: Youssef Gomaa Youssef
CE 402: Part A
Shallow Foundation Design
Lecture No. (3): Spread Footing
Fayoum University
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
Spread Footing
A
t
t
1
A
1
b
B
1
B
a
Design of Spread Footing
• Plain concrete footing (P.C.)
.
*
F L
a
P
Area A B
q
= =
Eq.(1)
Assume thickness of P.C.:
t = (0.25 to 0.50)
Dim. of P.C. = A * B * t
A
A
1
t
1
t
P
F.L
P
G.S
q
a
G.S
( ) ( ) A a B b ÷ = ÷
Eq.(2) optional
Solve Eqs (1)&(2) to get A and B
Design of Spread Footing
• Reinforced concrete footing (R.C.)
1
2 A A X = ÷
 
2
1
( ) / 2
2
I n
A a
M p
÷
=
.
1 1
*
G s
n
P
p
A B
=
*
cu
M
d C
b F
=
1
cov t d er = +
Steel cover=5.0 to 7.0cm
Dim. of R.C. = A
1
* B
1
* t
1
A
1
t
1
P
G.S
p
n
G.S
a
+
+
+
+
B.M.D
1
2 B B X = ÷
= 0.80 → 1.00 ∗
Design of Spread Footing
• Shear Stress:
1
*
2
s n
A a
Q p d
÷
 
= ÷

\ .
0.75
cu
su
c
f
q
¸
=
*
s
s su
Q
q q
b d
= s
Q
s
: shear force at critical sec. (II).
q
s
: shear stress.
q
su
: ultimate shear strength.
If q
s
> q
su
, Increase d
Notes:
•No shear RFT in Footing.
t
1
A
1
P
G.S
(II)
G.S
a
(II)
(II)
p
n
d
+

S.F.D
Design of Spread Footing
• Punching Stress:
 
.
* ( )*( )
p G s n
Q P p a d b d = ÷ + +
 
*2* ( ) ( )
p
A d a d b d = + + +
p
p
p
Q
q
A
=
 
0.5 ( / ) / /
cup cu c cu c
q a b f f ¸ ¸ = + s
If q
p
> q
cup
, Increase d
t
1
A
1
P
G.S
G.S
a
p
n
d/2
a
d/2
d/2
d/2
b
Design of Spread Footing
• Footing Reinforcement:
Which is required?
Top or bottom RFT
why?
* *
I
s
y
M
A
f d j
=
Notes:
•Minimum number of bars per meter is five.
•Minimum diameter for main RFT is 12mm.
•Number of bars may be taken 5 to 8.
•Diameter of bars may be selected from 12 to 18mm.
t
1
G.S
a
+
+
+
+
B.M.D
G.S
A
1
Main RFT
5∅12/′
Main RFT
5∅12/′
Design of Spread Footing
• Example(1):
Make a complete design for a footing supporting a 30cm X 60cm
column load of 230t at ground surface (G.S.). The foundation
level is 1.5 m below G.S. and the net allowable bearing capacity is
1.75kg/cm2. Make the design considering the following two cases:
1 with plain concrete base
2 without Plain concrete base
a
= 0.60m. B= 0.30m
p
G.S
= 230t/m’
q
a
= 1.75kg/cm
2
= 17.5t/m
2
.
f
cu
= 250kg/cm
2
.
f
y
=3600kg/cm
2
Design of Spread Footing
• Plain concrete footing (P.C.)
2 .
230*1.15
* 15.11
17.5
F L
a
P
Area A B m
q
= = = =
Assume thickness of P.C.: t = 0.30m
Dim. of P.C. = 4.05 * 3.75 * 0.30
A
A
1
t
1
t
P
F.L
P
G.S
q
a
G.S
Solve Eqs (1)&(2) to get A and B
( ) ( ) A a B b ÷ = ÷
2
( 0.30)* 15.11 B B m + =
2
0.30* 15.11 0.0 B B + ÷ =
2
0.30 0.30 4*1*15.11
3.75
2*1
B m
÷ + +
= =
3.75 0.30 4.05 A m = + =
Eq.(1)
2
* 15.11 A B m =
( ) 0.30 A B ÷ =
Eq.(2) 0.30 A B = +
Design of Spread Footing
• Reinforced concrete footing (R.C.)
1
4.05 2*0.30 3.45 A m = ÷ =
0.30 X m =
 
2
1
( ) / 2
2
I n
A a
M p
÷
=
2 .
1 1
230*1.50
31.75 /
* 3.45*3.15
G s
n
P
p t m
A B
= = =
5
32.23*10
5 56.77 60
* 100*250
cu
M
d C cm
b F
= = = =
1
60 5 65 t cm = + =
Dim. of R.C. = 3.45 * 3.15* 65
A
1
t
1
P
G.S
p
n
G.S
a
+
+
+
+
B.M.D
1
3.75 0.60 3.15 B m = ÷ =
 
2
(3.45 0.60) / 2
31.75 32.23 . / '
2
I
M m t m
÷
== =
Design of Spread Footing
• Shear Stress:
1
*
2
s n
A a
Q p d
÷
 
= ÷

\ .
250
0.75 0.75 9.68 /
1.50
cu
su
c
f
q t m
¸
= = =
3
2
26.19*10
4.37 /
* 100*60
s
s
Q
q t m
b d
= = =
Q
s
: shear force at critical sec. (II).
q
s
: shear stress.
q
su
: ultimate shear strength.
Notes:
•No shear RFT in Footing.
t
1
A
1
P
G.S
(II)
G.S
a
(II)
(II)
p
n
d
+

S.F.D
3.45 0.60
31.75( 0.60) 26.19 / '
2
s
Q t m
÷
= ÷ =
s su
q q safe shear ÷
Design of Spread Footing
• Punching Stress:
 
.
* ( )*( )
p G s n
Q P p a d b d = ÷ + +
 
*2* ( ) ( )
p
A d a d b d = + + +
3
2
4
317.10*10
12.58 /
2.52*10
p
p
p
Q
q kg cm
A
= = =
 
0.5 ( / ) / 250/1.50 12.91
cup cu c
q b a f ¸ = + = =
t
1
A
1
P
G.S
G.S
a
p
n
d/2
a
d/2
d/2
d/2
b
 
230*1.50 31.75* (0.60 0.50)*(0.30 0.50) 317.1
p
Q t = ÷ + + =
 
2
0.60*2* (0.60 0.60) (0.30 0.60) 2.52
p
A m = + + + =
p cup
q q safe punching ÷
Design of Spread Footing
• Footing Reinforcement:
5
2
32.23*10
21.50
* * 3600*60*0.695
I
s
y
M
A cm
f d j
= = =
A
s
(short dir.)= 9φ18mm/m’
A
s
(long dir.)= 9φ18mm/m’
0.65
G.S
0.60
+
+
+
+
B.M.D
G.S
3.45
(9 18/ ') m 
(9 18/ ') m 
Design of Spread Footing
• Problem(1):
Make a complete design for a footing supporting a 25cm X 50cm
column load of 150 t at ground surface (G.S.). The foundation
level is 1.5 m below G.S. and the net allowable bearing capacity is
1.50kg/cm
2
. The column location with respect to neighbors is
shown in Figure.
1.50m 0.50
0.25
Design of Spread Footing
• Problem(2):
Make a complete design for a footing supporting a 25cm X 50cm
column load of 120 t at ground surface (G.S.). The foundation
level is 1.5 m below G.S. Soil Profile under footing is shown in
the Figure. Allowable settlement is 2.0cm.
C
u
=1.00kg/cm
2
m
v
=0.10cm
2
/kg
C
u
=0.50kg/cm
2
m
v
=0.06cm
2
/kg
3.00
5.00
Design of Spread Footing
• Problem(3):
Prove that the unconfined compressive strength of saturated clay
can be considered as the allowable net bearing capacity of this
clay.
1 2
(ECP:202/3) Eq. (38)
ult c c c f q q q
q CN i D N i BN i
¸ ¸ ¸
ì ¸ ì ¸ ì = + +
*5.14*1.30*1.0 6.68
ult u c c c u u
q C N i C C ì = = =
F.S. from Table (33) ECP:202/3
6.68
2.60 2
. . 2.50
ult u
a u u u
q C
q C C q
F S
= = = ~ =
Design of Spread Footing
• Problem(4):
A large footing settles more than a small one resting on the same
ground profile and subjected to the same stresses. Give reasons
using neat sketches.