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B. Tech.

lOdd 2011-12/Reg

Figures in the margin indicate marks for respective questions.

(d) pH (e) buffer

(b) What are the differences between saturated and unsaturated farty acids?

( 2 ) (c) What are the advantages of using triacylglycerolsas fonns of energy? (d) Write a short note on 'waxes'. stored


(3) (c) What is Cot analysis? Explain Cot curve. 2+4+4


9. (a) Give the working principle of Sanger's method of DNAsequencing. (b) Name the reagents that are used in Sanger's and Edman degradation methods of protein sequencing, respectively. (c) Show how disulphide bonds of proteins can be irreversibly broken using appropriate reagents. 4+3+ 3 10. (a) What is spectroscopy? (b) What is Beer-Lambert law? (c) Write a short note on anyone of the following : (I) X-my crystallography (n) Electron microscopy.

4. (a) Define the following: amino acids, peptides and proteins, (b) Classify amino acids based on the properties of the side chains. Give at least two examples in each case. (c) What are unconunon amino acids? Give an example. (d) Show how amino acids can act as both, acids and bases. 2+5+1+2 5. (a) Define primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structures of protein. (b) Describe the salient features of

p -sheet


p -turn.

(c) Differentiate between fibrous and globular proteins. Give examples in each case. 3+5+2 6. (a) Define the following: ground state, transition state, activation energy and binding energy. (b) Derive Michaelis-Menten equation to show the relationship between substrate concentration and rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

7. (a) Differentiate between reversible and irreversible enzyme inhibitors. (b) What are regulatory enzymes.? (c) What is feed-back inhibition? (d) Diagrammatically show how phosphate groups can affect the structure and catalytic activity of proteins highlighting a specific example.

8. (a) Differentiate DNA and RNA. (b) What are the salient features of DNA double helix as described by Watson and Crick?

B. Tech.lOdd 20 11-12/Reg. 2011-12


The jigures in the margin iniIicdtefull markS.
Answer any jive questions. 1. (a) In the network shown in fig l(a), determine the values of R and C so that maximum power is absorbed by R and also determine the power. The signal frequency is
ill = 200radlsec.

SA ~


(b) Draw the grap fqrmulate the f-cut-set matrix. in node basis.


ofl a

et~~r~ shown .in .fig 2(?) and uilibnum equation m matIix form


(b) In the circuit shown in fig 3(b) the switch is on PQsition 'a~ and the circuit becomes steady state condition. The switch is moved to position 'b' at t = O. Find V (t). 4. (a) For the circuit in fig 4(a) fmd V for t> 0 if (i) Vg = 4u(t) and (ii) the steady state value of V if Vg = 4 cos ot V and the output


tenninals are loaded with resistor of 80.

flV V8F -L 11'

(c) In the network shown in fig 3(c) the switch is closed at t = 0 and there is no initial charge on either of the capacitors. Find 11(t).



(a) Define stability of a ~stem. Explain the relationship between po~ posHioQ, WId stability. (b)



the transfer function (V2 /


of the network shown in


6(b). Also sketch polezero configuration.


(8 )
(c) Write the necessary conditions for transfer function. 6+6+2 2s2 +5 7. (a) Determine the function, Z(s) = S(S2+ 1) is a JX>sitivereal or




(b) Diagnose Z(s) = (s+4)(s+6 (s+3)(s+5) Cauer form. (c) Identify





represents a RL or RC network and find its first Th figures in the margin indicate full marks. whether the impedance function, All parts of any question should be answered at one place. Use separate scripts

s(s2+4) . . Z( s) = 2 ( S2+ 1)( S2+ 9) ~presents a LC, RL or RC network and realize it in both Foster form. 2+6+6 of

Group-A and Group-B.


Question No.1 is compulsory and a1)swer any two from the rest. 1. (i) A capacitor having a capacitance of 2.5 IlF is charged to a potential difference of 450 volts. The capacitor is disconnected from the supply and the reading on an electrostatic voltmeter in parallel with the capacitor is observed to fall to 280 volts in 15.2 minutes. The test is repeated with a resistance R in parallel with the capacitor and the voltmeter. The voltmeters reading are now found to fall from 450 volts to 280 volts in 10.8 minutes. Calculate the value of R. (ii) In a test by Murray loop for ground fault on 1,000 metres of cable having a resistance ofl.6 Oper km, the faulty cable is looped with a sound cable ofthe same length and cross-section. If the ratio of the other two arms of testing network at balance are in 3: 1, calculate the distance of the fault from the testing end of the cable. (iii) Write some advantages and disadvantages ofPMMC instrument. 6+6+ 3= 15

8. (a) Defme m-derived filter. Derive all the characteristics constant K low pass filter.

(b) Find the component values of n-network constant K highpass filter having cut-off frequency of 8 kHz and nominal characteristic impedance of 6000. Hence, find its characteristic impedance and phase constant at f= 12 kHz and attenuation at f= 0.8kHz. 7+7


(i) Define: (a) Precision

(b) Static Sensitivity.

(iii) Why secondary of current transformer should not be ept open-circuited? 4+4+2=1 0 5. Write short notes on any two from the following: 5x2=1 0 (i) Eddy current damping (ii) Megger (iii) Fluid friction damping.

(ii) Explain with instrument works.

n at sketch, how a moving Iron

(iii) In a gra ity contr lied instrument, the controlling weight is 0.005 kg and acts at a distance of2.4 cm from the axis of the moving sy tern. Determine the deflection in degree corresponding to deflecting torque of 1.05x 10- 4kg-m. (1+1)+ 6+2=10 3. (i) Differentiate potential transformer. between current transformer and


(ii) Define: (a) Ratio correction factor (b) Nominal ratio. (iii) A moving coil instrument gives a full scale deflection for a current of 20m A with a potentia} difference of200 mV across it. Calculate (a) Shunt required to use it as an ammeter to get a range of 0-200 A (b) Multiplier required to use it as voltmeter of range 0-500 Volts. (iv) The inductance of a moving iron ammeter is given by the expression: L "- (12+5 e - 2 62) l-LH, where 6 is the angular deflection in radian from zero position. Determine (a) The spring constant (b) The angular deflection in radians for a current of lOA if the deflection for a current of lOA is 30°. 2+2+2+4= 10 4. (i) Describe with the help of neat diagram, the loss of charge method to determine the insulation resistance of a short length of cable and derive an expression for determination of insulation resistance. (ii) A fOUfterminal resistance of approximately 50 l-LQ was measured with the help of Kelvin double bridge under the following condition: Value of standard resistance 100.03 l-LQ, resistance of inner ratio arms 200.62 f,lQ and 400 n, resistance of outer ratio arms 200.48 f,lQ and 400 n, the resistance of link connecting the standard to unknown resistance is 700 l-LQ. Calcu late the magnitude of unknown resistance.

Question No.6 is compulsory and attempt any three from the rest.

(a) Why thin wired heating element is preferred for thermocouple type voltmeters? (b) What is the main disadvantage for insulated hot junction thermocouple type instruments? (c) What kind of diode is suitable for rectifier type voltmeters? (d) Why the moving system of a ballistic galvanometer having high inertia? (e) What is the source of frequency error in the case of electrodynamometer type instrument? (f) What type of voltmeter is preferred forthe measurement of DC voltage above 20kV? 7. (a) Compare thermocouple type instruments with rectifier type instruments.

(b) An AC current, when measured by a rectifier type ammeter gives reading of31 A. but when same current is measured by a thermocouple type ammeter gives 34.4 A. Whether the meters are correct? Justify your answer. (c) A moving coil type ammeter, a thermocouple type ammeter and a resistance of 100 Ohm is connected in series with a rectifier. Ifthe forward bias ~nd reverse bias resistance of the rectifier is 100 Ohm and 500 Ohm respectively, then calculate the reading on the two ammeters. Consider the supply voltage of200 V. 3+3+4=10 8. (a) Derive the equation galvanometer. of motion of the vibration

(c) Derive the expression for the deflecting torque of a Dynamometer type moving coil instrument, also state how it can b used for the measurement of A current. 3+3+4= 10 10. (a) At electrostatic oftmeter having full scale deflection of90 deg. at 2500 V. The torsion constant for controlling spring is 7 1 x 10- Nm/deg. and capacitance at 0 deg. is 12 pF. Determine capacitance at full scale. (b) A dynamometer type wattmeter is connected across V, 50 Hz supply with a load of 5 A, zero power factor. The inductance and resistance of pressure coil are 5mH and 300 Ohm respectively. If the voltage drop in the current coil of the wattmeter is negligible then calculate the percent error in the reading of wattmeter for full scale of 500 Watt. 5+5 = 10


(b) A Crompton's potentiometer consists of a resistance dial having 15 steps of 10 Q each and a series connected slide wire of Ion which is divided into 100 divisions. If the working current of the potentiometer is 10 mA and each division of slide wire can be read accurately up to 15th of its span, calculate the resolution of the potentiometer in volt. (c) The following readings were obtained during measurement of inductance of a coil on an AC potentiometer: Voltage drop across 0.10 standard resistor connected in series with the coil = 0.613 L 2° 6' V. Voltage across the test coil through a 100: 1 volt-ratio box = 0.781 L 50° 48' V. Frequency 50 Hz. Determine the value of the inductance of the coil. 3+3+4=10 9. (a) Derive an expression for the deflection of a Ballistic Galvanometer. How it can be used for the measurement of current? (b) Calculate the ratio of sensitivity for fundamental to third harmonic for A vibration galvanometer tuned to a frequency of 50Hz. The parameters for the galvanometer are as, follows : Inertia constant = O.012kg-m2 and damping constant = 0.028 Nm/rad.s-1•

correspon?ing to full-load current. At VI current wdl the maximum efficieney be 11 What is an auto transformer ?Derlv;'·~ the saving of copper in an autotra.fu:ifo: an equivalent two winding transfo

3. (a) What are the conditions fo~par .si~gle phase transformers? 'J,.W'osingl ~th eq~ turns ha"e impedances ~f ( Jl0)n~th respect to the second~. Ifill detennme how they will share tdts110ad lagging. 'I' ' if III


Define "VectQr Group" Expl~




what will happen if th~ ~


lme voltages of two three-ph

netted in parallel is not same.
4. (a) Explain with the help


of connection and

how Soott-connections are used to obtam; from three-phase supply mains.
(b) Scott-connected transformers supply:' f loads at 80 V. The loads across tlte te:a~ secondaries are 200 kW and 300 kW re power factor. For a 3-phase input voI~e' br the line currents on the three-phase side ,




:n which side of a transfonuer,.the
" I)


prOVided ? State the reasons,


5. (a) Derive the emf equat~on of a





Explam armature reaction in 11 de

how cross-magnetizing

and deIl1ag'hetWi.n~
!. 11

(b) What are the factors that affect the Also,explain how the speed can be below the normal speed.

Th figures in the margin indicate full marks. Answer any five questions. Answer all the parts of a question at one place.


(il From Basics, define a "Machine". Give examples.


(ii) Mention the similarities and dissimilarHies between "Static" machines and "Dynamic~' machines. 5 (Hi)A 6-po-Ie,2-circuit, wave connected armature has 250 conductors and runs at l200rpm. The electromotive force generated on open- circuit is 600 V. Find the useful flux per pole. 4 2. (i) Which types of electrical Aeroplanes and why? Describe. generators are used in 5

Oi) What do you mean by the term "constant speed drive"? Explain. 5 (Hi) DC shunt machine, connected 250 V mains, has an annature res-istance (including brushes) of 0.12 ohm, and the resistance of the field circuit is 120 ohms. Find the speed as a motor. The line current is 80 A. 4 3. fil Draw the complexor diagrams of a single phase transformer under N{)-load and Full-load condition . Also explain fh cmupIe.xo iagrams. '"""""='''''''''''"",",,,. 4±-4=8

(ii) "HydeI alternators are tow speed machines but turbo

alternators are high speed machines" - explain the above statement. 4+4=8
(Hi) What do you mean by the term "Synchronous

Reactance" of a 3~ phase alternator?


(iii)An 11500f2300·:Y
~... 2 winding.transibrmel\

It' th~, t

s~rie&to furm a.n a"to- ttlln$fo a(nd output?'

of a 3", phase ble'~ZOnes of '\'\ 2+2+2=6