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vulcanhammer.net

since 1997, your source for engineering information for the deep foundation and marine construction industries, and the historical site for Vulcan Iron Works Inc. Use subject to the “fine print” to the right.

All of the information, data and computer software ("information") presented on this web site is for general information only. While every effort will be made to insure its accuracy, this information should not be used or relied on for any specific application without independent, competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability and applicability by a licensed professional. Anyone making use of this information does so at his or her own risk and assumes any and all liability resulting from such use. The entire risk as to quality or usability of the information contained within is with the reader. In no event will this web page or webmaster be held liable, nor does this web page or its webmaster provide insurance against liability, for any damages including lost profits, lost savings or any other incidental or consequential damages arising from the use or inability to use the information contained within. This site is not an official site of Prentice-Hall, the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Vulcan Foundation Equipment or Vulcan Iron Works Inc. (Tennessee Corporation). All references to sources of equipment, parts, service or repairs do not constitute an endorsement.

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ENCE 461 Foundation Analysis and Design

Spread Footings Geotechnical Design

**Topics in Geotechnical Design
**

Design for Downward Concentric Loads Design for Eccentric or Moment Loads Lightly Loaded Footings and Presumptive Bearing Pressure

Footings on rock

Footings on or Near Slopes

Design for Downward Concentric Loads

Depth of Embedment

Must be large enough to accomodate the required footing thickness Depth is measured either from the ground surface or the lower surface of a slab

kN Minimum D. 0-65 12 65-140 18 140-260 24 260-420 30 420-650 36 Load P. kips Minimum D.Minimum Depth Square and Rectangular Footings Load P. mm 0-300 300 300-500 400 500-800 500 800-1100 600 1100-1500 700 1500-2000 800 2000-2700 900 2700-3500 1000 . in.

mm kN/m 0-170 300 170-250 400 250-330 500 330-410 600 410-490 700 490-570 800 570-650 900 650-740 1000 .Minimum Depth Continuous Footings Load P/b. in. kips/ft 0-10 10-20 20-28 28-36 36-44 Minimum D. 12 18 24 30 36 Load P/b. Minimum D.

Situations which Require Greater Embedment Depths Upper soils are loose or weak. where there is any possibility of a landslide . or of unknown fill Soils prone to frost heave Soils are expansive Soils are prone to scour Footing is located at the top of a slope.

desire to support footings in upper stratum (careful!) Desire to avoid working below the groundwater table Desire to avoid the expense of excavation shoring. streets.Situations Where a Maximum Depth Should be Specified Potential undermining of existing foundations. etc. Presence of soft layers beneath a harder and stronger near-surface soils. utility lines. needed for many footings more than 1.5 m (5') deep .

this analysis must be performed in addition to analysis for bearing capacity failure .Footing Width Changing the width of the footing is the most common method by which the bearing capacity (and resistance to settlement) is designed to Increasing B causes the bearing pressure to decrease Since settlement and consolidation generally govern the design and sizing of footings.

Design for Eccentric or Moment Loads Certain situations require that the load of the foundation not pass through its centroid Moments also produce a skewed bearing pressure on a foundation .

Eccentric Load Example Given Foundation with two columns on one footing as shown Neglect weight of foundation FS = 3 B. L Find .

Eccentric Load Example 420 kips Need to first determine the location and magnitude of the combined load of the columns for geotechnical purposes only 11.29' .

Eccentric Load Example Step 1: Develop preliminary values for the plan dimensions B and L. L = 2 + 15 + 2 = 19' B = 2 + 2 = 4' Columns centred between the two long sides of the foundation .

29' falls in this region.: 19' x 4' For this design. middle third falls betwen 19/3 and 2*19/3 feet from the left. Resultant at 11. or 6.33' to 12.Eccentric Load Example Step 2: Determine if the resultant of the bearing pressure acts within the middle third of the footing Prelim. so no soil liftoff .67'.

Equivalent Footing Procedure Produce a smaller equivalent concentric footing with dimensions B' and L' according to the following formulas B' = B – 2eB L' = L .2eL .

02) .Equivalent Footing Procedure (NAVFAC DM 7.

29 – 19/2 = 11.29 – 9.Eccentric Load Example Step 3: Determine the equivalent concentric footing using the procedure described: B' = B = 4' (no eccentricity in B direction) eL = 11.79' L' = L – 2eL = 19 – (2)(1.: 19' x 4' .79) = 15.5 = 1.42' Prelim.

Eccentric Load Example Step 4: Compute an equivalent bearing pressure Prelim.42 q equ 6.81 ksf .: 19' x 4' P W f q equ u D B'L' 420 q equ 0 415.

2002 Illustration 13-5 Results Units of Measurement E SI or E Foundation Information Shape B= L= D= Soil Information c= phi = gamma = Dw = Factor of Safety F= Terzaghi Bearing Capacity q ult = n/a lb/ft^2 qa= n/a lb/ft^2 Allowable Column Load P = Err :502 k Vesic 9.Eccentric Load Example Compare qequ with the allowable bearing pressure qa For clay. CI. or RE 4 ft 15. use FS = 3 (problem statement) Allowable column load = 189 kips < 420 kips February 1. CO.179 lb/ft^2 3.060 lb/ft^2 Date Identification Input RE SQ.42 ft 0 ft 189 k 1700 lb/ft^2 0 deg 120 lb/ft^3 100 ft 3 .

CO.675 lb/ft^2 3.5 ft 15.225 lb/ft^2 Date Identification Input RE SQ. or RE 8.42 ft 0 ft 423 k 1700 lb/ft^2 0 deg 120 lb/ft^3 100 ft 3 .Eccentric Load Example Solution 1: Keep the length at 19' and increase the width until the desired bearing capacity is met B = 8. CI. 2002 Illustration 13-5 Results Units of Measurement E SI or E Foundation Information Shape B= L= D= Soil Information c= phi = gamma = Dw = Factor of Safety F= Terzaghi Bearing Capacity q ult = n/a lb/ft^2 qa= n/a lb/ft^2 Allowable Column Load P = Err :502 k Vesic 9.5' for L = 15.42' February 1.

2002 Illustration 13-5 Results Units of Measurement E SI or E Foundation Information Shape B= L= D= Soil Information c= phi = gamma = Dw = Factor of Safety F= Terzaghi Bearing Capacity q ult = n/a lb/ft^2 qa= n/a lb/ft^2 Allowable Column Load P = Err :502 k Vesic 9. or RE 6.29 = 22.Eccentric Load Example Solution 2: Make the foundation concentric (L = 2 x 11.58'.58 ft 0 ft 422 k 1700 lb/ft^2 0 deg 120 lb/ft^3 100 ft 3 . CO.58') and size B accordingly For L = 22. CI.1' February 1.197 lb/ft^2 3.066 lb/ft^2 Date Identification Input RE SQ. B = 6.1 ft 22.

or rectangular footings subjected to vertical loads less than 200 kN (45 kips) Continuous footings subjected to vertical loads less than 60 kN/m (4 kips/ft) Include typical one and two-story wood frame buildings and other similar structures A conservative approach. normally easier in these cases to design a conservative structure than to perform the analysis . circular.Lightly Loaded Footings and Presumptive Bearing Pressures Lightly loaded footings are those which meet the following criteria: Square.

Medium hard siltstone. sound rock cemented conglomerate (sound condition allows minor cracks). thoroughly Hard. dio rite.) .0 10. Foliated metamorphic rock: slate.Presumptive Bearing Pressures Rock Allowable Bearing Pressure Tons Per sq ft Type of Bearing Material Consistency In Place Range Recommended Value for Use 80. Notes: Strength of the concrete may govern design with rock bearing foundations. sound rock Sedimentary rock. basalt. RQD less than 25. hard cemented shales.0 10. schist (sound Medium hard condition allows minor cracks). sandstone. Soft rock 60 to 100 30 to 40 15 to 25 8 to 12 35.0 Compaction shale or other highly argillaceous Soft rock 8 to 12 rock in sound condition. limestone without cavities.0 20.0 Massive crystalline igneous and metamorphic rock: granite. Beware of sinkholes when designing foundations on limestone (karst topography. gneiss. sound rock Weathered or broken bed rock of any kind except highly argil laceous rock (shale).

0 5.5 3.0 4.0 7.5 Very compact 8 to 12 6 to 10 4 to 7 2 to 6 4 to 6 2 to 4 1 to 3 3 to 5 2 to 4 1 to 2 Very compact Gravel. SC) Consistency In Place Range Recommended Value for Use 10. gravel-sand mixtures.0 3. SW.0 2.5 1. SP. silty or clayey medium Medium to compact to coarse sand (SW. boulder clay (GW-GC. SP) Medium to compact Loose Very compact Fine to medium sand.0 3.0 1.Presumptive Bearing Pressures Sands Allowable Bearing Pressure Tons Per sq ft Type of Bearing Material Well graded mixture of fine and coarsegrained soil: glacial till. SP) Loose Very compact Coarse to medium sand. boulder gravel Medium to compact mixtures (SW. GC. SC) Loose . sand with little gravel (SW. SM. hardpan.

5 to 1 .5 0. sandy or silty clay (CL.5 Very stiff to hard 3 to 6 Homogeneous inorganic clay.5 3.0 1.0 2.0 0.Presumptive Bearing Pressures Clays and Silts Allowable Bearing Pressure Tons Per sq ft Type of Bearing Material Consistency In Place Medium to stiff Soft Range Recommended Value for Use 4.5 to 1 Very stiff to hard 2 to 4 Inorganic silt. Medium to stiff 1 to 3 varved silt-clay-fine Sand Soft . sandy or clayey silt. CH) 1 to 3 .

has allowable bearing pressure of equivalent natural soil. . placed with control of moisture. Allowable bearing pressure on organic soils or uncompacted fills is determined by investigation of individual case.Presumptive Bearing Pressures Notes Compacted fill. density. and lift thickness. Allowable bearing pressure on compressible fine grained soils is generally limited by considerations of overall settlement of structure. allowable pressures equals unconfined compressive strength. If tabulated recommended value for rock exceeds unconfined compressive strength of intact specimen.

Typical Minimum Footing Dimensions .

but in some cases a necessary one Foundation near slope Foundation on slope .Footings on or Near Slopes Two methods of solution Use Vesi's « g » factors « NAVFAC-McCarthy » Solution Not a desirable situation.

NAVFACMcCarthy Method from Vesi's method .

assume stability number No or Ms = 0 If B > H. cohesionless soils Cohesive soils N q = 1 Assume D = B/2 Determine Ncq from charts If B < H. Ncq = 0 Using slope angle and soil friction angle . determine Nq from charts . other criteria as shown Cohesionless soils.NAVFAC-McCarthy Method Parameters to consider Cohesive vs. No or Ms = H/c.

NAVFAC-McCarthy Method Parameters to consider Location of foundation relative to slope Foundation on level ground behind slope: use Case I charts Foundation on slope: use Case II charts If dw is < D. non-continuous foundations . use submerged weight of soil If dw > D + B. multiply level ground capacity by ratio of sloped ground capacity to level ground capacity for continuous foundations Location of groundwater table Continuous vs. interpolate unit weight of soil Method developed specifically for continuous foundations For non-continuous foundations. use moist weight If D < dw < D+B.

NAVFAC-McCarthy Method Cohesionless Soil Cohesive Soil .

NAVFAC-McCarthy Method Cohesionless Soil Cohesive Soil .

Example of Footings on Slopes Given Bearing wall for warehouse Located close to slope Size of strip footing to be provided.5 kips/ft wall length 60º 2' Find 20' 7' clay unit weight = 100 pcf shear strength = 1 ksf . ignore weight 4.

? 20' 2' Example of Footings on Slopes Need to find b/B (No = 0) .

b = 7 – B/2 Construct both geometrical and bearing capacity factor relationships into one spreadsheet .Example of Footings on Slopes Curve used For this problem.

5 B Ncq qult 10 4.38 3.6 qult = cNcq + DN N .5 4.2 FS 10.2 2.24 4.67 4.5 0.7 5.7 8 4.9 7.28 3 0.9 3 6.5 4 5.4 8.2 6.5 4 0.1 1 7 7.5 0.22 9.9 5.5 0.4 4.25 5.Example of Footings on Slopes b b/B 2 0.16 1.11 5.53 7.1 6 5 5.93 6.83 6 3 6.93 6.6 4.3 5.4 2 6.27 3.6 9 4.9 5 1.5 1.5 6.8 7 4.2 5 5.

or RE 2 ft ft 2 ft 5 k/ft 1000 lb/ft^2 0 deg 100 lb/ft^3 100 ft 3 .465 lb/ft^2 Date Identification Input CO SQ. CO.900 lb/ft^2 qa= 1.967 lb/ft^2 Allowable Wall Load P/b = 4 k/ft Vesic 7.59 gq = g = (1 – tan (60))2 = 0.Example of Footings on Slopes Check using Vesi's method Capacity without slope is shown below gc = 1 – 60/147 = 0. CI.396 lb/ft^2 2. 2002 Illustration 13-6 Results Units of Measurement E SI or E Foundation Information Shape B= L= D= Soil Information c= phi = gamma = Dw = Factor of Safety F= Terzaghi Bearing Capacity q ult = 5.54 February 1.

967 lb/ft^2 Allowable Wall Load P/b = 9 k/ft Vesic 6. CO.5 and 0.6.Example of Footings on Slopes Since both factors are between 0.5 ft ft 2 ft 9 k/ft 1000 lb/ft^2 0 deg 100 lb/ft^3 100 ft 3 . CI.900 lb/ft^2 qa= 1.5' Date Identification Input Units of Measurement E SI or E Foundation Information Shape B= L= D= Soil Information c= phi = gamma = Dw = Factor of Safety F= February 1. 2002 Illustration 13-6 Results Terzaghi Bearing Capacity q ult = 5. or RE 4. assume Vesi « level ground » capacity should probably be doubled so that Q = 9 kips/ft Use B = 4.254 lb/ft^2 2.085 lb/ft^2 CO SQ.

67' from 45 degree line .Required Footing Setbacks For example problem: H/3 = 20/3 = 6.

561-597 Coduto: Chs. 8. pp. pp. 514-518 Chapter 14. 13-26 Problems to follow Due Date: 18 February 2002 Problems . 13-19. 13-24. 13-22.Homework Set 2 Textbook Reading McCarthy Chapter 13. 9. & 10 (optional) McCarthy: 12-7.

respectively. is to be supported on a 3' deep square spread footing. This building will have wall loads of 1900 lb/ft on a certain exterior wall. Use either Terzaghi or Vesi criteria and include the weight of the foundation. A three story wood-frame building is to be built on a site underlain by sandy clay. The soil beneath this footing is an undrained clay with su = 3000 psf and a = 117 pcf. Show your final design in a sketch. Using presumptive bearing pressures and the minimum depth table. Compute the width B required to obtain a factor of safety of 3 against bearing capacity failure. The groundwater table is below the bottom of the footing.Homework Set 2 A column carrying a vertical downward dead load and live load of 150 kips and 120 kips. compute the required width and depth of the footing. .

Using Terzaghi's method. This footing is underlain by a fine-tomedium sand with c' = 0. The groundwater table is currently at a depth of 10' below the ground surface. ' = 31º. but could rise to 4' below the ground surface during the life of the project. Comment on any special considerations. The factor of safety against a bearing capacity failure must be at least 3. is the design acceptable? Provide computations to justify your answer. and = 122 pcf.Homework Set 2 A 39" wide. 24" deep continuous footing supports a wall load of 12 kips/ft. .

and show your design in a sketch. The factored loads should be computed using the ACI load factors. The soil has an allowable bearing pressure of 3000 psi and the groundwater table is at a great depth. This column has a design dead load of 200 kips and a design live load of 120 kips. The footing will be made of concrete with f'c = 2500 psi and reinforcing steel with fy = 60 ksi. . Determine the required footing thickness. The ASD load for determining the required footing width should be computed as shown in the equations given in class. size the flexural reinforcement.Homework Set 2 A W16x50 steel column with 27" square base plate is to be supported on a square spread footing.

Using the pseudo-coupled method. The weight of the tank and its contents will be 50 MN and the weight of the mat wil be 12 MN. divide the mat into zones and compute ks for each zone. .Homework Set 2 A 25 m diameter cylindrical water storage tank is to be supported on a mat foundation. According to a settlement analysis conducted using techniques described elsewhere. The groundwater table is at a depth of 5 m below the bottom of the mat. the total settlement will be 40 mm. Then indicate the high-end and low-end values of k that should be used in the analysis.

Questions? .

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