You are on page 1of 13

ADRENERGIC DRUGS
ADRENERGIC DRUGS ARE CHEMICAL AGENTS THAT EXERT THEIR PRINCIPAL PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS BY EITHER ENHANCING OR REDUCING THE ACTIVITY OF THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF THE SYMPATHETIC DIVISION OF THE AUTONOMOUS NERVOUS SYSTEM.

ADRENERGIC

STIMULANTS
 SUBSTANCES

THAT PRODUCE EFFECTS SIMILAR TO

ANTIADRENER GIC OR ADRENERGIC BLOCKING AGENTS.  ADRENERGIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS  STRUCTURE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES  BIOSYNTHESIS .  ADRENERGIC BLOCKING AGENT  SUBSTANCES THAT DECREASE SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY ARE REFFERED SYMPATHOLYTICS.STIMULATION OF SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS ACTIVITY ARE KNOWN AS SYMPATHOMIMETICS OR ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS.

 UPTAKE  AND METABOLISM STRUCTURE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES  NOREPINEPHRINE is a neurotransmitter of the postganglionic sympathetic neurons.  It’s released from sympathetic nerve endings into the synaptic cleft .  It’s synthesized and stored in adrenal medulla. from which it’s released into circulation. . where it interacts with specific presynaptic and post synaptic adrenergic receptors.  It’s also referred as neurohormone.  EPINEPHRINE is not released from peripheral sympathetic nerve endings.

It’s also biosynthesized in certain neurons of the CNS. each posses a chiral carbon atom. the same arrangement of hydroxyl groups as found in catechol.  These compounds contain an amino group attached to a aromatic ring that contains two hydroxyl group situated ortho to each other. thus each .  EPINEPHRINE & NOREPINEPHRINE. where both it and NOREPINEPHRINE serve as neurotransmitters.  EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE belongs to chemical class of substances known as CATECHOLAMINES.

So suitable reducing agents or antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or sodium bisulphate is added.  Catecholamines undergo oxidation in the presence of atmospheric oxygen or oxidizing agents forming ortho Quinone like compounds forming colored products.  Enatiomer with R configuration are biosynthesized by the body and possesses the biological activity.can exist as an enatiomeric pair of isomers. .

 Catecholamines are polar substances that contain both acidic(aromatic hydroxyls) and basic(the aliphatic amine) functional groups.  BIOSYNTH ESIS . accounts high water solubility.  2% of either EPINEPHRINE or NE exist in non ionised form.  Cationic forms are present slightly greater than 95% for both catecholamines.

UPTAKE  UPTAKE AND METABOLISM include uptake into neuron and extra . in sympathetic neurons of ANS and in adrenal medulla.  Amino acid L-tyrosine serve as precursor for the catecholamines. Catecholamine biosynthesis is taken place in adrenergic and dopaminergic neurons in the CNS.

 UPTAKE 2:It’s done by glial cells. myocardial cell and hepatic cells. .neuronal tissues.It has relatively low affinity to NOREPINEPHRINE.  UPTAKE 1:It involve activity of sodium/chloride dependent transporter having high affinity to amines into nerve terminal. diffusion away from synapse and METABOLISM.

 VANILLYL MANDELIC ACID(3methoxy 4-hydroxy mandelic acid) is the end product. ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS . METABOL ISM  Key enzymes involved are MONO AMINE OXIDASE(MAO) and CATECHOL-O-METHYl TRANSFERASE(COMT).

AN AMERICAN PHARMACIST AND PHARMACOLOGIST PROPOSED EXISTENCE OF ALPHA AND BETA ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS IN 1948.AHLQUIST . . ALPHA ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS  BETA ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS  R.P.

FLV  ADRENERGIC ANTAGONIST D:\4.FLV  ADRENERGIC AGONIST D:\2.FLV D:\3.FLV   CLONIDINE & ALPHA METHYL DOPA  RESERPINE  PROPRANOLOL .RECEPTOR MECHANISMS      ADRENERGIC AGONIST AND ANTAGONIST D:\1.

HYPOTENSION: Alpha adrenergic drugs increase blood pressure. HYPERTENSION: Centrally acting alpha 2 agonist such is useful. . THERAPEU TIC USES     ADRENERGIC AGONISTS SHOCK: Adrenergic agonists are used to increase myocardial contractility and peripheral vascular resistance.

         CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA: Epinephrine is important therapeutic agent. ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: Alpha receptor antagonists are used. ALLERGIC REACTIONS: Epinephrine can reverse hypersensitivity problems.prazocin . CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: beta2 agonists are found useful. OPHTHALMIC USE: For diagnosis and therapy. BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA: Alpha receptor antagonists are used eg. ASTHMA: Beta agonists are useful. NASAL DECONGESTION: alpha agonists are extensively used.