment number and laid out on benches ready for marking-off. The plates

are marked from information supplied on the development sheets and structural drawings. While the plates are passing through the machine shops, the welding grids situated around the building slip and/or in the fabrication shop are prepared for the construction of the weldments. For each unit the centre line, bow and buttock lines, waterlines, and frame stations are marked on the welding grid on which it will be built. Cradles or framework, usually of angle and T-bars, are constructed to conform to the declivity of the keel plates in relation to the base or level line. A typical scheme of assembly for a keel weldment using the upright method with the frames as formers is as follows: The keel plate is laid in position on the hurdle and tack welded to it. The vertical keel with rider plate is then positioned on the keel plate and secured to it. The remaining OB plates are then laid on the cradle in their relative position. The smithed frames are checked against the lines on the scrieve board and the positions where the longitudinals pass through the frames partially cut out, care being taken to avoid distortion of the plate frames. The frames are then erected on the keel plates and positioned square to the LWL and to the centre line of the ship. Temporary supports are secured to the frames to keep them in the correct position and spreaders fitted between opposite frames on the port and starboard sides to keep the correct distance apart transversely and longitudinally. Bulkheads, which have previously been fabricated and welded together in a sub-unit, are then positioned in a similar manner to the frames. The resulting structure is a means of maintaining form. The shell plating is erected from the keel upwards and is secured to the frames with bridges. The plates are positioned longitudinally so that the frame stations on the plate coincide with the toes of the frames. Vertically the plates are positioned so that the top edge agrees with the marks on the frames and the pitch marks are the correct distance from say No. 1 W.L. plane. The bottom (green) edge of the plate is usually pricked off from the top edge of the lower plate, cut to line and edge prepared for welding allowing for a welding gap between successive plates. The seams and butts are faired in with fairing bars and edge hooks, etc.

The final cutting of the frames in way of longitudinals is then carried out and the longitudinals are inserted through the free end of the weldment, positioned on the shell plates, and bridges to them. Tie plates are fitted to connect the longitudinals to the frames. Collar plates are fitted closely round the longitudinals in way of watertight bulkheads. Where the shape of the weldment precludes the insertion of the longitudinals after the shell plating has been fitted, they are fitted prior to the positioning of the shell plates. This has a disadvantage in that the frames are weakened where cut and tend to lose shape when not supported by the OB plating. Deck panels, like the bulkheads, are previously fabricated to form complete units and then fitted and secured to the shell plating. It should be noted that the weldment is built with green at both ends. Before removal to the slip the non-butting edge is cut to line and edge prepared. At the slip, in close proximity to its final position, and correctly positioned relative to the planes of reference, the butting edge is pricked off, cut to line and edge prepared. Maintenance of form of weldments All units are checked when tacked, prior to welding, and after welding. Standard forms showing the actual dimensions achieved compared with the designed dimensions are completed for each unit. The checks are made in three ways: a. Using water tubes (U tubes) to check that the water lines on frames and bulkheads are in a level plane. b. Measurement of half breadths of the units at deck levels and water lines. c. Checking that the bow or buttock lines on bulkheads, frames, etc. are plumb with those on the welding grids and that the frame spacing and length over all as designed.

Sequence of welding The sequence of welding for a weldment is as follows: a. Tie plates or lugs to longitudinals and frames.

b. Longitudinals to shell plating. c. Frames to shell plating. d. Seams of shell plating. e. Butts of shell plating. f. Bulkheads to shell plating. g. Decks to shell plating. The general order of operations is to commence welding at the centre of the weldment and to work outwards towards the free ends, each of two welders carrying out similar operations at the same time. The welding of the seams and butts is stopped short 12 in from the free ends of the weldment and the webs of the end frames in each weldment are left unwelded to the shell on the outer sides. A similar procedure is followed for longitudinals and decks near to the top and bottom of the weldment in order to facilitate fitting to adjacent weldments on the slip. The back runs of seams and butts are cut out and welded and selected spots ground off, radiographed and inspected. Any defects found have to be made good. Transport of weldments Lack of care in transporting the weldment to the slip can negative the precautions and much of the effort previously devoted to getting the correct form. When all the welding of the structure is completed, temporary bracing bars are fitted and welded to each weldment and lifting eye-plates usually four in number are positioned. These lifting eyeplates are secured to rigid parts of the structure, e.g. the intersection of a bulkhead with deck-plating, and in such a position that when the weldment is lifted it will remain in a level plane and the load will be evenly distributed. When the weldments are being transported care is necessary to avoid buckling of the free edges and damage to any equipment installed. Weldments which form the main and auxiliary machinery spaces, bathrooms, galleys, and pump spaces are grit blasted internally and zinc sprayed. Care must be taken that all unwelded areas are masked with masking tape so that the zinc coatings are kept off these joints. These areas are blasted and zinc coated later. Usually it is programmed to complete the fabrication of approximately 30 per cent of the main hull structure before laying down of the first weldment on the slip.

Scheme of erection of weldments on the slip The details of the scheme of erection depends on the manner in which the ship is divided up. Assuming a crane capacity of about 30 tons, the hull of a frigate could be divided longitudinally into about 20 sections. Each of these sections could be divided at about mid depth. The lower portion of each section could be fabricated as a complete three-dimensional hull unit. The upper portions could also be constructed as three-dimensional units and erected at the slip. However, in practice it is rather difficult to join such upper three dimensional units and an alternative and fairly satisfactory method is to produce two dimensional panels of the upper ship side and decks and to erect these separately above the main hull weldments. The principle governing the order in which the weldments and panels are erected on the slip is to commence amidships and work aft and upward rather faster than forward and upward in order to complete the after portion of the ship fairly early. This is to enable the work of establishing the centre line of shaft, and of erecting the shaft brackets, stern tube and machinery seats to be undertaken while the forward sections are being erected. The extreme bow and stern units are usually constructed the full depth of the ship and erected as complete sections. The superstructure is usually divided into a number of three-dimensional units which are erected when the weather deck has been completed. Minor bulkheads are usually included in the three-dimensional units. In the case of two-dimensional panels, they are erected before the deck panel (over) has been positioned. Method of joining weldments at the slip On arrival at the slip the weldment is landed on the keel blocks. If the butting edges have already been prepared, the weldment can be adjusted to its final position and welded. If the edges require to be trimmed and finally prepared, the weldment is landed at a convenient distance from its final position in the three planes of reference so that it can be aligned with the adjoining members and the edges pricked off and trimmed. The first weldment is usually a keel section amidships. The placing of weldments on the slip then proceeds forward and aft of this weldment maintaining the middle line of the weldments with the middle line of the blocks and ensuring that the weldments are upright and that the length overall is maintained, making allowances for any contraction that occurs.

After each new weldment is fitted to its adjoining weldments the butts are faired with fairing bars, edge hooks, and bridges, but as with the fabrication of the weldments themselves Whessoe clips are fitted and the temporary securing arrangements removed prior to the commencement of the welding. Longitudinals are joined by marrying bars as noted previously and the vertical keels and rider plates are married and secured in a similar manner to the shell plating. The edges and butts of the OB plating, longitudinals, keels and rider plates are chamfered with 30° bevel and 1/16 nosing. Bottle screws and chains are secured to the hull and to ring plates in the floor of the slip and tightened for holding the weldment down on to the blocks during welding operations. The procedure for welding is as follows: a. Vertical keel and rider plates. b. Longitudinals, frames and deck marrying members. c. Shell seams left unwelded during fabrication. d. Shell butts commencing at the top of the weldment and welding vertically up but direction downwards i.e. step back method. e. Deck plating. As far as possible it is arranged for pairs of welders to operate simultaneously and symmetrically one each side of the middle line of each weldment. Upper side weldments are erected and married in a similar manner, checking form from the base boards and measuring half-breadths, etc. The sequence of welding for wing and side weldments is as follows: a. Marrying bars to longitudinals and frames. b. Seam welds. c. Butt welds commencing at the top of the weldment, welding vertically up but direction downwards, i.e. step back method. d. Bulkheads and decks. Deck panels, main transverse and longitudinal bulkheads are erected in the same fashion, checks being made to ensure that water lines and bow or buttock lines correspond to those on adjacent structure. The sequence of welding bulkheads and decks is as follows: a. Marrying bars to stiffeners, deck girders and frames. b. Plate seams. c. Plate butts.

The bow and stern portions, because of their shape, usually require to be supported by wooden cradles on gantries to enable them to be accurately aligned for connection to the adjacent structure. There is a tendency for the bow and stern to rise from a straight line and this can be offset to some extent by varying the welding sequence and presetting the line of keel blocks downwards. All main structural welding of the after end must be completed prior to sighting through the propeller shaft lines. On completion of the welding of the main hull, selected spots are ground off and the welded joints radiographed. These are usually the cross-over joints of the butts and seams to the OB plating and strength deck. For a frigate there are usually about 500 radiographs taken during the course of construction. The radiographs are very carefully scrutinized and any defects are cut out, rewelded and re-radiographed. The various processes of fabricating the numerous weldments which go to form the main structure, assembling and welding them at the berth, grit blasting and zinc spraying, sighting in the shaft lines, erecting the machinery settings, and so on up to the launch, need to be carefully phased in relation to each other. In such cases it is of distinct advantage to employ network scheduling techniques, the principles of which are described in a separate chapter.

Figure 25-1:Disposition of Weldments

Figure 25-2:D.B. Weldments

26 Plate development, marking off and mocking up
Plate development Obtaining the true size and shape of the shell plating of a ship involves a considerable amount of full scale work on the mould loft floor, not the least of which is the work involved in the development of plates with differing degrees of curvature and/or twist. It should be noted that such plates cannot be accurately developed but with skilful application of the methods described below reasonable accuracy is obtainable where twist and curvature are moderate. The methods used in the Royal Dockyards fall broadly into two categories. The first is applicable to plates with slight curvature and virtually no twist. The second is applicable to plates with moderate curvature and twist. There is no firm division between these methods and it is a matter of experience as to which should be used . The mean normal method a. Figure 1 shows the upper and lower plate edges on a part of the body plan where the frame lines have very little twist. It is assumed there is only slight curvature of the plate. b. Point A on frame 34 is approximately midway between the plate edges, i.e. c is nearly equal to d. c. From A a line is squared from frame line 34 to meet frame line 33 at the point B. From B, BC is squared from 33 to meet 32 in C. This process is continued to frame 30 as shown. d. A batten is faired through points A, B, C, D and E, and the frame stations lifted. The curve through ABCDE is a mean normal to the frame lines. e. Referring to Figure 2, these dimensions are set up on normal frame stations from the datum line as shown, e.g. dimension w is set up at 31, and x is setup at 32, and so on. A batten is penned through these spots and the frame station positions marked. The distances between these marks are true lengths of the plate measured along the normal ABC .E in Figure 1. Then allowing

the batten to fling straight along the datum line in Figure 2 gives the expanded frame stations as shown dotted. f. Referring to Figure 1, a girthing batten is used to lift the plate edge dimensions at each frame from the mean normal line, e.g. a and b at frame 30, c and d at frame 34 (dimensions for other frames are omitted for clearness). g. These dimensions are transferred to the expanded stations of Figure 2 and set off from the datum line as shown.

h. Curves are put through the spots obtained thus determining the upper and lower expanded plate edges as shown. The butts of the plating (not shown) can be inserted as required and it should be noted that in practice the development would extend at least one frame space each way beyond that in which the butt of plating occurs. Thus, if the butt occurred between frames 33 and 34 the development would be taken to frame 35. Centre spot squaring method The mean normal method has obvious limitations since it assumes that the expanded frame stations remain parallel (which implies no twist in the plate) and it further assumes that the mean normal curve in the body plan expands into a straight line in the development. The method described below attempts to obviate both of these restrictions and can therefore be applied to plates with more curvature and twist. The procedure falls into four parts: I.Obtaining the mean normal in the body plan a. Fig. 1 shows part of the body plan where the shell plating has some twist curvature. b. Chord lines are struck in for each frame joining the upper and lower plate edges as shown dotted. c. Referring to frame 24, C is approximately midway between the plate edges and from this point a line is struck in at right angles to the chord at 24 station to meet frame line 23 at D. From chord 23 a line is squared back to point C. This line intersects frame line 23 at E. Because of the twist in the plate D and E will not coincide. It is therefore necessary to take the mid point of DE as the mean centre spot for frame 23 i.e. spot F. d. Starting from F this procedure is repeated to obtain spot G on frame line 22 and hence spots H and J on frame lines 21 and 20 respectively. II. Obtaining the girthing batten a. A batten is penned around frame line 24 in Fig. 1 and the centre spot C is carefully marked together with the upper and lower plate edges. b. Using the same batten and keeping spot C on the batten well with centre spot F on frame line 23, the upper and lower plate edges at 23 station are marked off on the batten. This procedure is followed for the other frame lines each time keeping the centre spot well with point C on the batten.

c. This batten now contains the true widths of the plate at each frame station together with a common datum spot for each frame. III. Obtaining the plate edge battens a. The problem here is to find the true length of each plate edge. b. Referring to Fig. 1 and considering the upper plate edge between 23 and 24 stations, the true length along this plate edge approximates to the hypotenuse of a triangle whose base is the fore and aft separation of the frame lines and whose height is the transverse separation measured along the plate edge (i.e. distance 'a'). Similarly, the distance along the plate edge between frames 22 and 23 is obtained by using' b' as the height of the triangle. c. Thus, still referring to Fig. 1, a batten is penned along the upper plate edge and the frame lines marked on it. d. Referring now to Fig. 2, the dimensions lifted are set up on the normal frame lines from the datum line as shown and a curve is put through the spots obtained to give the developed upper plate edge as shown. It will be seen that the intercepts of this curve between frame lines represent the hypotenuses of the triangles referred to in paragraph (b) above. Thus for frames 23 and 24, 'a' is the spacing and 'c' is the hypotenuse. e. The lower plate edge is similarly developed. f. A batten is penned around each plate edge curve and the frame stations are marked off. These battens contain the approximate true lengths of the upper and lower plate edges respectively. IV. Developing the plate The true widths of the plate at each frame station have been obtained on a girthing batten.The true lengths of each plate edge have also been determined together with the relative positions of the frame lines on the plate edge battens. In order to develop the plate, these widths and lengths have to be correctly combined and the procedure is as follows: a. Referring to Fig. 3 strike in a line to represent frame line 24 and using the girthing batten mark off the plate edges and centre spot C. b. The upper and lower plate edge battens are pinned to the floor at 24 station with their respective inner edges on plate edge spots. c. The girthing batten is now attached to a square as indicated and the square is applied to 24 frame line. A line is then squared forward from

C to a point in the vicinity of frame line 23 (the actual position of frame line 23 is not yet known). d. The girthing batten and square are now applied so that the girthing marks for 23 frame coincide with the marks for 23 frame on the upper and lower plate edge battens. Keeping the battens firmly together the system is rotated about the pins at 24 station until the square passed through point C as indicated by line EC. (The method of applying the square to obtain this second point is shown in Fig. 3 for 20 station.) The point E thus obtained in Fig. 3 does not however strictly represent point E in Fig. 1 since the plate edge girths relative to E in Fig. 1 are not the same as those in Fig. 3. Providing the twist and curvature in the plate is not too great, the error involved is small. e. The system is next adjusted until the centre spot on the girthing batten falls midway between D and E, i.e. point F, which represents point F in Fig. 1. f. Thus in Fig. 3 for the portion of the plate between frames 23 and 24, the true lengths and widths have been combined with reference to centre spot F which approximates to the centre spot datum in the body plan from which the dimensions were originally lifted. Hence the true shape of the plate between frames 23 and 24 has been determined. g. The plate edge battens are now pinned at frame 23 and the process is repeated for the other frame lines. h. On completion of the development the plate edge battens are released and a curve is faired through the plate edge spots and the butts can be arranged as required. Having obtained the developed shape of the plate by either of the foregoing methods it has to be conveyed to the fabrication shop for marking out the actual plate. This is done by means of a small drawing (not to scale) which is known as a 'development sheet' or 'coding sheet'. Typical development sheet for a plate in 'A' strake is given in the sketch. The following information is included on the development sheet. a. The expanded frame stations to enable the plate to be positioned longitudinally and to provide datums to which dish moulds may be applied. b. Suitable pitch marks to assist when erecting the plate at the welding grid. These pitch marks usually represent a level line at a known

distance from say No. 1 waterline and are used together with the plate edge marks to position the plate. c. Parallel fore and aft datums to enable the shipwright to establish the frame station positions and plate edges. d. Ordered size of plate with its allocation marking. This marking identifies the actual plate from the storage rack. e. Diagonal checks across the plate. These are a final check for the shipwright to apply to the marked-off plate. These sheets have replaced moulds to a large extent, but the latter are still necessary when the plate has such excessive twist or curvature as to require smithing to shape. Development sheets are supplied for the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Flat keel plates and shell strakes. Plate longitudinals and longitudinal bulkheads. Engine seatings (transverse and longitudinal) but not top plates. Deck stringer plates. Bilge keels. Sponson plating. All superstructure plating, other than rectangular plating.

Marking-off plates from development sheets a. The fore and aft datums are struck in on the plate together with the normal. b. Starting from this, normal measurements to each frame station are marked off along each datum and lines are struck through each pair of points to give the expanded frame stations. c. Plate edge distances are then measured along each expanded frame station from the longitudinal datum and the plate edges are faired in. d. The diagonal checks are made. e. Pitch mark datums from, say, No. 1 waterline plane are added. Marking off flat plates from framing sheets The work covered by this heading, already referred to in the chapter on prefabrication, is carried out by the scrieve board and consists of preparing framing sheets.

Framing sheets have replaced the mould for the framing of the ship, and could be described as part scrieve boards. They are made of hardboard, a number together forming a surface on which framing details are scrieved. The sketch shows the main framing and longitudinals in a double bottom weldment. The necessary information to build this framing is contained on the body plan which, however, is not usually accessible to the slip or fabrication shop. Hence the use of framing sheets to convey this information to the craftsmen concerned with the shaping of the parts and assembly of the weldments at the grids or erection shop. A set of framing sheets is prepared for each weldment forming the hull shape. The sheets are coated with varnish to preserve the surface. With the relevant structural drawings to hand the procedure to prepare the framing sheets for a weldment is briefly as follows: Strike in the water lines and bow and buttock lines covering the area of the weldment. Select a suitable number of sheets of white surfaced hardboard to cover the area of the weldment. Lay the hardboard sheets on the floor adjacent to the body plan and mark on them the grid formed by the WLs and buttock lines. From the body plan lift off, on a batten, the offsets which are the intersections of frame lines with waterlines and buttock lines. Mark these offsets on the grid on the hardboard sheets. Pen a batten around the frame markings and scrieve the frame lines of the weldment in. Lift off the positions of place edges, longitudinals, and decks from the body plan and mark these on the framing sheets. A sketch showing the framing sheet corresponding to the weldment illustrated in the chapter on prefabrication is given. From this it can be seen that the outline shapes of plate frames are clearly defined and that the positions of all shell plate edges and longitudinals are shown. The framing sheets are transported to the fabrication shop and positioned on the template table of the profile cutter. The operator allows the machine to follow the outline shapes on sheets, thus cutting the plate to this shape. For weldments which have, for example, T-bar frames, the framing sheets are of similar but simpler form giving the shape of the frames together with positions of plate edges, longitudinals, decks, etc. relevant waterlines and bow and buttock lines. Optical marking of plates This is a method for marking off full scale plates which eliminates a great deal of effort compared with the traditional method of full scale lofting.

Drawings are prepared on 1/10th scale but are not interchangeable with drawings made for automatic cutting machines described later. The thickness of the lines drawn is as fine as practicable and corners are drawn as sharp and square as required. The l/10th scale drawing is photographed and reduced to I/100th full size and is maintained as a slide. The process of marking out the plates takes place in a darkened tower at the top of which is a projector which projects the slide on to the plate lying horizontally beneath. The outline of the plate is then marked in the conventional manner by centre punching. Optical lofting is not widely used, but besides its modest cost it can be used to mark out thin plate or sheet which cannot be easily profile burned automatically without severe distortion. It can also be used as a very economical method of marking out rectilinear plates which can be cut by shears or guillotine. Mocking up The laying off principles described for developing the shape of curvilinear plates previously described involved finding the true lengths of the plate edges and the widths or girths and combining these using a series of centre spots. The true width of the plate can be accurately girthed even with excessive curvature and twist but this is not true of the plate edges. Furthermore, as twist increases it becomes more difficult to obtain the centre spots. When this situation arises it is necessary to 'mock up' the plate. It is in any case necessary to mock up plates with unusual curvature such as those in way of the shaft swell. Such a mock up is called a cradle mould. The procedure is briefly as follows: a. Referring to Fig. 1, section moulds are made for each frame line using a base plane such as MN normal to the body plan. A mould for frame No. 5 is shown. A datum plane XY normal to MN is lined in and its position is marked on each section mould for future reference in lining up. b. It often happens in practice, however, that using such a normal base plane as MN, the cradle mould would become too unwieldy due to the difference in height of the extreme section moulds. c. This is obviated by canting the plane MN, as indicated by the traces in the frame station planes shown in Fig. 1.

d. The amount of cant is determined by fixing the traces for the extreme sections 5 and 9. In Fig. 1 these have been fixed at a distance 'a' apart. e. The positions of the intermediate traces are determined from Fig. 2. Thus, the normal frame lines are put in and 'a' is set up on 9 station from the base line to obtain spot A, and A5 is joined. The intercepts between line A5 and the base line give for each frame station the position of the mould base relative to MN in the body plan. Thus 'b' is the distance of the mould base for No. 7 frame from MN in the body plan. Section moulds are then made for each frame to the respective base lines. f. Referring now to Fig. 3, line XY is struck in to represent the datum plane XY in the body plan and normal to this line the frame lines 5 to 9 are lined in at their expanded distances apart as measured along line A5 in Fig. 2. g. The section moulds are now erected at each appropriate frame line and inclined to the floor at an angle 6 since the cradle mould is being constructed to the base plane represented by line A5 in Fig. 2. h. The section moulds are tied together by fore and aft and cross members to form a rigid cradle which will not rack during handling. i. From this cradle mould the smiths make a steel break on which the plate is shaped as described in the next chapter. j. The shape of the plate is then checked by applying the cradle mould. The plate edge marks etc. are finally transferred from the cradle mould to the plate for cutting.

Figure 26-1:Plate Development Mean Normal Method

Figure 26-2:Plate development Centre Spot Squaring method

Figure 26-3

Figure 26-4:Framing Sheet for D.B Weldment

Figure 26-5:Mocking Up a Sheel Plate

27 Small scale lofting for automatic cutting machines

The traditional, and still largely used, method of marking out plates for cutting is by using full scale templates (or moulds), or from the information on development sheets, or framing sheets, as described in the previous chapter. The shape is transferred direct to the plate to be cut by marking the outline by centre punch marks or other means. This full-scale system has been replaced to an appreciable extent by a scaled lofting system, usually I/10th full size, which is speedier, less space consuming and although the initial capital outlay is high, in the long run more economical. In this system the shapes of the plates are drawn exactly as they are required to be cut (with certain exceptions mentioned below) using large size drawing boards mounted on trestles, on sheets of treated aluminium, plastic or stabilized plastic film. Care must be taken with the inking of these lines as the cutting machine is very sensitive to change of thickness, as will be seen in the following description of plate cutting machines. Extreme care is required in the preparation of the drawings and it is a common practice to use a pair of magnifying lenses or other form of magnification to reduce eye strain. The exception regarding the actual drawing work is that nominally sharp corners are carefully tailored with a knife to enable the sensing cell of the cutting machine to follow a smooth curve. If the corners are drawn absolutely square, the machine overruns, loses the line, and stops. Drawings are also prepared to show the method of nesting the pieces to be cut from the plate and the technique is to arrange these in such a manner that the machine makes the longest single cut on one plate without stopping (see sketch). This holds all the pieces together and prevents them falling away from the supports, but in some cases it is necessary to add bridges at strategic points around the cut, to hold the pieces in position. These are marked on the drawing but their inclusion is not automatic and they have to be incorporated by the machine operator. These bridges are later cut by hand when the plate is removed from the machine. The l/10th scale lofting technique does not do away with the necessity to develop plating and the other laying off processes; it simply means that they are carried out at l/10th scale. If, however, a plate development jig is used in conjunction with l/10th scale lofting the development of curved plates by

laying off methods may be obviated. The jig is precision engineered to l/10th scale in which contours may be set for each frame line; in short it is possible to mock-up part of a ship in way of the plate to be developed l/10th full size. Sensitized paper representing the plate is marked by electrical discharge to obtain the developed shape of the plate and the frame lines Automatic ratio oxygen cutting machines There are several makes of machine on the market of different sizes and arrangement to suit the maximum size of plate required to be cut but all employing the same basic principles. Some are designed for cutting a single plate and others for cutting two identical plates simultaneously using the same l/10th scale drawing. The sketches illustrate the general arrangement of two types of machine. In the first type the cutting drawing is secured on a rotary table integral with the control console and in the second type on a flat table separate from the control panel. Some types of machine have a special fitting attached to the cutting head(s) whereby water can be sprayed on the plate around the area being cut to reduce distortion when cutting thin plates. This device should only be used on steel plate with a carbon content below 0.25 per cent to avoid any risk of hardening the surface of the cut. The cutting drawing must be prepared strictly in accordance with the instructions for the type of machine. In particular the thickness of the lines of the drawing must suit the design of the sensing unit. For some machines the lines may require to be as narrow as between 0.008 and 0.010 in wide for the sensing unit, and hence the machine, to operate satisfactorily when cutting on I/10th scale. Generally speaking the width of the lines on the cutting drawing should be increased as the scale increases but not in proportion thereto. For other machines the lines may require to be much wider for instance as much as 0.12 in. From which it follows that drawings made to suit one type of machine are not usually suitable for other types. The operating instructions must also be correctly followed as regards the use of the tracing unit which the operator guides along the cutting line to control the cutting head. For some machines the tracing unit must be made to follow the middle of the cutting line and for others to follow one edge of the line. Burning machines are now being introduced which are numerically controlled from the offsets of the developed plating (usually carried out to l/10th scale).

Frame bending Frame bending, in most shipyards is still dealt with conventionally as far as checking the shape is concerned. Many yards, however, are installing cold frame bending machines which are superseding the hot worked method where the bars are heated in a furnace and shaped on a bending slab. For either method a set is made from the lines on the scrieve board floor and after the frame has been bent to this set it is finally checked against the lines on the board and marked with positioning marks, plate edges and longitudinals. It is now possible to obtain numerically controlled cold frame bending machines, operating from the offsets of the body plan in a similar way to the numerically controlled plate burning machines. The curvature of the frame is controlled by the machine and this obviates the need for a set. The principle of such binding machines is described in Chapter 28.

Figure 27-1:Plate Cutting Machine

Figure 27-2

28 Shaping of plates and frames with curvature

Plating Bulkhead plates, deck plates without sheer and camber and some shell plates amidships lie in, or are parallel to, one of the three planes of reference. The shaping of such plates is consequently a comparatively simple task of marking off, either by the I/10th scale lofting or optical method, followed by automatic or hand cutting, as described in another chapter. There still remains, however, a considerable quantity of plates which have curvature and hence are not parallel to the planes of reference. Many shell plates are in this category. Some have considerable curvature such as those which form the stem and stern contours, the turn of bilge, the transom, the shaft swell and recess, the keel forward and aft and the knuckle in the side plating below No. 1 deck forward in ships so designed. In some cases the shaping can be affected entirely by the use of plate rolls, e.g. some plates at the turn of bilge amidships, others at the radius of the weather deck edges and around the bridge front or superstructure side, and sometimes the stem plate over the straight portion. Plates requiring to be formed with a straight knuckle, such as those in the keel forward and aft and below No. 1 Deck forward can also be bent to shape, or ' dished', by a hydraulic plate bending machine or a hydraulic press fitted with a special knuckling tool. The more complicated cases, such as the stem plates at the rounded forefoot, the middle line contour plate at the stern counter, several at the turn of the bilge forward and aft and in the region of the after cut-up, and many OB plates, particularly in way of the shaft swell and recess, all require more special treatment to bring them to shape before assembly with the appropriate weldment. These more complex shapes may be formed by judicious use of bending rolls, presses or other machines but usually have to be brought to their final form by the use of steel cradles having a top surface built to the ship's lines and in the more extreme cases by the application of heat or other means of forcing the material to 'yield', such as 'puckering'. Every case, however complex, requires highly skilled operatives with knowledge and experience of the limits to which the material can be strained, allowances for the spring of the material, when and where to apply

heat and at what temperature and so on. Modern warships are constructed mainly of highly ductile steel so that most operations like pressing, rolling, puckering, can be carried out cold and a great deal of complicated shaping work can be eliminated by fabrication and electric welding. A full description of the entire technique is not possible in the space available but the following brief descriptions illustrate some of the principles involved. Keel plates For a large proportion of the length amidships the flat keels may be quite flat, out towards the ends they take a U or V shape to conform to the lines of the ship. Section moulds are supplied by the mould loft to enable the keel plates to be dished to the correct shape. Usually three moulds are made for the plate in each weldment marked with the middle line of ship, station, knuckle and position of plate edges. The top edges of the moulds are arranged to 'out wind' i.e. to lie in one plane when the moulds are correctly applied. Keel plates up to 30 ft long and 1 ¼ in thick can be shaped over their whole length to the correct angle in a plate bending machine the principle of which is illustrated in the sketch. The sharper knuckle in deck plates is generally obtained by a hydraulic press or triple-roll bending machine using a special knuckling tool. The main components of the bending machine are shown in the sketch. The plate is clamped by hydraulic pressure between two blocks, the upper one of which can be fitted with tools of different radius to suit the specified radius of the keel knuckle. Two levers support a free moving cast steel roller and control the height of the latter. The levers can be operated independently to enable the roller to be applied at different angles so that plates with different end bevels can be bent in two operations. At the forefoot in ships with a straight stem and at the after cut-up the keel plates turn sharply upwards and on either side of the cut-up the angles or 'flare' of the sides of the middle line keel plate may differ widely. In such cases it is convenient to fabricate the keel in the region of the cut-up in pieces and butt them together by welded joints. The separate pieces P, Q, R and S marked in the sketch are dished in the manner already described, allowing a little 'green' material at the abutting edges, and then brought together on a steel cradle mould set up on the smithing slab. This cradle or ' break' is fabricated from a wood cradle mould supplied from the mould loft together with section moulds.

The parts of the keel at the cut up are placed over the cradle mould and marked for removal of the 'green' material. They are then removed and the butts prepared and welded. The system of welding usually causes some distortion and the final shaping of the cut-up assembly is done on the cradle with hammers and 'flatters', if necessary applying heat by portable fires or large heating torches. OB and IB plates Moderate curvature or twist As explained previously, many of the shell plates have curvature or twist or a combination of both. If these are of moderate amount most of the shaping can be done cold by what may be described as the strong back method. As much shaping as possible is done first by rolling or pressing, more usually by rolling in the bending rolls. The rolling operation consists of passing the plate between the three rollers of the rolling machine, gradually decreasing the clearance between the centre roller and side rollers as necessary to produce the desired curvature. The plate is then positioned on the steel cradle and secured to it by 'dogs'. Steel strong backs, or levers, about 4-in square section are then used as shown in the sketch to force the plate into shape by jacking up their lower ends as necessary. Any heating required is done by means of portable fires or large heating torches. As the shaping progresses local swelling or puckering which occurs is removed by the use of hammers and ' flatters' under heat. Heavy curvature or twist Plates with heavy curvature or twist, for instance, those which form the shaft swell or recess or those forming the rounded part of the stem, need more drastic treatment, including heating, to bring them to shape. Some initial shaping is possible by pressing or rolling but the final and more laborious work requires the material to be strained or yielded to a large degree. One such method, termed puckering (the deliberate opposite of the natural tendency to pucker when a plate is distorted) is described briefly below, and in the sketches, for the round of stem. Having rolled or pressed the nose plate to accord with the section moulds at given positions around the girth as nearly as possible, the puckering process is applied to make the U-shaped plate bend in its own plane to the profile of the round of stem.

The puckers are produced as illustrated in the sketch by pressing out a localized area at intervals along each edge of the plate. The number of puckers and their breadth, width and depth to produce the necessary curvature can only be decided from long experience. The art is not to exceed the curvature required greatly although a little more is sometimes advantageous as the next stage in the process sometimes reduces the curvature a little. Having completed this 'artificial puckering' process each of the puckers is braced across as shown using screwed clamps and bottlescrews to hold the plate to its curvature whilst' shrinking' of the puckers is carried out. Shrinking consists of heating the puckers to a white heat using large heating torches and forging them flat with hammers and flatters. Generally speaking radius and curvature produced by this method does not entail the use of a steel cradle mould. Framing In modern shipbuilding, with the almost universal use of electric welding as the means of connection, the framing is composed of symmetrical tee bar, flat bar and plate sections to the exclusion of L, C, I and Z sections previously adopted for riveted construction. Consequently also the practice of bevelling frame bars to make the riveting flange fit the shell or inner bottom plating is practically obsolete. Furthermore, as the steel used is of a highly ductile nature the furnacing of frame bars and smithing to shape on the smithing slab is rarely necessary, the bending being carried out cold in machines designed for the purpose. Most cold frame bending machines operate on the same principle illustrated diagrammatically in the sketch. The tee bar is passed into the head of the machine with the web horizontal and between the upper and lower surfaces of three clamps which can be adjusted vertically to suit the web thickness. The table of the tee bars fits neatly in smoothly shaped slots on the inner side of all three clamps. When the bar is in place the upper part of 'grip' of the centre clamp secures the web in position by hydraulic pressure. The middle clamp is fixed but the two side clamps are mounted on side arms which can be moved, under hydraulic pressure, inwards or outwards in the horizontal plane, thus producing the bending action. At the start of the operation the slots in the clamps are adjusted to lie in a straight line and the machine is set, by 'press button' control, so that the web and table of the tee bar fit neatly, but not loosely, and can be passed through

the clamps. The passing is effected by the operation of the upper of the two pairs of rollers situated between the clamps. The bending process consists of successive passings of the bar through the machine, increasing the 'pinch' of the side clamps with each pass, this also being effected by the press buttons of a control box mounted at the end of a balanced rotatable arm as shown in the photograph. As the operation proceeds the shape is checked by a light sett rod, or rods, usually 1 x 1/4 in section, or a wooden template or templates previously prepared from the lines on the mould loft or scrieve board floor. The amount of 'pinch' applied at each pass for different positions along the length of the bar is very much a matter of experience and skill of the operator. Wide flat bars (i.e. which project outside the clamps) can be bent on this type of machine, but to do so additional bending arms are brought into play to provide the necessary grip on the outer edge and keep the inner edge against the inner sides of the clamps. For narrow flat bars ' make-up' blocks are fitted to provide the necessary grip. Plate rolls In the foregoing examples the use of rolls for shaping plates with curvature or twist is mentioned, frequently. Two types of rolls are in common use in shipyards. Most of the plates requiring shaping have moderate curvature or twist and for this purpose triple rolls are used, the top roller being somewhat larger diameter than the two lower ones. The top roller is adjustable for height and the lower rolls for distance apart and position relative to the top one. The movement of the rollers and pressure they exert are hydraulically controlled in modern machines. As the forces involved when rolling plate are very large the beams, frames and foundation are naturally very heavy and strong. This type of rolls can also be used for flanging by means of special blocks fitting between the rolls, the top roller being used in a similar manner to a press as described for keel plates. The second type of rolls in common usage is the straightening rolls, with the express purpose of straightening flat plates which have become slightly distorted in transit from the maker to the shipyard. The machines usually have five rollers, three large ones and two smaller diameter support rollers as shown in the sketch. The top main roller is adjustable for height and its load is shared by the two support rollers. Generally speaking one pass of the plate

through the machine is sufficient for straightening unless the distortion is unusually heavy. Seven-roll machines of this type are also in use, the four upper rolls in this case being adjustable.

Figure 28-1:Shaping of Keel Plates

Figure 28-2:Shaping of O.B.Plates

Figure 28-3:Shaping by Puckering Method

Figure 28-4:Stem Plate Shaped by Rolling & Puckering

Figure 28-5:Plate Bending Rolls

29 History of a weldment
We have seen in the chapter on prefabrication how the hull structure of a ship is built up from a number of weldments which may be as small as a turbo-generator seat or as large as a complete cross section of the ship up to No. 3 deck, some 25 feet in length and weighing up to 35 tons in the case of a frigate. We have also seen that the larger the weldment, the more accurate it can be made, and the less assembly work involved at the slip, with consequent saving in time and cost. Moreover, the welding of a large unit under cover in controlled conditions produces much better results than if carried out on open grids in adverse weather conditions. A typical hull weldment comprises a length of keel, some outer bottom plating, a number of frames, a transverse bulkhead and a length of deck plating for which the following information is supplied from the mould loft. Flat keel. Development sheets and deck moulds or a cradle mould if the keel has considerable change of shape. Vertical keel and rider plate. Development sheets. Plate floors and deep frames. Lined off on hardboard sheets (framing sheets) showing slots for longitudinals and plate edges together with reference lines or level lines and buttock lines. Shell plates. Development sheets or, if shell plates have considerable twist and curvature, cradle moulds are provided. longitudinals. Development sheets, surface moulds or hardboard sheets in cases where deep longitudinals form part of main or auxiliary machinery seatings. For longitudinals having excessive twist and/or curvature mock-ups are made from which hurdles and surface moulds are prepared and supplied to the smithery or machine shop. Transverse bulkheads. Surface moulds. It is usual to mould and cotter a bulkhead as a complete unit, dividing it later to suit the weldment, thus ensuring that the whole bulkhead is true to shape after re-assembly and can therefore contribute to maintaining the form of the complete hull.

Dick plating. Development sheets. The deck beams are bent to the round of beam by the smiths using a beam mould and then checking for shape on the mould loft floor. For flat surfaces as much information as possible is supplied on hardboard sheets, as there can be used as templates when cutting the plates to shape in the profile burning machine. In this case the information on the development sheets has to be transferred on to the steel plates prior to machining. Assembly of the weldment using the cradle construction method Whilst the component parts of a weldment are being moulded and machined, arrangements are concurrently being made for their assembly on a suitable welding grid. The upper surface of the grid is 'lined off' with the middle line, bow/buttock lines and frame lines, the frame spacing being obtained from a 'station' batten supplied by the mould loft. Hurdles are then erected on the grid over the middle line so that their upper surfaces lie in a plane through the line of underside of keel (USK) at the slope of the latter when the ship is floating at her designed trim. This ensures that the water lines or level lines are in fact level and bulkheads and frames vertical, thus considerably simplifying the assembly process. A frame cradle is now erected consisting of tee bar frames turned to the shape of the outside of the hull plating but with the table of the frame section outboard. These frames are marked with level lines, bow/buttock lines and positions of plate edges, and secured in position by temporary struts or tee bars, as described and illustrated in the chapter on maintenance of form. When complete, the cradle is carefully checked for form and assembly of the weldment proceeds as follows: The flat keel is laid and secured to the cradle by ' saddles' after which the vertical keel (with rider plate already welded) is positioned, checked and welded. The remaining shell plates are then laid in position and secured to the frames by saddles. Plate floors and plate longitudinals are next positioned, checked, adjusted and spot welded in position after which the tee bar frames (already bent to shape) are erected and spot welded in position. The slots in the tee bar frames can now be completed and the tee bar longitudinals reeved through them, and spot welded in position. Meanwhile work has been proceeding on the assembly of deck panels. These are treated as sub-assemblies on separate grids to enable all welding to be carried out 'downhand', using sensi automatic welding processes.

Minor longitudinal and transverse bulkheads are similarly prepared and when ready these sub-assemblies are positioned in the weldment and spot welded in position. When all the component parts of the weldment, including temporary brackets, tripping brackets, and cover plates, are in position, the whole assembly is checked for dimensions and form and if found correct to within the specified tolerances production welding can commence. As described in other chapters, to minimize distortion during welding, the welding should commence at the centre of the weldment working towards port and starboard sides simultaneously and employing at least two welders. The seams of outer bottom plating should start from the centre of the length of the weldment and proceed towards the ends. It is important that welding of the seams should terminate about 12 inches from the ends leaving the ends free for adjustment at the ship when joining up to adjacent weldments. Similar procedures apply to the seams of decks and bulkheads. On completion of production welding the whole unit is again carefully checked for dimensions and form. Datum lines corresponding to those on the floor of the slip are marked in to ensure correct positioning at the ship. It is usual practice to trim one end of a weldment to its true butt before leaving the assembly grid. The other end is left 'green' for fitting to its successor. This also applies to the upper edges of the weldment plating except in cases where the uppermost plate is smithed during the fabrication stage, to be fitted as a closure panel later. Finally, temporary stiffening bars may be fitted to avoid distortion of the weldment during transport to the slipway, and the necessary eyeplates fitted for lifting purposes. The weldment is then ready for transport to the shot blasting and metal spraying bay and thence to the slip. Erection at the slip As the length of the ship is made up of a number of weldments and as contraction occurs at the butts between them, it follows that if each weldment were built to its correct length before erection, the ship would eventually be shorter than the designed length. Consequently the lengths of important spaces, such as machinery spaces, magazines, shaft compartments, and so on, would be incorrect and this could lead to considerable difficulties during the fitting-out stage. In the case of a frigate, for instance, the overall reduction in length could be as much as six or seven inches.

The obvious counter to this effect is to make allowances in the length of each weldment and its positioning in relation to the datum lines on the slip, as building progresses, so that the bulkheads/frames arrive in their correct fore and aft positions when each weldment has been joined to its neighbours. The first weldment is usually an amidships one, or there may be two or three spanning the breadth according to the lifting capacity available. These are placed in their correct position relative to the datum lines and marked on the slip. Subsequent weldments (fore and aft) are cited up to1/4 in beyond the datum to which they relate and the butt burned off and prepared for welding. When this butt has been completely welded it is generally found that contraction across the butt has brought the weldment back to the datum position, or very nearly so. This process is continued forward and aft, the allowances for 'green' material and positioning being decided from experience with similar ships with commensurate scantlings and the completed hull should rarely be more than 1/4in to in shorter than the designed length. This problem of achieving the correct length of ship and spacing of bulkheads is of course only part of the overall task of minimizing distortion of the structure caused by welding. More detailed notes of the methods employed to reduce distortion are given in the chapter on welding in Part III.

Figure 29-1:Line out of Welding grid & Arrangement for Cradle Construction

30 Sighting through centre line of shaft
To enable each set of engine seatings to be accurately lined off in relation to their appropriate centre of shaft, and to facilitate the erection of shaft brackets and stern tubes, it is necessary to sight in the centre line of each shaft. The positions of two points on the centre line of shaft, one at the forward engine room bulkhead and the other at the centre of propeller, are obtained from the shafting arrangement drawings and it is between these two points that the centre line of shaft has to be sighted. Dimensions for each point are relative to the ship's base line and centre line. The process of alignment cannot be carried out until after the main hull structure has been completed. The completion of all structure from amidships to the after end is of particular importance as any large quantity of welding remaining will disturb the structure and affect the sight line. On the forward engine room bulkhead a light box housing a brilliant photo-flood bulb is placed immediately behind a 1/16-in hole drilled at the position of centre of shaft. At the position of centre of propeller a heavy channel bar, suitably cross braced to give rigidity, is erected perpendicular to the ship's base line. This channel bar is welded to a large base plate which is secured to the floor of the building slip. An adjustable light sight is fitted to the web of the channel such that a 1/16 in diameter sighting hole is accurately positioned at the centre of propeller. An adjustable light sight comprises two sliders operated by screws which enable horizontal and vertical movements to be given to a sighting lug through which a sighting hole has been drilled. A number of plugs with different sizes of sighting hole from 1/8-in to 1/16-in diameter are used during an alignment. The approximate position of centre of shaft is marked at each intervening bulkhead and 1-in holes are drilled to allow passage of light. To ensure that the positions of holes at all bulkheads are suitable a preliminary alignment is carried out by means of a piano wire which is tensioned by a small hand winch. Alignments are usually carried out at night to observe the light more clearly, to minimize structural movements caused by temperature changes and to avoid vibrations caused by the day time operation of yard plant. To assist viewing a hood is fitted in way of the sight at the propeller position

and temporary telephones are installed for passing instructions to the men operating the adjustable light sights mounted on the bulkheads. At each bulkhead and moving from forward to aft, alignment is started with a sighting plug having a large sighting hole and is completed with a plug having a 1/16-in diameter hole. The alignment is completed when a light passing through 1/16-in diameter holes at all bulkheads can be observed from the sighting position in way of centre of propeller. Two alignments are usually carried out in this manner, the first with the stren still supported by the after gantry or 'apostles', and the second and final alignment with the stern unsupported, or 'dropped'. Piano wires are rigged along the line of shaft at different positions after the final alignment to providedatums from which measurements can be taken to ensure the seatings, stern tubes, shaft brackets, plummer blocks, etc. are erected and machined correctly to the specified dimensions relative to the shaft.

Figure 30-1:Sighting in centre line of Shaft

31 Testing of compartments
All compartments which contribute to the buoyancy and reserve buoyancy of the ship, or which have to carry liquid in bulk, are tested for watertightness whilst the ship is building. According to the function of the compartment it is tested in one of several ways; by filling with water and applying a pressure head, by water hose, by applying air pressure or by air hose. The compartments are water tested as soon as they are structurally complete with all manholes, watertight doors, hatches, supports for machinery, or other structure affecting watertight integrity, in place. They are air tested later with all equipment, machinery, cable glands and gearing, etc. in place, when the ship is nearing completion. In the case of prefabricated ships, composed of a number of structural units, which are fitted out with equipment before being assembled on the slip, the water test is dispensed with and a more searching air test applied. Water testing Before commencing to fill the compartment with water it is carefully surveyed to see that the structure is complete and that any holes for the passage of shafts, gearing, cables, etc. which cannot be fitted till later, are blanked off. Holes are drilled in the overhead beams and girders to prevent the formation of air pockets, an air escape plug is fitted in the crown, and a drain plug in the bottom of the compartment. At the highest part of the crown a special manhole cover with a hose connection is fitted and a hose is led from this to a bucket placed at the specified height. Generally speaking a pressure head of 10ft above the deep waterline is not exceeded. The compartment is then completely filled with water-up to the bucket and the boundaries closely examined for leaks. Small leaks may be repaired by draining down the water sufficiently if this is practicable, but this must not be done for large leaks. After draining down all defects are made good by re-welding, and fitting additional stiffening if considered necessary. If the work of making good leaks is considerable the test is repeated. With the exception of fresh water, reserve feed, main feed, overflow feed, lubricating oil and lubricating oil drain tanks, which are tested with fresh water, all newly constructed tanks are tested with salt water. In all cases the

test is declared satisfactory if the pressure is held, without leakage, for 12 hours. On completion of these water tests the integrity of most tanks or compartments is disturbed by the running of pipes, fitting of valves and other work. When all such work has been completed it is necessary to carry out another test and this is usually an air test as described below. In the case of AVGAS and AVCAT tanks, however, paraffin is used. The testing of main machinery spaces or other large compartments entails such extensive preparations and time that it is usual to divide the work between a number of ships of the same class, different compartments being tested in different ships. The aggregate results are taken to apply to all ships. With such large compartments it is necessary to measure the deflections of the boundary bulkheads to confirm that the designed strength is achieved. This is done by stretching 'piano' wires horizontally and vertically across the bulkheads at a small distance from them and measuring the distance, at numerous points, between the wire and bulkhead, before and after filling the compartment. Th deSections thus obtained are compared with the calculated figures to determine if any additional stiffening is desirable. The boundaries of watertight compartments which do not contribute to buoyancy or reserve of buoyancy, e.g. those in the superstructure and bridge structure, are tested by hose when structurally complete and air tested later as described below. Air testing An air test is applied to all compartments which contribute to buoyancy or reserve buoyancy unless, as is usually the case with double bottom and wing links, they have been closed down and not disturbed since being water tested. The object of the test is to ensure that fitting out work such as the running of cables, gear rods, ventilation trunks, water pipes, etc., and the fitting of glands at the bulkhead, has not destroyed the watertight integrity. The air pressure is applied by an air hose taken from the shore compressed-air supply or from a ventilation fan. The latter is only useful if small pressures, say up to 3 in water gauge, are required; i.e. in cases where higher pressure would cause heavy deflections of the bulkheads. The usual test pressure is much higher than this, 2 Ib/sq in, which corresponds to approximately 54 in water gauge. Leaks are detected by lighted taper or soapy water and when these have been made good a pressure of 6 in water

gauge is applied and the air supply shut off. If the pressure does not fall by more than \ in water gauge in 10 minutes the test is regarded as satisfactory. If it does, the test has to be repeated and a more thorough search for leaks made. The boundaries of engine rooms and boiler rooms, and other spaces in which it is difficult to build up an air pressure because of large openings for ventilation, etc. are dealt with by applying an air pressure to the adjoining compartments. If this is not possible a careful test by air hose around all fittings which were not in place at the time of the water test, is carried out. Air test of citadel A separate air test is carried out on the boundaries of the 'citadel' which embraces the operational spaces of the ship, in the first instance when the ship is built and periodically afterwards about every two years, especially if alterations have taken place which affect the tightness of the citadel boundaries. Prior to closing down the citadel for test, an inspection is carried out, visually, to locate and rectify any obvious defects. The target pressure for this citadel test is two inches of water gauge above the atmospheric pressure with the air filtration units of the air conditioning system running. The method of air testing is to apply a measured vacuum inside the citadel when closed down during which leaks are detected and subsequent remedial action taken. The vacuum test is carried out as follows: a. Select a suitable exhaust fan and provide arrangements for measuring its output. A 10-in or 12 ½ in fan, such as a galley exhaust fan, is adequate for the citadel in small ships and for sections of citadels in larger ships. In some ships, for the first attempt, it may be necessary to run additional exhaust fans in order to create sufficient vacuum to locate the leaks. b. Instal in the citadel a glass ' U' tube water gauge, one end being sited in a sheltered position in the outside air and the other end open to the citadel. c. Close down ventilation to the citadel. d. Close down all doors and other openings to the citadel boundaries. e. Run the selected exhaust fan.

Leaks become evident by hissing noises and are stopped by remedial action such as hardening up the clips of WT doors, or by temporary stopping up, until the necessary degree of tightness is obtained. All the leaks are noted for permanent remedy after the test. On completion of the vacuum test the airtightness is checked by a pressure test. This involves closing down the citadel, running all the air filtration units together without any other ventilation running, and measuring the internal pressure by means of the ' U' tube.

Figure 31-1:Water Testing of Compartments

32 Maintenance of form whilst building
In building a large curvilinear structure, such as a ship, it is clearly essential that each part should not only be made accurately but also erected accurately and then kept in its correct position until finally welded to the surrounding structure. This is the process known as maintenance of form without which parts of the structure would not mate accurately and would largely invalidate the earlier processes, like moulding, and result in considerable waste of labour, time and cost. It is essential, with the growing sophistication of warships, for the hull form and internal structure to be built within specified tolerances to ensure that the complex machinery and equipment can be installed in strict accordance with the layouts and so ensure that the designed access for maintenance is achieved. Typical tolerances are given in the sketch. The position of a part of the structure is checked by reference to a 'grid' of longitudinal and transverse lines permanently marked in the plane of the floor of the slip. In the initial stages of erection checking of the form is done by direct reference to these lines. Additional reference lines are subsequently required to check the position of structure within the ship and these are usually marked on bulkheads at known positions relative to the lines on the floor of the slip. The under mentioned longitudinal and transverse lines are permanently marked on the floor of the slip. They are located by means of countersunk brass screws fixed in the land ties and arranged with their slots on the line which they represent. a. Centre line of slipway, which is used for erection of keel blocks and laying the keel weldments. b. Additional fore and aft lines at distances from the centre line depending on the beam of the ship, which are used for erecting wing/side weldments. c. Athwartships lines, square to the middle line, at the fore perpendicular after cut up, after perpendicular and at intervals between, usually at main transverse bulkheads. After the blocks have been erected and sighted in, the position of the fore perpendicular is marked on the top of the blocks and plumbed down to the middle line on the slip. A steel wire is stretched along the top of blocks at their centre lines and the butts of keel weldments marked in using a station

batten. Tie centre line spot of each butt is plumbed down to the centre line on the floor of the slip and painted in. The keel weldments must be paid so that the butts plumb well with these spots to ensure that the keel is laid straight and so that the butts come in their correct fore and aft position. Shores at the butts are generally necessary to maintain the weldments in position before welding. A weekly check on the position of the weldments is made until building has been well progressed. Generally building blocks are arranged to correspond with the ship's framing so that the blocks are clear of weldment butts. Should any blocks have to be removed, a 'crush' batten is used to take off the height of the blocks before removal and the blocks must be replaced to this height. As the weldments are erected and faired, a careful watch is kept on the centreline of keel in the horizontal and vertical planes. Initially checks are carried out weekly but when the end units are being welded the checks are made daily. Optical sight boards as shown, spaced at approximately 12-ft intervals under machinery spaces and in the vicinity of shafting and 20 ft elsewhere are used for this checking. Constant checks on the form are necessary to control, and allow for, the contractions of the structure caused by welding. This applies both to the assembly of individual weldments in the prefabrication shop and the erection of weldments at the slip. Control is comparatively easily achieved with the assembly of individual weldments under shop conditions. Erection of the completed weldments at the slip is more difficult to control having regard to the open air conditions and the fact that joints at the periphery of the weldment are often curvilinear in one, two or three planes. Experience so far indicates that these problems can be simplified by careful design and disposition of the weldments, and by correct sequence of erection and welding within the weldment and at the ship. Generally speaking the smaller the number and larger the size of the weldments the easier is the overall task of control. When the scheme of sub-division into weldments is prepared an important factor to be taken into account is that each weldment should be self-bracing as far as possible. Butts of weldments are so arranged that parts of the adjoining structure which can contribute to keeping the weldment to form are incorporated. For example, deck stringer plates and wing portions of bulkheads are included with the main steel plating weldments and decks are used to brace the stem and stern weldments. Joints between adjacent weldments should preferably be in one plane to simplify erection and fairing.

The correct shape of the weldment is maintained by arranging for the various members to be 'self-jigging', i.e. the members automatically position themselves and lock together. For example, within the double-bottom weldments the framing is positioned by means of slots cut in the longitudinals and frames at the correct spacing. The slots extend for half the depth of each cross-member, the upper half of one member and the lower half of the other and vice versa in ' egg box' fashion to suit the order of erection. The width of the slot is just sufficient to enable the cross-member to be dropped in place. The sequence of welding of the weldment starts in the middle and proceeds outwards as uniformly and symmetrically as possible towards the perimeter, welding the fixed or restrained areas as they arise. By this means the contractions take place with the minimum amount of restraint. An allowance on the abutting edges of each weldment is usually made for contraction and for any adjustments that may be necessary when assembling at the ship. The magnitude of the allowance is varied according to the general welding conditions. It may be based on previous experience with similar units or assessed from other experimental data. The amount usually lies between 1 and2 ½ ins all round. As the assembly of each weldment proceeds its form is checked by reference to lines on the assembly grid or floor, the top surface of which is always arranged to be a datum plane, and to lines on convenient parts or subassemblies of the weldment. The first weldments to be erected at the building slip are generally those comprising the double-bottom structure out as far as the turn of bilge and these are followed by the P and S wing/side weldments to balance the welding. The weldments forward and abaft amidships are then erected, proceeding simultaneously towards the ends of the ship. This sequence of erection allows most of the weldments to have one edge free when being secured so that the effects of contraction are gradually transmitted towards the ends of the ship. The length from amidships is checked as each weldment is erected and any adjustment that may be necessary is effected on the next weldment to be erected, and so on. To ensure accurate alignment of weldments on the slip, datum levels and pitch marks are marked on the principal members of the weldment for checking during assembly on the grid and for cross checking when erecting one weldment to another on the slip. This cross checking is carried out using a U tube consisting of two glass tubes about 3/8-in bore connected by a long length of rubber tubing filled

with water. The glass tubes are applied to datum levels as shown in the sketch and the difference in levels between the water in the glass tubes and the datum levels in a forward and after direction must be equal to the product of the declivity of the LWL and the distance between the levels. Similarly the U tubes are used to check athwartship levels. For instance, at the junctions of weldments the datum lines on the inside surfaces of the weldments are checked for correct distance below LWL on each side of the ship. Transverse bulkheads, longitudinal bulkheads, decks and side plating not included in three dimensional weldments are fabricated and erected separately. Main transverse bulkheads, or between deck bulkheads which do not form part of weldments, are erected square to the load water plane by the method known as 'plumbing and horning'. This title is derived from the two stages in the process - first, 'plumbing' the bulkhead at its middle line to obtain the latter square to the load water line, and secondly 'horning', 'swinging' or 'winging' the bulkhead around on its middle line until it lies in a plane square to the middle line plane of the ship. The expression 'horning' is derived from the procedure of obtaining the 'horns' or upper corners of the bulkhead equidistant from the middle line of ship. The method is briefly as follows. From a convenient transverse reference or datum line on the inner bottom, the position of the trace of the bulkhead can be measured and marked in on that portion of the inner bottom already erected. The bulkhead is brought' well' with this line, keeping the middle line, which is always marked on the bulkhead when moulded and assembled, over the middle line of the ship. A plumb line is dropped from a point B on the heel clear of the bottom plating to the floor of the slip and the spot B' where the bob falls marked in. Another plumb line is then dropped from a point A in the bulkhead at the same distance from middle line and the spot A' where the bob falls again marked on the floor of the slip. Then A'B' should be equal to the declivity of the LWL multiplied by AB and the line A'B' should be the correct distance from middle line or other fore and aft line on floor of the slip. This is done on both sides of the bulkhead and when agreement is reached the bulkhead is square to LWL and middle line. If there is any apparent distortion in the bulkhead itself a third and perhaps fourth spot is checked in this manner to obviate any error arising from unfairness of the bulkhead. After erection the bulkheads are maintained in position by shoring from both sides until finally welded in place. The positions of longitudinal bulkheads are determined by their intersections with other bulkheads and decks, and, generally speaking, they need to be checked only for fairness when erected and ready for welding.

Deck weldments are checked with ML of ship, more especially at the fullest parts of the ship, to ensure that the maximum breadth is maintained. After the deck weldments have been set up to the correct height and checked for fairness, they are supported by shoring and longitudinal timbers until finally welded in place. Side plating weldments are secured to deck and lower weldments temporarily until correct alignment is achieved by ensuring that datum levels marked on the side plating are at the correct distance above the LWL before being finally welded. At the ends of the ship special measures are necessary to minimize the distortion. Generally speaking, however, it is impossible to eliminate it entirely. This distortion manifests itself at the fore end, for example, by a tendency of the forefoot to rise. One way to overcome this effect is to 'preset' the forefoot down by an amount depending on experience with previous, similar, ships. Welding is then commenced at the upper seams and butts and by progressing downwards towards the keel deformation of the stem is minimized. The movement of the forefoot must be kept under constant observation to ensure that it will finally have risen by the anticipated amount or very nearly so, the sequence of welding being modified as necessary to suit the circumstances. According to the type of ship, particularly its size and general scantlings of hull structure, it may be possible and sufficient to overcome this tendency to rise at the ends by a special sequence of welding. During erection at the slip, the importance of keeping reference lines in their correct position relative to the lines on the floor of the slip and above USK by frequent plumbing and measurement, cannot be overrated. A middle-line ' gantry' built up from the floor of the slip of heavy fir baulks is constructed aft in way of the stern casting or weldment to support the latter during erection. The middle line blocks are set up on top of the gantry and their top surfaces are faired to the shape of the stern profile by means of a flight mould prepared from the lines on the mould loft floor. The blocks are built up slightly higher than the correct position to allow for the ' drop' of the stern, caused by the weight of the overhanging portion, when the gantry is removed. Heavy shores are set up each side and fore and aft to hold the baulks in position and sustain the weight of the weldment.

Strongly supported stages are built under the position to be occupied by the shaft brackets and stern tubes. The top surface in this case is parallel to the appropriate centre line of shaft at a sufficient working height below it to permit erecting the shaft brackets and stern tubes and getting in the tail end of the propeller shaft. Cradles are also usually built to support unbraced structure in way of the machinery spaces. The projections of the centre lines of shafts are marked in on the top surfaces for future reference. For guidance in arranging staging around the ship, the projection of the maximum beam line of the ship is painted in on the floor of the slip from stem to stern each side. The description above and sketches which follow are based upon the procedures employed in the Royal Dockyards but the principles outlined are equally applicable to private shipyards. Generally speaking, however, because the facilities for prefabrication in most private shipyards are tailored to the building of large, heavy, merchant ships, advantage can be taken of the larger fabrication halls and heavier lifting and transporting arrangements available and different methods of controlling maintenance of form of more lightly constructed warships adopted. One interesting method, illustrated in the sketch given affords better control in three ways: a. Closer attention to the maintenance of form of individual weldments in the prefabrication hall. b. Accurate matching and fairing of adjoining weldments before erection at the building slip. c. Arising from 1 and 2 less rectification work at the slip and an overall saving in production cost and time. The method, essentially, is to assemble the weldments inside steel cradles made from the lines on the mould loft, in effect a series of frames at the same spacing as the ship's frames supported and held rigidly in position by other framing on a level base as shown. The cradles are marked with the building reference lines whereby progressive checks on form can be made as each weldment is assembled or matched to adjoining weldments

Figure 32-1:Plumbing & Horning BulkHead

Figure 32-2:Section of SternWeldment

Figure 32-3:Fabrication of Weldments

33 Fabrication of ring bulkhead structure and machining of weapon seatings
As explained in the appropriate chapter in Part II describing the supporting structure of guns, weapon launchers and directors, the seatings to which the roller paths of these armament items are secured must be installed very accurately, to lie as nearly as possible in horizontal planes parallel to the designed water-plane of the ship. The modern technique of prefabricating the structure in weldments facilitates this objective in that the supporting structure, complete with the unmachined gun ring or other seating, can be made to form a part or whole of a single weldment. In the case of the supporting structure of a 4.5-in mounting, for instance, the weldment includes an area of No. 1 Deck plating, the ring bulkhead and all associated stiffening. A brief description of how such a weldment is built now follows before describing the procedure for planing the gun ring or the seating. Fabrication of ring bulkhead weldment The weldment is built upside down on the grid, so the first job is to construct a tee-bar mould in which to lay the plates of No. 1 Deck. This mould is necessary to take into account the sheer and round of beam of the deck by making the grid base parallel to the designed waterplane. The deck plating is laid out in the mould and the butts and seams welded, followed by assembling the beams and girders which have been previously prepared. The middle line of the ship is marked in and the centre of the ring bulkhead, measured from the nearest beam also marked in. With the centre established, the circle of the ring bulkhead is scribed off. Then individual plates of the bulkhead, having been rolled to suit the radius, and pricked down to the underside of No. 1 deck (gun deck) are erected with butts vertical. About two inches of 'green' material are left on the bottom edge of the ring bulkhead to allow for shaping the bottom to meet the round of beam and sheer of No. 2 deck. The large cantilever web stiffeners are next placed in position, still upside down, and welded to the bulkhead and deck plating. The middle line on the deck plating is then transferred to the bulkhead and a vertical line put in on

the fore and after sides of the bulkhead to assist pitching it on No. 2 deck at the ship. A datum line is also put around the ring bulkhead parallel to the designed waterplane to enable the structure to be set up plumb. A small spiling hole is drilled in No. 1 deck at the centre of the ring bulkhead to pick up the centre from above when erected at ship. The unit is then turned over ready for lifting on to the ship. On No. 2 deck at the ship the ring bulkhead is marked out and a 2-in wide doubler is welded to the deck in way of the ring bulkhead, ready to receive it. When the weldment is lifted in it can be set up level and plumb, taking into account the declivity of the ship, by the use of a ' U' tube against the datum line, keeping the M.L. marks on the bulkhead coincident with the M.L. on No. 2 deck. The true bottom edge can then be marked off and cut to the shape of No. 2 deck. On completion of the welding at ship the hole is cut in No. 1 deck to receive the thick insert ring which will be the gun ring. Great care has to be taken to ensure that the ring is parallel to the designed waterplane as otherwise the thickness allowance for machining it would be insufficient. Datum levels and lines The structure of modern warships is comparatively light and subject to elastic changes under the action of heat from the sun or sea, forces in a seaway and docking strains. As all the gun, weapon and director seats have to be planed to lie in horizontal planes parallel to the designed waterplane it is necessary to choose the position of a Master Datum Plane such that it will be affected as little as possible by such forces. The position chosen is approximately amidships, on or close to the centre line, as near as practicable to the neutral axis of the ship, and on main structure as free as possible from any tendency to distort or deflect due to local causes such as heat from the machinery spaces. The MDP may take one of two forms, either a single plate about 9 in square engraved with fore and aft and transverse lines, or two separate levels each about 9 in long and 2 in wide, one fore and aft and one transverse, in either case made of stainless steel and protected against accidental damage. This MDP is used as the base to which all gun rings, weapon and director seats, are planed parallel to the designed waterplane. To ensure that all the guns, launchers or directors are aligned to a common fore and aft line, after machining the seatings, it is necessary

permanently to fix Master Training Datum Marks on the structure. As the building proceeds these marks, in sets of two or three, are sited on the keel and decks to lie in the vertical plane of the ship, square to the designed waterplane. They are aligned to the vertical by means of a theodolite. Each 'mark'is a 3 in square stainless steel pad engraved with the fore and aft line and welded to the structure. The topmost line is the one on the weather deck (No. 1 deck) and this must be sighted in and the marks fitted before the superstructure has been erected so as to cover at least three-quarters the length of the ship. Any other F and A datum lines required for alignment of seatings offset from the middle line are derived from this line on the weather deck or one of the others lying in the vertical middle line plane. The seatings of all trainable equipments are marked, after securing and final planing, with a true fore and aft line indicated by Datum Bench Marks to enable the mechanical and electrical zero positions of the equipment to be aligned. Planing roller path seatings The drilling of all holes in the gun ring to take the holding down bolts of the roller path assembly must be carried out before any planing is done. The holes are marked from jigs or templates made from the roller paths and supplied by the mounting sub-contractors. The instrument used for checking the accuracy of the planed roller path is the clinometer. It consists of a spirit level mounted on an arm B which is free to turn about a pivot at one end. The other end carries a knob A which is made to bear against a cylinder C by means of spring S. The cylinder C is threaded on to a spindle carrying a fine thread and is graduated in degrees and minutes by a helical scale on its periphery. The cylinder is rotated until the bubble is central, a pointer fixed to the frame recording the tilt of the arm B. A trammel planing machine is supported on a pedestal built of plates and sections supported on No. 2 deck as shown for the case of a large gun mounting. The base of the machine can be adjusted to bring its centre coincident with that of the ring bulkhead by means of an outer set of adjusting screws. An inner set of screws is used to bring the arm of the trammel parallel to the designed water-plane (i.e. the master datum plane). The level of the machine is set from the MDP by means of the clinometer. Machining is carried out with the ship afloat and as late as possible before installation of the guns, weapons or directors, with the ship in a condition of displacement and trim approaching that specified for the tilt test

described later. Telephones are rigged at the MDP position and at the gun ring and matched clinometers are used, one at the MDP and one on the gun ring, to check the level of the latter with the MDP. Readings are taken on the gun ring fore and aft, port and starboard, to ascertain the amount of machining necessary. The tolerances allowed are three minutes of error in any direction and the ring should be level across any diameter to within 0.003 in. After the first cut has been taken a check is made to see that the settings are correct. Subsequent machining is then carried out to just clean the surface of the gun ring and must not exceed the minimum finished thickness specified for it. The machining of weapon and director seatings is carried out similarly to the above but with smaller machines supported direct from the deck on which the seating is fitted. On completion of the final machining the mounting, complete with roller path assembly, is shipped in position and the roller path bolted down, after which the scribe lines on the turntable or other rotating parts can be checked with the datum bench marks mentioned previously. Tilt test When all the guns, launchers and directors comprising the main armament have been installed, a tilt test is carried out finally to check the accuracy of the machining of their seatings, of themselves, and in relation to each other. For this test the ship must be afloat, complete structurally and approaching as nearly as possible, as regards displacement, hog or sag, and trim, an average sea-going condition. If necessary the loading should be adjusted to suit the specified condition by adjusting fuel and water ballast. In addition the test should be carried out in weather conditions, especially sunlight, similar to those pertaining when the seatings were machined, since these conditions cause the structure to flex and slightly alter the levels of the seatings. The test consists of measuring the level of all the rotatable equipments in the system at various angles of training. If the tilt of any mounting or director, being the amount by which the level differs from the datum, exceeds a specified maximum it can usually be obviated by built-in means of adjustment to the tilt of the rotating equipment. It is rarely necessary to remachine a seating.

Figure 33-1:Clinometer

Figure 33-2:Datum Levels

34 Deflection of the ship
We have seen in an earlier chapter that the distribution of forces supporting the ship is constantly changing throughout her service. With the object of ascertaining whether any undue strain has occurred in the structure caused by these changes, which may necessitate additional stiffening being fitted, it is the practice to measure the elastic deflections of the vessel on such occasions as launching, the first two occasions of docking and undocking thereafter, and sometimes at sea. It should be noted that although the term ' breakage' is commonly applied to these deflections, it does not correctly describe their true nature, viz. elastic deflections. Breakage measurements are, however, visible evidence of the fact that the ship changes form under the action of external forces. The structural design must, of course, be such that excessive or permanent deflections do not occur. Whilst the vessel is on the slipway or in dock, the distribution of the upward thrust of the blocks differs considerably from that of the buoyancy forces when afloat. As the distribution of weight, for each case, is unaltered, the change in the forces acting upon the structure is considerable, and the measured deflections are valuable guides to the behaviour of the vessel in a seaway. The deflection over any length of the vessel is measured by one of two methods: Sighting battens method This method is seldom used now, but could be, if relatively large readings are expected, for instance in a very long ship. Three horizontal sighting battens are erected, one at each end of the distance and one midway between. The battens, supported by uprights, are usually arranged on the weather deck and the process of'sighting' consists of lowering or raising the middle batten until its lower edge just cuts out the light between the top edges of the end battens, i.e. the top edges of the end battens and the lower edge of the middle batten lie in the same plane or 'outwind.' The battens are sighted in this manner before launching, docking or undocking as the case may be, and the middle batten marked for position. The end battens remain fixed. After launching the middle batten is adjusted

as necessary to outwind with the others and the amount by which it is raised or lowered measures the deflection over the length between the end battens. If it has to be raised, this indicates that the vessel has sagged, whilst if it has to be lowered this indicates she has hogged. Telescope method This method, which is now generally adopted and which is more accurate, makes use of the telescope portion of a theodolite with graticule, and enables the deflection to be measured at a number of selected positions in the length of the ship. The telescope is housed in a fitting secured to a base plate on the ship so that the telescope can rotate in a vertical plane. The drawing indicates a typical arrangement for recording the breakage at launch. A platform and support is welded to the deck at the fore end of the ship and a base plate welded to the support to take the telescope. It is generally necessary to have the sighting position close to the ship's side to avoid obstruction by the superstructure. At a position aft a fixed sight is erected comprising an angle support with a face plate painted white on which is marked a horizontal datum line. The sight is placed so as to avoid all obstructions in the sight line from the telescope forward. At intermediate positions along the line of sight, where the deflection of the ship is required to be measured, steel pads with tapped holes are welded to the deck. Adjustable sighting battens with 1/2-in screws fixed at the bottom are screwed into these pads. The intermediate battens also carry a face plate with horizontal line, smaller than that on the end sighting batten. The face plate on the adjustable sight is raised or lowered so that the horizontal line on it lines up with the line of sight from the graticule in the telescope, which has been previously sighted on to the end fixed sight line. Marks are then placed on the sliding and fixed portions of the battens. After launch the procedure is repeated and the movement, upwards or downwards, from these marks, to make the sight line up with the telescope, is recorded for all the intermediate sight positions. The algebraic differences between the recorded measurements at each position give the ' breakages' which can be plotted to give a deflection curve of the skip over the length between the telescope and fixed sight positions. The breakage of a ship is usually taken over three lengths when launching; over most of the length of the ship, over the length of the

propeller shafts each side, and athwartships in a midship position. At subsequent dockings the deflection is usually measured over the length of the vessel only. Other occasions necessitating the measurement of breakage are, when a large proportion of deck plating is removed for shipping machinery, or when a considerable amount of structure is removed during large repairs or modernization. In such cases it may be found necessary, from consideration of the deflection figures as the structure is removed, to fit temporary stiffening in way of the portions being removed. The maximum breakage during launch occurs when the stern lifts and it is generally recorded by keeping the line of sight fixed and recording the movement of the end fixed sight and then assuming that the ship bends in a parabolic arc. The true breakage midway between the telescope and end sight is then very nearly a quarter of the recorded reading on the end sight. The amount of breakage during launch and on docking is different for different types of ship. It can be as much as 1 ¾ in for a carrier and less than 1/2 in for a frigate.

Figure 34-1:Deflection of ship

35 Prevention of deterioration of the structure

Corrosion Applied to the iron or steel from which a ship's structure is normally constructed, corrosion implies the oxidation of metallic iron to form an iron oxide or rust, or the eating away of the metal by electro-chemical action. Oxidation or Rusting This occurs in air when unprotected steel or iron is exposed to the atmosphere, and is caused by the chemical combination of the iron with the atmospheric oxygen. The severity of rusting is governed by a number of factors, and in air the level of humidity is generally the critical factor, although atmospheric pollution is also important. In salt atmospheres, microscopic particles of dry salt or drops of salt saturated water produce active corrosion. Rusting is also accelerated by heat so that special precautions are necessary under boilers and for other portions of structure adjacent to sources of heat. Oxidation or rusting also occurs in water, the severity of the action depending principally on the oxygen content, acid content, temperature and velocity of the water. Variations in oxygen content can cause differences in the corrosion rate by several hundred per cent. This is an important factor in the corrosion of the outer bottoms of ships which is found to be more active near the waterline where the oxygen content of the water is densest. Sea water corrosion is generally more severe in harbours and enclosed waters where the probability of the water containing impurities such as acids, oxidizing agents and sulphur-bearing organic agents is greater than in the open sea. Galvanic corrosion When two dissimilar metals are immersed in sea water and connected electrically a potential difference is set up between them. This potential causes a current to flow from one to the other. The direction of the current depends upon the position of the metals in what is known as the 'galvanic series' or list of metals in order of electro-positivity, e.g. if steel and

gunmetal are immersed in sea water and metallically connected a current flows from the steel, which is the anode, to the gunmetal, which is the cathode, the former being eaten away. In the same way zinc and aluminium are anodic to steel and would be eaten away if immersed with the latter. The density of the current flowing and hence the rate of corrosion is dependent on the potential between the anode and cathode, the conductivity of the whole circuit, the relative anode-cathode area and the efficiency of the metallic contact between the two metals. Similarly, corrosion occurs when any part of a metal surface immersed in water is at a potential difference with an adjacent part. This could be caused by patches of'mill scale' on the metal, a difference in level of protection caused by flaking of the protective paint coating, local differences in composition of the metal or local variations in salinity or water conditions. The crevices or corners formed in the surface of a plate in way of a fitting are also causes of corrosion leading to marked local attack. The anodic and cathodic areas, with the sea water as the electrolyte, form a local cell and result in accelerated corrosion over the anodic area. General galvanic corrosion, therefore, can take place irrespective of whether there are any dissimilar metals in contact such as non-ferrous fittings attached to a steel hull. Protection against oxidation The principal preventive measure against oxidation or rusting is to coat the metals with anti-corrosive coatings, such as paints, varnishes, tars or other metals (e.g. galvanizing). Paints are the anti-corrosive coatings most commonly used. They are normally applied cold and consist of a vehicle of oil and resin to carry the pigment, the latter imparting the required covering power, inhibitive property, colour, etc. The most common ingredients of the vehicle are linseed oil and tung oil together with natural resins such as copal, or synthetic resins such as the alkyd, phenolic and epoxy types. Pigments commonly used are red lead, red oxide of iron, zinc oxide, zinc chromate, titanium oxide and metallic powders such as aluminium and zinc. The drying of the paint depends on its type and takes place under one or more of the following processes: a. Evaporation of the solvent used in the vehicle,

b. Oxidation of the liquid constituent of the vehicle to its solid state; paints may contain driers to accelerate this process; these are usually metallic 'soaps' such as manganese or cobalt naphthanates. c. Polymerization or other chemical reaction between constituents of the vehicle brought about by putting a curing agent into the paint base. The ' two-pack' materials are usually of this type. Red lead is as yet unsurpassed for the primary protection of iron and steel, but its use is limited for several reasons. If used in confined spaces, toxicity problems arise through concentrations of carbon dioxide as well as the health risk inherent in using lead-based materials. For these reasons, and from the point of view of risk of fire and smoke, the use of red lead is confined to exposed steel structure, e.g. weather work surfaces generally. It should never be applied to aluminium. For other steel and aluminium surfaces the composition now in general use for priming coats is yellow zinc chromate, but there are a number of instances where special paint systems including other primers are used to satisfy particular requirements. In addition to priming coats, additional coats of paint, usually of the synthetic resin type, are required to complete the protection and appearance. A total of four or five coats is usual. For steel surfaces exposed to the weather, three priming coats of red lead, one grey undercoat and one finishing coat are applied. For aluminium structure and funnels the priming coats are of zinc chromate. Two coats of zinc chromate primer and two coats of a fire retardant synthetic resin-paint are normally used to coat interior surfaces. For tanks containing hydraulic fluids, lubricating oil or fuel oil, it has been the common practice to thoroughly clean and dry the surfaces before coating with heavy filtered mineral oil. The introduction of high duty compositions for the "coating of aviation fuel tanks and water-compensated diesel oil tanks is leading to the adoption of such coatings, in the form of two-pack epoxy-based materials, as the general preservative for all tanks normally containing liquids. Compartments which may need to be flooded for ballast purposes are either coated with three coats of a coal tar epoxy paint or, two coats of bituminous solution followed by one coat of bituminous enamerapplied hot. Special care is necessary with the coating of fresh water tanks, for health reasons. After preparation, the tank surfaces are coated with one coat of bituminous solution followed by one coat of bituminous enamel applied hot.

The structure of compartments such as bathrooms, galleys, laundries and machinery and other bilges which are constantly wet when in service, after being properly prepared as described later, are flame spray coated with metallic zinc for preservation. This metal coating is normally over painted with two coats of a chlorinated rubber paint for protection. A similar treatment is given to areas of structure which are normally inaccessible or difficult of access for maintenance. Fittings exposed to weather or in permanently wet areas should be galvanized as a preventive against corrosion. Before galvanizing, the article must first be ' pickled'. This consists of immersing the fitting in a solution of 19 parts water to 1 part hydrochloric acid for up to 12 hours. In the case of thin plates, these must be placed in the pickling bath on edge. Under the action of the acid any mill scale is removed. The fitting or plate is then immersed in a bath of molten zinc sufficiently long for it to attain the temperature of the bath. If this is done any superfluous zinc will run off the metal as it is withdrawn, leaving a smooth surface. Salammoniac is sprinkled on to the surface as it leaves the bath, to act as a flux. Aluminium alloys are being used to an increasing extent in shipbuilding, particularly in superstructures where the resultant saving in weight is important. In coating aluminium alloys, care must be taken to see that no paint containing lead, copper or mercury comes into direct contact with the metal, otherwise serious corrosion may follow. For interior painting and exterior painting above the waterline, the normal paint systems as applied to steel may be used, except that as stated previously yellow zinc chromate must be substituted for red lead. For protection of the underwater portion of ships' hulls from corrosion special compositions which are resistant to sea water are used. Ordinary paints such as those used on surfaces above water would not last very long. Initially the bottom plating is suitably prepared by abrasive blasting and then coated with ACC 655 protective composition to give an overall coating thickness of 0.006 in minimum. Five brush coats are usually sufficient to achieve this. This paint was adopted for use as the result of extensive trials and consists basically of a modified phenol formaldehyde synthetic resin cooked in linseed/tung oil and pigmented with basic lead sulphate, iron oxide and aluminium powder. Driers consisting of lead, Cobalt and manganese naphthanates are added to allow the paint to touch dry in two to four hours. Naphtha and white spirit are used as solvents and to obtain a good brushing consistency. At subsequent dockings one coat of Admar should be sufficient as a maintenance coating unless de-scaling is necessary in which case

preparation and coating with ACC 655 should be carried out as initially. Admar is a simpler version of ACC 655 containing white lead but with no aluminium powder. In recent years, further improvements have been made in the protection of the underwater portion of ships' hulls by the use of high duty, self-curing epoxy-based paints. A wide range of coal tar epoxy paints are available. This paint is a ' two pack' material which has to be mixed immediately prior to use. When used as a complete system it gives a tough, impermeable coating which offers the degree of protection required on outer bottoms. There are problems, however, in attaining the correct application conditions for a complete system. This, together with the possibility of preferential galvanic corrosion in any area of breakdown through wear or damage, limit the general adoption of coal tar epoxy paints to those ships which are fitted with cathodic protection. The efficiency of these paints as protective coatings depends mainly on the standard of preparation achieved on the surfaces before the paints are applied. To remove all mill scale and prepare the surface of steel for subsequent treatment and painting, it is now common practice for all structural steel items to be abrasive blasted and coated with a quick drying anti-corrosive primer prior to storage and use in a shipyard. This primer is a temporary protective only. Overcoating with a full paint system is necessary soon after working and erection in the ship. For certain paint systems removal of the temporary primer by re-blasting or power wire brushing may be necessary. It is essential that paint is applied to clean, dry surfaces. Where aluminium, zinc coated or freshly blasted steel surfaces are to be coated the application of an 'etch' primer prior to the first full priming coat improves its adhesion and overall performance of the full coating system. Protection against galvanic corrosion For many years, the only protective measure adopted to reduce galvanic corrosion of the hull, other than by coating the hull with protective compositions, was the fitting of zinc protectors near phosphor bronze, gunmetal and other 'noble' non-ferrous fittings which are electro-negative to steel. As explained previously, an electric current flows between the steel (the anode) and the non-ferrous fitting (the cathode) which results in the corrosion of the steel. If an adequate current could be set up in the opposite direction the effect would be to stop the corrosion of the hull. This is the underlying principle of fitting zinc

protectors to the hull in the vicinity of propellers, rudder bushes, etc. The zinc, being anodic to both steel and copper-based alloys, is wasted away in preference to the steel. In recent years, this principle of inducing a current from anodes to the ship's outer bottom through the sea water to prevent corrosion of the whole hull has been developed into a number of practical systems designated 'cathodic protection'. The particular system selected is normally dictated by the ship's service or operating conditions. An estimate is made of the current required to protect the whole underwater portion of the hull. Anodes are arranged to pass this current to the hull which is made the cathode. The anodes can be of the active type, made up of a base metal whose potential difference from steel is sufficient to provide the necessary current - this is called a sacrificial anode system. Alternatively the anode may be of the inert type requiring an external supply of current - this is called an impressed current system. Magnesium, zinc and aluminium are examples of active anodes. Lead/silver alloy and platinized titanium are the more widely used inert anodes. The magnitude of the current required is not easy to determine since it depends upon so many factors such as the degree to which the steel is already protected by paint or other composition, salinity of the water and its velocity past the surface. Bare steel requires a current of about 10 amperes per thousand square feet to protect it; in practice a current of about a third of this is adequate for the protection of the hulls of ships coated with normal paint systems and operating under normal service conditions. Subsequent deterioration of the paint or change in conditions may result in changes in the current required for full protection. In the case of ships laid up for long periods in fairly constant conditions, a sacrificial system of anodes - usually of magnesium - is satisfactory. Where conditions at the berths may change, or number of ships being treated varies, an adjustable impressed current system is usually adopted. For operational ships where the conditions, and hence the current required for full hull protection, are constantly changing, it is the usual practice to fit an automatic impressed current system. Hence a silver chloride reference electrode senses the potential of the hull and through a balanced control system varies the current flowing through the anodes to bring the hull to the correct potential for full protection. The anodes, made of lead/silver alloy or platinized titanium and 'streamline' shape, are mounted on the hull and protected from damage. Normally three or four anodes would be required to be positioned around the hull of a frigatetomeet the current

requirements for full protection. Underwater fittings such as rudders and propeller shafts are bonded to the hull for protection. Where an automatic impressed current system is not fitted, sacrificial anodes of zinc or aluminium can be distributed over the underwater portion of the hull to give the required protection. Such a system is, within limits, self-adjusting to meet varying current demands for protection. Anodes need to be renewed at each or alternate dockings depending on the size and number fitted. Zinc protectors are still found to be necessary at some localized positions even though the modern cathodic protection measures described above are adopted. For ships with an impressed current system zinc protectors are fitted at main inlet and discharge tubes, inside the fin boxes of retractable stabilizers and close to non-ferrous fittings inside salt water ballast tanks. For ships which do not have an impressed current system additional zincs are fitted in way of rope guards and the rudder bushes. The principles of cathodic protection are illustrated in the diagrammatic sketches given. Fouling Steel vessels In addition to preventing corrosion, it is necessary to prevent or reduce as far as possible the fouling of the bottom plating by marine animal and vegetable growths which would otherwise increase the resistance of the ship and reduce her speed.Cathodic protection does not prevent fouling. Special antifouling compositions containing poisons are used for this purpose and one or more coats are usually applied over the protective composition. Among the most effective poisons are salts of copper and mercury. The paints are so formulated that the poisons in them will gradually leach out, at a rate dependent on the nature of the poison, to ensure that its anti-fouling properties are adequate to keep the hull coatings clean for long periods. There is a definite relationship between the leaching rate of a paint and its anti-fouling properties. Indeed there is a minimum rate of leaching which must be maintained to prevent fouling. The compositions now used for all HM Ships are Pocoptic and a formulation known as 16IP. The 'boot-topping' area between the light and deep waterlines is very liable to mechanical damage and to corrosion caused by alternate wetting

and drying. This area is normally painted with a top coat of special black anti-fouling composition. Anti-fouling paints must not be exposed to weather for any length of time, and the vessel should undock as soon as possible after it has dried, which usually takes about twenty-four hours. Under no circumstances should more than seven days elapse between painting and undocking in temperate climates and three days in the tropics. Pocoptic anti-fouling coating has an average life of about nine months, but this period varies considerably with the service of the ship and other factors. Composition 161P, if applied as two coats within twenty-four hours will normally give an anti-fouling life of up to two years. Fouling occurs chiefly when a ship is stationary in harbour and is more severe in tropical waters. A ship which spends a large portion of her time at sea in colder waters will not foul nearly so quickly. Wooden vessels Perhaps the most effective method of preventing fouling yet applied was to sheathe the ship's bottom with copper sheeting. The considerable problems involved in wood sheathing steel hulled ships to prevent metallic contact between the copper and steel, involving great cost, labour and time, resulted in this practice being abandoned many years ago. Copper sheathing was used until fairly recently for wooden craft with the additional object of reducing the level of attack from boring worms, such as teredo and gribble, met in tropical waters, but has now also been abandoned for financial reasons. The modern method of protecting wooden hulls from marine borers is to sheathe the hull with a glass reinforced plastic or nylon sheeting; antifouling paints are still necessary to prevent fouling by marine animal or vegetable growths. An alternative to sheathing a hull with glass reinforced plastic or nylon sheeting is to incorporate an additional outer skin of wood planking which has to be renewed from time to time. The usual practice is to impregnate this sacrificial skin with creosote before it is laid on the hull. Wooden vessels not sheathed by any of these methods and which operate in tropical waters, require frequent slipping at intervals of about three months for bottom coating and repairs to damage caused by marine borers. The outer bottom paint system used is three coats of Admar anti-corrosive and one coat of Pocoptic anti-fouling. For vessels operating in sub-tropical or temperate waters the intervals between slippings for treatment can be at least doubled.

Figure 35-1:Galvanic corrosion

Figure 35-2:Cathodic Protection

Part IV:

Fitting out Ship systems and equipment

36 Main propulsion machinery and auxiliaries
Whilst this book is primarily concerned with the practical aspects of warship construction it would not be complete without at least a general description of the types of main machinery used to drive the ship via the components in the shaft assembly(s) described in other chapters. The following description outlines the salient features of main machinery installations in current use, a fair knowledge of which is essential to the student in naval architecture who is subsequently engaged, conjointly with marine and electrical engineers, on ship design. Steam turbine machinery Turbines Although now being challenged strongly by medium speed diesel engines and gas turbines, steam machinery still has many attractive features for major warship propulsion. Probably the most important is the facility with which a steam plant can be 'tailored' into a ship. In other words the design characteristics of the system of boilers, turbines, gearing, condensers and feed systems are sufficiently flexible to enable the optimum maximum power and propulsive efficiency to be obtained for a particular hull and duty. High turbine speeds are needed for maximum efficiency within minimum size and weight. This conflicts with the need for low propeller speed for high propulsive efficiency, and makes reduction gearing essential, most modern designs using double reduction trains. If the power per shaft exceeds about 20 000 s.h.p. a single turbine may entail unacceptably large castings. Above this power, it is common practice to use a high pressure turbine exhausting into a low pressure turbine, both driving into the main gearing on parallel shafts. They are normally designed to develop approximately equal horsepowers. Normal steam turbines cannot be reversed, so that a separate astern turbine is needed. This is usually fitted on the same shaft as the low pressure turbine, exhausting into a common condenser and is normally designed to produce about one-third of the maximum ahead horsepower.

Because modern highly forced boilers need very pure water if serious corrosion is to be avoided, and because the space to carry large quantities of it is not available, the steam leaving the turbines passes into a condenser where it is recovered. Thus the steam and water systems form a closed cycle called the closed feed system. The condenser is normally underslung from the low pressure turbine to save space. Because it is very heavy it may need spring supports between it and the hull, thus reducing the load upon the low pressure turbine casing, which might otherwise distort and leak at the horizontal joint. Sea water is used as the cooling medium in the condenser and is supplied by an axial flow main circulating pump in the main inlet pipe. This may be as large as 4 ft in diameter, and the inlet hole at the hull is designed to provide a scoop action, thus reducing the power needed for the main circulating pump. The system needs careful design to reduce pressure losses and prevent corrosion. Inlet and discharge sluice valves are fitted to permit inspection, cleaning and repair of the main condenser without docking. Weed traps are fitted on the main inlets of shallow draught ships and steam weed clearing jets are often fitted on large ships. Corrosion of the sea tubes is prevented by coating them with rubber or epoxy resin and by fitting sacrificial anodes nearby. The hull openings are protected by removable gratings. Main boilers Modern marine main boilers are normally of the two drum 'D' type, with combustion air trunked to an airspace surrounding the furnace gas casing. This is known as the 'open stokehold' design, for the working space outside this airspace can be at ambient pressure and access is possible through 'open' doors. The alternative, used in older ships, is the closed stokehold, where the whole boiler room is pressurized and airlocks are necessary to provide access. In both cases the essential need of surrounding the boiler gas casing with air at a pressure higher than that in the furnace is fulfilled. Thus if the gas casing is pierced there will be an inward flow of cold air into the furnace rather than an outward flow of burning gas into the working space. Modern marine boilers are very compact, and their high evaporation rates are achieved by using very high gas velocities, entailing in turn a very high pressure drop from boiler to atmosphere. The furnace of a modern boiler may well be at a pressure of up to 20 in water gauge above atmospheric, whereas the old natural draught boiler has a furnace pressure below atmospheric.

The combustion air to a modern boiler is drawn from a suction box surrounding the air pressure casing, so preventing any air leaking from the pressure casing into the boiler working area. Thus if damage occurs in a situation when the combustion air is contaminated, this contamination is prevented from reaching the operating area. This not only reduces the heat loss by radiation from the gas casing but also reduces the ventilation needs. The construction of the funnel uptakes and down takes is described in a separate chapter. In a steam installation, the turbines, boilers and their associated auxiliaries are all interconnected by pipe systems carrying steam and water. The steam pipes present a particularly difficult fitting-out problem, in that arrangements must be made to insulate them and to absorb the expansions and contractions involved in cycling from ambient to working temperatures, the latter being as high as 950°F. Generous bends and special supporting arrangements are needed to limit the pipe stresses and prevent damage to machinery, the hull structure and the pipes themselves. One advantage of a steam installation has been mentioned - that it can be tailored into the overall ship design readily. In addition it provides a ready means of power distribution and it can use relatively cheap heavy fuel oil. These advantages must be weighed against several disadvantages when com-pared with diesels or gas turbines. These include high machinery weights (although associated with low centre of gravity), higher fuel consumption, greater heat loss into the ship, more operators and more difficult maintenance. Diesel machinery Broadly speaking diesel engines may be divided into three categories according to their speed range: Low speed engines with speeds up to 250 rev/min and powers up to 40 000 shp.Medium speed engines with speeds between 250 and 600 rev/min and powers up to 24 000 shp.High speed engines with speeds between 600 and 2500 rev/min and powers up to 400 shp. These ranges are by no means definitive and designers constantly strive towards higher powers from smaller engines, and hence the upper speed limits of the rages tend to rise. The low speed' cathedral' type engine, so named because of its great size, with direct drive to the propeller, is not used in warships because of its low power/ weight ratio and the excessive height needed. It is, however,

extensively used in merchant ships because of its high efficiency and its fairly low maintenance needs. The latter because its low speed enables a small number of very large pistons to be used, and the maintenance load is much more dependent upon number of cylinders than their size. The low speed also contributes to low maintenance. Medium speed engines attractively combine low fuel consumption with more reasonable scantlings, but generally need to run on a distillate fuel. They have more cylinders and, with their higher speeds, need significantly more maintenance than their low speed competitors. They are in use in many navies for warship propulsion, particularly where long endurance is of prime importance. The high speed engine is also widely used, particularly in diesel generator sets, but it is also gaining popularity in cruising engine applications. Its main advantage over the medium speed engine is its small size and weight, which enable it to be removed bodily from the ship for replacement or overhaul. On the other hand the very large number of small cylinders and the high speed generally increases the maintenance required. All diesel engines have an inherent drawback in that they cannot be run at below about 25 per cent of their maximum speed as otherwise they would suffer badly from coking of their combustion spaces. Thus in an all diesel propulsion installation, special provision must be made, often using either controllable pitch propellers or slippable hydraulic couplings, to allow low ahead and astern ship speeds to be obtained. Medium and low speed engines are,however, often reversible, making separate provision of means for reversing unnecessary. The diesel installation in warships usually comprises several medium speed engines aggregating to the maximum power requirement, entailing complicated gearing and clutching arrangements whereby the number of engines coupled to the shaft(s) can be made to suit the power required for a given ship speed with the least practicable loss of efficiency. Summarizing, diesel engines have the advantage of high efficiency accompanied by low fuel consumption, are fairly cheap, and have an extensive marine background. Their disadvantages are their comparatively low/power/weight ratio, they are very bulky and noisy and induce relatively high amplitude hull vibration, require more on-board maintenance, and they have a heavy lubricating oil consumption.

Gas turbines

Investigations into the possibilities of gas turbines as main propulsion units for RN warships were first started during World War II since when development has been continuous and in step with that of aero-jet engines. Starting with fast patrol boats the stage has been reached when gas turbines are used as the main propulsion units, or ' boost' units, in some modern frigates and guided missile destroyers. From the outset the main problems in development have been threefold. First the need for marinization, i.e. rendering the turbine and generator able to withstand the rigours of use at sea and especially minimization of the effects on the turbine blades of salt laden air. Second, the need for long life and periods between overhauls, which is being achieved by improved design and the use of improved materials. Third, the integration of these comparatively high power/ weight ratio engines into the main propulsion complexes of warships, entailing careful gearbox and control gear design and the provision of large air intakes and exhausts. Throughout, the development of modern marine gas turbines has followed and made every possible use of aircraft engines and technology and the result is a distinct trend towards the adoption of gas turbines as the prime mover in warships on account of their much higher power/weight ratio and much greater flexibility of operation compared with either steam turbines or diesel engines. The most important operational advantage of the gas turbine is the ease and rapidity with which it can be brought to full power - in a matter of a few minutes. Compared with the diesel, its fuel consumption is high, particularly at half full power and below, and the maximum power obtainable is considerably affected by the ambient temperature. If the latter is high the power must be reduced to prevent excessive gas temperature. For this reason the maximum power obtainable in tropical conditions is about 80 per cent of that which can be developed in temperate conditions. The disadvantage mentioned previously, compared with steam or diesel engines, of large down takes and uptakes arises from the very high air/fuel rates. The need for such large intakes and exhausts detracts appreciably from the gain in space afforded by the gas turbines themselves but, on the other hand, the down takes can be made the route for easy removal of the gas generators for refit or replacement.

Combined propulsion plants Steam, diesels and gas turbines all have their advantages and disadvantages, and they are therefore often combined to form machinery installations with the advantages of, say, two engine types, but without their disadvantages. Thus, for instance, a steam plant may be installed to provide all the auxiliary power and economical cruising up to, say, 20 knots, while a gas turbine is added to provide, within a small space and weight, the massive power needed for very high speed. Such a plant, if the steam turbine is used WITH the gas turbine, is known as Combined Steam And Gas, or COSAG: if the plant were designed so that EITHER the steam turbine OR the gas turbine could be used, but not both together, then it would be known as Combined Steam Or Gas, or COSOG. Similarly, CODOG designates a plant in which a diesel main propulsion engine is used up to cruising powers, but a gas turbine replaces the diesel at higher powers. A sketch showing the disposition of the seatings for the main components in a COSAG plant is given in Chapter 16. The choice between 'and' and 'or' arrangements is largely influenced by the power of the base load engine. Thus, in a diesel and gas turbine plant, in which only 6000 shp is needed to achieve 20 knots, around 25 000 shp will be needed to drive the ship at 30 knots. If gas turbines are used to provide this order of power, the addition of the 6000 shp available from, say, diesel cruising engines would only provide another 11/2 knots at best, depending upon the particular hull form, and this at the expense of considerable complication in the gearbox and controls. This complication stems from the fact that when the diesel engine has been brought up to full power and rpm in its cruising mode, it will then be necessary to change gear to allow the gas turbine power to be added with its attendant increase in rpm. As a general rule, it is only worthwhile considering the ' and' arrangements when the base load plant has a power of the same order as the boost engine. In this case the power is definitely worth adding, while the speed change problem is reduced. This is particularly so in the case of the gas turbine where, by a happy accident of engine characteristics, it is possible to add together two identical engines without the need for speed change devices. It is, of course, possible to use the characteristics of the controllable pitch propeller to achieve the speed change, but the main disadvantage here is that it is necessary to run the propeller on its designed pitch at full power to avoid serious cavitation, and it must therefore be used off designed pitch at

low powers when the base load propulsion engine is in use, to achieve the necessary change in rev/min shp relationship. Thus the propeller will be inefficient in the power range in which the ship will spend the majority of its life. Auxiliary machinery Auxiliary machinery now accounts for the largest proportion of the maintenance load in any warship's machinery installation. There is therefore a strong move towards standardization, which will of itself reduce maloperation and the logistics problems, but also makes a policy of refit by replacement feasible. Refit by replacement has long been a desirable goal, to reduce refit lengths and hence to improve ship availability. Steam plants, with their complex steam, exhaust and water piping systems have always made it difficult, if not sometimes impossible, to remove auxiliaries without major 'surgery', but with the advent of the gas turbine, refit by replacement becomes a much more feasible proposition. The gas turbines themselves can be removed through their own air downtakes and the same downtakes can also be used as removal routes for other auxiliaries. In auxiliary machinery rooms, it is now becoming standard practice to provide removal trunks for the generator prime movers and these trunks are also capable of handling all the major auxiliaries, if not complete, at least by major components. Electrical generators Probably the greatest single problem facing the machinery installation designer is the provision of sufficient electrical power. As sonar and radar sets have increased in capability, so have their power requirements escalated. The result is that a destroyer being designed today needs the same order of installed electrical power as was needed in the fleet aircraft carriers of 20 years ago. All modern designs use 440 V and 60 c/s. This voltage is suitable up to 2 ½ MW generator size, when it is necessary to use much higher voltage (3300 V) to reduce switchgear size. Spare generating capacity is always fitted to allow for: a. Maintenance on one machine at a time, b. Breakdowns or action damage, c. Salvage loads.

The generator sizes and numbers are chosen to ensure that the load on the running generators is never so high that if one fails, the others cannot accept the automatic 'throw over' of essential services from the failed generator. The salvage generator is normally sited above the waterline and remote from the machinery spaces, and is of sufficient capacity to permit salvage pumps and emergency lights, etc. to be made available in the event of the loss of all other generators. Air conditioning plants Much of the increase in electrical load has arisen from the increased requirements for air conditioning, partly for equipment cooling and partly for improving ship habitability. Modern ships use, for plants up to about 11/4 million BTU/h capacity, reciprocating compressor driven mechanical refrigerators using non-explosive, non-inflammable and non-toxic gas refrigerant. For very large plants, up to about 3 million BTU/h, centrifugal compressors are used to reduce their bulk and weight. Direct expansion plants use the expanded refrigerant to transfer heat directly from the spaces or equipments to be cooled. Such plants are not used in naval vessels except in very small sizes because of the vulnerability of the gas piping and difficulty in ensuring that the compressor does not lose oil to the system. Instead, it is common practice to circulate distilled water through the ship as the cooling medium, chilling this in a heat exchanger in the air conditioning compartment. Leaks from such a chilled water system are easily repaired and the lost water is far more easily replaced than is the refrigerant gas. The principles of the systems in general use are described in a separate chapter in Part IV. Evaporators Another major item of auxiliary machinery is the evaporator. Each man on board a major vessel needs about 30 gallons of fresh water per day for washing, cooking and drinking, and this must be provided by distillation from sea water. Thus a destroyer with gas turbine machinery may need a plant capable of 2 tons per hour continuous output. To guard against the endurance of the ship being drastically reduced in the event of failure of this plant, it is necessary to fit two such plants. With their associated steam systems, the evaporators constitute an important item. The main problem with the evaporator itself is associated with the formation of scale. If the sea water is heated in the same compartment in

which it is evaporated, then heavy scale forms on the heating surfaces, eventually reducing the heat transfer to the point where it becomes necessary to descale them. In British warships increasing use is being made of' flash' evaporators, in which the heating and evaporating processes are separated. The heated feed water is passed through successive 'flash' chambers, each chamber being at a lower pressure than its predecessor. Thus water vapour flashes off, and can then be condensed. The temperature of the remaining water is reduced as the evaporation takes place, and this water is then passed to the next flash chamber; this is at a lower pressure, which allows more water to be evaporated. Large land-based plants often use very large number of such stages, but the economic number for a warship is two, owing to the great bulk of such multi-stage plants. Some evaporating plants are designed to use diesel engine jacket cooling water as the heating medium. This is common merchant service practice, where the crew numbers tend to be small enough to enable all the water needs of the ship to be satisfied in this way. In warships, the crew for a given hull size and engine power is correspondingly much greater than in the merchant service, because of the manpower needs of the weapons and associated systems. It is therefore not often practicable to use jacket water and avoid the need for providing auxiliary boilers. Other auxiliaries It is beyond the scope of this book to describe all the many auxiliaries associated with the propulsion machinery, hotel services and weapon systems but amongst them are numbered, to quote but a few: Air compressors, both high and low pressure. Food refrigerators. Fuel and water pumps. Fuel treatment units such as centrifuges and coalescent filters. The efficient disposition of the numerous items of main and auxiliary machinery in relation to each other, to fulfil their designated functions and at the same time provide sufficient access to them for maintenance or arrangements to remove them from the ship for repair, is an important part of the overall ship design task. The disposition of the main propulsion machinery and shaft assembly also has an important influence in determining the best underwater form and propeller diameter for efficient propulsion.

37 The propeller
The term 'propeller' is applied to the device which converts the power of the ship's main machinery into propulsive thrust. The principle is one of jet propulsion in that the propeller creates momentum in the form of a jet of water and in consequence generates a thrust in the opposite direction to the jet. In general the kinetic energy lost in a small fast jet is greater than in a large jet of lower velocity but of the same momentum, and for this reason large slow-turning propellers are usually more efficient than small highspeed ones. By far the most common is a screw propeller. This takes the form of a number of blades (for warships three or more) mounted on a hub or boss and laying along a helicoidal surface so that as they rotate they tend to move through the water in the manner of a screw thread. If the water were to behave as a semi-rigid medium each blade would tend to slide along its helix and the propeller would advance along its axis by a fixed distance for each revolution. This distance is defined as the blade pitch and is illustrated in the sketch. When delivering thrust and propelling the ship the actual advance per revolution of the propeller is normally some 30 per cent less than the pitch. Fixed pitch type The sketch illustrates the main features of a typical screw propeller of the fixed pitch type, i.e. the blades, cast integral with the boss, cannot be turned or pivotted to alter their designed pitch. If the propeller is viewed from aft the blade face is seen and the propeller is said to be right- or left-handed if it is seen to rotate clockwise or anticlockwise from this viewpoint when propelling the ship forward. The pitch of the blade can be designed to be constant at any radius or, as with most modern propellers, it can vary along the radius, increasing from the 'root' at the boss to mid radius and reducing again towards the tip. Each blade is aerofoil-shaped in section and cambered about a mean line as shown to produce a suction on the forward surface or back of the blade (looking from aft) and a pressure on the after surface, or face of the blade. The design is such that the suction exceeds the pressure and the two aggregate to produce the thrust which propels the ship forward.

The theory behind the design of the propeller blades to achieve the optimum thrust and torque to suit the engine power is well established but some of the main parameters involved are decided from practical considerations. As stated above, a large diameter associated with low rev/min is conducive to high efficiency but in practice a compromise has to be struck between them for such reasons as clearance of the tips of the blades from the hull or stern aperture, an important factor as regards vibration apart from the number of blades. In warships the clearance from the hull is of the order of one-fifth the diameter. The tips of the blades must also clear the dock bottom when the ship is docked. Such factors in relation to the run of the shaft line which is itself influenced by other practical considerations, determine the diameter. The rev/min when developing full power depend to a large degree upon the type of engine and design of gearing. Another important factor which has to be taken into account in the theory of the design is the avoidance, by appropriate blade shape and section, of the phenomenon known as cavitation. The pressure on the back of the blade falls as the speed of ship and rev/min increase and may reach the vapour pressure of water. If this happens at any position on the blade cavities, or bubbles, are formed which are unstable and collapse or 'implode' at very high pressures and give rise to ' erosion' or eating away of the material of the blade. This not only reduces efficiency and strength but also limits the life of the propeller. Corrective measures include reducing the pitch of the blade towards root and tip, striking a suitable balance between pitch and camber, and adopting a section shape which avoids high suction peaks. The resulting section shape tends to have fairly thin edges which require to be well protected when lifting and transporting the propeller. To reduce the magnitude of the fluctuations in thrust caused by the variation of velocities through the propeller disc the blades may be given 'skew' as shown in the sketch. To reduce vibration the blades may be given 'rake' which increases the clearance of the tips from the skeg or other boundary of the propeller aperture. The efficiency of the propeller or propellers is not the only measure of the overall efficiency with which the ship is propelled through the water. This overall efficiency is defined as the propulsive coefficient and is the ratio between the horsepower that would be needed to be transmitted through a tow rope when towing the ship and that actually delivered to the shaft when being propelled by its screws. Although the propeller efficiency is the dominant factor in the propulsive coefficient the interaction between

the propeller and the hull are important effects which can modify the overall efficiency by as much as 20 per cent. Finally the propeller must be of adequate strength to withstand the stresses arising from the developed thrust and torque and indeed consideration of this requirement may demand thicker or larger blades at the expense of some loss of efficiency, if a stronger propeller material is not available or considered suitable. Choice of material is in fact very important and may range from cast iron to steel or various non-ferrous alloys in the aluminium bronze or manganese bronze family, according to the service conditions to be met. The number of propellers, single, twin, triple or quadruple can only be decided by consideration of all the performance requirements to which the ship has to be designed but in particular the size of shaft and accommodation of the engines and gearing with all their associated propulsion auxiliaries are among the important determining factors. It is fairly obvious from the foregoing remarks that to retain the designed efficiency the surface of the blades and boss of a propeller must be maintained in a smooth condition and the edges undamaged. For this reason when the ship is docked the propellers are cleared of any marine growth and polished and any damage to the edges or erosion ' pits' repaired. Controllable pitch type There are circumstances or service conditions for some types of ship in which it is a distinct advantage to make use of this type of propeller(s), the blades of which are mounted individually on pivots in the boss and can be rotated so as to change the pitch from ahead to astern without changing their direction of rotation. In ships propelled by diesel engines, owing to the engine characteristics, there is a limit on the rev/min below which the engine will not function properly thus limiting the lower speed range and manoeuvrability of the ship. By fitting a CP propeller(s) the pitch can be fined (reduced) to keep up the rpm and so reduce the lowest ship speed achievable. At the same time the need for a reversing gearbox is eliminated and this can also be a determining factor in deciding on CP propellers for ships propelled by gas turbines the characteristics of which make the provision of reversing gear difficult and sometimes impracticable. In some ships the operating conditions or conditions of service may make the use of CPPs worthwhile. For instance, tugs and trawlers which have to work either free running or towing or pushing. In such cases a fixed pitch

propeller can be designed for optimum efficiency in any one condition only at appreciable expense in efficiency in the other conditions. The provision of a CPP enables the pitch to be varied to suit the loading condition and at the same time provides the means of reversing to go astern. Previous remarks concerning the design of the blades for efficiency and strength and the avoidance of cavitation apply. As regards strength the blade control mechanism inside the boss must of course be designed to take the maximum torque and thrust developed and in general this leads to a larger boss than would be necessary with a fixed pitch propeller designed for the same ship.

Figure 37-1:Propeller Features

Figure 37-2

38 Salt water system
The services fed by salt water under this heading are as follows: a. Clearing the ship of bilge or drainage water. b. Pumping out large quantities of water from damaged and bilged compartments. c. Ballasting or de-ballasting of fuel tanks. d. Flooding of certain compartments below the waterline to correct heel or trim. These four services are usually grouped under the general heading of Pumping, Flooding and Draining (P.P. and D.). e. Providing sea water under pressure for firefighting, sanitary services, washing decks and cable, magazine spraying systems and operating eductors in the services a, b and c above. The arrangements for firefighting and magazine spraying are described in the separate chapter on fire protection. The system is designed to deliver the specified quantities of water at the required pressures with the minimum practical head loss, noise and pumping power, commensurate with economically sized piping. The services are planned in association with others at an early stage in the design of the vessel so as to provide an efficient operating arrangement, maintain adequate headroom and facilitate future refit work. Pumping, flooding and draining The importance of localizing flooding from any cause has already been remarked upon in the chapter on watertight subdivision. The main transverse bulkheads are as far as possible not pierced below the waterline by the piping of the system. Trim, and in the case of large ships with longitudinal bulkheads, heel, can be corrected by emptying or flooding tanks. If flooding is resorted to, it is very desirable to obtain the maximum corrective effect by the admission of the minimum quantity of water. For instance, a heeling moment of 2000 tons/ft is better corrected by admitting 50 tons of water 40 ft from the middle line than 100 tons of water 20 ft from the middle line because the decrease in the reserve of buoyancy in the first case is only onehalf that in the second case. In any case the flooded compartments should be

completely filled, if possible, to avoid the loss of stability which would otherwise arise due to the free surface of the water. The number and disposition of compartments fitted with pumping and flooding arrangements varies with the type of ship, but broadly speaking it may be said that all machinery spaces, compartments containing explosive or inflammable material, other important compartments before and abaft machinery spaces below waterline and the majority of double bottom compartments are provided for. All such compartments must be fitted with an air-escape pipe. Double bottom tanks not fitted with flooding arrangements but which can be flooded by hose are provided with an air plug as described in the chapter on the inner bottom. Compartments containing explosives or explosive material such as magazines, shell rooms, petrol compartments, are flooded direct from a sea cock if situated low enough in the ship; elsewhere spraying arrangements are fitted and provided with a duplicate source of supply. The handwheels for operating the gearing to the flooding valves of these compartments are grouped together as described later at control positions which are in communication by telephone with a central station, called the Damage Control Headquarters, from which pumping and flooding operations are controlled. In this station is kept the 'Flooding Board', which is a mounted sheet showing plans of all decks and hold spaces below L.W.L. Each compartment shown on the board is marked to indicate its capacity in tons and the effect on trim and heel of the ship by flooding it. Differently coloured pegs can be inserted in holes in the board to indicate the condition of the compartments. Before dealing with the methods adopted to meet the P.P. and D. requirements it will be convenient to describe the various valves and fittings incorporated in the system.

Piping
Copper-nickel-iron alloy piping (90/10) is used for the piping of the saltwater main and its branches, sanitary system, hangar and magazine spraying systems, hull and fire, fire and bilge, and hangar spray pump sea suctions, risers, overboard discharges and pump leak-offs, overboard discharges from water/fuel displacement systems, salt water supply to and overboard discharges from bathroom ejectors, bathroom drains within the bathroom (except as stated below) and urinal drains. Galvanized mild steel piping is used for all suctions to compartments, overboard discharges of salvage pump systems, suction stand pipes, ejector suctions to bathroom sumps, portable diesel pump sea suction, scuppers and

drains, soil pipes, suction pipes within fresh water storage tanks, oil fuel residue suctions, air escape pipes, and all pipes within FFO tanks where the tank structure is galvanized. Steel pipes below 11/2-in bore are connected by screwed sleeves and large pipes by flanges welded to the pipes, the flanges being welded prior to galvanizing. Copper-nickel-iron alloy piping is connected as follows by flanges if the bore is 2 inches or more and smaller pipes by brazed core unions, capillary type fittings or compression fittings of the non-manipulative type. Ferrous fittings are not fitted in copper-nickel-iron systems. Copper and copper-nickel-iron pipes are kept clear of aluminium alloy structure. At least 1/2 in is provided between the pipes or the pipe insulation and the structure. Corrosion pieces, consisting of renewable 12-in lengths of galvanized mild steel, are fitted between dissimilar metals in such piping normally dealing with salt water such as suctions to gland and plummer block compartments but are not normally required in dry suction systems. No nonferrous piping is introduced into any part of the ship so low as to come into contact with bilge water. Unless unavoidable, pipes containing liquid are kept out of compartments accommodating important electrical apparatus. The siting of pipe joints directly above electrical equipment is prohibited. No electrical installation is earthed to any water system and electric cables or associated fittings are not attached to such piping. Pipes connected to the outer bottom or to protective bulkheads are worked with generous bends, or alternatively with weakened shearing joints, so that they cannot act as struts in the vent of deflection of the structure. Valves Seacock or valve Sea valves, normally of the screw down type, metal seated, are fitted for admitting salt water into the ship for flooding compartments and to supply the various salt water pumps in the system. In way of the double bottom they are secured to the inner bottom by a flange connected to the inlet tube between inner and outer bottom. Outside the double bottom the seacock is fitted to a distance piece on the outer bottom. Gratings of galvanized mild steel are fitted to the sea inlets as near as possible to the outer bottom plating. Where the sea tube serves more than one valve the clear area of the opening in the grating is suitable for the total number of valves using that

tube. Zinc protectors are fitted inside the tube to take the effect of galvanic action set up by the non-ferrous material of the seacock as described in the chapter on cathodic protection. To enable compartments containing explosives or inflammable material to be flooded in dry dock, flooding bonnets are provided which can be secured to the mouth of the inlet tube after removing the grating. A flooding bonnet consists of a number of hose connections welded to a base plate. As the water falls below the inlet, when docking, the grating is removed and the bonnet secured in place, hoses being led from the hose connections to the shore hydrant. The bonnet is removed and the grating replaced when the vessel is being undocked. Pump suctions connected to a seacock used for flooding magazines or other danger spaces must be taken from the sea side of the master valve of the seacock as shown in the sketch. A sketch is also given of a seacock from which a pump suction and a lead for flooding or pumping compartments can be taken. Screw-down valve Screw-down valves fitted with soft face and renewable seats are fitted for isolation and control purposes, e.g. on branches from the salt and fresh water mains, and on filling pipes discharging into fresh water filling funnels. Alternatively diaphragm valves are used. Where it is desired to run pipes at right angles and space is limited, screw-down right-angle valves are fitted. Screw-down non-return valve Screw-down non-return valves fitted with soft face and renewable seats are fitted to all suction leads to ensure that the pumps are kept flooded. Their design is similar to the SDV except that the' bottle' has a longer neck with an expansion chamber on the valve. When the spindle is in the open position, the valve slides up the neck of the bottle when the pump is drawing, and falls back on the seating when suction is lost. Screw-down non-return and flood valve .Screw-down non-return flood valves fitted with soft face and renewable seats are fitted to all suction leads where it is required to flood the compartment via the suction pipe.

This valve is similar in action to SDNRV for pumping, but has a still longer neck to allow the valve to be lifted clear of the seating for flooding purposes. The inlet to the pump is inclined in order to facilitate the flow of water when pumping. Such valves are fitted at the feet of branches to bottom compartments. Screw-down diaphragm valve Screw-down diaphragm valves are fitted in main suction systems where a high vacuum is essential in preference to screw-down valves. In this type of valve a flexible diaphragm isolates the fluid controlled by the valve from the valve operating mechanism. Plug valve This is a form of shut-off valve, used where a full on or full off control is required, having a 'plug' which may be tapered, parallel or spherical in shape. It incorporates design features which reduce friction between the plug face and the body seat during operation and seals them against leakage. This type of valve has the advantage that it offers low resistance to flow. Butterfly valve The flow regulator in this type of valve is a metal disc rotating in axial trunnion bearings. The valve has a resilient lining in the body incorporating the seat and may be used to control the flow from full open to full off according to the service required. These valves are now fitted in preference to double faced sluice valves in fluid systems in sizes above 4-in nominal bore. For smaller sizes valves of the full bore plug type are preferable. Sluice valve Sluice valves are used for local connection between two or more compartments, e.g. one double bottom compartment draining into another. In shape they may be square or circular and consist of a casting with machined faces over which slides the valve casting operated by gearing.

Screw-down and non-return drain valve These are fitted in flats and auxiliary machinery spaces for draining into compartments below. The non-return is fitted in the pipe below the deck leading to the compartment below, and is necessary to prevent water entering the compartment above should the one below be flooded. Storm valve Storm valves are simple non-return valves and are fitted to all drain and soil pipes discharging overboard, to prevent flooding when the sea rises above the outlet. Positive closing type storm valves are fitted when required. All storm valves are faced with leather to minimize noise when the vessel is rolling. Non-return valve Non-return valves are fitted to prevent reversal in direction of flow, e.g. on the return piping in hot water circulating systems. They are also fitted on the discharge side of pumps to prevent back pressure. Reducing valve Reducing valves are fitted where a low pressure service is supplied from another of higher working pressure. They are provided with renewable seats and discs of erosion resistant material. Where suitable, pressure reduction is achieved by the comparatively simple process of fitting an orifice plate of nylon or aluminium bronze. A diagrammatic sketch is given to illustrate the action of a reducing valve. When no pressure is on the spring and the inlet is open to water pressure, the valve A and piston B are in equilibrium, so that no water passes through the valve. When pressure is put on the spring to the required indicator setting, the valve A opens to let water through, until the pressure above A just exceeds that to which the spring is set: the valve A then closes against the spring. This action is repeated as the water is used. Constaflo units The Constaflo is a device which will ensure an accurate constant flow irrespective of pressure fluctuation in the supply. This is effected by the flexure of a Neoprene diaphragm against a precision orifice. It is particularly

suited to installations where a specific delivery of fluid is required or when there is a need for water conservation. It is automatic and silent in operation. Generally speaking the body, bottle, bridge and cover of all valves are made of gunmetal; the valve, disc, spindle, thrust collar, studs and nuts are of aluminium bronze. Soft faces are made of vulcanized synthetic rubber, except in ball plug valves where they are of an approved low friction type material. Gearing The gearing rods for operating the various valves are made of steel tubing, usually1 ¼ in or 1 in external diameter. The leads of gearing must be arranged as short and direct as practicable to minimize the effort required for operation. Straight lengths of shafting are joined by a sleeve secured by two tapered pins at each end and at right angles to each other. Lengths of shafting inclined slightly to one another are joined by a universal joint of suitable size. For right angle or sharp bends mitre wheels are fitted and, where the extent of gearing to a valve warrants it, ball-bearing gearboxes are introduced to enable easier working. Each pair of mitre wheels or gearbox is supported by the same bracket from the bulkhead or deck as the case may be. Expansion couplings are introduced in long lengths of shafting between bulkheads to allow for small variations in length between the bulkheads due to heat or strain. For example, when a vessel is undocked the structure undergoes strain caused by the change in the distribution of supporting forces and this strain may be sufficient to cause hard working of the gearing. The same applies when the vessel undergoes longitudinal bending action in a seaway. Generally speaking all valves are worked by handwheels or levers but where space for these is not available, indicating deck plates worked by spanner are used. The handwheels are usually 8 in or 10 in diameter. The method of obtaining watertightness where shafts pass through watertight bulkheads is given in the chapter on watertight doors. As far as possible leads of gearing are not taken through magazines, shell rooms, oil tanks, and other such spaces. Diagrammatic sketches are given of the various valves incorporated in the general system and of fittings used in the gearing to valves. For the sake of clearness in the sketches of the general service arrangements which follow, it is desirable to adopt some scheme for indicating the various valves and fittings. The index given is self-

explanatory, but it should be noted that the method of indicating that a valve is of the screw-down type, thus 5, does not imply that every such valve is fitted with a handwheel for local operation; some are geared to more convenient positions but for the sake of clarity the gearing is not shown. Broadly speaking, however, it may be said that important valves controlling the general system, or an important part of the system, are operated from a deck above the waterline, e.g. seacocks, pump connections, and important suction valves. Special arrangements are made for the operation of valves controlling the flooding of magazines, shell rooms and other compartments containing explosives or inflammable material. Draining arrangements Provision is made in all ships for clearing loose water from weather decks and positions such as the tops of deck houses and bridges, by means of scuppers, and from compartments inboard in which loose water occurs, such as bathrooms, by means of drains. Drains from compartments above the waterline discharge overboard through the ship's side via storm valves, but the latter are not fitted to scuppers. Scuppers and drains should discharge not less than one foot above the deep waterline. Positive closing of storm valves is necessary, if, in the event of the compartments they serve being damaged, increased flooding of the ship from the sea could occur through the valve. Scupper pipes and internal drains are generally not inter-connected and neither are permitted to be joined to soil or urinals pipes. Care is observed in providing all scuppers, drains, soil and urinal pipes with adequate inclination; horizontal leads are avoided. The minimum slope for such pipes is 1 in in 4 ft in relation to the designed waterline All internal drains serving areas which are pressurized whilst closed down and discharging directly overboard, whether fitted with positively closed storm valves or not, are fitted with 6-in' U' water seals. Where internal drains interconnect the 6-in' U' water seal is sited on the common drain. Rubber lip pieces are fitted to the discharge ends of scupper and drain pipes and discharges are positioned clear of accommodation ladders. Where sharp bends and long almost horizontal leads occur in scupper pipes, portable covers or hose connections are fitted for clearing the scupper pipe in the event of chokage.

The drains to equipment or machinery sited in compartments below the water-line are led into tanks or sumps at convenient positions and fitted with suction pipes. Compartments below the waterline not provided with suctions are drained into others which are, by means of sluice or drain valves. These valves are fitted with strainers on the side from which water is drained and are usually geared to the deck over. It is important to prevent water from lodging at any point in the structure which would otherwise corrode and for this reason, where commensurate with strength considerations, holes are cut in non-watertight structure to form water courses for drainage to the lowest point of compartment. For the same reason it is important to position scuppers and sumps correctly. Pumping The arrangements for pumping out and flooding the compartments in a warship can be conveniently divided under duties or services, although they are only part of, and integrated into, the entire salt water system. The sketches given are purely diagrammatic and drawn for arrangements inside and outside machinery spaces for the sake of convenience. The main pumps supplying the system and their connections have not been shown as these are detailed in the sketch of the salt water service which is treated separately later. Routine suction duties Local fixed systems are provided for pumping out compartments in which water would otherwise collect in appreciable quantities in service, e.g. machinery space bilges, gland compartments, sonar compartments, bathroom and laundry drain tanks, stabilizer compartments. The system may incorporate small fixed pumps or eductors fed from the salt water main. These are fitted with fixed or portable suctions as required, with overboard discharges through SDNR valves, and are sited in or near the compartments concerned. For dealing with small quantities of loose water 35ton/h non-submersible portable electric salvage pumgswith a 10-ft length of 1 ½ -in suction hose are provided. An air driven portable pump is provided in those ships fitted with an LP air main, for general 'housemaid' duties and semi-rotary pumps are supplied for removing sullage from bilges.

Salvage duties Pumping out machinery compartments after damage is normally effected by water doctors fed from the SW main. A pumping capacity of 100-200 ton/h is provided in each machinery space. Outside machinery spaces the pumping out of compartments after damage is normally effected by portable electric pumps. Forty ton/h submersible and 35 ton/h non-submersible portable pumps are provided on the basis of one pump per main watertight sub-division of the ship in cruisers or larger ships, two pumps at each end of the ship in destroyers and frigates, and one at each end in smaller ships. These portable pumps are provided with permanent overboard discharges either via selected scupper pipes fitted with short branches and SDVs and hose connections, or by connections to the ship's side. Suction standpipes are only provided in compartments which have to be closed in action and into which therefore it is not practicable to introduce a suction hose or submersible pump, e.g. where entry is by WT door. The pumps are usually distributed throughout the ship on the lowest access deck. Diesel driven self-contained portable pumps fitted primarily for fire-fighting can also be used for salvage duties. Ballasting and de-ballasting In some ships selected furnace fuel oil tanks are fitted with ballast/de-ballast systems and residue stripping systems. These tanks are capable of being ballasted with sea water from the salt water system and de-ballasted directly overboard by means of water eductors powered by the salt water main. The arrangements are described in the chapter on oil fuel filling. The remaining fuel storage tanks are fitted with emergency ballasting arrangements for damage control purposes. In these tanks the ballast system may be combined with the fuel/de-fuel tail pipes via locked shut-off valves.

Flooding The arrangements for flooding and spraying compartments where the risk of fire or explosion is present are dealt with in the chapter on fire protection. Flood valves, seacocks and spray valves may be operated pneumatically or hydraulically but more usually by rod gearing. Where controls are grouped together, they are arranged in cabinets in positions selected to give

ease of access combined with as much protection as practicable. Where these cabinets are exposed, they are watertight. Where only one valve or seacock is concerned no cabinet is necessary and the control wheel is padlocked. All controls are clearly and permanently marked and directions for working them are placed close at hand. In large ships arrangements are made by which sea water may be admitted to all compartments between the inner and outer bottoms in the machinery spaces by means of hoses led from hose connections on sea inlets, or on fire and bilge pump deliveries to the hose connection on the oil residue suction standpipes, or through manholes. The wing oil fuel protection tanks are fitted with connections to enable them to be flooded direct from the sea and others can be flooded by hose, if the occasion requires it, from valves and hose connections on branches from the salt water system. In the event that seacocks have to be, or are more conveniently, sited in fuel oil tanks, they are enclosed in oil-tight compartments. Rapid flooding In aircraft carriers and other large ships rapid flooding arrangements are fitted for rapidly correcting excessive heel and trim. The watertight wing compartments adjacent to oil fuel tanks outside the protective bulkhead and the wing compartments within the citadel are arranged for rapid flooding. These compartments are flooded via a flooding main, port and starboard from seacocks of appropriate size according to the number and total capacity of the compartments. These seacocks are generally situated near the middle line. The number of seacocks is kept to a minimum consistent with the total capacity of the compartments served, and rapidity with which flooding can be attained. Long lengths of delivery piping are avoided and in some cases sluice valves are fitted in the bulkhead separating small compartments from larger compartments so that the former can be flooded direct from the latter. Isolating valves are fitted in flooding pipes which pass through longitudinal and main transverse bulkheads. The pumps or eductors provided for salvage or de-ballasting are used for pumping out these compartments.

Air escapes Automatic air escapes are fitted to all compartments fitted with flooding and/or spraying systems. They are designed to operate at a pressure below that to which the compartment is normally air tested. In compartments where vent plates are fitted the automatic air escape is made to operate below the pressure to which the vent plates are designed to blow off

Figure 38-1:Salt Water System

Figure 38-2:SeaCock

Figure 38-3

Figure 38-4:Ball Plug Valve

Figure 38-5

Figure 38-6:Gearing to Valves

Figure 38-7:Pumping & Flooding inside Machinery spaces(Air Craft Carrier)

Figure 38-8:Pumping & Flooding -Crusier

39 Salt water service
The salt water service comprises all services fed by branches from the salt water main such as domestic services, firefighting arrangments, pre-wetting against contamination by nuclear fall-out, ballasting of FFO tanks, deballasting, general drainage by water eductors and magazine spraying arrangements. The latter are described in detail in the chapter on fire protection. Separate systems are provided for hangar spraying in aircraft carriers, flight deck firefighting arrangements and cooling water for electrical and other equipments which have their own circulating pumps. The branches to these services are taken either from the top or from the side of the main in order to reduce to a minimum the entry of foreign matter into the branches from the main. When a side connection is taken, it is, wherever possible taken of at an angle slightly above the horizontal and from the upper part of the main. An isolating valve is fitted to the salt water main on each side of each junction with the main of the branches for magazine spraying. The total capacity of the pumps which supply the SW main is decided by the water requirements for de-ballasting, or pre-wetting, or firefighting, whichever is the greater, together with any essential services. An addition of about 20 per cent to the capacity thus obtained is made to allow for breakdown. At the rising main from each pump to the salt water main an isolating valve is fitted in the salt water main on either side of the junction. Where more than one salt water main is fitted cross connections are provided between them. Isolating valves are fitted on each side of each junction of the cross connection with the salt water main, where the cross connections pass through longitudinal WT bulkheads, and where the salt water main passes through a main transverse bulkhead. Provision is made for those salt water system pumps sited in the machinery spaces to take suction from the discharge side of the main condenser or drain cooler or similar discharge so that warm water can be delivered to the salt water systems if required. Supplies to non-essential services are grouped together so that they can be quickly shut off to ensure adequate pressure in the main in an emergency for essential services such as firefighting. For essential services which have

to be maintained during docking and refit periods, the salt water main and appropriate branches are supplied from shore mains. Generally speaking all valves in the system are of the full-bore plug type or screw-down soft faced type with renewable seats, the exception being hull valves such as seacocks. Pumps The pumps serving the salt water system are of the non-submersible type and sited below the waterline. They are of at least 100 ton/h capacity in large ships, and 75 or 100 ton/h in destroyers and frigates, designed to maintain a pressure of 100 lb/in2 and 75 lb/in2 respectively. A relief valve is fitted to each pump to ensure that the system pressure is not exceeded. The relief valve is fitted on a lead taken from the riser between the pump and nonreturn valve and discharges into the suction piping as remote from the pump as practicable. Separate pumps are providing in aircraft carriers for the flight deck firemain and for the hangar spraying system as described in the chapter on fire protection. Permanent leak-offs of approximately 5 gal/min are fitted in the rising main from each pump where it meets the salt water main and a non-return valve is fitted in the pump riser as near to the pump discharge as possible. The pipework of the system is of copper nickel alloy, jointed with flanges where the diameter is 2 in or more and with high duty compression or capillary fittings for the smaller diameters. All valves and fittings are of gunmetal. Sanitary arrangements Separate arrangements are provided for officers and crew but the principle of the system is the same. A branch, fitted with a full-bore plug valve for isolating purposes, is taken off the salt water main and led to the heads compartment. Individual leads are taken from this branch to each WC pan and fitted with a flush valve, control valve, and orifice plate. The purpose of the latter is to reduce the mains pressure to that suitable for flushing purposes.

A branch is also taken to the soil pipe and fitted with a full-bore plug valve for soil pipe flushing. Urinal flushing pipes are fitted with a diaphragm valve and orifice plate for continuous flushing purposes. Soil pipes are sloped down at not less than 1 in 48 and discharge overboard through a storm valve via a 6-in water seal trap as shown. WC pans are rubber mounted on the bulkhead for ease of cleaning and connected to the soil pipe by a rubber joint. This is to prevent damage to the pans by gunfire, underwater explosion or other cause. A detailed sketch is given of the arrangement for WCs and urinals. In all cases the principle of the ventilation system adopted is fan supply and fan exhaust and the exhaust outlets are sited in the open air well clear of any other inlets. The heads and urinals compartments are sited clear of but not remote from accommodation and as high as possible in the main structure of the ship. Sewage treatment plants whereby the effluent from the heads is treated before discharge overboard are being introduced in the latest designs. The principle of these plants is described later. Bathrooms Bathrooms are fitted out with showers and basins on an approved scale but the provision of baths is limited to one in the CO's bathroom and one in every officers' bathroom where space permits. The showers are fitted with combined H & CW stopcocks and economy type shower heads; the hot water supply to the showers is controlled at approximately 110°F by a thermostatic water mixing valve fitted in the HW supply pipe to groups of showers. The facilities at each washing position comprise a stainless steel washbasin with H & C non-concussive pushcocks, a stainless steel splash back and toilet tray, a mirror and a clean cloths rack. The deck is covered with white unglazed vitreous tiles which are laid on 3/8-in thick cork filled underlay, the tiles being floated on a layer of ordinary cement. Where the weight of tiles cannot be accepted neoprene terrazo deck covering is used. Shower gratings or tread-mats are provided where necessary. The drains from showers and washbasins are led to a common pipe fitted with a 6-in water seal trap discharging overboard through a storm valve. In bathrooms fitted near or below the waterline the drains are led into a drain tank below and fitted with an ejector or electric pump for discharge overboard. The ejectors are operated by water supplied from the salt water

system. For discharging waste water in dry dock pads are fitted in way of the storm valves to take dry dock connections. Pipes, ventilation trunks and electric cables are as far as practicable fitted behind plastic lining. All exposed fittings are secured by chromium plated brass fastenings. Sewage treatment plants Sewage pollution in ports, estuaries and coastal waters has become a matter of international concern both from hygienic and aesthetic considerations. Modern ships are consequently being installed with sewage treatment plants for the disposal of effluent from heads, urinals and galleys, and the drainage from bathrooms and laundries. The system consists of a tank into which raw sewage is discharged via a comminuter which reduces the solid matter in the sewage to small particles thus facilitating their breakdown by aerobic bacteria and other microorganisms. The tank has three compartments formed by weirs over which the liquid flows. The first is an aeration compartment fitted with air diffusers at the bottom supplied by an air compressor fitted on the top of the tank. The second is a settlement hopper whence the activated sludge which passes over the first weir settles at the bottom and is returned to the aeration chamber for further treatment leaving the clear innocuous effluent to flow to the final collecting chamber from which it is pumped overboard below the waterline. By confining the use of the units to heads, urinals and galleys only, the size of the tank is considerably reduced. The water from bathrooms and laundries can be drained into the final collecting chamber and thence discharged overboard. The continuous flushing of urinals adopted in gravity systems would involve the discharge of too much water into the sewage plant. This can be overcome by providing automatic flushing tanks for groups of urinals. The arrangements are such that raw sewage can be automatically pumped or ejected overboard should the system become choked or otherwise inoperative. Several advantages accrue from the use of these plants apart from the fact that the ship can operate in any area subjected to pollution restrictions. The heads can be used in dry dock, the number of openings in the hull is considerably reduced and in particular there are fewer openings above the waterline. Bathrooms and heads can be sited lower in the ship than in the

gravity system thus making available valuable space high in the ship, and lastly the run of pipe systems can be simplified.

Figure 39-1:Sanitary Arrangements

Figure 39-2:Plan of typical Bathroom

40 Fresh water system
Two systems are in general use, differing only in the manner in which the supply from the pumps to the fresh water main is controlled. Either system comprises two storage tanks or groups of tanks located forward and aft with associated pumps, suction, discharge, filling and transfer arrangements. The pumps discharge to the fresh water main and are automatically controlled by switches fitted to the pressure tanks in one system or are of the continuous running type in the other system. The interior of the storage tanks is coated with an approved type of bituminous composition. The tanks, which form part of the ship's structure, are strongly constructed, being well stiffened and sometimes fitted with divisional plates to prevent the water surging and thumping when the ship rolls heavily. Each tank has an air escape pipe led well clear of air escapes from oil fuel tanks and other possible sources of contamination and terminating in a gooseneck within the gas citadel. Access to the tanks is by watertight manholes with raised coamings and covers. No non-ferrous fittings are allowed in the tanks, and only that piping and gearing required for the operation of the fresh water system is allowed to pass through them. Access ladders, sounding tubes, air escapes, and portions of suction pipes within the tanks are of steel galvanized internally and externally. The sounding tubes extend normally to within 4 in of the bottom of the tank and are sealed at the lower end. Locked watertight screwed caps are fitted at their upper ends. The system is best described by following through the various working operations, referring to the diagrammatic sketch. When taking fresh water from a water boat or shore connection the storage tanks are filled direct from the forward or after water boat connection, through a filling funnel and aerator as shown. The filling funnel is necessary to ensure that no undue pressure is exerted on the tanks. The total capacity of all the storage tanks is insufficient for more than a few days and they must be replenished from the distiller pumps in the engine room. The distiller pump fills the tanks through the distiller main, filling funnel and aerator as before. The distiller main can also be used for the transfer of fresh water to another ship. The supply of fresh water to the various services is maintained by the fresh water pumps which suck water from the storage tanks and deliver it to the fresh water main from which branches are taken to supply the bathrooms, pantries, galleys and other services.

In large ships two pumps are normally provided for each group of storage tanks, and in smaller ships one pump is usually sufficient at each end. The pump suctions are so arranged that either pump associated with a group of tanks can draw from any tank in that group. A filter with hinged top secured by butterfly nuts is fitted in the suction lead. A SDNR valve is fitted in the suction and a nonreturn valve in the delivery pipe as close to the pump as possible. A self-cleaning type filter is also fitted in the delivery pipe. Isolating valves are fitted in approved positions in the fresh water main so that supplies can be maintained if sections of the main are damaged. At places in the cold water lines where water is liable to collect frost plugs are fitted. All hot and cold water pipes and associated fittings are suitably insulated. Self-contained drinking water coolers are provided on a scale of one gallon of cooled water per man of complement. The piping of the cold and hot fresh water systems is of light gauge copper jointed with flanges for pipes of 2-in bore or larger and by capillary and compression fittings of the non-manipulative type for smaller diameters. Continuous running pump system In this system, no pressure or gravity tanks are necessary. The pumps are capable of supplying the services under all conditions with little pressure variation over the delivery range. Adequate relief arrangements are fitted to provide against the pumps overheating when not discharging. The relief valve is set at 10 lb/in2 above the system working pressure which should provide at least 5 lb/in2 at the highest draw off point. Pressure tank system In this system a pressure tank is incorporated in association with the storage tanks and pump forward and aft. Change over switches are provided so that either pump can be controlled by the switch gear of either of the pressure tanks. A reducing valve is generally fitted on the service side of the system in order to maintain a constant pressure. Air is kept under pressure in the pressure tank. As water is drawn from the system the air expands until the pressure has fallen to a given level at which point an automatic pressure switch starts the pump. When the level in the pressure tanks reaches the upper limit the pressure switch stops the pump, and so on.

Hot water service Hot water is supplied to galleys, bakery, sculleries, serveries, pantries, bathrooms, cabins fitted with washbasins, sick bay and associated spaces, dental surgery, and barber's shop. The system is designed to provide a minimum of 3 gallons of hot fresh water per hour per man in large ships and 2 gallons per man per hour in small ships. The hot water is supplied from hot water storage tanks, the minimum capacity of each of which is 25 gallons for small bathrooms or groups of fittings, and the maximum capacity 100 gallons for large bathrooms. Isolated positions which cannot conveniently be served by the hot water storage tanks are supplied by individual electric water heaters. A hot water tank is provided for each localized group of bathrooms and other services within a main transverse sub-division. Where, however, bathrooms are adjacent but in separate main sub-divisions or on different decks a single tank is used. Generally the heating coils of the hot water tanks are fed by steam, but in some cases and where convenient the waste heat from diesel engine exhausts is utilized, or electric immersion heaters are used. The hot water tanks are supplied by a branch from the cold fresh water main, led to the bottom of the tank and fitted with a SDNRV. The flow pipe is taken from the crown of the tank. Circulating systems are fitted where the compartments to be served are well separated, and circulating pumps provided as necessary on the return piping which is led to the bottom of the tank and fitted with a sensitive type NRV. De-aerators are fitted at the highest points of the main piping systems. The hot water tanks are provided with a lockable relief valve set to lift at 10 lb/in2 above the normal working pressure with a pipe led to a convenient drain. The heaters are thermostatically controlled so that the temperature of the water does not exceed 160°F.

Figure 40-1:fresh Water Service

41 Fuel oil filling arrangements
Fuel oil is carried in double-bottom and other tanks in way of the machinery spaces. In destroyers, frigates and other small ships not fitted with an inner bottom, the fuel oil tanks are situated immediately before and abaft machinery spaces. To prevent the formation of air pockets when filling the tanks, escape holes are drilled in the beams, frames and non-watertight longitudinals within the compartment to allow the fuel to level itself. In large compartments non-watertight divisional bulkheads, suitably lightened, are fitted to prevent excessive surging and 'thumping' of the oil against the sides and crown. Non-compensated furnace fuel oil system The diagrammatic arrangement illustrates the principle of the furnace fuel oil filling system in a frigate. Three filling points are provided, one forward abaft the capstan, one forward in the vicinity of the replenishment-at-sea position and one on the port side amidships. Each is fitted with hose connections to which the hoses from the oil or shore main can be connected. The filling pipes are connected to a filling trunk of much larger section than the former to ensure that no excess pressure can be exerted on the fuel tanks during the replenishment operation. In frigates this filling trunk extends from No. 3 deck to about 2 ft above No. 1 deck where it is fitted with a flap valve and overflow pipe led to the service tank. Thus, if the trunk becomes completely filled during replenishment, the flap valve lifts and the pressure cannot exceed that equivalent to the height of the trunk above the tank. The bottom of the filling trunk is made in the form of a filling manifold, with three-way plug valves permitting control of the fuel to the branch filling lines of the various tanks. The filling branches from the manifold are also used as fuel suction lines, being diverted into a suction manifold through the three-way plug valves. Fuel tanks are normally filled to 95 per cent capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the oil. Distribution of the fuel to the tanks is controlled at the fuel working position, i.e. fuel manifold, where content gauges are fitted to indicate the contents of the individual tanks when 5 per cent, 50 per cent, 90 per cent and 95 per cent full. Control of the replenishment procedure is

further facilitated by telephonic communication between the working position and the deck filling connections. Two 1 ½-in air escape pipes are fitted at the highest positions in each oil fuel compartment. The air escapes to several tanks are grouped into single larger pipes which are led to a sheltered position on the weather deck. Pipes from the same tank are not grouped to the same combined pipe. The outlet ends of the combined air escapes are fitted with flashtight tops comprising a wire gauze funnel and perforated cover as shown in the sketch. The air escape pipes are arranged not to pierce the main transverse bulkheads and their outlets are kept clear of other ventilation inlets or outlets. Vertical standpipes are fitted to each tank for sounding, testing for water and taking temperatures. A screwed cap is fitted on the upper end, and a plug valve at the tank top. In cases where the shape of the tank necessitates a bent pipe being fitted for testing for water or taking temperature, a second vertical pipe is provided for sounding and led as far down into the tank as possible. The sounding tube terminates as near as possible to the fuel oil suction pipe and below it, so that the presence of water can be detected before it can be drawn into the suction. The tanks are sounded by means of a steel tape graduated in feet and inches. Index calibration plates are fitted near each sounding position, giving the capacity of the tank in gallons at various levels. The capacities of the tanks are found when the ship is being built either by calculation or by measuring known quantities of water into them. The valves and filters are made of gunmetal except where exposed to the action of bilge water, in which case they are of steel. All piping is of seamless steel and expansion bends are arranged in the filling main between bulkheads as necessary. Liquored leather or dexine is used to obtain oil tightness of joints. Rubber must not be used as it deteriorates under the action of fuel oil. Steam-heating coils are fitted in all tanks for the purpose of reducing the viscosity of the oil in cold weather. A sketch illustrating the filling system in a frigate is given, the same method of indicating the valves being used as in pumping and flooding arrangements. A separate system, on similar principles, is provided for filling the diesel oil tanks.

Water compensated diesel oil filling system

Oil is always carried in the lower part of the ship, and with the system described above, the stability of the vessel is reduced for two reasons when oil is consumed. Firstly because weight is removed below the centre of gravity of the ship and secondly because of the effect of the free surface of the oil in partly empty tanks. This may be a serious matter in ships which carry a large amount of fuel but the difficulty can be overcome by allowing water to displace the fuel as used. A system of this kind is particularly suitable where the fuel is diesel oil, because this grade of oil separates readily from sea water. In a water compensated system the filling main has deck connections similar to those described above, except that they are led to a common filling tank below the forecastle from which leads are taken to the diesel fuel valve chests. The object of the filling tank is to prevent a pressure greater than that due to its height above the tanks from being exerted on the latter. As a further precaution, a relief valve set to 7 ½ lb/in2 is fitted in the system. As the oil is used it is displaced by sea water which is pumped to the various tanks through a compensating water valve chest as shown in the diagrammatic sketch. When refuelling, the pressure of the incoming oil forces the water out of I the tanks and overboard via syphon pipes between the individual tanks of a group, the water chest and SDNRVs fitted just above the deep waterline. In addition to the usual sounding tubes and air-escape pipes, test cocks are fitted at the top of the tanks and others, with a test tube 'extending to half the depth of the tank, to check whether the tank is half or completely full of water or oil. Pressure gauges are fitted near the diesel oil valve chests to indicate the pressure at the tank top. To empty completely the tanks of water and oil for inspection or repairs, air pressure is used to blow out the fluid via the water valve chest, a connection to take an air hose being fitted to each tank. A water compensated system on this principle is in use in some modern frigates and surveying ships fitted with diesel machinery. With the advent of gas turbine propulsion of ships and the use of diesel oil-fired boilers in steam driven ships it can be expected that this system will be adopted more generally.

Ballasting/deballasting FFO system In steam driven ships using furnace fuel oil it is sometimes desirable to arrange for the fuel tanks to be 'ballasted', i.e. filled with sea water, when the oil in them has been used up, in order to conserve stability. The necessity for such an arrangement may arise in older ships which have been modernized and thereby suffered a reduction in their margin of stability. The system enables the FFO in any tank to be used to within about 2 per cent of its full capacity. The principles of the system are indicated in the sketch and the procedure is briefly as follows. When most of the oil in a tank has been used up the residue of about 2 per cent contains a considerable proportion of sea water which must be separated from the oil for two reasons. First to ensure that fuel containing sea water is not supplied to the boilers, and secondly to retain as much of the full capacity of the tank as possible. The residue is therefore pumped out by a 'stripping' pump to a 'renovating' tank where it is passed through a separator to separate the oil from the sea water. The separated oil is passed to the service tank feeding the boilers and the sea water discharged overboard. The tank is then ready either to be replenished with oil as described previously or ballasted i.e. filled with sea water to retain stability. Ballasting is done from the firemain via a filling funnel to prevent excess pressure being exerted on the tank. Deballasting, i.e. removal of the full capacity of sea water, is carried out by means of a water eductor through an overboard discharge pipe and valve. Ballasting and deballasting are effected through the same pipe as shown. To reduce to the maximum possible extent the mixing of a water ballast with the residue of the oil fuel when deballasting, a continuous mild steel duct of approximately one square foot cross sectional area is fitted between the frames at the lowest point of the tank with a single suction pipe terminating within the duct. Low level water inlets and outlets are fitted in one side of the duct formed by synthetic rubber flexible curtains. This arrangement permits much faster rates of deballasting than would be possible using one, or even two, suction entries in each frame space and at the same time reduces surface disturbance of the oil and water. As it is prohibited to discharge oily water within a specified distance of the land, arrangements are made for a length of transparent piping to be fitted in the discharge system and immediately any trace of oil is detected in the water, de-ballasting is stopped. The remaining contaminated oil/water which could be of the order of 2 per cent of the tank capacity is then

removed by the stripping pump and discharged into the renovating tank. The majority of the water contained in this contaminated oil can be pumped overboard after gravity separation but the remainder will require chemical treatment to separate out the remaining oil.

Figure 41-1:fuel Oil Filling Arrangements

Figure 41-2:Water Compensated Fuel Oil Filling System

42 Air conditioning and ventilation

General considerations There are many aspects of the problem of air conditioning and ventilation of ships which, when compared with arrangements in a building ashore, greatly complicate the problem of keeping the air fresh and at the desired temperature and relative humidity in the numerous compartments of a vessel. The most important of these are the very limited space available for the necessary fans, air cooling equipment, trunking and associated fittings, and the necessity for maintaining the highest standard of watertight subdivision. In a warship the problem is more intricate than in merchant ships. Only where absolutely essential can the integrity of the watertight subdivision be jeopardized by the passage of trunking through main bulkheads or decks, and in every case, means must be provided for isolating flooding due to damage by the provision of suitable valves. Limiting the size of fan supply and exhaust systems to areas between main bulkheads is distinctly advantageous in this respect. There is more variety in the nature of the compartments to be air conditioned or ventilated. These not only include accommodation spaces, offices, workshops, machinery spaces and storerooms, but also compartments connected with the offensive operations of the ship in which men may be confined for many hours under action conditions. These factors have three main effects on the design of warship air conditioning and ventilation systems. First, the adoption of several independent systems, with consequently more trunking, fans and incidental fittings. Secondly, the adoption of small size trunking with correspondingly high velocity of flow of air to obtain a suitable input or output. In cargo vessels and liners, comparatively larger size trunking may be used on account of the availability of space which in warships is devoted to other purposes. Thirdly, the acceptance of less direct leads of trunking than would otherwise be possible, an effect which is aggravated by the multiple leads of trunking, piping, gearing, etc. for other services, and many other obstructions. Air conditioning in its wider sense covers the complete process of keeping the physical and chemical properties of an enclosed atmosphere

within the limits required for human comfort and the efficiency and performance of equipment. This involves maintaining close control of the temperature; moisture content; air movement; chemical purity in terms of oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide content; and physical impurities such as dust, grease and smoke. Space and weight considerations in modern warships do not permit the provision of equipment to control all the above factors to the standards achieved in buildings ashore. All operational and accommodation spaces are air conditioned which includes the control of temperature, humidity and air movement by controlled heating, cooling and distribution. In addition air filtration is provided to control the level of dust and similar contaminants in the ship's atmosphere. The control of gaseous impurities and the level of oxygen content is not in general found necessary in surface ships but is essential in submarines. The essential components of an air conditioning system are shown in the diagrammatic sketch and indicate the way in which heat in a compartment is effectively discharged overboard. Design conditions HM ships are required to be habitable in tropical, extreme tropical or subarctic climates under 'closed down' conditions and must be able to proceed from one extreme to the other without having to undergo modifications to structure or fittings. In sub-arctic waters they need steam or electric heating, whichever is more readily and economically available, and in the tropics they need cooling arrangements. Both these requirements necessitate the insulation of exposed surfaces, in the one case to keep the heat inside and in the other to keep the heat outside the ship. If a deck is laid with wood planking, this is sufficient insulation against heat or cold. If not the underside of the deck is covered with a layer of insulating material. The exposed sides of the ship are similarly internally covered with insulating material. Heating of the air in sub-arctic conditions is usually effected primarily by means of steam or hot water coils in the fan supply trunks, the balance of heat to maintain the required compartment temperature being by steam or electric radiators. In diesel driven ships the same method applies but is generally more economical to use electric heaters in the supply trunks. In the tropics it is essential to 'condition' the air in all operational spaces, accommodation and recreational spaces, i.e. to reduce the moisture content

and lower the temperature to obtain a state of bodily comfort which will enable the occupants to perform their duties efficiently. It is equally important in hot climates to impart good movement to the air, whereas in very cold conditions a slow movement only is necessary. Various kinds of supply terminals or louvres, which can be quickly and easily adjusted either to discharge air in a high speed stream, or to diffuse it at slow speed, are available and one type is illustrated in the sketch. Slotted trunks are especially suitable for delivering large quantities of air; they have the advantage of cheapness and simplicity, do not reduce deck height unduly, and can be constructed to give either the jet or diffuser effect. Bellmouths may be used in very hot compartments such as main and auxiliary machinery spaces for supplying large quantities of fresh air for local cooling of personnel. Under wartime conditions it may be necessary to close all inlets from and outlets to the atmosphere for short periods to prevent the ingress of poisonous or other dangerous gases. At the same time the general work of the ship must be interrupted as little as possible. It is convenient to group as many compartments practicable, for ventilation and inter-communication purposes, into a 'citadel' which embraces all living spaces and all spaces continually occupied by men in action with the exception of main machinery spaces. The systems in this gas citadel are fitted with gas-tight flaps by means of which their supplies and exhausts can either be stopped or switched from atmosphere to the interior of the citadel. In the latter case only those fans required to recirculate the air inside the citadel are left running, apart from a few which are used to supply filtered fresh air, through special filtration units, in sufficient quantity, about 1 ft3/man/min, to maintain a positive pressure in the citadel and keep the oxygen and carbon dioxide contents at the levels necessary for mental and physical alertness. In the normal state of full air conditioning the average intake of fresh air is about ten times this quantity. Contamination of important spaces outside the citadel which play no part in the operation of the ship in the action state can be avoided merely by closing down the ventilation systems to them. If these general rules and broad principles are applied, the ideal system would take the form shown diagrammatically in the sketch. The practical considerations enumerated later, however, may limit the extent to which the ideal can be approached and inevitably the result is a compromise between the ventilation requirements and other equally important operation requirements.

Assessment of requirements for air. Conditioned spaces The basis of design of the normal air conditioning system for any compartment or group of compartments, is the removal of sufficient heat and moisture to maintain a reasonable standard of bodily comfort for the personnel to carry out their duties. The heat generated or 'heat load' as it is called, arises from four sources: a. The men in the compartment. b. Machinery, electrical apparatus, lighting, etc. in the compartment. c. Conduction through the boundaries of the compartments from adjacent compartments, from the sun and from the sea. d. Fresh air which has to be cooled from outside air temperature to the compartment temperature. The outside air temperature is assumed to be 31°C DB/27°C WB for tropical conditions and 34°C DB/30°C WB for extreme tropical. The maximum acceptable temperature within the compartment is taken as 30°C DB/22°C WB unless otherwise stated in the design requirements. The total heat load is calculated using standard formulae to obtain the quantity of air required. The capacity of the plant is then chosen to suit this heat load and after grouping of compartments the task of deciding the sizes of fans, coolers and layout of trunking can proceed. Assessment of requirements for non-air conditioned spaces For some compartments air conditioning is not practicable or desirable. These include compartments from which large quantities of wild heat and/or moisture must be removed; compartments in which unpleasant, toxic or explosive gases are liable to collect; and compartments like storerooms the contents of which are not sensitive to temperature or humidity. Such compartments must be supplied with sufficient air to maintain habitable conditions and for each type of compartment a maximum acceptable operating temperature is stated in °C or °F above the entering air dry bulb temperature. Ventilation is effected by artificial means in one of three ways: Fan supply and natural exhaust This system in which air is supplied to the compartment by means of a fan drawing fresh air from the open, and exhausted naturally, is adopted in cases

where the supply of fresh air, and not the removal of foul air, is the primary object, e.g. navalstores and working spaces and generally where large numbers of personnel are liable to be stationed for long periods. With fan supply, good control can be exercised over the delivery of fresh air to suit requirements of the occupants and the compartment conditions. Fan exhaust and natural supply This method is used where the removal of heated air, noxious gases or inflammable vapour is the primary object, e.g. in auxiliary machinery rooms, spirit room, petrol compartments, paint store, aircraft hangar, etc. Fan supply and fan exhaust Compartments in which the prevailing temperatures are high owing to the amount of heat-producing equipment in them, and in which personnel are stationed for any appreciable time must be ventilated by this system, e.g. main engine rooms, galleys, laundries. The exhaust ventilation arrangements are designed to be capable of removing 20 per cent more air per minute than the supply arrangement to ensure that a pressure is not built up which would tend to move the heated air into adjoining compartments. The heat load is calculated in a similar manner to that described for air conditioned compartments except that heat gain from the men and fresh air load are not included. Certain compartments such as bathrooms, WCs, battery rooms have other over-riding requirements but all compartments are subject to a minimum air flow of 30 ft3/man/min. Types of air conditioning plant Two types of plant are used in HM ships: a. The vapour compression type consists essentially of a compressor, a condenser, a regulating or expansion valve and an evaporator. In the diagrammatic circuit illustrated, the evaporator is of the shell and tube type comprising a nest of coils inside a case through which the liquid (normally water) being cooled is passed.Referring to the sketch the refrigerant evaporates inside the coils of the evaporator to produce the cooling effect and the vapour is drawn off by the compressor which compresses it and in so doing raises its temperature. The refrigerant is

then delivered to the condenser at a pressure sufficient to cause it to liquefy when cooled in the condenser. The condenser in the sketch is also of the shell and tube type with sea water as the coolant.From the condenser the liquid refrigerant passes to the expansion valve which can be regulated to feed the evaporator at a rate equivalent to that at which the vapour is being produced, i.e. in proportion to the heat being absorbed. The refrigerants used in HM ships are Rll, R12 or R22 from the halogenated hydrocarbon range. b. The steam jet vacuum system comprises, essentially, a steam jet ejecting into the throat of a venturi tube (or thermo-compressor), a condenser, a flash chamber, an evaporator and a cooler, together with circulating pumps a indicated. The principle of the system shown diagrammatically in the sketch is as follows. The high velocity steam jet (in the region of 4000 ft/sec) induces a high partial vacuum in the flash chamber. The lowering of the pressure here causes some of the water in the chamber to evaporate and cool the remainder. The water which evaporates is entrained with the steam or 'flashed off' and liquefied in the sea water-cooled condenser which is also kept under a partial vacuum by means of a second steam ejector or 'thermo compressor'. The condensed vapour is passed to a feed tank or other tank by a pump and a second pump circulates the chilled water to the cooler and back. The particular advantage of the vapour compression type of plant is that, being electrically driven, it can be run in harbour when steam is not available. This is very important for modern warships which carry electrical equipment which must be kept cool at all times. Types of fans Two types of fan are in general use in HM ships, centrifugal fans and axial flow fans. Centrifugal fans consist essentially of a 'wheel' or 'runner' made up of radial blades rotating in a casing of the scroll form illustrated in the sketch. The wheel is rotated at high speed by an electric motor on the same shaft.' Air is drawn in at the 'eye' of the fan, i.e. into the centre of the wheel and thence between the blades which give it rotation. The centrifugal force due to its rotation expels the air outwards towards the circumference and into the delivery trunk. A fan is said to be 'right handed' or 'left handed'

according to whether the rotation is clockwise or anti-clockwise when viewed from the motor to the wheel. Axial flow fans work on the same principle as the propellers of aircraft. They consist primarily of an impeller (or propeller) with blades mounted on a 'nacelle' enclosing an electric motor inside a circular trunk having a small clearance from the blades. Provided a straight length of trunk can be arranged at the inlet and outlet ends they can be designed to be as efficient as the centrifugal type For a given volume output and pressure, and can be used to distinct advantage where economy of space is important. The modern practice is to use this type for 1 group systems and machinery spaces. Fans are not placed in bathrooms, wash places, drying rooms or other compartments containing humid air, nor in compartments where sparking could cause an explosion. They are usually suspended from the deck head or seated on the deck in a position affording an efficient arrangement of trunking. Non-air conditioned spaces of ships serving in tropical climates are fitted with fans of the open propeller type to provide additional means of rapidly circulating the air. Three types of open propeller fan are used. Slow-running overhead fans with wooden blades about 3 ft 6 in diameter are fitted in wardrooms, officers' messes, dining halls, recreation and similar spaces. Small table fans with rubber blades 10 in diameter are fitted in cabins and with rubber or steel blades 12 in diameter in offices and mess spaces. Larger 16-in diameter fans with aluminium alloy blades (Hurricane type) are fitted in dining halls and large mess spaces. The approximate outputs and speeds of fans driven by a.c. motors, used in HM ships are given in the following tables.

Trunking We have seen how the method of ventilation and output are decided, but to decide the size of fan to handle the total amount of air required it is necessary to investigate by calculation the resistance which will have to be overcome by the air in passing through the trunks and out through the louvres or terminals. Considering any one system, losses of head occur through friction of the air passing through the trunk, changes of section, bends in trunking, fittings such as coolers, heaters, valves, gas flaps, and discharges. Each of these losses is proportional to the square of the velocity of flow. The loss of head due to friction in straight trunking is proportional to the length of trunking and inversely proportional to the linear dimension of the trunk section.

Apart from the obvious desirability of minimizing the length of all trunks, the principal points requiring consideration from the practical point of view are as follows: Adoption of efficient shape of section The rate of air supply to, or exhaust from, a compartment having been decided from consideration of its nature and size, comfort of the personnel there, or technical reasons, the sectional area of trunking will depend on the available fan pressure after deduction of 'fixed' resistance items such as coolers, heaters, etc. To simplify calculations the 'Equal Friction per Foot' method is used, the basis of which is to convert all bends and changes of section to an equivalent length of straight trunking to which is added the actual straight length of trunking in feet to give the total equivalent length of straight trunking. Knowing the total equivalent length of straight trunking, the volume of air passing through the trunking and the pressure available, the diameter of circular trunking for each section of the system can be obtained from standard trunk friction charts. Having determined the diameter of circular trunking it remains to decide the best practicable shape of section. Circular trunking is more efficient than rectangular but saving in time, space and cost of manufacture results in the adoption of the latter in the general case. Small trunks are more easily constructed circular. A rectangular trunk can be made in a variety of ratios of sides for the same equivalent diameter of section. Undue 'flattening' of the section for such reasons as increased head room or clearance of unimportant obstructions must be avoided. In warships the ratio of the sides of any trunk must not exceed 4 to 1. Minimization of the number of bends and changes of section Complete avoidance of change of direction is impossible, but by adopting easy bends with large radius, a material improvement is effected. Sudden changes of section must be avoided and in cases where a local enlargement is necessary, the change in sectional area must be carried out gradually to minimize loss of head. In cases where these preventive measures cannot be taken a splitter must be fitted inside bends or changes of section to reduce the resistance as much as possible by preventing the formation of eddies.

Layout of trunking The trunking must be led in such direction and be of such length as to ensure a good distribution of air within the compartment. The layout should be such that the air leaving supply louvers does not pass directly to the exhaust trunk or other opening acting as exhaust in the compartment ('short circuiting'). Similarly in compartments exhausted by fan, the exhaust inlet in the compartment must be situated remote from doorways or hatches so that the fresh air travels some distance before being drawn into the exhaust inlet. The vertical position of the exhaust inlet will depend upon the nature of the noxious gases in the compartment. If these are lighter than cold air, the inlet is placed near the crown of the compartment, and if heavier than cold air, near the bottom. Inlets and outlets to fans The positions where supply inlets and exhaust outlets terminate in the open air need careful selection. Wide separation of supply inlets and exhaust outlets to avoid' short circuiting', i.e. foul air from an exhaust outlet being drawn into a supply inlet, is essential. It is usual to place the outlets well above inlets, exhaust air being warmer and therefore lighter than cooler air. Groups of ventilator tops are usually found around the superstructure sides clear of the inlets to main machinery spaces. Complete shelter from seas, spray or rain can be obtained, in a few cases, by placing the inlet or outlet inside the superstructure. A sketch is given of a gas-tight 'Mushroom' top, which can be kept open in all conditions of weather. This form of ventilator top is used generally for ship ventilation purposes in HM ships. The wire mesh grating over the opening offers little resistance to the flow of air but very considerable resistance to the entry of water. In the time taken for a sea or heavy spray to sweep past the top, the amount of water which enters is insufficient to reach the level of the opening in the back of the trunk and it drains away through the front opening, the bottom of the head being sloped to facilitate this drainage. The intakes to boiler-room supply fans are usually fitted with metal roller shutters which can be closed to exclude heavy spray or driving rain should this be necessary. The inlets and outlets to engine room ventilation trunks are covered with wire mesh and moisture eliminators in the form of grills or specially shaped vanes can be fitted to exclude spray or rain.

Outlets and inlets in trunking within the compartment Outlets from air trunks supplying air to a compartment are termed louvres and in warships directional louvres are used in all compartments ventilated by fan supply except the main machinery and some auxiliary machinery spaces. A sketch illustrating the principle of one type, which can be adjusted to direct the air in any desired direction or to diffuse it at low velocity, is’ given. If the trunking is properly arranged and the louvres correctly positioned, each louvre will supply the bulk of its output to a particular area of the compartment and the personnel in this area can adjust the supply to their liking. Outlets from natural trunks take the form of a ' bellmouth', i.e. a truncated cone or pyramid by which the air is 'spread' as it passes into the compartment Bellmouths with rat-proof wire mesh are also fitted at the inlet ends of exhaust trunks. The dimensions of these bellmouths are indicated in the sketch. To maintain the watertight sub-division of the ship, openings cut in watertight bulkheads and decks for ventilation trunks are fitted with double faced slid valves, which can be closed should the necessity arise. They are operated by hand wheel, through gearing if necessary, and are constructed as shown in the sketch in the section. Arrangements in typical compartments Living spaces are air conditioned. The diagrammatic sketch of a group system includes some open and enclosed mess spaces. Generally speaking, the supply to any one compartment is provided by a single trunk led from the main trunk or a branch of the latter, the number and size of louvres being decided by the quantity of air to be delivered. The same applies to the number of inlets to the recirculation system. A steam or hot water heater is incorporated in the main trunk near the weather deck inlet and others are provided for individual compartments as requisite. Additional heating is provided by steam or electric radiators. The arrangements in dining halls and recreation spaces are similar. In cabins recirculation is natural through a jalousie in the door or through a wire mesh opening in the bulkhead. Each cabin has an electric radiator. Small offices can be air conditioned in the same way but large offices occupied by numerous personnel may require recirculation trunking within the office.

Bathrooms and WCs are provided with separate ventilation systems and to keep surrounding compartments free from steam or odours the exhaust fan capacity is made twice that of the supply. Supply is by directional louvres so positioned that air can be directed on to the drying and/or seating positions. Storerooms, if occupied by personnel, have fan supply with one punkah louvre per occupant, e.g. central store, clothing and issue room, etc. These compartments are usually situated two or three decks below the upper deck and are therefore fitted with a natural exhaust trunk terminating at the crown of the compartment and led up to a convenient lobby which is already artificially exhausted. Such compartments as paint store, spirit room, canteen store, etc. which contain vitiated or inflammable gases are exhausted by fan, supply being natural from open air. Other storerooms requiring to be ventilated at infrequent intervals, e.g. canvas room, gunner's store, etc. are ventilated by hose rigged to a fan, exhaust being natural through the door or hatch. The method of storing aviation spirits such as avgas and avcat is described in the chapter on aircraft carriers. The sketch at the end of that chapter also indicates the principles of the ventilation arrangements to the working or pump spaces associated with the storage tanks. These spaces are provided with a fan exhaust to remove petrol vapour which might otherwise be the cause of an explosion. As petrol vapour is heavier than air, the exhaust trunk terminates near the bottom of the compartment and the natural supply trunk at the crown. The ventilation systems to petrol compartments are quite separate from other systems. The inlet and outlet tops are fitted with flame proof gauges. To guard against explosion caused by sparking of the fan motor, the latter must be situated outside the compartment. Compartments such as galleys, bakeries and laundries contain equipment which emits steam as well as heat and it is essential to fit canopies over the equipment to collect and guide the hot gases to the exhaust trunks. An ideal canopy arrangement is illustrated in the sketch. The average velocity of air flow into the canopy should not be less than 100 ft/min based on the area of the perimeter of canopy multiplied by height D (in sketch) and the velocity in the trunking should not exceed 2300 ft/min. Fan supply is required for working positions but the total air quantity must be between 50 per cent to 80 per cent of the exhaust. With regard to main machinery spaces, in modern ships sufficient air for the combustion of the fuel in the furnaces is supplied direct to the boilers by

separate blowers and trunking. Thus ventilation of the compartment is not affected by combustion air requirements and the ventilation problems in boiler rooms and engine rooms are similar. Supply air for compartment ventilation is arranged in sufficient quantity to limit the temperature rise of 16i°C to 22°C (30°F to 40°F) between supply and exhaust. Fan exhaust is arranged to extract 15 per cent more air volume than is supplied, to cover normal air leakage from boiler casings and expansion of the air due to heat and water vapour gain. Supply quantities are distributed by trunking to various control or watchkeeping positions and a minimum of 2000 ft3/min is normally provided to important spots. Exhaust air is drawn direct from the crown of the compartments and only in special cases is trunking required to eliminate local concentrations of hot air. If the access to the machinery space is sited in air conditioned spaces, air locks, fitted with self closing doors, are provided. The sketch illustrates the general principles of the system adopted in most ships. Auxiliary machinery compartments, such as dynamo rooms or hydraulic machinery rooms are separately ventilated by fan exhaust and fan supply through trunks led from the weather deck. In dynamo rooms a separate branch supply trunk is led to the armature of each dynamo. A fan mounted on the shaft of the dynamo draws air through the machine, thereby cooling the latter. Each working position is liberally supplied by directional louvres, as in the case of main machinery rooms. The exhaust fan quantity is 15 per cent greater than that of the supply.

Figure 42-1:Basic Air Conditioning System

Figure 42-2:Air Conditioning Plants

Figure 42-3

Figure 42-4:Direction Louvre

Figure 42-5:Typical Air Conditioning and Ventilation System

Figure 42-6:Plan AT.No.2 Deck

Figure 42-7:Boiler Room And Engine Rom Ventilation

43 Funnel uptakes
With the exception of large lift openings, some of the largest openings in a modern warship are the uptakes and downtakes to the main machinery, and, if steam plant is fitted, to the boilers. The quantities of air taken in and effluent gases expelled are very large and, unless isolated from the machinery working spaces by suitable measures, the risk of contamination if the ship has to pass through an area of 'fall-out' would jeopardize fighting efficiency. For this reason the supply of air to, and expulsion of gases from, boilers or gas turbines or diesels, is arranged on the 'trunk' principle, i.e. by closed supply trunks or uptakes connecting the actual machinery or boiler front direct to the atmosphere, so that the operating personnel are not exposed to contaminated air. In the case of uptakes from gas turbines and boilers it is necessary also to design them to take account of the considerable expansion of the trunks under the high temperatures of the effluent gases and to insulate the surrounding compartments to achieve acceptable living and working spaces therein. These two cases are dealt with more fully in subsequent paragraphs. Gas turbine uptakes The chief factors influencing the design of gas turbine uptakes are the permissible back pressure on the turbine and the temperature and velocity of the exhaust gases. The sketch shows a typical arrangement of the construction, provision for thermal expansion, and the method of supporting the uptakes. A separate uptake is provided for each gas turbine and care must be taken to site its exit clear of the air inlet opening to the turbine to prevent re-circulation of the hot exhaust gases through the turbine. Access doors and internal ladder rungs are fitted in each uptake to facilitate cleaning. Drainage is provided at points where condensation and rain water are likely to collect. The steel used for the uptakes is of a corrosion resisting type and of thickness compatible with the temperature and velocity of the exhaust gases.

Each uptake comprises two sections divided by a diaphragm plate fitted approximately at 01 deck level. The weight of the lower section is supported clear of the gas turbine exhaust" volute by means of brackets welded to the uptake and the lower and upper section of the uptake space below the diaphragm plate. The brackets at the lower end are designed to accommodate the transverse thermal expansion of the uptake, while those at the upper end are designed for transverse thermal expansion and the thrust produced by the gas velocity. The weight of the upper section is supported on the diaphragm plate and brackets fitted to the structure of the funnel casing. Expansion bellows, manufactured from an asbestos metallic woven material are provided to accommodate the longitudinal thermal expansion, the movement between the gas turbine exhaust volute and the lower end of the uptake, and between the diaphragm plate and the upper end of the uptake. The wild heat emitted from the uptake to the machinery space and the transference of heat to the accommodation and working spaces adjacent to the uptake space must be kept to a minimum. This is achieved by fitting insulating lagging on the outer surfaces of the uptakes and the inner surfaces of the casing, and insulation pads between the supporting brackets as shown in the sketch. Structural compensation for the loss of strength at decks pierced by large gas turbine uptakes is similar to that described in the chapter on decks. Boiler uptakes The construction of the uptakes, their method of support, type of expansion joint and method of insulation, are similar to those for gas turbines. The temperature of the effluent gases is lower than is the case for gas turbines. This is one reason why the insulation thicknesses involved are generally less and the overall expansion allowed for is smaller. The other reason is that the down-take air, passing between the uptake and trunked access has a cooling effect. The actual boilers are enclosed within a 'boiler box' and fired from the steam turbine room to which the downtake air does not therefore penetrate, and the uptakes are connected direct to the economizers which are also sited within this airtight box. All the auxiliary machinery necessary to run the boilers is housed in the steam turbine room with the exception of the forced

draught blowers which are sited in compartments or on a 'blower flat' within the boiler box on the deck above the main boiler. Instruments and equipment are fitted in each boiler uptake above the economizer for taking the temperature of the flue gases, drawing off samples of the gases and observing smoke density

Figure 43-1:GAS Turbine uptakes

44 Fire protection
The problem of protecting a ship against fire is, fundamentally, the same as that for a building on shore. It is best tackled by expending effort in two directions; first towards preventing the occurrence of a fire, i.e. elimination of possible sources and causes of ignition, and secondly towards providing the most efficient installations and equipment to fight a fire if it does occur. The possible sources cannot be entirely eliminated, for instance, combustible materials such as fuel oil, petrol, ammunition and stores, must be carried on board, but the use of wood can be strictly limited, and whatever wood is used can be of the fire-proofed type or treated with fireretarding paint. The term 'fireproof as applied to timber is not strictly accurate; fire-retarding is a better description since it is impossible to render it entirely non-inflammable. The same applies to other materials such as clothes, bedding and stationery. Such items are stowed in metal lockers when not in use. Before materials such as linings, deck coverings, etc. are accepted for use in HM ships tests are carried out to ensure that they are of low flammability and that toxic gases are not given oft when burning. Where plastic materials are used these are generally of self-extinguishing type. The process of fireproofing wood usually takes the form of impregnation with a solution of ammonium phosphate and boric acid under pressure. There are many possible causes of ignition of a fire in a warship. In action, ignition can be caused by the heat or detonation effect from shell or bomb burst. Ignition by electric spark or short circuiting may arise at any time by accident or from missile, shell or bomb burst. The possibilities of ignition from such causes is reduced by protection of electrical circuits, the use of flame-proof equipment where necessary, generous ventilation of compartments where inflammable vapours may collect, and adequate heat insulation of the boundaries of heat sources. The second direction in which effort has to be expended for fire protection the provision of efficient firefighting installations and equipment is constantly undergoing review and investigation. Space will not permit a detailed or complete description of all the types of installation and appliances used but the more important ones are summarized in the following paragraphs.

Water flooding or spraying systems Water sprinkler installations are fitted in magazines, working spaces of petrol and avgas compartments, oxygen and acetylene compartments, weather deck stowages for hydrogen, oxygen and acetylene bottles, spirit rooms, inflammable stores, hangars of aircraft carriers and helicopter hangars, paint rooms and paint stores on large ships and liquid oxygen compartments. Shell rooms, bomb rooms I certain magazines are fitted with arrangements for flooding direct from the sea through sea inlets. In addition, there are water-drenching systems to protect cordite charges at positions associated with magazines and gun mountings.Petrol compartments fitted with drum type stowages are kept flooded as a protective measure. Magazine spraying or flooding arrangements Pumping capacity limits the availability of water for spraying in small ships and consequently spraying arrangements are fitted only in those magazines which are too high in the ship for flooding from the sea to be effective. In large ships all magazines, including those selected for direct flooding, are provided with spraying arrangements. The sprinkler heads are attached to a grid of pipes supplied with water from the firemain. A branch is taken off the firemain at an angle above the horizontal and led down via an SDV (locked open) and a mud box to the spray valve as shown in the sketch. An additional valve, which must be locked open, is provided in some ships near the spray valve, on the firemain side, to avoid having to drain down an excessive amount of water before routine checking that the spray valve is in order. A short lead, ending in an SDV and hose connection, is taken off the system between the spray valve and the mud box to facilitate draining down. Prior to testing the spray valve near the firemain, or the alternative valve provided if the lead is a long one, is closed, and the water drained by means of the hose connection. This avoids water getting on to the ammunition during the testing of the spray valve. In magazines which are not fitted with flooding arrangements dual leads connecting the spraying grid to different portions of the firemain are provided if the spray system is not protected by armour. In all ships the spray valve can normally be operated from three positions; from inside or immediately outside the magazine, from a 'flooding locker' at the upper position, and from an intermediate position. At least one

of the last two positions should be separated from the magazine by a main transverse watertight bulkhead. In guided weapons magazines and assembly rooms automatically operated systems incorporating sprinklers with 'quartzoid' bulbs are arranged. These systems are fed from the salt water main but the spray valve is locked open so that the system is always completely filled with water. The quartzoid bulbs, which are combined temperature detectors and sprays, are designed to burst at a temperature of the order of 155°F thus allowing water to be discharged from the sprinklers instantly. The spray valve is operable only at the valve and is used in the event of accidental operation of the sprays. An automatic alarm unit is fitted in each system. The alarm unit indicates a flow of water and operates an alarm locally and in each NBCD headquarters. Stopcocks are fitted at the extremity of each main branch of spray piping to facilitate periodic testing and to bleed off air in the system when filling. Automatic systems may also be fitted to other magazines where particular fire risks exist. For flooding a magazine, a seacock and a flood valve require to be opened, In small ships two operating positions only are required for each of these valves-one immediately outside the magazine and the other at the flooding locker referred to above. These two positions are sufficient in large ships provided they can be sited under armour; otherwise a third position is required. As in the case of spraying, at least one of the flooding-control positions should be separated from the magazine by a main transverse watertight bulkhead. If three positions are provided but the rod gearing is not continuous through them, separate flood and spray valves, operable from the intermediate position, are fitted as an insurance against damage to the rod gearing of the main system. The handwheels in the flooding locker are fitted with locking pins so that to operate the valves from a lower position, the gearing must be freed from that leading up to the locker. This is done by means of a disconnecting coupling fitted just above the lower position handwheel. The coupling is secured by a cotter which is normally padlocked and is only unlocked when proceeding into action. Locks to flooding lockers, valves and couplings have interchangeable keys. Typical arrangements for flooding and spraying a magazine in a large ship are shown diagrammatically in the sketches.

To facilitate flooding or spraying the magazines are fitted with air escapes and these are provided with an automatic lift valve to guard against flash. If the crown of the magazine is near the waterline a spring is fitted to take part of the weight of the valve so that it will lift more readily. Air escapes are usually 3-in internal diameter and led to a secluded position below the upper deck, the end being turned over and perforated with 3/8-in holes. If a vessel is dry docked with ammunition on board, arrangements must be made so that any compartment containing explosives can readily be flooded. To achieve this, flooding bonnets with hose connections are secured to the inlets of the seacocks of the compartments affected and hoses led from them to dock-side hydrants. Other topside hose connections on the firemain are connected by hose to shore hydrants for supply of water to the firemain. Hangar spraying systems in aircraft carriers The hangar spray system in aircraft carriers consists of an overhead grid fitted with 1 ½-in flat star sprinklers, arranged 10 to 12 feet apart. Water is supplied through risers to a 6-in ring main from three or four electrically driven centrifugal pumps sited below the waterline, each with an independent sea suction and operated by switches from the hangar-access lobbies and hangar-control position. The ring main is connected to the spray grid by short branches, each fitted with a rapid opening valve operated by large handwheels in the access lobbies. A typical arrangement of a hangar spray system is shown in the sketch. The capacity and delivery pressure of the pumps are such that any two hangar sections can be sprayed simultaneously with an average pressure at the sprinkler heads of 15 lb/in2. Arrangements are made, by means of pipes led from the main, for the pumps to be tested at intervals and to allow for periodic flushing to check the accumulation of marine growth. Sight drains are led from the discharge side of each spray valve in the hangar to detect leakage. The firemain and the hangar spray ring main are cross connected by 6-in pipes, each fitted with a SDV which is normally locked shut, so that one system can be used to supplement the other. Each hangar in a carrier is divided into a number of sections by fire curtains made of reinforced asbestos cloth, which act as fire breaks. They may be hand or power operated. Another essential feature associated with the hangar spray system is the provision of large diameter scuppers to drain off the water as quickly as it is sprayed and so prevent the formation of any considerable free surface and adverse effect on stability it would have. The scuppers are fitted with

long, perforated covers so that they cannot become choked by clothing, debris, etc. Smothering systems Steam drenching Steam drenching systems are fitted in boiler rooms and main and auxiliary machinery compartments, which have steam available and are adjacent to oil fuel tanks. Steam from the auxiliary superheated or saturated steam range is introduced into the compartment through open ended discharge pipes, which terminate at high level to allow continual operation if the compartment is partially flooded. Outlets are directed away from access ladders. Control valves are operated outside the compartment and if possible from above, with a single handwheel controlling two valves geared together. The master valve, opening first, allows steam to sound a warning whistle before the steam stop valve opens, providing an audible alarm to personnel in the compartment, which must be evacuated before steam is introduced. Methyl bromide and cb/refrigerant 12 installations Methyl-bromide smothering systems are fitted in engine room and tank compartments of certain classes of petrol engine driven coastal craft but this extinguishant, which is highly toxic, is being superseded by CB/Refrigerant 12, which has equal fire fighting properties and is considerably less toxic. Smothering installations using either extinguishant are generally similar consisting of a battery of gas cylinders, ranges of distributing piping, discharge nozzles and controls which incorporate a cylinder seal piercing device. Carbon dioxide installations C02 smothering systems are fitted in main machinery spaces in diesel driven ships and in some auxiliary diesel generator compartments. Systems are generally similar in design to methyl-bromide and CB/Refrigerant 12 installations described above. Cylinder capacity is calculated on a 50 per cent gas concentration in the protected compartment, based upon 1 Ib of liquid CO2 being equivalent to 8 ft3 of gas. Control positions are generally situated over the compartments they serve and

each position incorporates a safety switch to actuate an audible warning in the compartment, to give prior warning of gas discharge. When any of the above systems are operated it is essential that compartments affected are evacuated, ventilation stopped and all openings closed. Foam systems Foam is the most effective means for dealing with fires involving flammable liquids, such as furnace fuel oil, diesel oil or gasoline. The extinguishment action of foam is to interpose a heat retardant layer between the fuel surface and the air. Once applied, a foam blanket will remain effective for a considerable time. Foam is generated mechanicallly using a hydrolized protein compound. Systems fitted comprise the following: (a) Foam-making branchpipes These are connected to hydrants and foam compound is inducted into the water stream by means of a venturi incorporated in the branchpipe. Air is drawn through the branchpipe causing aeration of the solution of water and compound so that the foam discharged is expanded up to ten times the volume of the solution. The smaller capacity branchpipes are used generally between decks and the larger on flight deck walkways, in the vicinity of the island and in hangars of aircraft carriers, and landing areas of ships operating helicopters. In carriers fitted with a separate flight deck salt water main, the branchpipes are high output appliances which deliver ready mixed foam compound/water from an inline inductor which is permanently attached to the flange of a SDV in a branch off the main. The inline inductor arrangement is also fitted in ships operating helicopters, being sited in the vicinity of landing areas. Foam compound for use with branchpipes is supplied in 5-gallon rectangular containers which are capable of being perforated by a suction pick-up assembly comprising a combined piercer and strainer at the end of a length of hose. Except where an inline inductor is fitted, the hose is connected to the branchpipe, as indicated on the sketch showing a typical arrangement of branchpipe. Where an inline inductor is fitted the pick-up hose is connected to the inductor thus feeding foam compound into the water stream at the inductor.

(b) Foam sprinkler systems The installation consists of a proportionator unit comprising a foam compound tank with a metering device, supplied from the salt water main and discharging foam into the compartment through overhead sprinklers. The metering arrangement controls the flow of water into the tank causing displacement of foam compound into the main water stream to give the required solution of compound and water for discharge at the sprinklers. These systems are provided to compartments with special fire risks, e.g. in main machinery compartments in guided missile destroyers where the missile magazine is sited overhead and in the vehicle decks in assault ships which normally carry a large number of vehicles with gasoline in their tanks. Similar systems are being introduced into the hangars of ships carrying helicopters. (c) Low level foam systems This system is generally fitted to provide protection to boiler air casings in open stokeholds and boiler room bilges. The system consists of a mechanical foam generator, connected to the salt water main on the inlet side and fitted with foam distributing piping and low level spreaders on the discharge side. These are fitted in the air casing beneath the boiler. A separate foam lead is provided to the bilge and a valved hose connection is fitted at high level in the foam discharge for sighting correct foam before opening up the system on the discharge side. Foam compound is introduced into the generator by a suction pickup used in conjunction with standard cans of compound. (d)Foam inlet tubes These tubes are fitted in boiler rooms, machinery spaces and diesel generator compartments to guide foam, produced by a foam-making branchpipe, into the compartment through a deck or bulkhead to a position where it can spread over the surface of burning oil. The tubes are led to just below the floor plates, the end being expanded to facilitate the spread of foam and a hole cut in the tube just below the crown of the compartment to ensure maintenance of flow should the lower end become obstructed. The upper end of the tube is closed with a screwed watertight cap when not in use.

Fire-fighting equipment Appliances operated off the salt water main, in addition to branchpipes, are jet/ spray nozzles and spray/jet nozzles. Portable water, CO2 and foam extinguishers are distributed around the ship, available for immediate use as first aid appliances. Water extinguishers are provided in accommodation spaces, magazines, etc., CO2 extinguishers in compartments containing radar, W/T and sonar equipment of high voltage, and the foam type in positions where there is a risk of fire from flammable liquids, e.g. galleys, boiler rooms, flight decks and hangars. The extinguishers are stowed near the hazard, if possible immediately inside the compartment concerned. In boiler rooms they are placed on the floor plates within easy reach of the watchkeepers. Additionally, extinguishers of each type are sited at fire posts, which form part of the damage control organization of the ship. Flight decks and ships operating helicopters are equipped with mobile dry chemical units and portable dry chemical extinguishers, primarily for pilot rescue from crashed aircraft. CO2 extinguishers are used against helicopter engine startup fires. Fire posts are sited at strategic positions on, or above, the communication deck, and a fire party locker, containing a wide variety of gear, together with hoses and suits of fire-proofed clothing, is stowed at each fire post. Other items of fire-fighting equipment, including portable extinguishers, breathing apparatus and foam compound, are placed in the vicinity. A fire post constitutes a base complete with essential appliances from which attack on a fire can be organized. It has telephone communication with other strategic centres. Water supplies The salt water main is the main artery for firefighting purposes, and together with the pumps serving it, is described elsewhere. Branches are taken off this main to supply water to sprinkler systems fitted in compartments containing explosives, flammable stores, etc. and to hydrants comprising screw down valves fitted with 2 ½ -in female instantaneous hose connections. Adjacent to each hydrant, lengths of rubber-lined fire hoses and a nozzle are stowed in a hose basket.

The hydrants are sited on each deck and in main and auxiliary machinery compartments so that water from at least two hoses can be directed on a fire in any part of the ship. To ensure pressure on the salt water main at all times, one pump in each section is kept running continuously and to avoid overheating the pump concerned, 'leak off' arrangements are fitted providing a constant flow of 4-5 gallons per minute which is discharged overboard. The modern standard working pressure in the salt water main is 100 lb/in2, in older ships the pressure is 75 lb/in2. To avoid impairing watertight integrity by passing hoses through doorways in main watertight bulkheads, bulkhead hose connections with blank caps are fitted in the bulkheads. In larger ships they are fitted to bulkheads in those parts of the ship where the firemain is not protected by armour and where it is not duplicated. Emergency rising mains are provided in large ships to meet the contingency of damage near a junction of the salt water main and a rising main. They consist of permanent branches taken from the rising main at points below protective plating, where fitted, as shown in the sketch. Portable fire-pumps are carried in warships for use in the event of a failure of the main system. A two man manual pump is supplied to ships smaller than frigates. Suction is by hose direct from the sea. Other HM ships are provided with mobile diesel driven or gas turbine portable pumps, and although their primary duty is for firefighting purposes they can be utilized for salvage duties. These pumps can draw water from internally fitted sea suction stand pipes or from over the ship's side where the static lift is not more than twenty feet. In frigates and above 35 ton/h non-submersible portable electrically driven salvage pumps are provided which can be used for firefighting purposes. Hose couplings The standard hose coupling is the 2 ½ -in instantaneous type to BS 336. To connect the instantaneous coupling, the male half is forced into the female half until the lip of the former presses back the two plungers in the horns on the female half and forces them behind the rim on the male. Water pressure, acting on a specially shaped rubber washer, ensures water-tightness. The coupling is released by pulling apart the caps on the horns. This action releases the plungers against the compression of springs. Instantaneous couplings cannot be separated under pressures greater than a head of a few feet of water. Hydrants are usually fitted with a type of

plunger worked by a cam mechanism, so that release may be effected at any pressure should this be necessary in an emergency. Fire-fighting equipment trials It is essential to the safety and fighting efficiency of the ship to ensure that all firefighting equipment is on board and in a satisfactory working condition at all times. To ensure this, special trials are conducted when a new ship is nearing completion or when an existing ship has nearly completed refit or modernization. In the case of aircraft carriers particular attention is paid to flight deck equipment, which must be in the first state of readiness before flying operations can be carried out

Figure 44-1

Figure 44-2:Section of AirCraft Carrier Hanger Spray System

Figure 44-3:Typical Arrangements of Emergency Rising Main

Figure 44-5

45 Steering gear
This may be considered under two headings, namely the power system which actually moves the rudder and the control system which links the power system to the steering position. The steering control system Most naval vessels now in service use voice communication from the bridge to a helmsman in a protected position, often below the waterline in large ships. The helmsman's wheel moves a hydraulic ram, connected by piping to a similar ram in the tiller flat. This latter ram is connected to the control mechanism of the power pumping unit. These rams are known respectively as the transmitter and receiver of the telemotor system. Duplicated and even sometimes quadruplicated telemotor transmitters and receivers, controlled by the same wheel, are fitted; the telemotor leads between these transmitters and receivers are separated, some to port and some to starboard, to guard against action damage. Bypass valves are provided on each pair of telemotor leads to allow them to be taken out of action in the event of damage. The telemotor fluid used is a 50/50 mixture of glycerine and water to prevent freezing in cold weather. The system is charged from a tank in the tiller flat, a small hand pump being provided for the charging process and to enable fluid to be circulated through the telemotor leads to remove air from the system. A large spring in the telemotor receiver ensures that this, and hence the whole system, has a selfcentring tendency. An emergency steering position is sometimes provided linked to the tiller flat by a telemotor system entirely independent of that normally used. Finally a direct hand control of the power unit within the tiller flat is provided, as the last line of defence. The modern trend is to have control of both the engines and the wheel centralized in a console incorporating an automatic pilot on the bridge, increasing use being made of electrical systems to link the wheel and the power system on the tiller flat.

The power system The power required to move the rudder is normally provided by electric motors driving duplicated variable delivery (VSG) pumps. In large ships, emergency diesel driven and turbo driven units, have often been provided in addition. The stroke of the variable delivery pump, and hence its output, is controlled by the telemotor receiver, which follows the wheel movements. The pump output is normally applied to the rudder through rams, which are connected to the rudder crosshead by a tiller and gudgeon mechanism. A hand pump is provided to enable the rudder to be moved in the event of loss of telemotor power. To prevent any sudden shock to the system, due to changes of pressure on the rudder in rough weather, or when turning at speed, buffer springs are fitted in the control rods D, as shown. To turn the rudder, oil is pumped into cylinders 1 and 3 and withdrawn from cylinders 2 and 4, and vice versa. The pipe lines are so arranged that if the steering wheel is turned to starboard, i.e. clockwise, oil is pumped into cylinders 2 and 4 and withdrawn from 1 and 3, thus turning the rudder anticlockwise and the ship to starboard. Similarly if the wheel is turned anticlockwise the rudder turns clockwise and the ship to port. By suitable operation of the valves in the valve chest all four or any pair of cylinders may be used but normally all are in use. It is clear that when the rudder is turned, there will be a side thrust on the rams and to relieve the latter of undue strain they are supported by arms which slide along strong guides running parallel to the cylinders on each side. Hunting Gear When movement of the wheel causes displacement of the telemotor receiver, the VSG pump starts pumping and the rudder begins to turn. The rudder movement must be arrested when it has reached an angle corresponding to the original wheel movement. This is achieved by the hunting gear, which applies negative feedback from the rudder crosshead to the VSG pump control rod via a floating lever. The diagrammatic sketch shows how the initial VSG pump control rod is restored to its zero stroke position when the rudder movement is complete. In practice, of course, the feedback occurs

simultaneously with pump control rod displacement, the whole process being smooth and continuous.

Figure 45-1:Electric-Hydraulic Steering Gear

Figure 45-2:Operation of Hunting Gear

46 The rudder
The size, shape and position of the rudder largely determine the turning qualities and 'handiness' of the ship. The area of the rudder varies from onethirtieth to one-sixtieth of the immersed area of the middle line plane according to the type of ship. In warships it is usually of'balanced' shape, i.e. part of its area lies before the axis so that the water pressure on this portion partly balances that on the portion abaft the axis. The torque required to turn such a rudder is much less than for a rudder of the same size with the whole of the area abaft the axis, i.e. 'unbalanced'. By this means a rudder of large area but easily and quickly turnable can be adopted, resulting in better manoeuvring ability. Moreover, the smaller steering gear required affords saving in space and weight and, should the main power source fail, the rudder is more easily turned by secondary or hand power. The response of the ship to rudder movements is partly dependent, among other things, upon the area of the rudder itself, of course, and also upon the area and shape of the middle line skeg or ' deadwood' aft. In medium warships a long cut-up is adopted to effect a suitable balance between ship response and directional stability (stiffness or resistance to turning). This also improves the flow of water to the propellers and hence their efficiency. Large rudders, associated with other types of cruisers and larger vessels, are provided with a pintle at about the middle of the rudder to support the weight and take part of the side thrust. The remaining side thrust is taken by the rudder bearing where it passes through the stern casting. The sketches illustrate two versions of the balanced 'spade' type rudder now in general use. In both cases the weight of the rudder is taken inboard by a bridge-like structure, built up of sections, plates and brackets strongly incorporated with the framing of the ship. The arms of the bridge are splayed athwart-ships in order to distribute the stresses imposed by turning over a large area of the bottom. Most of the side thrust is taken by a rudder bearing casting strongly connected to the frames and outer bottom where the rudder post passes into the ship. The weight is taken by a wrought-iron nut bearing on a steel casting secured to the top of the bridge structure. This nut engages with a forged steel plug screwed into and pinned to the rudder stock. The top of the plug is formed with a lifting eye.

In order to prevent the bolts securing the upper bearing to the rudder bridge being subjected to shear, the casting is spigoted into the bridge. A small clearance of about 1/16-in is left between the shoulder of the rudder stock and the bottom of the upper bearing casting to eliminate any possibility of binding when tightening the nut on the screwed plug. This clearance is not sufficient to cause damage by the rudder jumping in rough weather.The first sketch illustrates the version of spade rudder adopted for GM destroyers and ships of similar size with twin rudders. The body of the rudder is connected to the stock by a large nut by means of which the rudder and stock can be separated to facilitate removal from the ship in dry dock. A bolted side plate is fitted in way of the recess which contains the nut and serves the purpose of preventing the nut working loose. A wooden block is fitted between the nut and the bottom of the recess. When the nut is slackened, after removing the bolted side plate, the wood block acts in the manner of a simple jack to force the rudder off the stock and enable it to be lowered to the dock floor, leaving the stock to be removed separately if necessary. This method of removal obviously entails lower docking blocks than are necessary if the main part of the rudder is designed integral with the stock. The second sketch illustrates the latter type of rudder fitted in destroyers and frigates. The rudder stock is a steel forging the lower end of which is designed to provide a strong welded connection with the main structure of the rudder. The structure of rudders in modern ships is fabricated by welding. The whole of one side, together with the stock plates, can be welded in the normal manner and the closing side plates can be tongue welded to the horizontal plate arms and vertical stiffeners. This tongue method enables the side plates to be pulled hard against the stiffeners by wedges as shown, to obtain a good weld. On completion the tongues are cut away and the edges ground smooth. The inside surfaces of the rudder are coated with bitumastic solution by filling it with this and draining off.. The outside surfaces are coated with a latex composition or araldite. In most destroyers and frigates twin rudders are fitted to improve manoeuvrability. They are supported on a bridge structure in a similar manner to that for a single rudder. Where the rudder stock passes into the ship through the stern casting or rudder bearing casting, watertightness is obtained by a gunmetal stuffing box and gland bearing against a phosphor-bronze sleeve shrunk on the stock.

Two factors must be allowed for when designing the rudder. First the lower edge must be kept above the straight line of keel to avoid damage by grounding or when docking. Secondly, it must be of such form as to permit shipping or unshipping in dock, having regard to the height of blocks on which the vessel is likely to be docked and the type of rudder. The method of unshipping a spade type rudder with integral stock as fitted in frigates is illustrated, stage by stage, in the sketch given. For lifting and hauling when shipping or unshipping lifting holes are provided as shown. When the rudder is being drawn aft and lowered to the bottom of the dock, its lower edge is rested on a wood skid to prevent damage. The rudder bush, as well as the stuffing box and gland, is removed before the rudder is unshipped in order to provide more clearance and prevent the bush being scored by the rudder stock.

Figure 46-1:Rudder With Detachable Stock

Figure 46-2:Fabricated Rudder For Frigate

Figure 46-3:Shipping & Unshipping Rudder

47 Replenishment at sea
Most modern warships are designed with the ability to spend long periods at sea and to do so they require to be regularly replenished with a variety of commodities at sea and under way. This supply function is provided by support ships, known in the British Royal Navy as Royal Fleet Auxiliaries, specially designed and equipped for the purpose. Broadly speaking the RFA fleet of ships consists of three types - tankers, stores support ships and armament stores support ships capable, as their descriptions imply, of supplying RN warships with, primarily, different types of marine and aircraft fuel and fresh water, naval and victualling stores, and weapons. For the replenishment operation the supply and receiving ships have to proceed 'close aboard' at speed for several hours. Expert navigation is required in the operation of taking up and maintaining station in the 'close aboard' condition because of the hydrodynamic interaction forces set up between the ships. Methods of transfer To transfer the required commodities several methods or 'rigs' are employed according to the nature of the commodity and the arrangements fitted in the supply and receiving ships. The Derrick Method This is used for the transfer of liquids such as furnace fuel oil, diesel oil, aviation and motor transport fuels, lubricating oil and fresh water. The principles and main equipment involved are indicated in the sketch. The transfer hose is suspended from a large derrick in the tanker in a series of loops by means of troughs at the end of three wires served around sheaves on the derrick jib and led inboard. By hauling and veering on these wires a configuration similar to that shown in the sketch is obtained to suit the separation of the ships and allow adequate flexibility in the separation. For operating the large derrick rigs in tankers and other RFAs two 11/2-3-ton winches (i.e. capable of exerting a pull of 11/2 tons at speeds up to 320 ft/min or 3 tons at speeds up to 160 ft/min) are used to control the inner trough wire and the recovery wire. Two 5-ton winches, capable of speeds up

to 120 ft/min are used for lowering and hoisting the derrick and for controlling the outer hose trough. The Heavy Jackstay Method This can be used for transfer of liquids in a similar manner to that described for the derrick method, the hose or hoses being suspended in loops from the jackstay stretched between the ships, but placed under no strain other than by virtue of their weight and the fuel in them. This type of rig is also used for the transfer of stores, victuals or armament loads ranging from 1 to 4 tons and is usually described as a 1-, 2- or 4-ton rig according to the weight of the maximum load for which it is designed. Broadly speaking this means that the tension in the jackstay is three to four times the load carried by it. The load, in a suitable container in the form of a cage or pallet, is suspended from a traveller block on the jackstay, and hauled along the jackstay by inhaul and outhaul wires to winches in the supply ship and receiving ship. The principles are illustrated by the sketches. In the derrick method any variation in the distance between the two ships is taken up by the bights in the fuelling hose but in addition to this in the jackstay method the length of the jackstay must be varied to maintain a constant tension to support the hose or load and keep it clear of the water. This function is carried out by an automatic tensioning winch (ATW) in the supply ship to which the jackstay is coupled. This type of winch is made to veer or haul on the jackstay by a specially designed control system to counteract the increase or decrease in the distance between the high points of the ships which occurs due to rolling, pitching and yawing and slight changes in their lateral separation caused by changes in the interaction forces between them. For the operation of fuelling a 2-ton ATW is used, meaning a winch capable of maintaining a tension of up to 8 tons in the jackstay. Three 11/23-ton winches are used to control the hose troughs. One advantage of the jackstay method is that it enables a wider separation between the ships to be adopted, up to 220 ft compared with 180 ft for the large derrick method. Light jackstay method In addition to derrick and/or heavy jackstay rigs some ships are equipped with the gear to rig several light jackstays at suitable positions port and starboard. Each of these is capable of transferring loads of up to 500 Ib.

These light jack-stays and their inhaul and outhaul lines are usually manhandled. Personnel are always transferred by light jackstay. Replenishment by helicopter Transfer of light goods or personnel by helicopter is now commonly used since most warships are now provided with a helicopter as part of their armament, or have a platform on which a helicopter can land, or over which it can hover and winch stores up from or down to the ship. Modern support ships carry helicopters or have large platforms and are provided with lifts nearby to facilitate and expedite the transporting of stores to and from the store rooms. Astern fuelling Astern fuelling is the method whereby a tanker supplies fuel over its stern by means of one or two buoyant hoses connected up to a warship keeping station astern. The fleets of hoses are laid out on deck rollers for practically the whole length of the tanker and they are led through roller fairleads fitted on the stern of the tanker. The hoses are first streamed by means of a wire led to the capstan or windlass fitted at the after end of the tanker. After a certain length of the buoyant hose is in the water it will, because of the tanker's speed, pull the remainder of the hose off the tanker and control of the hose is then carried out by means of a wire led from the hose to a 5-ton winch fitted forward in the tanker. When the end of the hose reaches the stern of the tanker it is secured by pendants to a clamp on the hose and the hose is connected to the appropriate fuel supply connection on the tanker. The receiving ship grapples for a Manila hoseline attached to the end of the buoyant hose, or may receive the hoseline by gunline, and pulls it aboard with the hose through a bow roller fairlead. When the re-fuelling operation has been completed the hose is hauled back on to the tanker by means of the 5-ton winch mentioned above. Only FFO and diesel oil are passed by the astern method. Ship separation varies from 300 feet (fair weather) to 700 feet (rough weather) for astern fuelling. The principles are illustrated by the sketch. Arrangements in different ships Large tankers carry a limited quantity of stores other than the main cargo of a variety of fuels and fresh water. They are fitted with several heavy jackstay

rigs on the port side and large derrick rigs on the starboard side. The former are usually used for fuelling large ships and the latter for smaller ships such as frigates or destroyers. The heavy jackstay and large derrick rigs carry two 6-in diameter hoses and one 2 ½ or 3-in diameter hose. The 6-in diameter hoses are used for FFO, diesel oil or aviation fuel and the 2 ½ or 3-in hoses for diesel oil, motor transport fuel, lubricating oils and fresh water. It is not permissible to use any fleet of hoses for more than one commodity due to the risk of contamination of the fuels or fresh water. The commodities supplied from each rig on the tanker are standardized in order to avoid the lengthy process of changing hoses on the rigs whilst at sea. The warships' fuel reception positions are arranged so that the correct fuels and stores can be received from the appropriate positions on the tankers. The tankers are thus enabled to fuel a succession of warships of various types without delay. Small tankers cannot, naturally, carry at any one time as many different types of fuels and stores as the large tankers. They are fitted with either small or large derrick rigs, and a heavy jackstay rig and light jackstay rigs for storing. They are also fitted with reception arrangements for fuel and stores. Support ships which carry naval, victualling or armament stores are fitted with 1-ton, 2-ton and, in certain ships, with 4-ton storing rigs operated by automatic tensioning winches. Some of the ships are also fitted with moveable highpoints to enable loads to be lifted from, or lowered to, the deck with greater control than is possible with the ordinary heavy jackstay system. Where sophisticated weapons have to be transferred the moveable highpoint is fitted with a special catcher head fitting into which the weapon is automatically locked. Highpoints of appropriate strength are fitted in all warships for the reception abeam of fuels and stores. These highpoints are either stumpmasts, tripods,eye-plates fixed on suitably stiffened ship's structure, retractable stumpmasts or moveable highpoints similar to those fitted in the store ships. In each case the highpoint is about twelve to sixteen feet above the landing deck, except in air-craft carriers where the storing highpoint is about twenty feet above the deck. Large ships can receive two heavy storing jackstays simultaneously, whereas smaller ships such as frigates generally receive only one jackstay at a time. With the exception of aircraft carriers all classes of HM ships can receive fuel over the bow. The following general rules are applied as far as practicable when designing the replenishment at sea arrangements in warships:

a. Weather deck embarkation hatches should be sited near and have unobstructed access to the reception highpoints, with a good working space around them and preferably adjacent to deck houses fitted with overhead lifting points. b. The embarkation hatches must also be sited vertically over the vertical trunks or lines of hatches serving the store rooms. c. If a large number of store rooms are at the same level and served by one trunk or line of hatches, a 'storing lobby' should be provided at that level. d. Storing hatches and trunks should be arranged so that the normal movement of personnel between the weather decks and the magazines, store rooms, messdecks, etc. is not unduly impeded by the replenishment operation. This may involve duplication of hatches in some instances. e. If it is necessary to introduce horizontal transfers they should be made as short and direct as possible and designed to cause the least interference with other traffic and storing routes. f. Where practicable, the same highpoint should be used for fuelling and storing operations. g. In order to keep interaction effects between the supply ship and the receiving ship to a minimum, the highpoints should ideally be sited so that the fuelling and storing rigs are normal to the middle lines of the ships when the ships are positioned midships to midships, but this is not always practicable. h. The extent of the landing areas in each ship, which are governed by the maximum size of the stores to be landed, should be free of obstructions. Since the light jackstay, the light jackstay inhaul line and, in some ships, the heavy jackstay outhaul line, have to be manhandled, sufficient gangway clearance should be provided for the working parties. In addition to the wires, winches, jackstays, troughs, etc., constituting the actual storing or fuelling rigs, the supply ships and warships have to be provided with mechanical aids to facilitate striking down the stores. These comprise power-operated hoist blocks, roller conveyors, automatic whips (gravity lowering devices), hand-operated pallet transporters, ammunition and A/S projectile trolleys, flight deck tractors in aircraft carriers, vertical canvas chutes between decks, abrasive and non-abrasive slides, storing chutes incorporated in ships' ladders, soft rubber pads to break the fall of loads when vertical canvas chutes are used, and stores lifts.

Figure 47-1:Fueling at Sea-Large Derrick RIG

Figure 47-2:Fueling at Sea-Jackstay RIG

Figure 47-3:Storing at Sea-Heavy Jackstay RIG

Figure 47-4:Fueling at Sea-Astern RIG

48 Anchor and cable arrangements
The size of the cable and the size and weight of the anchors carried in the different types of warships are determined from consideration of data gathered from past experience and trials. The anchors are of the stockless type, comprising a forged steel shank of rectangular section with hinged flukes either of cast steel or fabricated. The flukes are fitted with stops restricting their movement to about 40 degrees on either side of the mean position. The advantage of this type of anchor is that having no stock it can be hoisted into, and stowed in, a hawse pipe, the flukes bearing hard against the ship's side. Two main or 'bower' anchors are carried on the forecastle, one on the starboard side and one on the port side. A highly efficient type of stockless anchor, developed by extensive model and full-scale trials and designated AC. 14, is fitted in all modern RN warships. It possesses much greater holding power for the same weight and its general design facilitates stowage in a recess in the ship's bow which has the advantage of causing less spray in a seaway than occurs with the normal commercial type anchor. The cable of the bower anchors is made up in lengths of 15 and 71/2 fathoms called shackles and half shackles of cable. Lengths of cable are shackled together with either ordinary or lugless joining shackles. Two swivels are inserted in the cable, one just abaft the anchor shackle and the other just before the cable clench shackle, so that the cable can be relieved of any turns taken up whilst veering or hauling. The number of lengths and half lengths of cable to be carried on each bower varies from seven in a frigate or destroyer to as many as twenty in an aircraft carrier. The outboard end of the cable is usually fitted with a half length of cable to facilitate disconnection on the forecastle deck when securing to a buoy. Cable lockers are fitted well down in the ship for stowing the cable and are provided with false bottoms of perforated plate supported about 30 inches from the true bottom of the locker. A manhole is fitted in this false bottom to enable mud to be removed and drainage arrangements are provided. All lengths of cable are made up to contain an odd number of links. The size of the cable is measured by the diameter of the material of its common links. Thus by a 2-in cable is meant that the common links are made of 2-in

diameter steel. The end links of each length are made parallel sided without studs and of material 1.2 times the diameter of the common links. Next to each end link is an enlarged link of diameter 1.1 times the diameter of the common links. Links adjoining swivels and other fittings are also made 1.1 times the diameter of the common links. Forged steel chain cable is now fitted to all new ships in preference to forged wrought iron and consists of all common links, the length being connected together by lugless joining shackles. This cable is machine made and electrically welded by approved processes. The adoption of forged steel cable in lieu of wrought iron enables smaller cable to be used for the same strength. The diameter of the hawse pipe varies between ships according to the shape of the ship's side and size of anchor carried. Generally speaking it is not less than 12 and not more than 15 times the diameter of the common links of cable. The diameter of the deck pipes is about 8 times and the radius of the lips of these pipes not less than 6 times the cable diameter. The ordinary joining shackle does not fit accurately into the snugs of the cable holder and jumping may occur when veering. The lugless shackle, however, is similar in shape to an ordinary link and designed to fit accurately into the cable holder snugs. It consists of two halves machined and recessed to fit closely into each other, with a centre block between. The three pieces are fixed relative to each other by a tapered pin driven diagonally through the centre block as shown. The hawse pipes are made up of steel castings at the deck and ship's side joined by a thick steel tube and incorporated into extra framing in the vicinity as described in the chapter on framing in Part II. The chain pipes are also made with cast steel deck plates. A sketch is given of the anchor and cable arrangements in a cruiser using a ML capstan and two cable holders. Tracing the cable from the anchor shackle, it is seen that in the lead of cable from the anchor to the cable holder a screw stopper is secured on the swivel piece just abaft the anchor shackle, and a Blake's stopper is secured a little further aft of this. The screw stopper is used to haul the anchor up snug into the hawse pipe after the Blake's stopper has been secured. The cable passes around the cable holder down through the deck pipe to the cable locker where the end is shackled to the cable clench. The cable clench is a large eye plate welded to the side of the cable locker at the bottom, and it is made 20 per cent stronger than the cable. A modern arrangement which utilizes two capstan/cable holders and no middle line capstan is illustrated in the sketches for a GM destroyer. A

middle line hawse pipe, forward of the bower hawse pipes, is also incorporated, through which the cable can be passed when being towed or when mooring to a buoy. The positions of the chain pipes and cable leads are arranged differently from those for the cruiser arrangement. The anchor lead from the hawse pipe is taken to the inside, instead of the outside, of the cable holder and thence to the chain pipe. The arrangement of screw and Blake's stoppers and the fitting of chequered plating is similar to that for the cruiser. The principal operations carried out on service are described briefly as follows: Anchoring The speed of the ship is reduced to a minimum and the screw stopper is released so that the anchor is held only by the Blake stopper. On the order ' Let go!' the cable-holder brake is released, the slip of the Blake's stopper knocked away, and the cable then runs out under the weight of the anchor. When the anchor reaches bottom, the cable-holder brake is applied to slow up the cable and allow it to be laid out without piling up on itself; veering is stopped at the shackle ordered, the cable holder fully braked, and the Blake stopper secured. Weighing anchor The procedure is to gear up the cable holder, release the brake, haul sufficient to knock off the Blake's stopper and then heave up slowly until the cable is just taut and vertical. The ship is then moved slowly ahead to free the anchor which is hauled right up into the hawse pipe, the cable being washed by hose from the main service. The cable is secured by the Blake's stopper and the anchor finally adjusted in the hawse pipe by the screw stopper. Towing In cruisers the arrangements for towing another vessel consist of two large steel wire ropes called the towing pendants secured to eyeplates on the quarter deck and led twice round the towing bollards to the senhouse slips. The towing hawsers are secured to the senhouse slips by special shackles and let out through the towing fairleads as shown. A carpenter's stopper is used to check each hawser. This consists of a steel box fitted with a sliding wedge piece which slides on an inclined face in the box and grips the wire,

the grip tightening as the tension increases. The arrangements are similar in the GMD, in principle. Being towed A length of cable either side is led from the cable holder through the towing fair-leads at the bow, or through the middle line hawse pipe in the case of the GMD and secured to the towing hawser by the towing slip. The length of cable over the bow acts as a 'spring' in the tow, compensating for relative movements of the two ships caused by variations in speed or the swell of the sea. Usually two shackles' length of cable are used, but more should the weather conditions demand it. Nylon towing hawsers are coming into general use. Because of its great elasticity and ability to absorb shock loading no other spring is needed with this type of hawser. Nylon hawsers are fitted with special thimbles and links at each end. A carpenter's stopper must not be used with a nylon hawser, any checking being done with a cordage stopper preferably of manmade fibre rope. When a nylon towing hawser is supplied, however, ships retain a carpenter's stopper so that provision can be made to receive a wire hawser passed from another ship. Survey and testing of cable gear The cable is examined closely for defects at nine to fifteen months' intervals, loose studs being repaired or renewed as necessary. Should a flaw be discovered at sea which cannot readily be repaired, the length of cable affected is shifted to the bottom of the cable locker until a new length can be obtained. Since the outboard lengths of cable are most used and consequently become most worn, it is usual, after a ship has been in commission for a time, to shift the outboard lengths to the inboard end, so that all lengths are worn evenly. The cable gear is landed for periodical test every three to six years dependent on the refit cycle. A state of surface brittleness, which could lead to fracture, develops in chain cable due to the frequent blows to which it is subjected when veering and hauling. This condition is removed by heat treatment. The testing procedure normally followed for forged steel cable when landed is:

a. Survey and repair as found necessary. b. Apply full-proof load to any new links inserted. c. Apply three-quarter proof load to whole cable. d. Repeat survey. e. Apply annealing heat treatment. The dimensions of the links of the cable and the more important fittings associated with it, in terms of the diameter of the cable, are given in the sketch.

Figure 48-1:Anchor & Cable Arrangements(Crusier)

Figure 48-2:Anchor & Cable Arrangements G.M.Destroyer

Figure 48-3:Towing Arrangements

49 Capstan gear
Capstan gear is normally fitted forward and aft in HM ships. The forward gear may comprise a separate cable/warping head which can be used for warping or working the anchors and cables and two cable holders which are designed to work the cables only, or two cable/warping heads which can be used for warping or working the cables. Anchor gear is not now carried aft but an after capstan head is fitted for warping, replenishment-at-sea and storing duties. Capstan gears can be powered by three methods, steam, electric or electric-hydraulic. The former has given way to either of the two others in modern ships but is still retained in some older ships. Briefly a steam operated capstan consists of a horizontal reversible steam engine arranged between two vertical spindle cable holders which are driven through worm gearing. A warping drum, permanently coupled to the worm wheels and capable of being disengaged from the drive shaft, is fitted above each cable holder. Electric operated capstan gear This type is in common use in destroyers and frigates, where it consists, generally, of Duplex capstan gear in which the functions of a cable holder and capstan are combined in each of a pair of heads as mentioned previously. It is powered by a three-speed electric motor through a slipping clutch, a primary worm reduction gear, and a secondary worm reduction gear driving the capstan heads through vertical shafts. The driving gear is mounted under the forecastle deck, underslung on a main baseplate bolted to the deckhead, as shown in the pictorial sketch. Each capstan head comprises a warping barrel mounted on the same spindle as a cable holder. The warping barrel always revolves with the spindle and so is always ready to use for warping. Vertical movement is provided so that the warping barrel can engage the cable holder which can then be used to haul or veer the anchor. When veering cable the cable holder is disengaged and controlled by handbrake. Neither head can be worked by hand. In larger ships, where space is less of a problem, the motors and gearing are seated on the deck below the forecastle, the vertical shafts being carried

up through the latter as shown. The capstan gear, in this instance, consists of port and starboard wing cable holders and a middle line warping and anchor capstan, driven by two reversible electric motors through a slipping clutch, a geared driving unit and dog clutches. The wing cable holders, a handed pair, can be driven through an arrangement of dog clutches in either direction together, or independently, or be disconnected from the vertical shafts to run freely under the control of hand operated handbrakes. The body of each holder, like the lower barrel of the duplex head, is made of cast steel Grade I and formed with snugs into which the links of the cable fit neatly. The cable holders are not keyed to their spindles and each can revolve freely on a gunmetal bush and can be connected or disconnected from its spindle by a dog clutch. The skirt, or bottom flange, of the barrel forms braking surface for a band type of control brake which controls the speed at which the cable can be run out when the cable holder is disconnected. The middle line capstan, normally operated independently of the wing cable holders, will revolve only in one direction relative to the motor direction and may be connected to, or isolated from, the motor drive through a dog clutch or by insertion or removal of two driving pins which couple the vertical shaft to a worm wheel. In the isolated condition the capstan can be worked by hand with bars fitted into sockets in the barrel head. These bars are made of ash wood bound with steel shoes which fit into the barrel slots snugly. They are secured by pins passing through the crown plate and shoes. Pawls dropped into a ratchet track located at the base of the barrel prevent the head from running back. Portable whelps can be fitted to facilitate working the ML head as a warping barrel but the wing cable holders are designed only for working the anchor cable. The electric motors are controlled by a portable T-handle fitted in a deck socket. Electric-hydraulic capstan gear There are two forms of this type of gear. In the first the hydraulic motor and gearing which drive the capstan are incorporated in the actual capstan head as shown in the sketch. By virtue of its compactness this type is usually fitted aft in more modern destroyers and frigates designed with a comprehensive hydraulic system serving several equipments including the after capstan.

In the second type the hydraulic motor drive replaces the electric motor drive described for the electric type of capstan gear and is otherwise similar to the latter as regards the design of capstan/warping heads, gearing, etc. Generally speaking this type is replacing the electric drive type in more modern ships forward. In both cases the electric motor and pump which supplies pressure oil to the hydraulic motor, whether the latter is incorporated in the capstan head or not, are situated on the deck below the capstan gear together with the control gear. In each a hydraulic control box is sited adjacent to the capstan and it is possible to work the capstan by means of a hand pump if electric power fails or is not available. Brake Gear In most types of capstan gear the brake is unidirectional and its Ferodo lined brake strap (of forged steel) is controlled by a hand wheel which operates through bevel gears to rotate a screwed spindle working in a trunnion nut. The brake strap is in two parts, connected by a joint pin with its head fitted in a recess in the underside of the forked part of the strap. The strap assembly is pivot anchored by a brake bolt in the deck plate. The other end of the band carries the trunnion nut in which the screwed end of the brake spindle works to contract or expand the band. controls In all cases the capstan heads are controlled from the weather deck by means of a portable T-handle which fits into a socket let into the deck. The handle incorporates a pointer to indicate the handle position relative to the control markings marked on the flange of the socket. In addition the electrically driven capstan includes an emergency stop button set in the deck near to the control handle to stop the capstan in emergency. Windlasses In some classes of small ship the cable is worked by a windlass. This is a special type of winch in which the main shaft, fitted horizontally, carries the cable holders in place of the usual rope barrels. The cable holders can be disconnected from the shaft by clutch and are fitted with powerful band brakes for veering. Warp ends are carried on the ends of the main shaft for

working ropes. Windlasses may be operated by steam engine or electric motor.

Figure 49-1:Electric Capstain Gear

Figure 49-2:Electric after Capstan

Figure 49-3:Electric/Hydraulic after Capstan

50 Accommodation, messing arrangements and sick bay
Although the standards of living accommodation for officers and ratings in HM ships cannot aspire to those regarded as normal in civilian life, the general raising of standards ashore have invariably been reflected in the scales of amenities now provided afloat, so much so that the provision of efficient and comfortable living spaces in HM ships has become one of the most important aspects of fitting out. The arrangements described are the latest pertaining at the time of writing. Accommodation In most ships officers of command rank are provided with a suite of apartments comprising, generally, a combined day and dining cabin, a sleeping cabin, a bathroom, a separate pantry and a sea cabin on the bridge. In flagships the admiral is usually provided with a dining cabin in addition. Officers of captain's rank on admirals' staff's are also furnished with suites but generally share both a pantry and a bathroom. Other ships' officers are provided with individual cabins but mess together in the wardroom and enjoy recreational facilities in the anteroom. Cabins vary in size according to the rank of the officer and class of ship. Generally speaking commanders and lieutenant-commanders are provided with the larger type of self-contained single cabin of 75-80 square feet deck area, with washing facilities, bedsettee, chest of drawers, desk, wardrobe, etc. More junior officers are allocated smaller cabins of 45-50 square feet deck area fitted with a bedberth, chest of drawers, secretaire, washing facilities and a wardrobe. In some vessels junior officers under training and officers on passage may be required to share double or multi-berth cabins. The furniture and fittings provided in cabins is standardized as far as possible. In the smaller type the chest of drawers and the secretaire are specially designed to fit under the bedberth. Suitable lighting is provided for desks, secretaires, bed-settees and bedberths in addition to the general overhead lighting. As much of the furniture and fittings as possible is of metal construction to minimize risk of fire. Wooden furniture provided for wardrooms, ante-rooms, admirals' and captains' apartments are, however, constructed of fire-proofed timber.

In large ships a separate ante-room is provided adjacent to the wardroom. In smaller ships a portion of the wardroom is curtained off to form an anteroom and is equipped with easy chairs, settees, etc. The wardroom itself is used for dining and is in direct communication by service doors or bulkhead hatches with the pantry or pantry/galley. Decks in officers' accommodation spaces are laid with coloured linoleum tiles. Bathroom facilities are provided in the vicinity of the cabins, one washbasin being fitted for every three officers for whom cabin washbasins are not provided (including those officers borne for training purposes or on passage). Running hot and cold water with drainage overboard is provided for all washbasins. WCs and urinals are supplied on the basis of one fitting for each six and eighteen officers respectively, dispersed as widely as possible for the convenience of the users. The crew are accommodated according to their rating, each man being provided with a bunk, a kit locker, stowage for a suitcase and dirty boots and a share of communal coat and jacket cupboards and other permitted amenities. Recreational facilities are provided as part of all petty officers and junior ratings' messes but chief petty officers have a recreation room separate from their sleeping spaces. Three and six berth sleeping cabins and/or dormitories are provided for chief petty officers, petty officers being accommodated in enclosed communal messes and junior ratings in open mess spaces. In the latter instance bunks, cupboards, kit lockers and other furniture are so distributed that separate messes containing living facilities for approximately twentyfive men are formed. Wherever possible the living spaces are kept clear of obstructions such as cable trunks, air conditioning plant, shell hoists, valve gear and tank sounding points. Deck areas per man allowed are 32 square feet for chief petty officers, 24 square feetforpetty officers and 20 square feet for junior ratings. These figures are nett, i.e. items not directly connected with the function of the compartment are excluded but items of mess furniture such as bunks, kit lockers, cupboards, etc. are included. Also included in these areas are 32/3square feet (chief petty officers and petty officers) and 3 square feet (junior ratings) allocated for dining halls. The ship's side and the undersides of exposed decks in cabins and messes are insulated with mineral fibre marine board, all spaces being airconditioned.Bathroom facilities are provided in the form of showers (one for each 15 chief petty officers, 20 petty officers and 25 junior ratings) and washbasins (one for each 5 chief petty officers, 8 petty officers and 10 junior ratings). WCs and urinals are supplied on the scale of one to each 15 and 45

ratings respectively, sited with due regard to the convenience of the users and as widely dispersed as possible. Messing arrangements All modern warships employ centralized messing whereby ratings take meals in dining halls separate from their living and sleeping spaces and sited adjacent to or as close as practicable to the galleys. The equipment in the galley is arranged in three main preparing areas: a. Cooking area, equipped with deep and shallow fryers, steaming and roasting ovens and boiling coppers. b. Vegetable preparing area, containing potato peelers, sinks and garbage disposal equipment. c. General preparing area, provided with mincing machines, bread slicers,piemaking machines, ready-use cool cupboards, large bench areas and beef screens fitted with meat storage and preparing arrangements. In large ships the bakery is in a separate compartment from the galley. Cooked food is displayed on serving counters kept warm by overhead infrared heaters and is available for self-service to individual ratings in dining halls. Bulk ready-use hot food is stowed inside plating counters. In small ships it is not always possible to site senior ratings' dining halls next to the galley and in this case separate pantries are provided equipped with heated plating counters. The seating in dining halls is sufficient, approximately, for four sittings for junior ratings and three for senior ratings. Padded stools and 4-ft or 6-ft nesting tables with melamine plastic tops are provided. A refrigerated display counter is fitted in each dining hall, or, where space permits, in line with the serving counters, for the display of cold fare for self-service. Sculleries, equipped with dishwashing machines, garbage disposal equipment, benches and sinks are positioned on the exit routes from the dining halls to deal with the cleaning of all platters, crockery and cutlery. Officers' galleys are designed similarly to ships' galleys and sited near the wardroom in which polished fireproofed wooden dining tables and chairs are supplied. Steward service is provided either through serving hatches located above sideboards or service doors, and a refrigerated counter for cold fare is included in the arrangements.

A typical galley arrangement for a small ship is shown in the sketch. Sick bay Arrangements are provided in all ships for the care of sick and wounded personnel and their extent depends upon the numbers in the ship's complement. The sick bay is built as a self-contained unit, sited within the gas citadel, as far away as is practicable from spaces generating heat and noise and in a position affording as much natural light as possible. It must be readily accessible from all parts of the ship along routes wide enough for stretcher traffic. Because access to the main sick bay may be difficult, or impossible, when the ship is closed down for action, casualties are treated at first aid posts, and if space will permit, an emergency operating theatre sited as far away as possible from the sick bay is provided. In large ships up to fifteen posts are arranged convenient to action stations but in small ships the space available is sufficient for only two. The sick bay in a large ship comprises several adjoining spaces, including a surgeon's consulting room, operating theatre, treatment room, sterilizing room, main, officers' and isolation wards, casualty/resuscitation room, dispensary, sluice compartment, pantry, office, bathrooms and WCs. In smaller ships the same principles are applied as regards equipment and layout but subdivision into separate spaces is impracticable - two or more functions being fulfilled by some compartments. A layout of a sick bay catering for a ship's complement of between 500 and 600 officers and men is shown in the sketch. Stowages and equipment are designed and fitted to prevent damage and spillage from bottles or containers arising from heavy motion in a seaway or from shock caused by gunfire and explosion. Stainless steel is used for bench tops, sinks and sink surrounds generally and the decks in sterile rooms, i.e. operating theatre, treatment room, sterilizing room, casualty/resuscitation room, sluice compartment and in bathrooms and WCs are tiled with white unglazed vitreous tiles. Sluice compartments of small ships, however, are laid with neoprene terrazzo in order to conserve weight. Elsewhere in the sick bay the decks are covered with linoleum tiles with coved edges and rounded corners to preclude the collection of dust and dirt. Doors and vertical surfaces are made as clean and plain as possible and ventilation trunks, pipes, cable runs, etc. are sited above deckhead linings arrangements being made for accessibility for maintenance and cleaning.

Generous use is made of melamine plastic laminate sheet for bulkhead and deckhead lining, especially in sterile rooms. Access to the wards, operating theatre and main lobby is by way of hinged double doors, from 4 to 4 ft 6 in wide. The cots in the wards are in two-tier arrangement, suspended on two pillars and designed to swing and remain fairly level when the ship is rolling. The whole sick bay is airconditioned, separate exhaust systems being arranged for bathrooms, WCs, operating theatres and sluice compartments. The ship's side and deckheads exposed on the upper side are lagged in the approved manner. Hot water is supplied from the ship's system for washing purposes and an emergency electric water heater is installed as a reserve for medical requirements. An electric drum sterilizer, together with a bowl sterilizer and instrument sterilizer are provided in large ships. In small ships, however, an instrument sterilizer only is installed, sealed drums of sterile dressings being carried and replenished as opportunities occur.

Figure 50-1:typical Mess for 36 petty officers

Figure 50-2:Typical cabin for three chief petty officers

Figure 50-3:Typical Mess for 24 junior ratings

Figure 50-4:Small Ship Galley

Figure 50-5:Class 5 Sick Bay

51 Stowage for provisions and stores
To enable a warship to remain away from replenishment sources for prolonged periods considerable storage capacity is required for victualling, clothing, engineering, electrical, electronic, gunnery and naval stores. The quantities of victualling and clothing stores carried are based upon the complement of the ship and the time she can be expected to operate away from her base. The quantities of other stores carried are based on the establishment of stores laid down for the ship, and this in turn depends upon the type of machinery, armament and electronic apparatus installed. The victualling storerooms include cold and cool rooms, provision rooms, flour stores, spirit room, beef screen, potato and vegetable stores. In general, storerooms are sited below the accommodation decks and so designed that vital stores are divided, forward and aft, to obviate total loss due to damage. To facilitate the handling of stores, careful consideration is given to the positioning of hatches and arrangement of lobbies, so that the lifting and transporting of heavy items in particular can be carried out in as direct routes as practicable without impairing fighting efficiency unduly. Storerooms are provided with efficient locking arrangements. Cold and cool rooms These are provided to preserve meat, fish, dairy produce, fruit and vegetables. They are cooled by brine circulation from the cooling machinery, through grids or by air circulation over a cooling battery, and insulated by fine fibre-bonded slabs packed to a density of 11/4Ib per cubic foot, or by other approved material. Slab cork may be used for the floor insulation. Brine grids are arranged around the walls of the rooms, and if necessary at the crown. The system is designed to maintain the temperature at 12-14°F for cold rooms, and from 30°F to 40°F for cool rooms, depending on the contents, when the surrounding compartment and sea-water temperatures are 110°F and 90°F respectively. The rooms are lined with 14 s.w.g. aluminium sheet attached to fir bearers spaced about two feet apart and connected by mild steel lugs to the side and crown. The thicknesses of the lagging usually worked are as follows:

in Ships side - below waterline Ship's side - if partly above waterline Bulkheads and crown 9 10 9 Divisional walls Floor

in 6 8

These thicknesses are increased, generally or locally, to give three inches minimum thickness over beams and other projections. The floor comprises f-in tongued and grooved pine boards laid on fir bearers spaced two feet apart. The floor also is lined with 14 s.w.g. aluminium sheeting, and with the lower portion of the side lining forms a watertight tray. The whole of the lining is made as airtight as possible to minimize entry of moisture. An insulated door of not less than 5 ft x 2 ft 6 in clear opening is fitted to each room. The principles of the construction of a typical cold and cool room arrangement in a large ship are indicated in the sketch. The rooms are fitted with shelves, racks, bins, brackets, bars and hooks, etc. as required, and the cooling grids are protected by portable wood battens. The lining and fittings are not allowed to have metallic contact with ship's structure as this would detract from the effectiveness of the insulation. All exposed steelwork is galvanized. Woodwork not likely to come into contact with food is fireproofed and treated with a preservative. Other woodwork is oven dried and treated with a 5 per cent solution of borax. A distant reading thermometer is fitted to each room. A cool cupboard and some domestic automatic refrigerators are provided on accommodation decks for ready use purposes. Provision rooms and flour stores These are fitted with racks, shelves, stanchions, battens, gratings, hooks, eye-plates over for handling casks, etc. as required. Fan supply and natural exhaust ventilalion is fitted where the stores include perishable goods, otherwise permanent ventilation is not fitted. Rat-proof, wire-mesh doors are fitted inside the main storeroom door.

Spirit room This is fitted with chocks, battens, eyeplates, etc. for the handling and stowage of kilderkin casks, and a locked cupboard is provided for sacramental wine. Spraying arrangements are fitted. Natural supply and fan exhaust, separate from the general ship ventilation, is arranged for. Potato and vegetable stores These are usually sited on the weather deck convenient to galleys but away from sources of heat, and have natural supply and fan exhaust ventilation through openings covered with rat-proof wire mesh. Fittings include stowage gratings, shelves, battens and a potato-peeler with fresh-water supply. The deck is tiled and drained. Beef screen This is sited adjacent to or as part of the galley space. It is rendered flyproof with wire mesh as necessary and fitted with fan supply and natural exhaust ventilation. Fittings include meat rails, hooks, shelves, butcher's block, implement stowage, table and sink, fresh- and salt-water supply, and a sausage-filling machine. The deck is tiled and drained. Other storerooms These, including clothing, soap and tobacco, engineers', electrical, gunnery, officers' and naval stores, are allocated and fitted for bulk, cupboard and shelf stowage. Storerooms containing inflammable goods are ventilated by fan supply and exhaust adequate to effect a change of air once every five minutes. Storerooms containing non-perishable articles do not have permanent ventilation, but dehumidifiers are installed where condensation would cause deterioration of stores. These storerooms are ventilated by portable hose connected to the ship's supply, or by a separate portable fan, when opened up after being closed down for a long time.

General Aluminium alloy is used wherever possible for storeroom furniture and fittings, and wood is used only where absolutely essential, in order to reduce the fire risk as much as possible. All openings, including those for ventilation are made rat-proof by fitting wire-mesh doors, panels, etc. as may be required.

Figure 51-1:Cold & Cool Rooms

52 Masts and spars

General Warships are usually fitted with two masts, the foremast and the mainmast, which are used to carry wireless and radar aerials, signalling equipment and navigation and other lights. In aircraft carriers auxiliary wireless masts, which can be hinged down and outboard clear of the flight deck, are fitted, usually on the starboard side only. The foremast and mainmast are fitted with suitably disposed yards, spurs and platforms to carry the various aerials, lights and halliards shown in the sketch. The design of masts has changed considerably over recent years. Prior to World War II they were of the tripod type formed of large steel tubes but, as radar developed, these were superseded by lattice masts which provided a better platform for the aerials. This type was constructed of large corner angles connected by horizontal and diagonal struts. The latest practice is to fit plated masts which provide a much stronger structure with very little increase in weight above a comparable lattice mast. The increased stiffness of the plated mast results in reduced propeller induced vibration and vibration when the ship is turning whilst the inside can be used for many purposes, such as fan and silencer chambers, and affords protection for aerial wave guides, junction boxes, cables and other items. In destroyers and frigates the plated masts are constructed of 0. l25-in mild steel plating with large radius corners, stiffened vertically by 1 in x 3 in x 2.45 Ib T-bars and horizontally by diaphragm plates provided with access openings as required. At the top is a level platform of size to suit the radar aerials carried. The polemost is carried from the after end of this platform and the yard arms from the side, supported by tubular stays which are carried down to the nearest diaphragm plate. A sketch of a typical plated mast is given. Mast fittings Yards, as previously stated, provide a means of suitably disposing and supporting aerials, flag signal halliards, navigation lights and similar items of equipment. They lie square to the mast and in the transverse plane, and can be of wood or steel construction. The most modern practice is to use a

steel tube of suitable dimensions welded rigidly to the mast structure. In order to obtain access to the aerials which are frequently fitted at each end of the yard, a mild steel tubular footrail is fitted. If a wooden yard is fitted it is' slung' from the mast by means of steel wire' yard lifts' running from each end of the yard to eyeplates on the mast, and pulled home against the mast by a steel wire rope called a 'parrel.' This type of yard is normally found on polemasts which require to be unshipped or lowered whilst at sea. Spurs serve a similar purpose to yards and whilst normally square to the mast, they lie in the plane best suited to meet the siting requirements for the equipment to be carried. A spur can comprise a single length of angle or Tbar welded square to the mast, or it can be similar to a braced yard described above. Typical spurs for supporting wind direction and speed indicators are shown in the sketch. A wooden spar termed the 'gaff' is fitted on the mainmast to carry the ensign at sea. The heel fitting on the mast allows the gaff to be raised, lowered or swivelled. The upper end of the gaff is supported by a top line running up to the mast and steadied by steel wire ' vangs' to the side and below. Guest warp or swinging booms These are fitted for the purpose of securing the ship's boats in harbour. In large ships four booms are generally carried and they stow along the side. They are made of Riga fir. The forged steel heel fitting is shrunk on and is secured by hoops and through bolts. The boom is supported by a standing topping lift secured to an eyeplate on the weather deck edge, and by a guy on each side. All these wires are fastened to eyes on a band about one-third of the length from the outboard end. The upper side of the boom is trimmed flat for the men to walk out to the Jacob's ladders, the standing lift providing a hand hold. The procedure of lining off and trimming a boom to shape is as follows The log selected is supported on trestles at hand height and firmly secured at each end. Strike a centre line along it and plumb this down at each end. The greatest diameter occurs at one-third the length from the outboard end, i.e. at A, and the diameters at the two ends are equal. The lengths on either side of the point of maximum diameter are then divided into four equal parts as shown at B, C, D. To obtain the proper widths at the points B, C and D, the construction shown in Fig. (a) is used. Draw a horizontal line AK equal to

half the greatest diameter of the boom and on it with A as centre describe a quandrant of a circle. Erect a perpendicular AF and mark a point P such that PA is half the smallest diameter. Through P draw PH parallel to AK to intersect the arc at H and from H drop a perpendicular to meet the base at E. Divide AE into four equal parts and erect perpendiculars to meet the arc. Then these perpendiculars give the half diameters at the respective points B, C and D, and these widths are set out on the log. Before starting the work of cutting, vertical battens are erected at either end so that if the log moves while being axed, it can be replaced in the correct position by out winding these battens with a plumb line. This is done to ensure the log being axed fair. When two sides have been axed fair as in Fig. (i), the log is turned over, lined off again, and the other two sides done. The log is now of square section throughout and the next job is to mark off the octagon and axe it to this shape as Fig. (iv). Finally the shaping is completed with draw knife and planes, the upper face of the octagon being left flat to provide foothold as Fig. (v)

Figure 52-1:Guest Warp Boom

Figure 52-2:Plated Mast

Figure 52-3:Plated Mast

53 Ships' boats, stowage, hoisting arrangements

Ships' boats Several different types of boats are carried by HM warships for various duties. Most of them are constructed in wood but increasing use is being made of glass reinforced plastic (GRP). Most of them also are of rigid construction and of orthodox displacement form with good seakeeping qualities. The faster types, with planing forms, are designed primarily for work in calm or near-calm sea conditions. All rigid types have a square transom stern except the whaler which has an almost identical stem and stern shape for ease of manoeuvring as a sea-boat. Some inflatable types are in use. They have the advantages of ease of storage, particularly, and ability to withstand buffeting under conditions which could damage a rigid boat. A primary requirement in the design of ships' boats of the rigid type is to be strong enough to be frequently hoisted and lowered and to be slung in davits for long periods at sea or in harbour, in extreme or moderate climatic conditions. Albeit they must be sufficiently robust to withstand impact when coming alongside and the forces arising from beaching when used for the latter purpose. In ships provided with cranes, however, as many boats as possible, except the whaler, are stowed in crutches within the sweep of the crane which is used to hoist and lower them. All open type boats of rigid construction are fitted with buoyancy blocks made from lightweight expanded plastic such as polyvinyl chloride or polyurethane. These give the fully loaded boat a 10 per cent reserve of buoyancy when the boat is swamped. Closed types, designed with watertight decks, bulkheads and canopies, which thereby limit the quantity of water entering when swamped are also fitted with sufficient buoyancy blocks to secure safe flotation when swamped or damaged. The buoyancy blocks are suitably shaped and well secured in place to prevent them breaking away in the event of the boat being damaged.All inflatable boats are compartmentated to ensure flotation should one of the compartments be punctured.

Types and functions Broadly speaking the type of boat is related to the function or duty it has to perform although some types are designed to carry out more than one duty. In harbour these duties may be one or more of transferring mail, stores or personnel Other duties include moving ship, laying out the ship's anchors, laying buoys for salvage work, and for training and recreational purposes. At sea, any of the ship's boats may be used for transferring men and stores, or for landing personnel on beaches, or for sea rescue although the latter task is normally allocated to the whaler because of its excellent seakeeping qualities. The 'double end' form of the latter enables it to be backed. Special disengaging gear is fitted for launching and recovery. Specially equipped ' survey boats' are carried by survey ships. The following tables indicate the functions, materials of construction and method of propulsion for the types of boats carried by HM warships and typical boat complements of some warships.

Materials and methods of construction Wooden boats The various types of timber adopted for the construction of wooden boats and the parts of the hull where they are used are given in the following table:

Whatever species of timber is used it must be free from defects such as shakes and large knots, thoroughly seasoned, and must not exceed a certain moisture content when it is being worked into the boat. For glued construction the moisture content may range from 12 ½ to 15 per cent if phenol glue is used and from 15 to 18 per cent if resorcinal glue is used. For non-glued construction the range permitted is from 18 to 20 per cent. The wood must be given preservative treatment against rot after all machining is completed and before being worked into the boat, by brushing with a specified preservative spirit. Inflatable boats are constructed of man-made fibres coated with synthetic rubbers. In Gemini craft the buoyancy tube is made of plain close-weave nylon fabric of weight 8 ounces per square yard coated with neoprene of weight 14 ounces per square yard on the face forming the outside of the buoyancy tube and neoprene of 8 ounces per square yard on the back. The floor consists of two plies of terylene, each of 10 ounces per square yard, the outside faces being coated with neoprene of 8 ounces per square yard and the interface with neoprene of weight 10 ounces per square yard. The shell, or skin, of wooden boats is either made up of planks or of panels of plywood, or a combination of the two, supported transversely by bulkheads, floors and 'timbers' and longitudinally by the gunwales, rubbers, stringer and bilge rail.

Two methods of construction are employed for planked boats: Clinker The planks run fore and aft with the lower edge of one plank overlapping, outboard, the upper edge of the plank below it; the overlap is termed the 'land'. The planks are fastened to the timber and to each other through the lands by copper nails driven from the outside of the hull and clenched on roves on the inboard side. A clinker-built boat is easy to construct and to repair, as a damaged plank may be removed and replaced without unduly disturbing adjacent planks. It is light and strong and is suitable for single skin boats only. The 16-ft slow motor boat and the 25-ft motor cutter are built on the clinker system. Carvel With this system the planks are worked edge-to-edge so that they are flush with one another and give a smooth surface to the hull; they may run either fore and aft or diagonally from the keel to gunwale at an angle of about 45°. In single skin boats the planks run fore and aft and are fastened by copper nails driven through the timbers and clenched on roves as in the clinker built boats. The seams may be backed up with edge strips on the inside, or caulked with spun oakum or cotton. For such single skin construction thin planks are not suitable. In double skin carvel boats the planks of the outer skin may run fore and aft and those of the inner skin diagonally as in the 27-ft motor whaler and the 35-ft medium speed motor boat. Alternatively the planking of both skins may be run diagonally the inner skin at about 45° to the keel from forward to aft, and the outer skin also at 45° to the keel, from aft to forward. The 42-ft storing tender and 45-ft motor launch are so constructed. A single thickness of oiled calico sheet is spread over the outside of the inner skin before the outer skin is worked, to ensure watertightness. Clenched fastenings are made through both skins at the timbers and between them. The carvel system gives a better surface for the hull than does the clinker system but for single skin boats it is not so strong. The carvel doublediagonal build is the strongest form of construction and its strength does not depend so much on the support of internal framing; such boats, however, are more difficult to repair. In making a planked boat the keel, stem and apron, stemson and transom, are first laid and secured firmly in place. Shadow moulds are then

erected and are secured together with stringers. The planking is worked over the shadow moulds and when complete the timbers are fitted as the shadow moulds are removed. Glued laminated members have a number of advantages over solid wood members. The laminates are thin enough to be dried easily, giving more freedom from defects, permit economical design relative to strength requirements and enable large numbers to be fabricated from small preassembled units. The glues used are of the synthetic phenol or resorcinal resin types. Keels, aprons, breast-hooks and stems can be so made. Plywood used in boat construction is made from durable timber, is waterproof and is designated Marine Plywood to BS 1088. It is used for panelling, superstructure and decking in boats of conventional construction and as the material for the shell in planing forms with fairly flat sides and bottom. Moulds are erected to keep the chine in place and the bottom is fixed to the chine. The topside sheet is added, capping the bottom sheet. A strip is added at the joint to seal the exposed grain of the topside plywood. Plywood decks are laid over beams in the usual way. The moulds are left in for stiffening the hull, serving as bulkheads, buoyancy compartments, etc. An example of a boat built on this principle is the 20-ft dory, of 3/8-in plywood covered with nylon duck, which was rowed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1966. In order to produce surfaces of double curvature the moulding of two or more thicknesses of fairly narrow pieces of plywood is necessary. Cold moulding requires a simple male mould only, stringers spaced 3-4-in centre to centre will suffice, and very little pressure is required when glueing the skins together, staples being sufficient for this purpose. Hot moulding, on the other hand, requires a robust male mould mounted on a flat metal plate running on a track. Planks about six inches wide by onetenth inch thick are stapled to the mould, second and subsequent skins are glued on one side only and as they are laid the staples in the previous skin are removed. The stem, keel, hog and transom are laminated and moulded integrally. Some eight skin laminations are laid, a rubber bag is lowered over the shell and secured and then a vacuum is applied to stretch the bag tight. The mould, shell and rubber bag are passed into an oven and subjected to steam at 50 lb/in2 for about half an hour. After removal from the oven, and a short period for cooling off, the shell is ready for fitting out, using resorcinal resin or metal fastenings. The 23-ft fast motor boat is constructed by this method. Ships' wooden boats are finished by being painted or varnished. Main structural items are given two coats of aluminium paint followed by two

coats of light grey undercoat and one coat of light grey exterior paint. The inside is given an additional coat of interior paint, as an added precaution against rot which might arise from water collecting in the boat. Parts left unpainted, such as rubbers, bottomboards, thwarts and stern benches are given two coats of marine synthetic varnish and coamings, engine casing, capping and deck, three coats. Glass reinforced plastic boats Reinforced plastic boats are cold moulded. A 'plug' usually of wood, is made to simulate the hull and from this a female mould is constructed, either of wood, polyester or epoxy resin depending on the number of mouldings required. The mould is covered with a release agent to facilitate its withdrawal after the shell has been formed. Sometimes a mould split down the middle line is used for ease of withdrawal; this is desirable with large boats if expensive lifting appliances are to be avoided. Moulding is carried out by hand lay-up or by the use of a'gun' depositor. In hand lay-up the resin gel coat is brushed on to the mould surface and is pigmented a light colour to ensure that the whole of the mould (which is usually of black colour) is covered. The gel coat is sometimes reinforced with a surface cloth, either of acrylic cloth or woven glass fibre. When the gel coat is sufficiently cured a coat of polyester resin is applied by brush. Glass reinforcement is then laid on the wet resin and rolled into it until all the glass is thoroughly wetted. Two-inch chopped strand mat is used for the outer reinforcement of large boats and all the reinforcement of small boats. In the event of the outside of the hull being damaged wick action along the glass fibre is thus confined to a distance of two inches from the damaged area, thereby minimizing the spread of water and the risk of delamination. Continuous filaments, in the form of rovings or cloth, are used where high strength is required. Laying-up of successive coats of resin reinforcement is strictly controlled on a time/temperature basis. Except for the gel coat the resin is not pigmented; this facilitates visual inspection of the complete laminate. The glass content of the complete laminate is between 30 and 35 per cent by weight for an all chopped strand mat construction and between 45 and 50 per cent for an all-woven roving construction. Inserts, either of wood or metal, are arranged in the laminate during moulding for taking fastenings in the fitting out of the boat. The 14-ft sailing dinghy is made in this way and this method will be extended to future 25-ft motor cutters and 27-ft motor whalers.

In the depositor method the gun is fed with two streams of resin (resin with the catalyst and resin with the accelerator) and a continuous length of woven roving. The gun chops the roving into 2-inch lengths, mixes the resin and shoots the mixture on to the mould. The operator is accompanied by two other men who roll the mixture on to the mould surface. Successive layers are deposited, each layer usually being different colour from its predecessor so as to ensure complete and adequate coverage. The 36-ft work boat is constructed by this method. SCANTLINGS The principal scantlings of ships' wooden boats are as follows:

Boat stowage arrangements The boats carried by warships are stowed either in davits or on deck in crutches. In aircraft carriers these crutches are sited on galley decks beneath traversing gantries and in smaller ships on weather decks generally beneath boats stowed in davits. Small craft e.g. 14-ft sailing dinghies are usually stowed in this way and launched after the boat above is clear. Gemini dinghies are usually stowed in convenient positions from which they are manhandled to davits or a derrick for launching. In a few ships, some boats are stowed in crutches within the working radius of an electric deck crane. Although fitted primarily for storing purposes, the crane provides a convenient means for working the boats. Usually three crutches are provided for a boat, made of galvanized steel plate and T-bar, the latter being fitted with a 2-in teak pad trimmed to the shape of the boat and padded with leather. The crutches are stayed against fore and aft bending and are either hinged or portable where restricted headroom does not allow the boats to be lifted clear of the stowage, for example in aircraft carriers. In the case of hard chined boats the crutches extend to the full width of the bottom. As mentioned previously, it is necessary to have certain boats, designated' sea boats' permanently stowed in davits, at sea, to facilitate rapid launching in an emergency. Davits are fitted with leather covered wood griping pads against which the boats rest. The boat is hauled in tight against these pads by sword matting griping bands or chains with slips and screws. Access to the boat from the deck is by means of 8-in wire netting. Boat working arrangements Sea Boats By the very nature of their designation these boats are mainly for emergency use involving the saving of life and are therefore capable of being launched whilst the ship remains underway. Considerable care and experience are necessary for such an operation particularly in rough weather. It is essential that both falls should be disengaged simultaneously and to effect such an operation the boats slings, forward and aft, are fitted with Robinson's disengaging gear, which, connected by a releasing line, enables one man to

slip the boat from the falls as it nears the water. The helm is held over so that the boat will steer clear of the ship. The principle of Robinson's gear is illustrated in the sketches. Foul weather pendant The shocks suffered by boats, both during lowering and hoisting, due to relative motion of the ship and swell is considerably reduced by the introduction of a nylon grommet or single nylon strop called a 'foul weather pendant' into the falls associated with davits. In boats gantries (in aircraft carriers) special compensating arrangements are incorporated in the hoisting mechanism. The pendant, 3 ft 6 in to 5 ft 0 in long, is introduced between the boat's slings and the falls and by virtue of the capacity of nylon to stretch some 25 per cent of its length under load, acts as a 'spring'. A SWR pendant secured to the davit head is fitted in association with the nylon strop for transferring the load from the falls after the boat has been raised well clear of the water. The SWR pendant is then engaged with the shackle on the disengaging gear, the falls run back, the nylon strop removed and the shackle of the falls engaged in the hook of the disengaging gear. The boat can then be lifted to its fully raised position and swung inboard. The reverse procedure applies when lowering the boat. Types of davits Hinged screw type The majority of the older frigates and destroyers retain the hinged screw type of davits for general use. These davits can be turned in or out to the desired out reach by rotating a handle connected to a worm and wormwheel, the latter operating a screw thread on the extending arm. The davit arms are of I-bar section and so shaped that the boat, in the inboard stowed position, is upright when bearing against the griping pads. The weight of the boat is taken on keel chocks fitted to each davit. The disadvantage of this type of davit lies in their hand operation and the fact that independent control of each of a pair can result in undue strains on the davits and operating gear due to unsynchronized movements.

Gravity type This consists of two portions, the davit arm and the deck frame which forms the runway for the arm. When the boat is being lowered the davit arm travels down the runway until it reaches a fixed stop by which time the boat is clear of the ship's side and disengaged from the davit head hook or 'tusk' which takes the weight of the boat when turned in. Continued veering on the winch allows the boat to travel vertically downwards. During the hoisting operation the ball-weight on the hoist wire engages a stop at the davit head, whereupon the boat and davit arm move as one until the fully housed position is reached. During this latter stage the weight of the boat is automatically transferred to the hook or tusk, thus relieving the tension in the hoist wire. Pivot torque type This has a deck frame and davit arm which together with the boat hinges about the deck pivot. To overcome the initial resistance to hinging outboard, should the ship have an adverse heel, a coiled spring is fitted between deck frame and davit arm. This spring is designed with sufficient effort to bring the C.G. of the davit outboard of the pivot pin under all normal angles of ship heel. As in the gravity type davit the weight of the boat is taken by a hook or tusk at the davit head, engagement or disengagement with which occurs during the hinging process. Traversing gantries Traversing gantries are employed in aircraft carriers where the boats are stowed in boat bays at gallery deck level. These enable the boats to be lifted clear of the crutches (usually hinged), traversed outboard and lowered well clear of the ship's side. To allow for the rise and fall of the boat whilst still attached to the falls, a compensating mechanism is fitted in the lead of wire from the winch. This gear is designed to automatically 'shorten' or 'lengthen' the falls in phase with the boat's vertical movement. A man at the forward and after ends of the boat is able to retain the disengaging hook and the fall block together without difficulty. The latest ships are equipped with either gravity or pivot torque types. Both are fully power operated and employ a single wire for boat hoisting and turning the boat to the stowed position, thus economizing considerably in

manpower. Both davits of a pair are operated by a common drive and the problem of synchronized operation does not arise. Power is not required for lowering a boat, control being exercised simply by a brake on the winch. The winches are fitted with cranked handles for operation should power fail when raising a boat. Neither of these types of davit have arrangements for combating wave motion so that the use of the nylon grommet or strop (foul weather pendant) becomes an essential safety measure. All davits are tested with a static load of twice the working load and a running load of one and a half times the working load. In the latter case the boat is raised and lowered (or traversed if applicable) so as to test all parts of the system throughout its designed range. Lifesaving equipment All HM ships are provided with adequate lifesaving equipment which includes inflatable liferafts, lifejackets for every man with spares stowed in RU lockers on the upper deck, a few circular lifebuoys for sea rescue purposes, scramble nets 'for picking up survivors and pyrotechnic distress signals. Survival suits are supplied as a personal issue to personnel when the ship has to operate in cold climates. Inflatable liferafts are provided on the basis of a raft seat for everyone on the war complement plus 10 per cent rafts spare. They are of two sizes, one to carry eight men and the other to carry twenty men. Associated with each liferaft is a survival pack containing rations, first aid equipment, repair kit and other necessities for survival at sea. The cover at the liferaft stowage position is secured to a bottle screw and thence to a hydrostatic release gear secured to the ship's structure. The raft's painter, which also serves as an operating line, is also connected to the ship's structure. In the event of the ship sinking before the raft can be launched manually, the hydrostatic release breaks free when submerged to 6 feet, the raft floats off the stowage rack and then, when sufficient tension comes on the operating line, the raft inflates. The buoyancy of the inflated raft is much greater than the breaking load of the painter which parts and the raft settles on the surface where it is immediately available for use by the survivors.

Figure 53-1:Ships Boats

Figure 53-2:Boats’ Crutches

Figure 53-4:Gravity Type Davit

Figure 53-5:Pivot Torque Davit

Figure 53-6

Figure 53-7:20 Man Inflatable liferaft

PartV: Submarines

54 General description
A vessel which can submerge and so become invisible has such an advantage over other forms of warship in its ability to surprise its victim and to evade retribution that attempts to build one were made even as early as 1578. The first serviceable submarines, however, were built only about 50 years ago. Since then they have developed greatly in size and efficiency as we know only too well from the unhappy experiences of two world wars. Although methods of detecting sub- marines when they are submerged or are on the surface at night have been devised and special weapons for their destruction evolved, similar methods are available to the submarine for the detection of its enemies, and its own weapons have been made more effective. Furthermore, the advent of nuclear power enables the most modern submarines to maintain submerged speeds comparable with those of surface ships for very long periods, irrespective of sea conditions. Certain features of submarine design have not changed since the earliest successful vessels were produced, and indeed are unlikely to change in the future. These essential features, not found in surface ships, are: a. A pressure hull within which men can live and work whatever the depth of the submarine below the surface, so long as this does not exceed the depth at which the hull would collapse under sea pressure. b. Means of admitting sea water to and expelling it from certain tanks called . 'main tanks' (usually outside the pressure hull) to neutralize or regain the re- serve buoyancy of the submarine, so that it can submerge or surface at will. c. Means of propulsion which do not depend on a supply of atmospheric air, so that the vessel can be propelled when completely submerged. d. Horizontal rudders, called hydroplanes, to control the movement of the vessel in the vertical plane when submerged. e. One or more periscopes or similar devices for observation by visual or other means while the bulk of the submarine remains submerged. The designer of a submarine is faced with many problems additional to those for surface ships. The act of submergence brings with it a change in the nature of the stability of the vessel and the necessity to resist the pressure

of the sea at depth. The requirements to withstand the shock of underwater explosions and to be able to reduce the noise of machinery transmitted to the water so as to reduce the chances of detection are common with those of surface ships but relatively more important. Submergence without contact with the atmosphere for more than a few hours entails the provision of special apparatus to keep the air in a state which will not affect fighting efficiency or the health of the men. Conventional submarines are fitted with a 'snort' tube, which can be elevated above the surface to feed the diesel engines with air to drive the ship or charge the batteries while the submarine is at periscope depth. Although nuclear submarines do not require a snort tube for normal submerged operations, they are provided with one for emergency propulsion by a diesel generator should the nuclear plant be out of action for any reason. At any time on patrol the submarine has to be capable of diving quickly by flooding the main tanks, and it is necessary to keep the vessel in diving trim, i.e. in such a condition that filling the main tanks will admit enough water to cause the submarine just to submerge but not enough to make it dangerously heavy. This must be done whatever the density of the water may be and in whatever condition the submarine may be as regards the consumption of fuel and stores. The submarine therefore requires not only main tanks but other tanks called 'compensating tanks' to make up any loss of weight by the consumption of fuel, stores, ammunition, torpedoes, etc. While embodying all these special requirements the submarine has still to provide room for equipment of the kind a surface ship has to carryarmament, machinery and fuel for surface propulsion, radio and asdic gear. Since it is desirable to keep the overall size as small as possible to make the boat less easily detected by surface craft, the arrangements inside the submarine are inevitably congested. The space available for accommodation of the crew and the means to sustain them - stores, provisions, drinking water, etc. - is much less than in a surface ship and the number of the crew must be kept relatively small. There is, therefore, more need for remote control, and in some cases automatic control, of power operated units like hydroplanes, periscopes and valves, and this necessarily aggravates the generally complicated nature of the arrangements inside the hull. The main hull in modern submarines is built of circular section, the better to with stand the pressure of the sea, and is called the 'pressure hull.' The pressure hull takes a cigar shape in plan or elevation, but the overall shape of the ship is determined by the structures built on and round it - external tanks, casing, bridge fin and ballast keel. The whole is shaped so that the external form of the ship is streamlined to give minimum resistance to motion. The

external tank structure embraces the main tanks, which are flooded or blown to make the vessel submerge or surface, fuel tanks which carry a large proportion of the fuel oil for the diesel engines, and tanks for special purposes such as the 'Q' quick diving tank and certain compensating tanks. In conventional submarines the external structure is attached to the pressure hull in the form of a saddle. In nuclear submarines, to achieve a hull shape with the least possible resistance and so obtain the highest submerged speed practicable the pressure hull is 'waisted' at the ends to provide a double hull form, the inner hull being the pressure hull and the space between the inner and outer hull forming the main tanks. The outer hull is made to fair in with the midship length of maximum diameter pressure hull to provide a circular sectioned shape throughout. The shapes are illustrated in the sketches. The purpose of the casing is essentially to encase and 'streamline' the numerous items of equipment such as capstans, bollards, hydroplane gear, hatches, etc. which must of necessity be sited on the top of the pressure hull. Fitting this casing appreciably reduces the submerged resistance and, apart from this, it provides a very necessary platform from which to carry out the usual operations associated with coming alongside, or anchoring. The bridge-fin structure has a similar purpose. In modern submarines designed for high speed while submerged it is shaped to offer the least resistance to motion ahead and embraces completely the navigating position, the conning tower and the supports to the periscopes, and the snort and radio masts. In earlier submarines designed for slower speeds submerged, the bridge structure extended only half-way up the mast supports. Conventional submarines have a ballast keel in which is stowed sufficient solid ballast to provide stability and keep the boat in diving trim. This ballast keel also provides a suitably wide docking keel and facilitates the operation of 'bottoming' on the sea bed if the need arises. Nuclear submarines also need to carry solid ballast but to avoid adding to the resistance which an external keel would introduce at high speeds the ballast is stowed inboard, in the bottom of certain compartments. In the absence of an external ballast keel special attention has to be given to the design of dry docking cradles for these boats. In both conventional and nuclear submarines a gradual growth in weight occurs as the submarine gets older from such causes as modifications and accumulation of paint. Allowance is made for this when assessing the stability so that the growth in weight can be compensated for by removing solid ballast whilst still retaining an adequate margin of stability and trim.

Other essential appendages to the hull in any submarine are the shafts and propellers, and the control surfaces, i.e. the rudder, hydroplanes and stabilizing fins. The vessel depends upon the proper shaping and positioning of these movable and fixed control surfaces for the safe and efficient control of her motion. Some spaces in the structures outside the main hull, apart from the casing and bridge fin, are free flooding, i.e. open to the sea by flood and vent holes, simply because they must be included to give the hull a smooth shape and no other useful purpose can be found for them. Typical examples are the forward and after spaces from the end of the ship to the mouths of the torpedo tubes, and the extreme ends of the external tanks which would be very difficult to make watertight on account of their shape. The volume occupied by all the free flood spaces is usually of the order of one-seventh of the total volume displaced by the submarine. The sketch illustrates a general arrangement of the compartments in a conventional submarine. Except that the size of individual compartments varies between different classes for specific reasons this arrangement is typical of most types of conventional vessel. Commencing from forward, the first compartment is the torpedo tube and stowage compartment which, as the name implies, accommodates the torpedo tubes, all of the firing gear and reload torpedoes. Each tube is provided with a watertight door at each end, the one at the outer end being called the' bow cap' and that at the inner end the 'rear door.' For reasons of safety interlocking arrangements are fitted so that the bow cap of any tube cannot be opened when the rear door is open, and vice versa. The bulkhead at the after end of the compartment is fitted with quick closing watertight doors through which the torpedoes are loaded into the tubes. The torpedoes are stowed in the next compartment, called the torpedo stowage compartment, which also contains the tanks associated with flooding and draining of the torpedo tubes and others such as fresh-water or compensating tanks, or a store, according to requirements. Embarking of torpedoes is effected through a hatch surmounting a sloping trunk built on to and integral with the pressure hull. The main batteries are carried in compartments below the main flat, extending the full length of the accommodation space and frequently under the control room. Elsewhere under the main flat throughout the length the space is taken up by diesel oil and fresh-water tanks, compensating tanks, stores, magazine and auxiliary machinery spaces. The control room, sited directly under the bridge fin, houses all the controls for operating the submarine, i.e. hydroplane and steering controls,

HP and LP air blowing panels, telemotor control panel for operating the vents to main tanks and numerous other valves, etc. Most of the radar, wireless, asdic, navigation and attack equipment is contained within the same compartment, some being in separate offices. The periscope and other masts of that type travel through the control room into the spaces below, and in some cases it is necessary to build cylindrical 'wells' on to the bottom of the pressure hull to obtain the de sired amount of travel. The main diesel engines which charge the submarine's batteries on the surface or when snorting, and the electric motors which drive the submarine on the sur face or submerged, are accommodated in the same compartment with their associated controls and switchboards and some auxiliary machinery such as distillers and various pumps, coolers and compressors. The aftermost compartment, usually termed the 'after ends,' contains the after torpedo tubes and torpedo stowage, the steering gear and after hydroplane gear, and accommodation for part of the crew. Throughout the submarine, groups of high-pressure air bottles are stowed in convenient positions, particularly at the sides of the battery compartments. The vessel depends upon this supply of HP air for her ability to surface, and it would be appropriate to conclude this general description with a brief outline of the operations of diving and surfacing. All the time the submarine is on the surface a careful record is kept of the consumption of lubricating oil, stores, ammunition, water, etc. and as weight is lost in this way it is compensated for by the admission of water into the 'compensating tanks.' Water has to be pumped out to compensate for the diesel oil that is used, because arrangements are installed which allow sea water to enter the fuel tanks as oil is used by the engines. In addition to this compensation of weight the 'trim' of the submarine, fore and aft, has to be maintained constant so that when the submarine dives not only will the buoyancy equal the weight but also the centre of buoyancy will come in the same vertical line as the centre of gravity. Thus, when the vessel is completely submerged there will be no hydro static force or couple tending to upset the 'trim.' Only two hatches are permitted to be opened when the submarine is on the surface at sea, viz. those at the top and base of the conning tower, because the freeboard at the other hatches, just above the level of the top of the pressure hull, is very small, even in flat calm and stopped. To leave these open as a normal procedure would invite disaster. The submarine is said to float in 'diving trim" and is able to dive in good trim when the draughts are such that the volume and distribution of the reserve buoyancy is equal to that of the ballast tanks, i.e. when the shaded

volumes shown in the sketch are equal. These draughts are the same whatever the density of the water. Most of the main tanks are open to the sea at the bottom through free flood holes. The signal to dive is given by the captain by means of a klaxon, at the sound of which the crew immediately and without further orders carry out the necessary operations to dive and control the submarine. In particular the main vents are opened and the hydroplanes brought into operation immediately. The captain has to make a quick retreat into the conning tower and close the upper hatch, and the primary object of the conning tower is at once apparent. The vessel is submerged to periscope depth in less than a minute and this time can be shortened by the use of the' Q' (quick diving) tank. If Q tank is flooded this makes the vessel heavy so that the acceleration of the dive is greater and the diving time smaller. The tank is blown out soon after complete submergence is achieved. Small adjustments to the trim are made as soon as the boat is submerged and she is then ready to proceed deeper by operation of the hydroplanes. When the klaxon sounds the engines are immediately stopped and the electric motors, supplied by power from the batteries, continue to propel the submarine. The forces exerted by the hydroplanes are adequate to turn the boat in the vertical plane to and from any ordered depth within the designed maximum depth of the submarine, but as the vessel proceeds deeper so the volume of the pressure hull is compressed by the force of the pressure of the sea and it is therefore necessary to expel water from the compensating tanks to counteract the excess of weight over buoyancy. The reverse operation is necessary as the submarine reduces depth. It is not necessary to compensate in this manner for change of depth of the order of, say, 100 ft. To surface the submarine, a sonar search of the sea in the immediate area is first made and if found to be clear of other craft the submarine is brought to periscope depth by the hydroplanes. A visual search is then made through the periscope before blowing tanks to surface. The water in some or all of the main tanks is blown out with HP air sufficient to bring the upper conning-tower hatch well out of the water so that it can be opened and the rest of the water in the main tanks expelled with LP air using the LP blower. Again the primary object of the conning tower is made obvious. The LP blower is a low-pressure machine which takes air from the atmosphere via the conning tower, compresses it and forces the compressed air into the main tanks. This brings the submarine to the surface more slowly than if HP air were used, but it conserves the HP air and eliminates the necessity to r0echarge the system frequently, which is rather important.

Having thus obtained a brief but comprehensive view of the general arrangement and operation of a submarine, attention can be directed to more specific items of the construction and equipment of such vessels. As the main principles are generally similar to those for surface ships it will be sufficient to cover only some of the more important items peculiar to this type of vessel.

Figure 54-1:submarine General Arangements

Figure 54-2

55 The pressure hull
The mere fact of becoming invisible by submerging gave early types of submarine almost complete immunity from attack by surface ships, and they therefore needed only to be able to dive to quite shallow depths. The development of underwater detection devices, accelerated by the experiences of two wars, has led to the requirement for much increased diving depth in modern submarines and consequently more attention to the design of the pressure hull. The magnitude of the forces exerted on the hull will be quickly appreciated when it is realized that a radial compressive load of more than 400 tons is applied by the sea pressure at 300 ft depth on a ring of the plating only 1 ft wide and 16 ft diameter. The total load on the hull is sufficient to cause a small but measurable reduction in the diameter. Consequently when changing depth water has to be discharged from or taken into the compensating tanks to keep the boat in trim, i.e. to maintain a balance between weight and buoyancy. In addition to strength to resist static sea pressure, the hull must stand up to the effects of severe shock from underwater explosion, and, having done so, return to its normal shape and dimensions, i.e. have no permanent set when the submarine surfaces. Theoretical considerations set the standards for achieving, on a given weight of hull, the maximum strength against collapse and these are: a. Circular section. b. Adequate frame strength and correct spacing in relation to the hull thickness, diameter and spacing of the main transverse bulkheads. Any departure from a truly circular section, or from the theoretically correct scantlings and disposition of material, must inevitably result in reduction of diving depth unless more weight is expended, e.g. an oval section at the ends will generally accommodate the torpedo tubes in less space but this advantage has to be weighed against the extra weight of structure to achieve it at the same diving depth. In modern submarines spare weight to put into the hull is rarely available because of the continual growth in the amount of equipment which has to be carried. A circular section also facilitates construction and for these reasons the pressure hull is nowadays

generally made up of a cylindrical part, two or more truncated conical parts and a domed bulkhead at each end. The main framing of a submarine consists of a regularly spaced series of transverse frames of tee section and welded direct to the pressure hull plating. Longitudinal framing is worked only where necessary to support important loads such as the main engines and motors. The longitudinal strength inherent in the structure as designed for the required collapse depth is generally found to be more than adequate to combat the forces imposed by a seaway or during docking. The pressure hull plating is butt welded at all edges. Some advantage is to be gained by fitting the frames outside the hull; fitting out of the submarines is generally facilitated and, for the same type and size of vessel, access to machinery and equipment for maintenance is easier. On the other hand, a submarine hull with internal frames is more easily fabricated and the frames can be used to support machinery and equipment, instead of having to fit additional framing for the purpose. Although the strength against static loading is little different whether the framing is internal or external, in the latter case some doubt must always exist as regards reliability under the shock of underwater explosion, e.g. a short run of defective welding between the frame and the plate could cause them to part under shock. At such a spot there would be a local weakness by which the safe diving depth would be reduced by an unknown amount. Any opening in the pressure hull constitutes a discontinuity which, if not adequately compensated, could lead to concentrations of stress and undesirable distortions. The severing of transverse frames aggravates the effect and should be avoided wherever possible. An example which illustrates this point well is the torpedo hatch which entails cutting the plating and several frames and bridging the opening with a large sloping trunk. A sketch is given illustrating the heavy compensation necessary by way of bracketing and portable struts required to minimize the transverse distortion which occurs when the submarine is submerged. Similarly, a sudden change in the diameter of the pressure hull at any section constitutes a point of weakness which can only be eliminated by the expenditure of considerable weight of local stiffening. It is better to avoid such changes if it is practicable to do so. The quality of the steel used for the plating and framing is naturally a major factor in determining the diving depth. The better its mechanical properties are, consistent with its weldability, the greater will be the diving depth but only if the quality of workmanship is high. Without efficient preparation and welding of the material the designed diving depth cannot be

fully relied upon. This is so important that arrangements are made for a continual check to be kept on the quality of the welding, as building proceeds. The welders employed are specially trained and their work closely supervised. Very extensive examination of the welding is carried out as it proceeds, by ultrasonic and radiographic techniques. The sketch of the midship section of a submarine indicates the principles of construction of the pressure hull and external structure. The scantlings of the structure vary from class to class. A description of the method of prefabricating a length of the pressure hull is contained in a later chapter.

Figure 55-1:Typical Midship Section (Submarine)

Figure 55-2:Torpedo Hatch Trunk

56 External structure
The normal methods of construction for surface ships are used in the construction of the casing, bridge fin, external tanks, etc., except for any parts which may be required to withstand the full diving pressure such as the conning tower, external compensating tanks and quick-diving tank. Such items are designed on the same principles as the pressure hull and their effect upon the local strength of the latter has to be closely investigated as described previously. The sketch of the midship section of a submarine, already given, illustrates the scantlings and typical method of construction of the external tanks, casing and ballast keel. Modern vessels are being fitted with glass reinforced plastic (GRP) casings with the express purpose of reducing corrosion. Bridge fin assembly The conning tower, navigating position and supports to the periscopes and other masts are surrounded by a streamline shaped structure in the form of a dorsal fin. The sketch given illustrates the disposition of the navigating position, the conning tower, the periscopes, snort and aerial masts and the general scantlings of a steel structure cladded with aluminium. In way of the magnetic compass, the bridge structure and the top portion of the conning tower must be made of non-magnetic material, usually aluminium, or, in the latest boats, GRP. In the latest boats the bridge fin is clad with GRP but the latter, unlike steel or aluminium, is not worked to contribute to strength. Consequently extra steel stiffening is required and the overall assembly is slightly heavier than if cladded in aluminium. The risk of corrosion in way of connection and fittings to the GRP is illustrated by zinc spraying or dipping the steel structure. The conning tower comprises a cylinder stiffened by external frames and is designed to take the full sea pressure. The top is made in the shape of a dome and carries a circular watertight hatch. A second watertight hatch is fitted in the pressure hull at the bottom of the tower.

Both hatches, being of heavy construction and requiring to be closed quickly, are fitted with balance weights or springs. The conning tower is welded direct to a pad which is in turn welded to the hull. In addition to the gland and bearing at the hull, each periscope or other periscopic mast is supported by two other bearings outside the pressure hull, one near the top of the fin structure and the other midway between it and the hull. Each bearing is housed in a 'box' formed by web plates between the sides of the fin structure. The supports to all the masts are combined into one assembly in the form of a pedestal of considerable length and narrow trapezium section, which has to withstand the forces imposed on the fin and the extended masts when the submarine is submerged and turning at full speed and rudder. In addition, the structure has to be designed to minimize the vibration in the masts and periscopes which may be caused by eddy forces on the masts themselves or induced by the rotation of the propellers. Assembly of this pedestal structure so that good alignment of each set of bearings is obtained requires special care and it is found distinctly advantageous to carry out the work in the shop under the best conditions. This facilitates the initial fitting and alignment of the bearings and leaves only the final alignment to be effected after the structure has been secured at the ship. The whole of the space inside the fin structure is free flooding, with the exception of the conning tower, and to this end some care is necessary with the size and positioning of flood and vent holes to make sure that air is not trapped when the submarine dives, and that the diving time is not unnecessarily extended by the fin structure taking too long to flood. Stern fin and tail assembly The rudder and after hydroplanes, the shaft brackets and the greater part of the length of the stern torpedo tubes, if the latter are fitted, are sited abaft the pressure hull and a robust structure, securely attached to the pressure hull, is required to support the forces on itself and on the rudder and hydroplanes, all of which may reach their peak values simultaneously, i.e. when the submarine is diving or rising at full speed with full rudder and hydroplane angle. The assembly comprises a tail structure which is 'wrapped' and securely attached by brackets and girders to the after end of the pressure hull and, in

the case of a twin screw submarine, suspended from this tail structure, a stern fin shaped as shown in the sketch. The purpose of the fin is to carry the lower pintle of the rudder and the bearings of the hydroplanes which are positioned directly behind the propellers to obtain the maximum lift effect from the propeller race. The rudder head, outer ends of the torpedo tubes, and shaft bracket palms are carried by the tail structure. The construction of the rudder and hydroplanes is on conventional lines, and the shaft brackets in modern submarines are fabricated in a similar manner to that described for frigates. Projecting from the tail above the hydroplanes and protecting them from damage when coming alongside are the stabilizing fins. These are of triangular shape in plan and section and are designed with the object of stabilizing the ahead motion of the submarine by introducing a force and couple of such magnitude and direction as to counteract any out of balance hydrodynamic forces on the hull. They are fabricated by welding and firmly secured to the tail assembly by orthodox methods as shown. If the submarine is fitted with a single propeller the tail assembly, together with the control surfaces, can be made symmetrical about the axis of the propeller as shown in the sketch.The bow assembly is similarly constructed to the stern and sufficiently strong and rigid to support the forward torpedo tubes. The casing The primary purpose of the casing is to enclose the external fittings and equipment inside a fair and small as possible appendage to achieve minimum resistance. Consequently access within the casing is difficult for maintenance and painting and for this reason the use of glass reinforced plastic or aluminium is being introduced, with the secondary object of saving weight. Sketches showing the principles of construction are given. In the case of GRP the casing is made up by lengths of moulded sections with integral frames and other strength members, fastened to the pressure hull by galvanized mild steel bracket plates to which the GRP is bolted as shown. A non-skid 'grit' surface is applied to the top surface and a matt black colour is impregnated into the GRP in the moulding process. Aluminium casings are fabricated as shown in the sketch, of 6 swg aluminium top and sides stiffened with welded longitudinal and transverse

stiffeners, all welded except that the top surface is single riveted to the sides. To prevent electrolytic corrosion of the aluminium the sides have to be insulated from the pressure hull where they are connected to the latter, using rubber strips and ferrules as shown.

Figure 56-1

Figure 56-2

Figure 56-3:Submarine Stern Fin Assembly-Single Screw

Figure 56-4:Submarine Casings

57 Prefabrication of hull structure
The same advantages which apply to prefabrication of surface ships, described in the chapter dealing with the subject, apply to submarines, and more so because the pressure hull is of regular form. The length of each portion of the pressure hull is decided by consideration of the capacity of the lifting and transporting facilities and the number and position of the bulkheads in the ship. For conventional submarines there may be as many as eleven sections to the pressure hull, which are joined by circumferential butts which may be welded at the open berth under cover of a special weather-excluding structure which can be shifted as necessary to cover the work. At some yards the entire building berth may be enclosed. Some weldments will contain a bulkhead and others not, and the bulk of the testing of main compartments will have to be left until they are joined together at the slip. A rigorous programme of water and air testing of compartments is laid down in the relevant hull specification. At the early stage of prefabrication the pressure used is chosen to test the structure. At a later stage lower pressure air tests for proving bulkhead fixtures, cable glands, flap valves etc., are supplied. The programmes of assembly of weldments and pressure testing need to be well coordinated. There is no need to stagger the transverse butts of the pressure hull and each weldment therefore consists of an open-ended cylinder, or a truncated cone if it is intended for either end of the vessel. Dealing with any one weldment and assuming the plates and frames will already have been prepared in the machine shop these are gathered at the assembly site which is equipped with all the necessary appliances and in particular the welding equipment and gear for rotating the unit to facilitate welding. In some yards this consists of four or more rollers geared together and driven by a VSG or similar machine, or the unit may be lifted and turned by using a crane. The establishment of a production line in the prefabrication shop is easier to set up and control than for a surface ship with much more numerous weldments. The sequence of operations for each weldment is similar to that for surface ships, starting always with the shot blasting and priming of the plates and T-bar frames when they arrive at the yard. Most of the T-bar frames can be bent cold and butted on the smithing slab, after which the complete circular frames are stress relieved in the furnace. The plates continue to the edge profile burner to put on the correct preparation for subsequent seam welding, and thence to the rolls.

The pressure hull section is usually made up with eight strakes joined by longitudinal seams so that one plate, rolled to the correct curvature, is wide enough to bridge the gap between rollers on opposite sides. The plates which form the bottom strakes of the weldment are joined by welding and laid across the rollers to form a base for the T-bar frames. The frames have to be temporarily braced until secured to the pressure hull in order to keep them circular. The frames are erected, plumbed and horned, and held in position on the base plate by means of light ribbands in the first place. As the pressure hull plates are fitted on to them the rigidity and accuracy of erection is increased by the use of strong steel ribbands secured to nuts welded to the pressure hull plating on either side of each frame. The length of these ribbands is limited by their weight being kept small enough for them to be handled, and is normally about 6 feet. Some force is required to pull the plates home to the frames to ensure good faying between them for welding. Modern yards now have automatic welding machines and with the provision for unit rotation, down hand welding is possible on all outside seams of the units. The inside run of welding is put in by hand, because of frame obstructions, a mousehole in the frames allowing the welder a continuous run. Radiographic and ultrasonic techniques are then applied on completion, and any welding repairs required catalogued and made good. The welding of the cylinder is then completed, the joints being made in a predetermined sequence designed to minimize distortion from the true form. To this end, a ' spider' is placed in each end of a weldment to prevent the free ends departing from circular. When all framing and plating has been welded the ribbands and nuts are removed. As much internal structure as possible, such as tanks, machinery seats, bulkheads, torpedo tube sleeves, hull inserts and other items which can be conveniently installed away from the building berth are then added, until the limiting weight is reached. Hull inserts require very careful edge preparation and preheat procedures to prevent cracking, lamination, or other defects as described in the chapter on welding. As many as possible of these inserts should be fitted before weldments are shipped to the berth. The assembly of other weldments will have been taking place simultaneously and the ends of adjoining ones can be accurately checked for dimensional agreement before final preparation, in the form of a vee, for joining together. The weldment is now lifted off the rollers and transported by crane, or special transporter, to the head of the launching berth where it is transferred to a travelling gantry, built specially for the purpose, which transports it

down to its allotted position on the berth. Alternatively, it can be placed in position by a crane. The gantry method is very suitable in that it enables complete control and better positional adjustment of the unit to be maintained until it is joined to its neighbour. The weldments reach the slip in the order from stern to bow, and forward and after portions usually being assembled complete with torpedo tubes and external structure. Each weldment is joined to the one abaft it as soon as it is in position, after final adjustments have been made to the edges of the joints as mentioned above. By previous arrangement the longitudinal butts of one unit are shifted with respect to those of the next to make tee joints with the transverse butt weld. The sequence of the welding of the transverse butts between the units has sometimes to be altered as welding proceeds in order to maintain alignment in either the vertical or horizontal plane, or both. When a sufficient number of hull units have been joined, sections of the ballast keel are added, whilst the skeg and prefabricated sections of main ballast tanks are lined off and subsequently fitted. When the pressure hull is completed the bridge fin, casing, bow and stern sections, stabilizer fins, rudder, etc. are fitted at ship. A typical 'split-up' of the hull into weldments is shown in the sketch. From this stage, through launch to completion, the alignment of shafts, torpedo tubes and periscope bearings, testing of compartments and tanks, fitting out of the hull, shipping of machinery and batteries and all other remaining work follows the normal pattern. The necessity for a carefully prepared scheme of erection and sequence of welding and the precautions necessary with the transporation of the weldments or sub-assemblies apply as for surface ships.

Figure 57-1:Pre Fabrication of Submarine Hull

58 Watertight subdivision
The internal arrangement of compartments in a conventional submarine has been described earlier. The hull is divided horizontally by a main flat for practically the entire length. This flat is watertight but designed only to accord with the maximum pressures to be expected in the tanks or compartments below it, e.g. 50 lb/in2 in way of compensating tanks and 5 lb/in2 in way of the battery compartments. Much more importance is attached to the longitudinal subdivision by transverse bulkheads, for reasons of stability. The stability of a submerged submarine is measured by the magnitude of the height of the centre of buoyancy above the centre of gravity. Both the longitudinal and transverse metacentres coincide with the centre of buoyancy because there is no water plane and the magnitude of the static righting couple, W x BG sin 6, is the same for longitudinal or transverse inclinations. The distance BG is small, even in large submarines, and the response to a longitudinal moment of shift of weight of any appreciable magnitude, for instance that caused by one or two men moving forward, is immediately felt by reason of the angle by the bow that it causes, and the need to correct this angle by means of the hydroplanes. The righting couple would be affected by the entry of water into the boat, first due to the moment of the mass of the water and secondly due to the inertia of its free surface. Obviously both these effects are likely to be more serious in the longitudinal plane and hence the importance of good subdivision by transverse bulkheads. The length of the pressure hull is usually divided, more or less equally, by four or five bulkheads of very robust construction. These bulkheads are designed not only to localize flooding but also to withstand the pressure of the sea at considerable depth and so facilitate the escape of men trapped in the submarine if she is forced to bottom and cannot rise from the sea bed. A sketch giving the method of construction and scantlings of a typical bulkhead is given. Only one door is fitted in each of the main transverse bulkheads, usually 2ft 6 in diameter, with the lower edge 1 ft 6 in above the flat. These doors are designed to stand the same pressure as the bulkhead, from either side, and the arrangements for locking the door on to its seat are consequently somewhat massive as shown by the sketch. Hinges of adequate strength with a small amount of free movement to prevent binding are provided in the normal manner and a light wedge-type clip is fitted to hold

the door in the closed position whilst the main closing gear is operated. The latter consists of a pinion, which can be turned by a long handle, engaged in a rack forming part of a metal ring running round and screwed to the door frame. The ring is formed with a number of lugs which jam on to wedge pieces on the door when the ring is moved into position by turning the pinion. When pressure is applied to the door from the same side as the hinge, the door is forced on to the rubber seating com- pressing the latter more and more with increasing pressure. When pressure is applied from the opposite side the load tending to force the door off its seat is taken by the lugs of the closing ring. By means of this gear the door can be closed more quickly and efficiently than if it were designed with the more orthodox separate clipping arrangement used in surface ships. Each compartment has a circular hatch in the crown of the pressure hull which is designed to take the same pressure as the hull from the outside and a small pressure from the inside, the latter being for the purpose only of air testing the compartment. Lugs are fitted on the outside so that salvage clips can be fitted to hold the hatch against an appreciable pressure from inside in the event of salvage operations being necessary. The hatch cover is of ' dome' form and hinged, a spring being fitted to counteract its weight and facilitate opening and closing by hand. The static sea pressure is more than adequate to keep the hatch tight on its seating. When the rubber gasket has been compressed a little, that is, at a comparatively shallow depth, the rim of the cover makes metal-to-metal contact with the metal seating, thus preventing excessive indentation and damage to the rubber. Special crescent-shaped clips are provided to secure the hatch against the effects of underwater explosion. A strong cylindrical coaming is fitted around the hatch opening for compensation of strength and particular attention is given to the connections between this coaming and the frame, or frames, which have to be cut. The hatch covers to the torpedo embarkation trunks are similarly designed. At least two of the general access hatches, one forward and one aft, are fitted with a twill trunk, stowed inside a light coaming below the hatch opening, for escape purposes. These hatches are fitted with a small vent which is necessary to vent the air in the trunk when rigged, so as to completely flood the trunk, equalize pressure on both sides of the hatch, and thus allow it to be opened from inside. A similar vent is fitted to the upper conning-tower hatch for use if the tower is used for escape or for reducing any excess air pressure, which may have built up in the boat whilst dived, before opening the hatch after surfacing.

Recent advances in escape techniques have made it possible to escape from depths of about 500 ft. Submarines are now being fitted with a special escape tower in the foremost and aftermost compartments for such purpose, should the need arise. Each tower has a hatch at the top and bottom similar to the conning tower. Without flooding the escape compartment the crew, one at a time, can enter the tower which is then flooded to equalize pressure and enable the top hatch to be opened and allow escape. The upper hatch is then re-closed from inboard, the tower drained down, and the procedure repeated. Glands to electric cable leads, gear rods, etc. which pass through the pressure hull or bulkheads are designed on orthodox lines. Sluice valves are fitted at the bulkheads where pierced by non-pressure-tight trunks or pipes. Where large pipes like the battery exhaust ventilation trunks and snort induction pipe pass through the pressure hull a light-weight, handworked flap valve is fitted in addition to a pressure-tight flap valve worked by gearing or telemotor power. In the event of sudden leakage or flooding of the trunk from the sea the flap can be closed very quickly to prevent a heavy inrush of water that would otherwise occur during the time that it takes to shut the geared valve. The main compartments are tested to the test pressure of the bulkheads during building by filling them with water and applying an air pressure on top of the water. Later when all the equipment and glands have been fitted an air test to 35 lb/in2 is carried out and leaks rectified to ensure that the watertight integrity has not been impaired.

Figure 58-1:Submarine Main Transverse BulHead

Figure 58-2:Submarine Watertight Door

Figure 58-3:Submarine Escape Hatch

Figure 58-4:Battery Ventilation Hull Valve

59 Ventilation and air conditioning
In addition to the ventilation and air conditioning of the living and working spaces it is necessary, in a submarine, to provide special arrangements for the ventilation of the main battery compartments. When the batteries are being charged they evolve hydrogen and sulphuric acid fumes in particularly large quantities at the top of the charge. The hydrogen, if allowed to accumulate, could cause a dangerous explosion and the acid fumes introduce an obvious hazard to the health of the crew. To minimize the risk of spreading these gaseous fumes throughout the boat the battery ventilation arrangements are kept separate from the ship ventilation and air-conditioning system. Conventional submarines require very large batteries for propulsion and the ventilation system for them is a major installation. Nuclear submarines have smaller batteries and the system is correspondingly smaller but they have other air conditioning problems which are described later Conventional submarines Ship ventilation, air conditioning and air purification Three conditions have to be catered for, apart from climatic ones: a. On the surface only the conning-tower hatch and engine exhaust are open to the atmosphere. The snort induction may also be open if it is desired to carry the air supply to the engines direct, instead of down the conning tower and through the boat. b. When snorting, the conditions are the same as 1, except that the conning-tower hatch is shut and only the snort induction open. c. When submerged below snort depth there are no air inlets or outlets to the atmosphere. The general principle adopted in ventilating a submarine and shown in the diagrammatic sketch is to supply air artificially to the various spaces in the submarine through trunking, the fans drawing their supplies from the airconditioning compartment. Two main trunks, one running forward and one aft, deliver the air through punkah louvres. The air is allowed to find its way back naturally to the air-conditioning compartment. The air may be

conditioned, i.e. heated, cooled or dried as described later according to the requirements at the time. For certain spaces, namely the WCs, galley and wash places, a separate artificial exhaust system is provided, and this service is extended to the radio and sonar spaces where considerable heat is generated by electronic apparatus. The air is discharged by the exhaust fan into the air-conditioning compartment. The pressure hull is lagged internally to prevent condensation. When completely submerged the air in the boat is merely circulated from the air-conditioning compartment to the outer compartments and back, and so on. Under these completely closed down conditions it is essential in hot climates to condition the air by cooling it slightly and so reducing its humidity. Heaters are fitted in the trunks where they leave the plant for the purpose of warming the air in cold climates. Circulation of the air is maintained by two large supply fans in association with two air-conditioning plants all sited in the central airconditioning compartment. The two fans discharge into a common trunk which is fitted with a valve which can be adjusted to vary the amount of air diverted forward or aft. The trunks between the fans and coolers of the conditioning plant are cross connected so that each fan can draw through either cooler if required. In this system it is of course essential to ensure that each compartment obtains its fair share of the supplied air by careful adjustment of the punkah louvres, so that there is a steady flow of return air from the ends of the vessel to the supply fans amidships. In later conventional vessels a separate recirculation system is fitted aft in lieu of the branch from the central air conditioning compartment and local air coolers are fitted in various spaces throughout the vessel. Under the condition of complete submergence it is necessary, after a few hours, to 'purify' the air as well as condition it. The crew are continually using up oxygen from the air in the boat and expelling carbon dioxide so that in time it becomes necessary to prevent the percentage contents of these gases from going beyond certain limits for physiological reasons. If this is not done the mental and physical alertness of the men would fail, with adverse effect upon fighting efficiency. Special apparatus is therefore provided which absorbs the carbon dioxide and the oxygen in the air is replenished by special oxygen generating apparatus supplied for the purpose. On first installation a series of trials of the ventilation system is carried out. Readings of air flow, temperatures at inlets and outlets of the

conditioning plant, humidity, etc. are taken for different fan speeds and settings of the baffle in the snort branch pipe and for different settings of the punkah louvres in the supply pipes, and so on, to determine the best settlings for efficient use of the system under the different conditions 1, 2 and 3. Battery ventilation When the batteries are not being charged it is sufficient to vent the battery compartments to those above the main flat by the flaps to intake trunks fitted at the ends of the compartments opposite to the exhaust outlets. These flaps are normally kept open at all times, and the small amount of hydrogen evolved passes up the intake trunks and is diffused throughout the boat and consumed in hydrogen eliminators. The conditions are very different when the batteries are being charged, a process which can take place only when the submarine is on the surface or snorting. Large volumes of air must be passed over the tops of the cells and discharged overboard, not only to get rid of the hydrogen and sulphuric acid fumes but also to help to keep down the temperature of the batteries. Air is sucked down into the battery compartment through the intakes from the space above by powerful fans situated outside the battery compartment. These fans discharge the vitiated air into the engine room through a pipe which is usually led out of and then into the pressure hull, in each case via a geared hull valve and hand-operated flap which have been described in the chapter on watertight subdivision. The air is sucked in by the engines, which are being run to charge the batteries, and discharged overboard by them as exhaust gases. Fresh air enters the submarine to take the place of the exhaust gases via the conning tower or snort induction. In harbour if the engines are being repaired, or cannot be used for charging for any reason, the batteries have to be charged from shore or from another ship and it is necessary to use some other means than the engines to discharge the battery gases. The method employed is indicated by the diagrammatic sketch given. The outboard ventilation pipes are grouped and led up to a large master valve sited on the bridge. Normally the valve is kept shut and is only opened if it is necessary to discharge the battery gases direct by fan power instead of by the engines. The master valve is usually arranged with gearing by which it can be opened or closed from inboard. All parts of the system outside the hull are designed and tested to take the full diving pressure. The system inside the ship is tested to 5 lb/in2 and the fans are fitted with gas-tight seals to minimize the risk of hydrogen leaking into the boat when charging. It is very important before commencing a

charge to make sure that the valves and flaps in the system have been properly adjusted and on no account should naked lights be allowed during the time of charging and shortly afterwards. When the system has been completed on first installation trials are conducted to ensure that the designed flow of air is achieved by the fans before installing the batteries. When the batteries have been installed special trials are conducted in the first ship of the class to measure the air flow, temperatures, and hydrogen content of the air in the trunks and battery compartments during the actual operation of charging the batteries. The results of these trials determine the need for any modification to the system and the safe charging rates under different conditions for all ships of the class. In later conventional vessels the exhaust pipe from the battery compartment is led wholly inboard, instead of piercing the pressure hull, to the diesel generator compartment and the supply to the battery compartments is trunked from the snort intake trunk. Snort arrangements Some submarines have been fitted with a hinged mast which encompasses both the induction or intake pipe and the exhaust pipe but in more modern submarines separate masts are fitted for the induction and exhaust, each being raised on the periscope or telescopic principle. This has the advantage that the induction hood can be raised to different heights above the surface to suit the sea conditions without varying the depth of the exhaust outlet below the surface. The exhaust gases are discharged just below the surface to reduce the risk of them betraying the position of the submarine to searching craft. The depth of the exhaust outlet below the surface is determined by the allowable back pressure of the engines. A ball-float type valve, fitted in the hood of the induction mast, closes automatically due to the action of buoyancy if the hood dips below the water and so prevents water entering the ship in large quantity. It is of course impossible to prevent spray being carried down the mast with the incoming air but most of this is separated out in a water trap at the base of the mast and can be drained inboard. Inside the submarine the induction trunk is carried below the floor plates of the engine room and any water which collects here can be pumped out by the ballast pump. A telemotor operated valve is fitted in the induction trunk at the pressure hull. This valve can be closed very rapidly to prevent large quantities of water entering the boat if

the snort hood valve fails to close. A hand operated flap is also fitted below the hull valve. When not snorting the induction mast is flooded and arrangements are fitted to drain it inboard quickly when raised prior to starting the engines. The exhaust mast also is flooded when not snorting and the water in it can be blown out by the back pressure of the engines when they are started up or by HP air. When the submarine is snorting a partial vacuum is set up inside the submarine, i.e. the pressure inside is less than atmospheric and furthermore when the snort hood dips below the surface the engines suck air from the submarine and cause a further, rapid decrease in pressure. The partial vacuum must not be allowed to exceed a certain figure or the crew would suffer serious injury to their ears. Injury to the ears also arises if the rate of release of the vacuum when the snort hood emerges exceeds a certain figure. These limiting figures are the basis upon which the design of the induction system depends and usually a compromise has to be struck between such factors as the size of the induction mast, the resistance of the induction circuit, the available power from the engines under snort conditions, and the rate of charge required for the batteries. The whole of the system outside the pressure hull is designed to be watertight against the pressure corresponding to about 100 ft. depth of water. The masts are designed to withstand the water forces due to speed through the water and so as not to vibrate unduly due to eddy forces or propeller revolutions. The various operating levers to valves in the system and associated instruments such as barometers, pressure gauges, mast height indicators, etc. are grouped together in two positions, one in the engine room and one in the control room, to facilitate control of the operation of snorting and to minimize the risks to the safety of the submarine under such conditions. Nuclear submarines The nuclear reactor needs no air and insofar as propulsion is concerned the submarine can remain submerged indefinitely. The main factors controlling duration of submergence are therefore the extent to which the air supply in the submarine can be kept free from harmful contaminants and excessive carbon dioxide and the ability to replenish the oxygen used up by the crew. Nuclear submarines are therefore equipped with sophisticated oxygen generating plants and carbon dioxide removal plants, together with elaborate

monitoring devices to enable the quality of the air to be kept under constant surveillance. The small battery can be kept charged when the submarine is submerged by restricted charging routines, any hydrogen generated being consumed in hydrogen eliminators. A comprehensive ventilation system keeps the air in the boat thoroughly circulated and in the course of its circulation the air passes through large air conditioning plants, which keep the temperature and humidity at a comfortable level.

Figure 59-1:Sub Marine –Ship Ventillation

Figure 59-2:submarine Exhaust Ventilation of Batteries

60 The telemotor system
The more important valves and other units concerned with the control of the submarine when submerged or with the operations of rising and diving, e.g. the vents to the main tanks, 'Q' tank kingston, main induction valve, presses for the periscopes and other masts, bow caps, hydroplane gear, etc. are actuated by telemotor power to good advantage. The space and weight for hand-operating gear could not be spared, even if the men to work it could, especially as all such units have generally to be worked quickly and this requires very considerable power. Direct operation is highly desirable and in many cases it is necessary to group the controls actuating a number of units on to a single panel; for instance the hydro-electric control valves which open and shut the vents of all the main tanks are fitted on one panel in the control room. Telemotor power serves these purposes well and the principles of the system adopted in submarines are outlined below. Referring to the diagrammatic sketch the power system comprises, essentially, two motor-driven pumps supplying oil to two air-loaded accumulators, which in turn feed oil into a main pressure line running throughout the boat. Leads to the various units to be served are tapped off this main. The return oil from the unit finds its way back to the pump suction via a main return line and a replenishing tank. The range of working pressure for which the system is designed is usually chosen as the result of a compromise between several factors. The higher the working pressure the smaller the units will be and this saves weight and space. On the other hand larger pumps and more powerful motors are required for a higher pressure and the losses in the system arising from the higher flow velocities would be greater. Time of operation of the numerous units intended to be served has considerable influence on the working pressure chosen; generally speaking, higher pressure means quicker operation. The time for which normal operation of all the units is required without running the pumps is usually laid down and determines the total capacity of the air-loaded accumulators. The maximum demand on the system, assessed by summating the capacities of the maximum number of units likely to be used at one time determines the power and capacity of the pumps. The system is automatically controlled to reduce the physical and mental strain on the men who would otherwise have to be continually employed closely observing the air and oil pressures, stopping and starting the pumps, charging the air bottles, etc.

The pumps are stopped and started automatically by electrical means, control emanating from a special control gauge, G1 registering the pressure in an oil cross connection between the two accumulators. This gauge is fitted with electrical contacts set at the maximum and minimum pressures of the working range. When both accumulators are full their pistons are at the top of the stroke and the pressure in the system is a maximum, i.e. the upper end of the working range. At this pressure, the pointer of the gauge G1 meets a contact which causes a current to flow to electrical relays in the control box and stop the pump, or pumps if both are running. Similarly, when the pistons of the accumulators are at the bottom of their stroke, the pointer of the gauge registers the lower pressure of the working range and meets a second contact which causes the pump, or pumps, to be started. This automatic operation is the same whether one or two pumps or one or two accumulators are in use. A second control gauge, G2, of the same design is used to work indicating lights and buzzers which warn the operator if the oil pressure falls below the lower working limit, and when the accumulators are full and available. These lights and others which indicate when the pumps are running are grouped in a. panel on the front of the control box. If the automatic control system fails for any reason, electrical or mechanical, the pumps can be stopped and started in the usual manner by hand operation of the motor starters after first putting certain electrical switches to the ' off' position. A separate pressure gauge of the normal type, G3, connected direct to the main pressure line, is provided to indicate when the pumps should be operated by hand, and a gauge, G4 indicates the air pressure and the need to 'top up' the air bottles. The moving parts of the various units served by the system and their control valves are manufactured to very fine tolerances and would therefore be scored by any small particles of metal or dirt which inevitably find their way into the oil and circulate around the system. To minimize the chances of defects arising from this cause two measures are taken. In the first instance when the system is being installed and later when pipes and valves, etc. are being repaired, great care is taken that castings, pipes and any other parts are freed from all traces of scale, rust, sand or dirt before installation. Secondly, a series of strainers or filters marked S in the sketch, is incorporated in the system. After installation the oil is circulated round the system and any metal particles or other foreign matter are trapped by these filters which are then cleaned and replaced. When the system is in use all the filters are examined periodically and cleaned when necessary. In addition to those shown in the sketch, filters are fitted on the pressure side of any units which are vital to the control of the vessel, e.g. at the piston-control valves

of the hydroplane operating gear, and one is incorporated in each pump for its protection. Relief valves, R, are fitted at the positions shown to prevent any undue pressure being exerted at any part of the system, and thus reduce the possibility of damage or leaks from such cause. The pump reliefs discharge into the suction line, and it will be noted that a non-return valve is included in the discharge from each pump. The tests of the system after completion include a pressure test to ensure that all joints are tight and an endurance test at the maximum working pressure for several hours. In the latter test all the units like main vents, kingstons, presses,etc. are operated and then placed in the shut position. The pumps and accumulators are then shut off and a record taken of the fall in pressure with time. If this is too rapid, the system has to be more thoroughly examined for leaks and the test repeated when they have been stopped. All piping and heavy fittings are resiliently mounted to reduce the effect of shock by underwater explosion. Each pump and its motor are mounted on a common bedplate secured to special mountings which are designed with the dual purpose of attenuating the transmission of noise to the sea via the surrounding structure and the effect of shock.

Figure 60-1:Telemotor System

61 Periscope hoisting arrangements
The modern submarine is equipped with several masts, including the attack and search periscopes, radar and snort masts, which are capable of being raised so that the viewing window or radar array comes above the surface while the submarine is still submerged. Except for the snort indication mast all of them require to be rotatable either by hand, as in the case of the periscopes, or mechanically at uniform speed of rotation. The elevating gear may be of one of two types. The first is by means of sheaves attached to the lower end of the mast and to the hull, between which steel wire ropes are reeved and led to a hydraulic ram sited away from the periscope or mast. The second and more modern type of gear does not make use of wires, the raising and lowering of the mast being effected directly by the action of hydraulic rams which form part of the mast assembly. This type of gear is illustrated in the sketch of the elevating gear for a periscope. The periscope is centrally situated in the hull gland between two identical hydraulic elevating rams attached to the crosshead of the periscope. The periscope tube slides in a white metal bearing position by an aluminium bronze securing ring screwed into the hull gland. Two narrow galleries in the hull gland permit waterproof grease to be introduced as a lubricant to the bearing. Entry of sea water is prevented by wiper rings fitted between securing and retaining rings. Two isolating valves are fitted to the hull gland, one in each of the lines leading to the top of the raising and lowering hydraulic cylinders. In the event of damage to this piping, these valves, which are normally open, can be closed to prevent sea water contaminating the hydraulic system. Control of the operations of raising and lowering the periscope is effected through a hydraulic control valve the principle of which is illustrated diagrammatically in the sketch. To raise the periscope, hydraulic oil is admitted under pressure to the bottom (raising side) of each cylinder, driving the piston up the cylinder and carrying the periscope with it. The control valve selector directs high pressure hydraulic oil to either of the two operating cylinders of the control valve and oil from the other operating cylinder passes to the return mains. The resultant movement of the control valve allows high pressure oil to flow to the raising connection on the two elevating cylinders, while oil from the lowering connection is returned, via the control valve, to the return mains.

The periscope is lowered under the force of its own weight augmented by hydraulic oil under reduced pressure. Operating the control valve forms a closed system between the top and bottom of the elevating cylinders. As the swept volume above the pistons is greater than that below, pressure in the system falls as the pistons descend under the weight of the periscope but is maintained by make-up oil from the pressure main via a reducing valve in the control valve. The reducing valve is adjustable over a range of pressures and the optimum pressure to suit the system is found during installation. During raising, the pressures at the inlet and outlet ports of the reducing valve are equal and render it inoperative. A relief valve located in the control valve only comes into use when the periscope is being lowered. Oil is relieved to the return main when pressure in the lowering transmission line exceeds that set on the reducing valve by more than 50 lb/in2. An emergency pilot bypass valve is inserted between the control valve and the control selector valve. When it is necessary to operate the control valve by hand, the by-pass valve is manually operated to interconnect the control valve operating cylinders and shut off the lines from the control valve selector

Figure 61-1:Perescope Elevating Gear-hydraulic ram type

62 Pumping and trimming systems
As in the case of a surface ship a pumping and flooding service has to be provided to deal with comparatively large quantities of water in the surface condition. In addition it is frequently necessary to discharge or transfer smaller quantities of water in the submerged condition to strike an accurate balance between weight and buoyancy and maintain a level keel. To meet the requirement to discharge water at depth the pumps have to be designed to work against high-pressure heads and those parts of the system exposed to the sea when pumping or flooding must be designed and tested for use at the full diving depth. The principle of the system adopted in submarines is illustrated by the diagrammatic sketch given. The main ballast pump is arranged, by means of a six-way valve chest, to pump water overboard from any of the compensating, trimming, battery tanks, etc. or bilges, or to transfer water from any one of these compartments to another. To admit water the pump is by-passed by suitable manipulation of the valves in the valve chest. A flow meter is incorporated in the discharge to sea to register the quantity of water discharged or taken in board and so keep a check on the trim. The suctions to the compartments are taken off a main suction and flooding pipe generally known as the main line, which is usually 41/2 in bore tapering to in at the ends, via other valve chests as requisite. Each suction is fitted with a mud box just before it enters the compartment, and a strainer at the end which is taken to the lowest part of the tank and stopped about 2 in clear of the bottom. The bilges in the machinery spaces are not dealt with normally by the ballast pump. A separate 'oily bilge pump' is provided for this purpose and cross connected via a locked screw-down valve to the main line so that the ballast pump can be used if the oily bilge pump breaks down. A similar cross connection is fitted between the main line and circulating water system so that the ballast pump can be used to serve that system if the circulating water pump breaks down, and vice versa. Hose connections are provided for such purposes as washing down the superstructure by means of a hose led up through the nearest hatch. The main line and branches thereto are made of copper-nickel piping, and the valves of nickel-aluminium bronze. Valve chests, mud boxes and other fittings in the system are generally of gunmetal. Pipe connections at decks

and bulkheads are usually of the screwed flange type as these are economical in space. To keep the submarine balanced longitudinally when submerged and to pump out or take in water to maintain neutral buoyancy as nearly as possible, a separate trimming line served by a reversible trim pump is provided. The trimming line terminates in a trim tank at each end of the submarine, and branches are led to the external compensating tanks placed amidships. The system can be used to take in or pump out water from these latter tanks or to transfer water between the trim tanks. Water can be taken into the trim tanks via the suctions fitted from the main line, but this is only done if large quantities are involved, e.g. when putting the submarine in 'diving trim' after a long period on the surface, or after repairs, etc. To facilitate the operation of changing over from tank to tank a valve chest fitted with a twin-control cock is incorporated as shown and a flowmeter is included to indicate the quantity of water passing. The trimming line, which is usually 2 in or 21/2 in bore throughout, is cross connected with the main line so that the ballast pump can be used in the place of the trim pump if it breaks down, or in conjunction with it, and vice versa. The ballast pump has to be designed with two or more stages for use against the high-pressure heads thus involved and its capacity at deep depths is, naturally, considerably less than that on the surface or at shallow depth. The materials, fittings and test pressure of the trimming system are similar to those of the main pumping system. The flowmeters in each system are protected by suitable strainers on either side. A secondary means of trimming the submarine, for use in the event of breakdown of the trim and ballast pumps, due for instance to an electrical failure, is usually provided. The trim tanks are connected by a LP air line with a three-way control cock between. A branch is taken from the LP vent and blow service to this cock and the latter is designed so that water can be blown from the forward tank to the after tank while the latter is vented inboard, or vice versa. The control valve is set to the mid position, closing off both tanks from the LP line, when the pump system is in use.

Figure 62-1:Pumoing & trimming system(Sub Marines)

63 High pressure and low pressure air systems
A high pressure (HP) and a low pressure (LP) system of air blowing for expelling the water from the tanks of a submarine are required to facilitate the operation of surfacing and manoeuvring when submerged, and to carry out less important duties such as the blowing of auxiliary tanks like freshwater, torpedo and sewage, etc. tanks. As has been described earlier, to rise to the surface the water in the main tanks has to be expelled. It would be possible to do this with pumps, but not only would the size of the pumps be excessive but the time taken would be too long, and it is found more effective to use HP or LP air. The HP air system usually consists of two ring mains, one forward and one aft, cross connected amidships. HP air is stored in three or more groups of bottles placed in the ship and feeding into a bottle group control chest in the control room. By manipulating the valves in this control chest one or more of the bottle groups can be used to serve one or both of the ring mains. The bottles are charged by air compressors which are usually electrically driven. A connection for charging by means of compressors from the shore is also provided. The working pressure of this high pressure air system is usually between 3000 and 4000 lb/in2, and the system is tested to 6000 lb/in2. Connections from the ring mains are taken for charging torpedoes, blowing tanks, etc. as requisite. The main tanks can be blown by high pressure air direct from a blowing panel situated in the control room and fed from the bottle group control chest. The control valves for blowing the quick-diving tank, or any other direct-blow tank, are fitted at the same blowing panel. Corresponding port and starboard main tanks are blown together, with the exception of one pair of midship tanks which are fitted with separate blows so that any considerable list which the submarine may take when surfacing can be corrected. The quick-diving tank,' Q,' is fitted with a differential sea relief which prevents the pressure in the tank from exceeding the sea pressure by more than a certain amount. This eliminates any chance of the air pressure in the tank becoming high enough to burst it. All the main tanks, including those fitted with kingstons, can be blown with low pressure air from the LP blower system, which is installed with the express purpose of expelling the water from the main tanks in the later stages of surfacing. The operation of surfacing is carried out in two stages. In the first stage HP air is used to expel water from some of the tanks,

sufficient to bring the conning-tower hatch well above the surface. The conning-tower hatch is then opened to provide a suction to the atmosphere for the low pressure blower, which forces air at about 15 lb/in2 into the main tanks to expel the remainder of the water left in them. By this means the HP air in the bottle groups is conserved and the frequency with which the compressors have to be run is reduced considerably. The LP blower, which is usually of the rotary type, feeds an LP blow panel in the control room. Leads are taken from the valves in this panel to the main tanks in a similar manner to the HP direct blows, pairs of tanks being blown together with the exception of the chosen midship pair which are fitted with separate blows for correcting list when surfacing. Connections are taken from the HP air ring mains at convenient positions to serve what is generally known as the LP auxiliary vent and blow system. At each connection a reducing valve, R, is fitted so that the tanks served, e.g. diesel oil, fresh-water, trim, torpedo, lubricating oil and sewage tanks, can be blown with air up to 50 lb/in2 pressure according to the test pressure of the tank or system concerned. The reduction of pressure is usually achieved by means of two reducing valves, the first one at the ring main reducing the pressure to about 50 lb/in2 and the second one to 15 lb/in2 or other pressure as requisite. Relief valves are fitted as necessary to guard against damage by excessive pressure should the reducing valves fail. Pipes forming part of the HP blowing system are usually made of coppernickel, whereas those in the LP blowing system are of hot solid drawn steel galvanized inside and out. Valves and valve chests and other fittings in the system are usually made of gunmetal or other suitable non-ferrous material.

Figure 63-1:L.P.Blower System

Figure 63-2:H.P.Air System

Part VI: Special types of ship

64 Aircraft carriers
Aircraft carriers feature very prominently in the fleets of the major naval powers and pose some of the most difficult design problems because, on a hull possessing the normal ship features, the designer must provide for the operation and maintenance of a formidable air striking force. Some idea of the magnitude of these problems may be gained from the fact that the operation of a large carrier's aircraft ashore would require an airfield, with hangars, runways, maintenance facilities, etc. extending over several square miles, and the same functions of that aerodrome have to be achieved in a ship about 800 feet long with flight deck area of only one or two acres. Some separate treatment of this type of vessel, within the field covered by this book, will therefore not be out of place, but space will permit only a brief examination of those features which are radically different from those of normal surface ships. The essential feature of an aircraft carrier is a clear flight deck from which aircraft take off and on which they land. Below the flight deck is a hangar, or in the larger carriers there may be two hangars, one above the other. At the end of the hangar, and sometimes at the sides also, are accommodation and workshop spaces on two levels, for the hangar extends through two normal deck heights in order to house the tallest naval aircraft. All this is carried above a normal surface ship hull. To maintain the clearest possible flight deck the bridge and funnel are moved to the starboard side and encased in the ' island.' Radar and wireless aerials, important armament directors, and sometimes part of the armament itself, are similarly grouped on the island. The boiler uptakes have to be led across the ship and, if necessary, fore and aft to the funnel in such a way as to avoid encroachment on the hangar space. This concentration of the upper works on the starboard side requires corresponding adjustments in the transverse distribution of weights in the ship to counteract the asymmetric moment. The ship's self-defence weapon armament takes second place to flying arrangements and is grouped on sponsons around the ship and sometimes on the island, getting the best arcs possible without encroaching on the flight deck. The features described above explain the enormous bulk of an aircraft carrier above water.

Aviation arrangements The basic aviation features of all types of carriers are the same, differences arising only in the number and types of aircraft operated, the degree of armour protection in the ship, the extent of ship defensive armament, and ship speed Essentially the aviation arrangements comprise: a. A flight deck, situated at a height above water to facilitate flying on, even in rough weather, and of length sufficient to take the catapults forwards and amidships and landing area aft. b. Catapults, situated at the forward end of the flight deck or amidships and of such length and power that the heaviest aircraft carried can be accelerated to flying speed without unacceptable stresses being imposed on the aircraft. c. Arresting gear, situated in the midships and after part of the flight deck and so designed that the heaviest and fastest aircraft carried can be brought to rest without overstressing the aircraft. d. Aircraft lifts, for transporting aircraft and equipment between hangars and flight deck. Two lifts are usually fitted, one serving each end of the hangar, and located near the middle line or at the deck edge. The diagrammatic sketch given illustrates the principle of the raising and lowering system of an electrically operated lift. With such a lift the platform is suspended by a number of chains each of which is anchored at one end to the platform, and, passing over a sprocket, is finally attached to a balance weight. The combined weight of the balance weights is equal to the weight of the lift platform plus one half the working load. The weight of each lifting chain is in turn balanced by counterpoise weights carried on an endless chain attached to each balance weight and running around sprockets at the top and bottom of each balance weight trunk. Thus as the platform descends and the weight of each lifting chain is added thereto a corresponding weight is added to the main balance weight. The differential unit provides synchronization of drive from the two motors and, together with the ring of shafting, allows the lift to be driven by one motor at half speed. e. Hangars, situated beneath the flight deck, of height and area sufficient to stow a large part of the carrier's aircraft complement. f. Workshops, grouped as far as possible around the hangar for the ready transport of components to and from the aircraft. Workshops are

provided for servicing aircraft engines, airframes, armament, electronic equipment and safety equipment. g. Aircraft munitions, such as bombs, torpedoes, rockets and gun ammunition are stowed with maximum protection. Supply arrangements are such that they can be moved rapidly to the flight and hangar decks for arming aircraft. h. Aircraft fuel. Large storage tanks for the stowage of engine fuels are worked structurally into the ship. Associated pumping, filtering and draining systems are provided for delivering fuel to fuelling positions. i. Deck landing projector sights. These enable the pilot to line up his aircraft correctly for landing on, when still some distance aft of the ship. There are usually two deck landing projector sights, to port and starboard of the flight deck, the port one being for normal use and the starboard for use in the event of damage to the port sight. j. Radar, communications, operations room complex. The great operational ceiling and speed of modern aircraft - enemy and friendly require the use of long range radar, computers and wireless communication with friendly aircraft, all of which have to be housed in the carrier. k. Briefing or ready rooms, and photographic spaces. Special spaces are provided where aircrew are briefed for operations, and where they wait at instant readiness until it is time to embark in the aircraft. Extensive photographic facilities are provided for developing aerial and other photographs. l. Flight deck lighting. A pattern of lights inset into the flight decks helps the pilot to get into the correct lateral position when approaching the ship at night. m. Meteorology. A balloon filling station is usually situated below flight deck level at the after end of the ship. n. Aircraft control room, hangar control room, and flying control position (Flyco). Flyco and the ACR (in the island) and the HCR (in the hangar) between them direct take-off, landings and movements of aircraft around the ship. Flyco is a prominent structure cantilevered out over the flight deck from the island giving a good view fore and aft over the whole deck. o. Walkways. Walkways extend most of the way around and just below the flight deck, being interrupted in way of the deck edge lift, etc. Walkways have many uses, e.g. stowing of firefighting equipment, fuelling equipment, arresting gear control positions, stowage lockers

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of all kinds. They are also readiness positions for key flight deck personnel and provide an escape route if an accident occurs on deck. Helicopter platform. Sometimes a special extension is provided on the flight deck for stowing a helicopter clear of fixed wing aircraft operations. Emergency barriers. A nylon barrier can be erected across the flight deck, in emergency, to recover an aircraft which, for any reason, is unable to land into the wires (e.g. defective hook). Jet blast deflectors. At the after end of the catapult there are one or more hinged jet blast deflectors. These disperse the hot high speed jet efflux which comes from an aircraft at full throttle on the catapult and enable succeeding aircraft to be ranged quite close to the catapult without fear of damage. Deck cooling panels. It is sometimes necessary to fit water-cooled panels aft of the catapult to prevent the aircrafts' jet efflux from overheating the deck.

The flight deck layout, and indeed the ship design as a whole, is dependent to a large extent on the type and performance of the aircraft which have to be carried. Modern high performance aircraft cannot take off in the limited length of flight deck available for the purpose without being assisted in some way. Rockets may be used to assist take off, but a catapult is more effective and one or more catapults are fitted in all carriers at the fore end of the flight deck or amidships. Considerations of aircraft strength limit the pull which can be applied when catapulting, and hence the acceleration that can be imparted. The faster the take-off speed required to render the aircraft airborne, the longer therefore must be the catapulting stroke. The length of the catapult and the space required to bring aircraft into position at its after end, ready for catapulting, are important factors in determining the length of flight deck before the island structure and the forward lift in a modern carrier. Aircraft are arrested by means of a hook on the underside engaging one of a number of wires stretched across the flight deck in the area where the aircraft touch down, after having cleared the end of the flight deck by a safe margin. Each wire is connected to special machinery below the deck which is so adjusted that as the wire is pulled out it exerts a retarding force on the aircraft to bring it to rest. The strength of the aircraft is again a critical factor, and the higher the speed of the aircraft relative to the ship, the longer is the pull-out distance required to keep the deceleration within the limit set by the aircraft's strength. When the aircraft has stopped, its hook is removed

from the wire. The latter is re-set ready for the next landing while the aircraft is moved out of the way. To keep to a minimum the time the carrier has to be steaming into the wind for recovering aircraft, the aircraft must be able to land on in very quick succession; there is no time to strike one aircraft down to the hangar before the next aircraft is ready to land. The landing area is therefore angled relative to the centre line of the ship as shown in the sketch. After landing on it is usual for an aircraft to taxi to the starboard forward corner of the flight deck clear of the landing area. If an aircraft, in attempting to land, misses all the wires it can fly off the end of the angled deck in safety and come round again for a second attempt. In case an aircraft should have to be recovered with a defective arresting hook an emergency barrier is provided. This consists of a nylon net which can be quickly attached to a hinged stanchion rigged across the flight deck. Its ends are attached to bundles of undrawn nylon which are in turn secured to the flight deck. When an aircraft engages the net these nylon bundles are stretched out and absorb energy, bringing the aircraft smoothly to rest. Structural design Structurally, the carrier can be designed on either of two systems, depending on which deck is taken as the strength deck. These are: Flight deck as strength deck The ship's structure is all made to play its part in the strength girder of the ship. The flight deck must be made heavy enough to withstand the bending forces imposed on it in a seaway and must be robustly connected to the other portions of the strength girder. This calls for longitudinal bulkheads extending down from the flight deck to the hangar deck, and usually beyond, to join with the longitudinal bulkheads in the hull proper and so form a homogeneous structure. This system is sometimes referred to as the 'closed hangar' type. Hangar deck as strength deck The hull is designed similar to a normal surface vessel with the upper deck as the hangar

deck and the strength deck. Above this the hangar sides and flight deck are worked, literally as superstructure, with a series of expansion joints to prevent these members playing any effective part in the main strength girder of the ship. The flight deck is supported by large transverse frames to take the aircraft loads and racking strains, and there is no necessity for longitudinal bulkheads. Thus the hangar can extend for the full width of the ship, the ship's sides becoming, in fact, the hangar sides. This system is sometimes referred to as the 'open hangar' type and usually gives a larger hangar plan area for a given size of ship. The closed hangar design gives a more homogeneous structure, more convenient access through the ship, particularly fore and aft in the event of a fire in the hangar, more ready isolation of the hangar when aircraft are being fuelled or defuelled and fire risks are heavy, and valuable hangar and gallery deck spaces outside the hangar on both sides of the ship for stowage of boats and equipment, funnel uptakes, etc. If the flight deck is an armoured deck, or if very heavy aircraft are to be operated, the closed hangar arrangement is almost essential for the efficient support of the loads involved. It is also more suitable if hangar side protection has to be worked. A sketch of the structure of a closed hangar vessel, above the hangar deck, is given. Whichever type of construction is chosen, the hangar deck has to withstand high loading caused by the parked weight of an aircraft. The flight deck also has to carry the parking load and, in addition, the deck in the landing area has to withstand much higher forces caused by the impact of the wheels when an aircraft lands on. So high are these forces that it is sometimes necessary, for economy of weight, to design the deck plating by 'plastic theory' - accepting that some small permanent 'dish' of deck plating will occur in service. Special structural features Two features special to aircraft carriers may be mentioned: Side lift opening The large holes which it is necessary to cut in the ship's side, hangar bulkhead and sometimes the flight deck, require compensation by structure which may have to be built of special notch-tough steel.

Catapult retardation structure At the end of the catapulting stroke when the aircraft has reached a high speed so also has the catapult shuttle, and this heavy piece of equipment has to be brought to rest before it can be pulled back to the after end of the catapult ready for the next launch. A special retardation gear is fitted for this purpose, but even so the stopping forces are very high, and a special structure of thick high tensilesteel plating is constructed to distribute the forces safely and smoothly into the main ship's structure. Services A carrier has all the services worked in a normal surface vessel, salt-water services, fuel oil filling and suction system, and so on. In addition, she has an aviation fuel system for the reception on board and delivery to aircraft of aviation fuel. A diagrammatic sketch of the arrangements is given. The presence of aviation fuel on board is recognized by the stringent safety measures imposed when aircraft, or the ship, are being fuelled, and in the arrangements for stowage and pumping the fuel. The fire-fighting arrangements throughout the ship are particularly thorough, especially at the flight and hangar deck levels. A major feature of the arrangements is the hangar spraying system, by which remotely controlled pumps can be brought into action to completely drench any part of the hangar. This system is described in the chapter on fire protection. A necessary corollary to this system, and the flight deck arrangements, is a very complete system of scuppers to drain away the loose water. Since this water may be carrying fuel these scuppers are kept entirely separate from those for other ship's services. Modern aircraft have such powerful engines that their fuel consumption is very much greater than their wartime counterparts. This has meant a considerable increase in the quantities of fuel to be stowed on board the carrier. Special consideration is given to the ventilation of the hangar. In addition to giving reasonable working conditions to the aircraft maintenance crews, the system is required to prevent an explosive concentration of vapour gathering. To ensure this, forced exhaust and natural supply is used, but since fuel vapour is heavier than air, the exhaust openings are at the lower part of the hangar bulkheads and the supplies at the top. Very large trunks

are necessary to convey the large volume of air involved and they are fitted with flaps to seal off the hangar in the event of fire. Rapid water transfer system In small carriers where movements of heavy aircraft about the deck can cause angles of heel which, on a wet day, can be sufficient to hinder later aircraft movements, a rapid means of transferring water ballast from one side of the ship to the other may be provided.

Figure 64-1:AirCraft Carrier

Figure 64-2:AirCraft Carrier-Hanger Structure

Figure 64-3:Typical Electric AirCraft lift arrangement

Figure 64-4:AVCAT System

65 Assault ships and landing craft
An assault ship and its associated landing craft provide the means of transporting a heavy military cargo and then landing it without the assistance of port facilities. The ship is built to warship standards for withstanding the rigors of the sea and sustaining action damage in addition to the ability of carrying and maintaining a landing force with its weapons and vehicles. This 'military cargo' can be varied as the occasion demands. To provide the necessary flexibility of loading to achieve this it is essential for one load carrying deck to be unobstructed by pillars and similar structure and to be strong enough to take the heaviest equipment used in modern warfare. This deck is called the tank deck. Other spaces may be broken by lines of pillars or limited by difficulties of access and ship stability considerations. The sketch indicates the principles of the layout of the ship to suit these requirements. Landing craft mechanized (LCM) are carried and loaded into the ship via the dock at the after end of the ship. An 'apron', sloping up from the fore end of the dock to the tank deck has a dual purpose; first to act as a ramp from the dock to the tank deck and provide a 'hard' when embarking LCMs; secondly to act as a 'beach' or wave breaker to reduce water motion within the dock. To obtain a good performance as a wave breaker the surface of the apron is built up of robust steel gratings resting on an open framework. The after end of the dock is closed by a horizontally hinged gate which is raised and lowered by a pair of hydraulic rams. Additional spaces for stowing light, manoeuvrable vehicles are available on the lower vehicle deck and on the flight deck if the latter is not required for helicopter operations. Both of these decks are loaded with vehicles via hinged ramps from the tank deck. For ocean passage the dock is dry and the floor of the dock is above the water line. To prepare the ship for operating landing craft it is sunk to a deep draught by flooding ballast tanks spread throughout the length of the ship. These tanks are filled and emptied by a large bore ballast system powered by high capacity pumps. The crew and embarked troops are accommodated forward of the vehicle spaces, in the wing compartments and in the superstructure. The vehicle spaces, containing gasoline powered vehicles, are places of high fire and explosion risk. To minimize this risk these spaces are isolated from the remainder of the ship by longitudinal bulkheads at the sides and a transverse bulkhead at the forward end. These are preserved as watertight

bulkheads up to No. 1 deck and access between these spaces and the remainder of the ship is through air locks. The ventilation systems which serve these spaces are designed to remove gasoline vapour from those places where it would tend to settle and generally to maintain a low concentration of dangerous gases by supplying large quantities of air. The outlets must be carefully sited to prevent the petrol-laden exhaust air being drawn into other ventilation supply systems. A foam/water spray system is fitted throughout the vehicle spaces to give immediate, effective fire-fighting facilities to prevent a small fire spreading. A sketch is given of a typical structural section of the centre portion of the ship. The ship is heavily framed to withstand the variations in loading caused by changes in cargo, water ballast and fuel. No. 1 deck is selfsupporting over the wide central span throughout the length of the dock and tank deck. The tank deck is supported on lines of pillars in the lower vehicle deck, heeling on transverse bulkheads or the bottom structure. Outside the vehicle spaces the structure is similar to that found in most warships. The structure surrounding the dock is protected from the impact of landing craft in bad weather by extensive wood fendering on the sides and deck. The deck is laid with three inches of wood whilst the sides are protected by wooden batter boards. The latter are up to four inches thick and laid on vertical grounds. The arrangement gives a resilient 'cushion' to spread the loading to the bulkhead framing. A centre line barrier of horizontal wood timbers on steel I-bar supports is fitted in the forward half of the dock to form a pen, slightly wider than an LCM, to keep the craft under control when they are being loaded or unloaded. Landing craft The landing craft carried by the assault ship are of two types: Landing craft personnel (LCVP) This is a small craft some 35 ft long for carrying personnel and light vehicles. They are carried in davits which hoist the craft above No. 1 deck level. The LCVPs are loaded by being hoisted to No. 1 deck level, and bowsed into the ship's side to prevent relative movement whilst men transfer between ship and craft. The craft are of wooden construction - plywood skin on mahogany frames with mild steel stiffening strips to give increased longitudinal strength to the bottom members. Mild steel plate is used for the

forward engine room bulkhead. The bow ramp and side sheathing give a measure of protection against light weapon attack. The side plating, being welded at the butts, improves the longitudinal strength of the craft. The sketch indicates the general arrangement of this type of craft. Landing craft mechanized (LCM) This is a larger craft, about 100 feet in length, capable of carrying tanks and other heavy vehicles and landing them on to a beach. Simple crew accommodation and navigational arrangements are fitted to enable the craft to be used as an independent unit. The LCMs are carried and loaded within the dock. Whilst in the dock it is controlled by lines to the catwalk bollards being warped along from bollard to bollard as the craft movement allows. Having reached the forward position it is contained by the centre line barrier and a transverse barrier which can be raised behind it. In this position the bow ramp can be lowered for vehicles to drive from the tank deck on to the craft or vice versa. The craft outline is tailored to fit into the dock with adequate clearance from fixed structures. The extremities are protected by large section rubber fenders. The vessel is built of steel except for the wheelhouse which is aluminium. The scantlings are generally light but adequate for all purposes and precautions are taken to increase the strength in vulnerable positions, such as where the craft comes into contact with the beach. The deck structure is supported by lines of pillars at those positions which correspond to the vehicle wheels in the available loading configurations.

Figure 65-1:Assault Ship-General arrangement

Figure 65-2:Assault Ship-typical structure Section

Figure 65-3:Landing Craft Personnel

Figure 65-4:landing Craft Mechaniser

66 Minesweepers
Minesweepers are required to clear safe passages for friendly or neutral shipping into sea ports by sweeping mines or by confirming their absence. The mines may be of the buoyant 'contact' type, moored by wire rope and sinker to the sea bed and floating at or near the surface, which explode on contact with a ship's hull; or they may be of the non-contact influence type. The latter type usually lie on the sea bed, in which case they are called ground mines, or may be buoyant and moored similarly to contact mines. This type are actuated by the magnetic field of the ship, by the noise made by the ship or by the suction pressure set up by the ship on the sea bed in the relatively shallow water of estuaries or harbour entrances. In consequence any type of minesweeper must carry the necessary equipment for, and be able to tow sweep gear, to deal with any of the foregoing types of mine. The equipment includes large powerful winches and cable reels, powerful generators, strong davits at the stern and Dan buoys to mark the limits of the swept area. A Dan buoy is simply a buoyant cylinder (with a light tubular mast to carry a flag) which is moored to the sea bed by a sinker and small anchor. These buoys are laid by slipping from one of the davits fitted it the stern. To reduce the risk of the minesweeper herself being destroyed or damaged seriously by magnetic mines whilst engaged in a minesweeping operation it is obviously advantageous to construct the hull and manufacture the equipment as far as practicable with non-magnetic materials. For this reason the hull may be of composite construction in wood and aluminium, or of wood only. Two types of vessel are in general use. The larger coastal type is about 150 feet in length and 450 tons displacement and the smaller type - the inshore minesweeper - 100 feet long and 150 tons. A description of the former and the sketch given are illustrative of the general features to be found in both. Coastal minesweeper For a composite construction vessel the main framing, bridge structure, engine casing and transverse bulkheads are built in aluminium alloy plating and extruded sections, whilst the outer bottom, decks and flats are of wood.

The aluminium alloy vertical keel, upper and lower connecting angles and rider plates are continuous. The transverse frames, which comprise extruded aluminium alloy bulb angles, are worked continuously from keel to uppermost deck. Longitudinals and stringers are worked continuously between transverse bulkheads and slotted over the frames. Deck girders are worked continuously between main transverse bulkheads. Diagonal tie plates may be fitted on the ship's side. Connections in the aluminium structure are by aluminium alloy rivets. The outer bottom planking is of seasoned African mahogany normally in two or more thicknesses to a total shell thickness of several inches. The planks are arranged running fore and aft with the seams of the inner layer coming midway between those of the outer. The bilge keel is of Green heart and the stem of laminated Canadian rock elm. Weather decks are constructed of Borneo whitewood planking of sufficient thickness to allow the planks to be caulked, and the internal decks and flats are made of plywood. Bollards, fairleads and other fittings are of cast aluminium bronze.To avoid electrolytic corrosion, the use of lead, copper or mercury based paints is not permissible anywhere in the structure of these vessels. Special attention has to be paid to faying surfaces and fastenings of the aluminium alloy structure which must be coated with zinc chromate yellow paint and well bedded in an insulating compound. Fibre washers are inserted between dissimilar metals, and under heads of screws, bolts, etc. in addition to the washers normally fitted. To reduce the incidence of corrosion of the aluminium alloy structure and marine borer attack on shell planking, the hulls may be sheathed with plastic or nylon sheathing or an extra sacrificial thickness of wood. The superstructure is arranged to accommodate the necessary navigation, radar, wireless and minesweeping control offices. The fore end of the ship is devoted to accommodation, the midship length to the engine and generator room and the after end to storerooms. Most of the ship's services worked in a normal surface vessel, e.g. PF and D, fresh water, salt water and dieso filling are fitted in a minesweeper. In order to obtain a speedy assembly, streaming and recovery of a particular sweep, it is essential to have a good sweep deck layout, as clear as practicable of normal ship fittings. Floats, otters, kites and other heavy minesweeping equipment are arranged within the working radius of the minesweeping derricks and davits. A cable reel and minesweeping winch for handling sweep wires is sited on the middle line at a suitable distance from

the transom. Bollards and fair-leads are provided as necessary to handle minesweeping wires

Figure 66-1:Coastal Mine Sweeper