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P REREQUISITES This course is part of Information Technology program (B.Sc. (IT)) of Kuvempu University.

A student registering for the fifth semester of B.Sc. (IT) of Kuvempu University must have completed the fourth semester of B.Sc.(IT). The student should have attained the kno ledge of the follo ing modules!
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Algorithms "ava #rogramming Uni$ % Shell #rogramming Soft are &ngineering


)oordinator *uide + *raphics and ,ultimedia -

CHAPTER-SPECIFIC INPUTS Chapter One Objectives In this chapter. the students have learned to!
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Identify the need for computer graphics /iscuss the/iscuss the history of computer graphics Identify the applications of computer graphics

Focus Areas Introduce computer graphics as a revolutionary development in the field of computer sciences. Tell the students that 0illiam 1etter invented the term computer graphics in -234. &$plain the term computer graphics follo ed 5y the history of computer graphics hard are. )onduct an open discussion on the applications of computer graphics. 6ou may discuss the applications of computer graphics discussed in the Additional Inputs sectionInputs section. (e$t. discuss operating system support for graphics. 1inally. discuss programming language support for graphics. Inform the students that they ill learn to use ) programming for creating graphics as a part of this curriculum. A itiona! Inputs

The follo ing section provides some e$tra inputs on the important topics covered in the S*! History of Computer Graphics - Interesting Facts The follo ing ta5le lists the various events in the history of computer graphics! Event First computer animation film
7 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and ,ultimedia

Year 1961

First video game – Spacewar First computer model of a human figure First home video game named Odyssey, which allowed users to move points around a screen Fractals

1961 1964 1966

,ost graphic packages allo you to create simple graphics using lines. polygons. and curves easily. 8o ever. these 5asic tools cannot help you in creating clouds. trees. or for that matter the 9a::y patterns in the A;S used in audio soft are such as 0inamp or the latest 0indo s ,edia #layer. Such real<life or comple$ patterned graphics are implemented using the concept of fractals. 1ractals are mathematically generated patterns. hich are produced 5y recursive implementation of self<similar pattern at varying scales ithin itself. 1or e$ample. fractals can 5e implemented to create a tree from a small leaf ith a tiny stem under it 5y infinite recursions of the same pattern (mathematical function). A ell<kno n fractal named after its inventor. Benoit ,andel5rot. is the ,andel5rot set. ,andel5rot discovered the concept of fractals hen he rote a program to run a mathematical formula (dealing ith fractional dimensions such as -.7 dimes ions) recursively on an IB, computer. The output as a pretty pattern. Applications of Computer Graphics - Geographical Information Systems (GIS) *IS is a soft are system through hich you can capture. store. and manipulate geographical information and display it in various forms. *eographical information (spatial data) has al ays 5een 5etter understood through pictures rather than numerical data.
'(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and ,ultimedia =

ultimedia '(IIT . manipulate. )onse>uently graphics form an inevita5le part of *IS. This pro5lem as solved 5y computer graphics.opengl.opengl. to do nload games made in ?pen*@ visit http!BB .orgBapplicationsB indo sBgamesB. in the form of maps.Computer Aided Design (CAD) )A/ is the use of computers for creating engineering dra ings used in various fields such as architecture. Also. )A/ has 5een a 5oon for engineers. 6ou can do nload various applications made using ?pen*@ at its official site. This can 5e clearly understood ith the help of an e$ample here e ant e ant to present the performance of a factory since and share engineering dra ings ith ease.*IS depicts geographical information pictorially. such as Auto)A/. OpenG ?pen*@ is a kno n and highly used Application #rogramming Interface (A#I) for creating 7/ and =/ graphics. http!BB . As the volume of information increases. So!utions to Chapter One Questions 1. and create. hich is compati5le ith popular programming languages such as ). *raphical communication is an old and more popular method of e$changing information than ver5al communication and is more convenient hen computers are utili:ed for this purpose. in the 7-st century people do not have time to read huge num5er of pages. 1or this. and civil engineering. ho can no use graphical tools for )A/. hich has 5ecome a de<facto industry standard. It is an easy to use. 1or e$ample. 0hat is the need for computer graphicsC Ans. Applications of Computer Graphics . pro5lem of storage arises. relia5le. e re>uire e re>uire a num5er of E )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . )AA. and porta5le graphics development environment. and "ava.

anufacturing ()A. and so on. one may display the manufacturing layout for a given part and trace the path taken 5y machine tools for a given manufacturing process. 0e can0e can easily represent this data in a pictorial form thus making it simple to understand. computer graphics techni>ues.ultimedia F . graphics techni>ues are used to produce the dra ings of certain parts of a machine from any vie ing angle.). It ill take a lot of time to analy:e such a long report. T o other prominent applications of graphics are in the field of )omputer Aided /esign ()A/) and )omputer Aided . In )A/. #ictures can represent a huge data5ase in the form of 5ar charts. pie charts. In )A. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .pages to render this large volume of information related ith financial. numerical and statistical information.

personal computer using -3<5it Intel D4DD microprocessor on August -7.2. This concept has 5ecome a 5asic re>uirement in the area of desktop pu5lishing (/T#). the high cost of the hard are for computer graphics remained the o5stacle. It as the first #) that did not include a te$t<5ased display 5ut provided only a graphic display. /ue to this price reduction. manipulate. Apple. computer 3 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . /efine computer graphics and Interactive computer graphicsC Ans. hen it introduced the . The application programs developed for the . The announcement of the IB. store. 3. hich had a profound effect in the orld of computers. can 5e regarded as a historic event. -2D-. The #o er#)Gs from IB. it is no realistic to e$pect that all computers ith graphic display hard are capa5ility ill 5e making e$tensive use of computer graphics. and present pictorial output of the data. interrogate. hich prevented their idespread use. The ne$t ma9or change in #) display technology as announced 5y Apple )ompany in -2DE. In early days.acintosh #). These computers significantly improved the state of display technology in the orld of computers. )omputer graphics can 5e defined as the use of computers to define.. and other vendors created a ne standard for /T# computers. narrate the history of graphics hard are technologyC Ans. 0ith such a development. Briefly.ultimedia '(IIT . )omputers have 5een getting progressively more ine$pensive and it has 5ecome a household article these days.acintosh advocated 06SI06* (0hat 6ou See Is 0hat 6ou *et) style of interface. Interactive computer graphics refers to devices and systems that facilitate the man<machine graphic communication. The microelectronics revolution and the su5se>uent reduction in the price of the digital hard are have completely changed the situation.

Through the use of these processors certain amount of parallelism can 5e achieved for e$ecuting graphic commands. The graphic co<processor 5oosts video performance 5y assuming tasks normally handled 5y the )#U. An accelerator takes control of graphic task. Several manufacturers of personal computers use a proprietary graphics processor. It is a functioned processor. 8o ever. hich caries out specific tasks hard<coded into the chip. 8o to make graphics processing fasterC Ans. 5. and multimedia has 5ecome a necessity for all types of users. 0hat is graphics processorC 0hy it is neededC Ans.ultimedia H . (ame some graphics processors. *raphics processor helps in managing the screen faster ith an e>uivalent soft are algorithm e$ecuted on the )#U. hich are other ise performed 5y the )#U.ideoB*raphic processing can 5e made faster in t o ays! 5y using a graphic co<processor and a graphic accelerator. Ans. an accelerator is not programma5le. . 4. Some graphics processors are!   Intel D7HD3 Te$as Instruments E=4-4 '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .

*ive the different applications of )omputer *raphics.5ase *UIs. in hich users can perform operations ith the help of graphical o59ects such as indo s and 5uttons. multitasking. Uni$ 5ecame >uite popular ithin Bell @a5s. time<sharing operating system. The Uni$ operating system has 5een kno n and popular as a simple. &lectronic /esign D )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . #i$el may 5e defined as the smallest si:e o59ect or color spot that can 5e displayed and addressed on a monitor. and net orking. 0hat are the strengths of U(IJ operating systemC Ans. Uni$ has adopted to the ne hard are architecture and application re>uirements 5y incorporating ne functionalities such as distri5uted file system. 0hat is a pi$elC Ans. distri5uta5ility and so on. It is still the most porta5le and configura5le of all operating systems. )omputer graphics is used in every field. po erful. "ustify the statement I0indo s ?S is so popularIC Ans. 9. Apart from an intuitive *UI. 8o ever. Some of the ma9or application areas are! a. small.ultimedia '(IIT . 8. 10. porta5le. Ans. no it has also gained commercial strength.ulti threading. it supports various other features such as support for integrated application environment. The 0indo s ?S is popular 5ecause it supports a graphical user interface (*UI). Building design and construction 5. . J-.7. multimedia.

(ame the )omputer languages that support )omputer *raphics. Some languages that support computer graphics are! a. g. Ans.echanical /esign &ntertainment and Animation Aerospace industry . f. 1?KTKA( BASI) #AS)A@ ) '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .ultimedia 2 . e. h. c. . 11. 5. d.c.edical Technology )artography Art and )ommerce. d.

The ) code is small. Ans: Some of the features of 0indo s ?S are!       &asy<to<use *UI . ) is a structured language and is rich in e$pressive po er and applica5le to a ide variety of users. developers for graphics programming.ultimedia . *ive some of the features of 0indo s ?S. FAQ 1. They are used in simulating real life actions. Because of the rich set of graphical functions availa5le. 1or this reason they are used e$tensively in the entertainment industry. A common use of )*I is in creating action effects or cro d in movie shoots. 3. An e$ample of real time graphics is creating scenes for video games. 0hat is )omputer<*enerated Imagery ()*I)C Ans: )*I is the application of computer graphics for creating special effects.12. ) has 5ecome a choice for todayGs professionals. and fle$i5le. 0hy ) language is popular for graphics programmingC Ans. 0hat are real time computer graphicsC Ans: Keal time graphics deal ith producing images in real time. 2. fast. porta5le.ultitasking Integrated application environment &$tensive hard are support (et orking /evice independence '(IIT -4 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . this language helps in designing for graphical applications.

It supports 5itmap facility for the creation and manipulation of graphics images.etafiles) provides for the e$change of pictures 5et een applications. /?S compati5ility 4.ultimedia -- . ()omputer *raphics .C Ans: The mechanism called )*. 0hat is meant 5y )*. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .

&$plain the concept of random and raster scanning in displays. such as aspect ratio. the students have learned to!      /escri5e graphics hard are components and soft are packages /efine interactive graphics )ompare raster and random display systems Use graphical input devices and interactive techni>ues Identify graphical user interface design techni>ues Focus Areas Introduce the term interactive computer graphics to students.ultimedia '(IIT .Chapter T"o Objectives In this chapter. refresh rate. &$plain the various types of display technologies. an image can 5e edited 5y altering individual pi$els through 5itmap creation and editing packages such as #hotoshop. Tell them that interactive graphics need special hard are to function. Kefer to the 1ocus Areas section and e$plain the difference 5et een raster and vector images. 8o ever. Ask students to identify graphics components that can 5e used for interactive graphics. and interlacing. resolution. Initiate a discussion on the comparison 5et een various types of displays. A itiona! Inputs The follo ing section provides some e$tra inputs on the important topics covered in the S*! !aster "s #ector Graphics Kaster images are stored as pi$els. these images cannot 5e scaled ithout losing >uality. If you scale a raster graphic it Gpi$alatesG -7 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . &$plain the various characteristics of displays. ?nce created and saved in a raster(5itmapped) form.

and can 5e easily edited in packages such as Ado5e Illustrator.ultimedia -= . vector or random images are made up and stored as geometric shapes. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .that is the individual pi$els 5egin to sho up and the >uality of the image is lost. *iven here are the t o versions of the same image < one in normal si:e and another magnified! Unlike raster images. The follo ing image sho s an image created and magnified to =744L in Ado5e Illsutrator. These can 5e scaled ithout loss of >uality.

In some cases.ector graphics are not suita5le for use on the 0e5. This kind of functionality is supported in Illustrator and #hotoshop. here >uality is a prime concern. 5ecause vector file formats are not idely supported 5y 5ro sers (e$cept 1lash. here you can import an illustrator graphic in #hotoshop. The high >uality vector graphics are more suita5le for creating graphics such as logos and 5rochures. such as logos here you may ant to use the same graphic for the 0e5 as ell as printing. you ill also 5e a5le to make changes to the image easily. you can create a vector graphic and import it as a raster graphic for the 0e5 and retain the original vector format copy also. In this ay. . -E )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .Kaster graphics are used commonly on the 0e5 or for normally displaying on computers 5ecause in this case the high >uality and si:e of vector graphics is not re>uired.ultimedia '(IIT . hich is also a vector 5ased format).

(avigate to the Settings ta5 as sho n in the follo ing figure! =. In 0indo s. The resolutions sho n in the slider depends on the si:e of your monitor.Setting Display $roperties 6our operating system lets you set the properties of your monitor as re>uired. 7.ultimedia -F . Select a resolution using the Screen Area slider. The follo ing ta5le sho s recommended si:e 5ased on the monitor si:e! Monitor Size 14 '(IIT Recommended Resolutions 8 !6 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . The /isplay #roperties dialog 5o$ opens. you can set the display properties 5y performing the follo ing steps! -. The si:e of a monitor is specified as its diagonal length. Kight<click on your desktop and select #roperties from the short cut menu.

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(avigate to the . Kefresh fre>uency is inversely proportional to resolution. A dialog 5o$ opens. (o . (ote that the refresh rates displayed in this dialog 5o$ depend on the resolution of your monitor. higher resolutions support lo refresh rates. That is. select an appropriate refresh rate from the Kefresh 1re>uency drop<do n list. the follo ing snapshots sho the Kefresh 1re>uency options availa5le for a -FI monitor at D44 $ 344 resolution and -47E J HD4 resolution! '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .onitor ta5 in this dialog 5o$ as sho n in the follo ing figure! F. 1or e$ample. &nsure that the Hide modes that this monitor cannot display check5o$ is selected.ultimedia -H . )lick the Advanced 5utton.E.

It is evaluated as! '(IIT -D )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . 8o ever. hich have the same color. some other characteristics of monitors include!     Vie in! an!le! It is the ma$imum angle at hich you can vie a monitorGs display ithout any reduction in 5rightness or color of the image. . %ontrast ratio! It is ratio 5et een the 5rightest hite and darkest 5lack in a monitor.ultimedia . you can vie it ithout any loss of color of 5rightness. It is desira5le to have a lo dot pitch for sharper image display. %ore Display Characteristics Apart from resolution. #i$el pitch! It is the distance 5et een the centers of t o ad9acent pi$els. )lick ?K in the dialog 5o$ to apply the selected refresh rate and then click ?K in the /isplay #roperties dialog 5o$ to close it and apply the settings.3.ost )KT monitors support a vie ing angle of -D44. That is. "ot pitch! It is the distance 5et een the phosphor dots on a monitor. This distance is measured diagonally and e$pressed in millimeters. refresh rate. usually e$pressed in millimeters. you ill see the display darker than hen you vie it from the normal position of 24 4. and aspect ratio. even hen you are standing at an angle of -D4 degrees to a )KT monitor. @)/ displays do not support good vie ing angles. if you try vie ing a laptop from an angular position.

7. and aspect ratio. Kefresh display file is also called the display list.ultimedia -2 . In raster scan display. So!utions to Chapter T"o Questions 1. Ans. )ompare the merits and demerits of raster and random scanning system. In case of random scan display. The picture definition is stored in a memory area called refresh 5uffer or frame 5uffer in case of a raster scan display. display program. A high response time means that the monitor can display full motion movies ithout any pro5lems. #i$el can 5e defined as the smallest si:e o59ect or color spot that can 5e displayed and addressed on a monitor. or the refresh 5uffer. /efine pi$el. Kandom scan monitors dra a picture one line at a time and so they are also referred to as vector displays. 2. Kefresh rate on a random scan system depends on the num5er of lines to 5e displayed. the electron 5eam is s ept across the screen. resolution. picture definition is stored as a set of line<dra ing commands in an area of memory referred to as the refresh display file. =. This characteristic does not apply to )KT monitors 5ecause they have the capa5ility of displaying full motion video ithout any pro5lems. hich is related to the frame rate of the @)/ monitor. Brightness at the center of the monitor hen all pi$els are hite Brightness at the center of the monitor hen all pi$els are 5lack &esponse time! It is a characteristic of @)/ monitors. -. Ans. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . one ro at a time from top to 5ottom. Kefreshing on raster scan display is carried out at the rate of 34 to D4< frames per second.

The standard aspect ratio for #)Ms is E!= and some use F!E.ultimedia '(IIT .Image resolution refers to pi$el spacing that is the distance from one pi$el to the ne$t pi$el. 74 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . The aspect ratio of the image is the ratio of the num5er of J pi$els to the num5er of 6 pi$els.

the acceleration of the electron 5eam as 5eing monitored. &$plain 5riefly the orking principle of Shado mask )KT. is a metal screen. The shado mask )KT. This plate has holes placed strategically. uses three different guns placed ad9acent to each other to form a triangle or a I/eltaI. The Shado .ultimedia 7- . focus the 5eam to a particular point on the screen. 5lue. Since fine<tuning of the 5eam intensities is comparatively simple. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . Ans. so that the 5eams from the three electron guns are focused on particular color< producing pi$el only.3. one can manipulate the intensity of the three 5eams simultaneously. e can get much more com5ination of colors than the 5eam penetration case. In )KT. A pair of focusing grids. Ans. instead of using one electron gun.ask )KT is 5ased on the principle of com5ining the 5asic colors < red.ST system. an electron gun produces a stream of electrons. &ach pi$el point on the screen is made up of three types of phosphors to produce red. called a Ishado maskI. e get more of red color in the final com5ination etc. If the red 5eam is made more intense. unlike the 5eam penetration )KTMs. 4. green and 5lue. 5. The point here the 5eam hits the screen 5ecomes phosphorent and produces a speck of light. &$plain the principle of dra ing pictures on )KT. &$plain the principle of /. Ans. (o . The electron 5eam is focused to ards the phosphor coated screen. In this ay a hole picture can 5e dra n 5y illuminating the points on the screen. and green colors. This electron 5eam can 5e s itched onBoff through a heating system. The grid controls the focusing ith the help of magneticBelectric fields. "ust in front of the phosphor screen.

ST) 5ehaves like a )KT ith highly persistent phosphor. d. #ictures dra n on this screen ill 5e seen for several minutes (E4<F4 minutes) 5efore fading. #ositioning )onstraints *rids *ravity 1ield Ku55er 5and methods /ragging 77 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . The grid made of very thin. the riting is done ith the help of a fine<mesh ire grid. Storage Tu5e (/. 0hat are the different graphical input interactive techni>uesC Ans. 1ollo ing are the various graphical input interactive techni>ues! a. 8o ever. high >uality ire is located ith a dielectric and is mounted 9ust 5efore the screen on the path of the electron 5eam from the gun. It is similar to a )KT as far as the electronic gun and phosphor<coated mechanisms are concerned. 6. instead of the electron 5eam directly riting the pictures on the phosphor coated )KT screen. A pattern of positive charges is deposited on the grid and this pattern is transferred to the phosphor coated )KT 5y a continuous flood of electrons. e. hich is separate from the electron gun that produces the main electron 5eam. 5.ultimedia '(IIT . This flood of electrons is mounted 5y a Iflood gunI.The /irect . f.

1or every '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . the screen image 5ecomes unsta5le and gradually fades out. Ans. 0hen an electron 5eam strikes a dot of phosphor material. clicking. the electron 5eam must s eep the entire surface of the screen and return to redra it num5er of times per second.ouse is an e$ample of pointing device. 0hat are pointing devicesC *ive e$amples. such as selecting. As 5rightness of the dots 5egins to reduce. 10. A mouse is a small handled 5o$ used to position the screen cursor. moving.7. 0hy refreshing is re>uired in )KTC Ans. it glo s for a fraction of a second and then fades. 8. the screen must 5e refreshed multiple times in a second. That is. &ach of these heels is connected to the shaft encode. In order to maintain a sta5le image.ultimedia 7= .ouse Ta5let "oystick /igiti:er @ight pen Track 5all 9. Ans. and dragging. Ans.ouse. A pointing device is a hard are peripheral that allo s user to point to o59ects on the screen and perform operations on them. It has t o heels at right angles to each other. . The various positioning devices are!       . (ame the different positioning devices. &$plain the orking principle of .

These light sources should not trigger the computer to accept the signal. therefore. an amplifier amplifies it 5efore 5eing sent to the computer. 7E )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .incremental rotation of the heel. So the aperture of the light pen is normally kept closed till the final position is reached. (ote that . hen the pen is 5eing moved to its position. This photocell converts the light signal received from the screen to an electrical pulse to 5e sent as a signal sent to the computer. &$plain the orking of @ight pen along ith a diagram. the movement is coded in the $ and y directions 5y counting the num5er of pulses received from the shaft encoder. These values are held in separate registers and the computer can sample them at a suita5le rate. As the device is moved on a flat surface. it. Since the electrical signal is rather eak.ultimedia '(IIT . to the position here the modification is re>uired. A small aperture is held against the portion of the picture to 5e modified and the light from the pi$els falls on a photocell. Ans. Through the use of the tracking soft are. @ight pen has a very simple orking. All that the light pen does is to make use of this light signal to indicate the position. 11.that. and then it can 5e opened 5y a s itch. A Itracking soft areI keeps track of the position of the light pen al ays. a signal received 5y the light pen at any point indicates the portion of the picture that needs to 5e modified. it ill encounter various other light sources on the ay. 5e used for a moving cursor around the display screen. after passing through the aperture. an electrical signal is produced 5y the shaft encode. The device can. &very pi$el on the screen that is a part of the picture emits light.

8o many different choices are possi5le if e use 7E 5its per pi$elC Ans. Should the resolution of an image 5e changed as per the monitor resolutionC Ans: 0hen you create images you can set their resolution. If e use = 5its for primary colors ho many different colors are possi5leC Ans. Some porta5le computers have high >uality. Are these @)/ displaysC Ans: These could 5e flat panel displays called *as #lasma displays. 1or e$ample.H million (77E) colors. -3. It is 5eing vie ed as the standard for descri5ing vector graphics on the e5 in the future.12. 3. 2.*)is an J. 0hat is S. the e$act value should 5e decided 5ased on the monitor resolution.ector *raphics (S.@ 5ased language for descri5ing 7/ vector graphics. for a -E inches monitor ith D44 J 344 resolution an image resolution of H3<HD is accepta5le. D colors are possi5le. 8o ever. 8o ever. 8o ever. The resolution of an image should ideally 5e 5et een H7 and 23 ppi. perfectly flat displays. hich use neon 5ul5s. currently many 5ro sers do not support it. FAQ 1. 13. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . evenly colored.*C Ans: Scala5le .ultimedia 7F .

inches monitor ith -7D4 J 234 resolution.for a 7.ultimedia '(IIT . 4. 73 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . an image resolution of around 23 is accepta5le. 0hat is an appropriate refresh rate. hen multiple refresh rates are availa5le for a given resolutionC Ans: The most appropriate refresh rate is considered to 5e H7 and DF 8:.

Tell the students that the actual graphics and animation is done in the graphics mode. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .Chapter Three Objectives In this chapter. use the e$ample of the hut to demonstrate the related functions. &$plain the various graphics functions availa5le in ) using e$amples.ultimedia 7H . Although creating an animation using a modern animation package such as Imageready is much easier than riting hundreds of lines of code in ). (e$t. mention the t o modes through hich graphics and te$t can 5e displayed in ) language. 6ou can e$plain the 5asics of the graphics mode referring to the topic.S #aint themselves using )Gs support for graphics and kno ledge of some additional concepts such as handling the mouse input. Again. e$plain ho to create the same hut using rectangle(). ) forms the foundation of such graphics packages. These e$amples have 5een e$plained at the 5ack of the 5ook. (e$t. 1inally. the students have learned to!   )reate graphics using ) functions )reate animation using ) functions Focus Areas Introduce ) as one of the oldest 5ut strongest programming languages. arc() and other such shape related functions. the creation of the Indian flag or a human face. In fact. 5ar(). (o e$plain the concept of filling images using solid fills or patterns. Start 5y creating a hut simply using the line dra ing related functions. e$plain animation support in ). Take the e$ample of creating a hut. I)reating *raphics in )I from the Additional Inputs sectionInputs section. students can create a graphics package such as . Tell the students that ) also supports graphics and animation. 1or practice1or practice you could discuss ith the class.

As its parameters you must specify the graphics mode such as &*A or . int Nmode. S itch over to the graphics mode.A itiona! Inputs The follo ing section provides some e$tra inputs on the important topics covered in the S*! Creating Graphics in C To rite a ) program for creating graphics.ultimedia '(IIT . the graphics driver (a program that interfaces 5et een the hard are and your ) program).?(? 3 or IB. 7. Its synta$ is! initgraph(int Ndriver. hich offers the 5est resolutions using the initgraph() function.h file in your program. you must follo the follo ing procedure! -. char Npath)O =.or )*A 7 or . refer to the follo ing ta5le! Value/Constants 4 or /&T&)T .*A (depends on the graphics adapter 5eing used). and path of the graphics driver. Include the graphics. This function initiali:es the graphics mode.?(? D or ATTE44 7D )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .DF-E H or 8&K).)*A = or &*A E or &*A3E F or &*A. To specify the value of the graphics driver parameter.

)lose the graphics mode using the closegraph() function. your system s itches to the graphics mode and the mouse cursor disappears. 0hile dra ing shapes in ) programs. it is important to understand the screen coordinate system and the meaning of the parameters that specify the coordinate points of these shapes. hen you have ritten the code for creating graphics. The synta$ of this function is! rectangle(int left. If you ant to create a rectangle or s>uare 5oundary ithout any color inside it. and color.Value/Constants 2 or . F. thickness. 3. such as arc() and 5ar().ultimedia 72 . int right. (ote that the 5ar() and rectangle() functions are different. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . ?n the other hand. This function creates a rectangle in the specific line style. )all appropriate functions to create graphics. E. If these ere not set. The 5ar() function creates a rectangular shape ithout 5oundary and fills it in the current fill pattern and color. rectangle() creates a rectangular 5oundary in the current color and pattern. hich have 5een set prior to a call made to this function. you can use the rectangle() function. the defaults are used. Dra&ing Shapes in C 6ou have learned a5out various shape creation functions in the te$t5ook.*A -4 or #)=7H4 (ote that during e$ecution ith a call to initgraph(). int top. int 5ottom)O To dra a rectangle you must specify the coordinates of its top left and 5ottom right corner points as the four parameters of the rectangle() function. )all the restorecrtmode() to restore the original video mode of your monitor.

0hen you s itch to the graphics mode. &ach pi$el represents a point in this coordinate system. the hole screen 5ecomes a virtual coordinate system according to hich the coordinates specified in the graphics function in your programs are determined.ultimedia '(IIT . =4 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . It is important to identify the position here you ant to dra your shapes.

As an e$ample. a string which can be returned by the gra herrormsg!" &o error *+)(. The graphresult() function returns an integer representing the values given in the follo ing ta5le! Value Constant Associated error message. )raphics hardware not detected -evice driver file not found (nvalid device driver file grO% '1 '# '. consider the follo ing screen coordinate system in the 3E4 J ED4 mode! 'rror Chec(ing !outine It is a good practice to check for errors hen initiating the graphics mode. '4 gr&o(nit)raph gr&ot-etected grFile&otFound gr(nvalid-river '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . 6ou can do this using the graphresult() function.ultimedia =- . graphics not installed *use initgraph.

Value Constant Associated error message. %gmode. a string which can be returned by the gra herrormsg!" &ot enough memory to load driver Out of memory in scan fill Out of memory in flood fill Font file not found &ot enough memory to load font (nvalid graphics mode for selected driver )raphics error )raphics (2O error (nvalid font file (nvalid font num3er (nvalid device num3er (nvalid version num3er '" '6 '$ '8 '9 '1 '11 '1# '1. Id!PPtcPP5giI)O BN read result of initiali:ation NB errorcode Q graphresult()O if (errorcode RQ gr?k) S an error occurred NB BN =7 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . '14 '1" '18 gr&o/oad0em gr&oScan0em gr&oFlood0em grFont&otFound gr&oFont0em gr(nvalid0ode gr1rror gr(Oerror )r(nvalidFont )r(nvalidFont&um gr(nvalid-evice&u m )r(nvalid4ersion 6ou can use the graphresult() function to catch errors as follo s! BN initiali:e graphics mode NB initgraph(%gdriver.ultimedia '(IIT .

BN return ith error code NB '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . a step is missing for implementing animation.HF. it returns the area of the rectangle 5ounding the image. PnI)O grapherrormsg(errorcode)O printf(I#ress any key to halt!I)O getch()O e$it(-)O T Animating In the 5ook. you must allocate enough memory so that the image can 5e handled 5y getimage() as! int area Q imagesi:e(7F.HF)O unsigned char N 5uf Q malloc(arear)O getimage(7F.=4. 0hen you call imagesi:e().ultimedia == .printf(I*raphics error. 5uf)O The malloc() function allocates as many 5ytes as specified in its parameter. Before calling getimage().HF.HF.=4.

char Npath) As its parameters. The synta$ of this function is! initgraph(int Ndriver. )ompare the features of te$t and graphics modeC Ans. #" rows of 4 columns or #" rows of 8 columns7 %ra hics mode 5ou can display.*A (depends on the graphics adapter 5eing used).ultimedia '(IIT . 0ith the help of an illustration. e$plain ho initgraph() function orks. Ans. the graphics driver (a program that interfaced 5et een the hard are and your ) program). or . The follo ing ta5le compares the te$t and graphics modes! #e$t mode 5ou can only handle te6t7 5ou can display in 16 colors on a color monitor7 8e6t mode display is in two forms. gmodeQEO =E )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . int Nmode. capture. and animate figures7 5ou can display various colors7 8he resolution of the graphics mode depends on the adapter7 2. and path of the graphics driver. 1or e$ample. you must specify the graphics mode such as &*A. to initiali:e graphics mode in )*A high resolution mode! int gdriver Q -. The initgraph() function is used to initiali:e the graphics system to load appropriate graphics drive and video mode used 5y the graphics functions.So!utions to Chapter Three Questions 1.

The code given here has 5een tested on Tur5o ) =.-44. 4. Id!PPtcPP5giI)O 3. gmodeO BN initiali:e graphics mode NB initgraph(%gdriver.24)O circle(-44. Ans. Id!PPtcPP5giI)O 1or e$ample. UincludeVgraphics.hW main() S int gdriver Q /&T&)T. %gmode.ultimedia =F . %gmode.F4)O circle(-44.=4)O getch()O restorecrtmode()O T Inform the students that the path Xd!PPtcPP5giY should 5e changed according to the machine settings. gmodeO initgraph(%gdriver.initgraph(%gdriver. UincludeVconio.hW U includeVstdio. Use graphics function to dra concentric circlesC Ans. Id!PPtcPP5giI)O circle(-44.-44. %gmode.hW '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .hW UincludeVgraphics.4.-44. to select the 5est driver and mode possi5le on a computer! int gdriver Q /&T&)T. /evelop a ) program to dra a structure of a fish and give animation.

%gmode.hW$Zy<=4)O BNtriangleNB line($Zy)O ellipse(24Ai. The code given here has 5een tested on Tur5o ) =.=4Ai.hW void main() S int gdriverQ/&T&)$Zy<=4.gmodeO int iO initgraph(%gdriver.hW UincludeVstdli5. =3 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .34.4.=34.=F)O circle(-74Ai.hW$Zy)O line($ZyA=4.F)O iQiA=O if(iWQ3=F) iQ4O delay(-44)O cleardevice()O T getch()O closegraph()O T Inform the students that the path Xe!PPtcPP5giY should 5e changed according to the machine$Zy<F.Ie!PPtcPP5giI)O int ma$ZyQgetma$y()B7O iQ4O setcolor(B@U&)O hile(Rk5hit()) S line($ZyA=4.ultimedia '(IIT .ma$Zy.=4Ai.

hW UincludeVconio.HF.-34.744)O '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .5.77F.-=4)O line(-H4.hW void carZ heel(int $.744.-34)O line(H4.-H4.-=4)O line( y) S setcolor(08IT&)O setfillstyle(S?@I/Z1I@@.-34)O line(734.-=4.08IT&)O circle($.-34)O line(-HF.-7F.4.E4.-=4.744)O carZ heel(744. Ans.734.--4.744.hW UincludeVdos.-34.744)O line(744.-4)O floodfill($.7F)O T void carZ5ody() S carZ heel(F4.08IT&)O circle($.744)O line(734.y.744.-=4)O 5ar(-4F.y.-34. UincludeVgraphics.ultimedia =H .7-4)O line(E4.y.H4.-34. /evelop a ) program to dra a car shape and move the car using animation functions.744.744)O setcolor(K&/)O line(7F.hW UincludeVstdli5.734.

-D4.5uff.4.?KZ#UT)O delay(HF)O putimage(i.-D4.-H4.ultimedia '(IIT .J?KZ#UT)O i QiA-4 T closegraph()O restorecrtmode()O getch()O =D )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .arc(F4.?KZ#UT)O delay(HF)O putimage(iAF.J?KZ#UT)O putimage(iAF.-44.%gmode.-44.K&/)O floodfill(-F4.Ie!PPtcPP5gi I)O carZ5ody()O 5uffQmalloc(imagesi:e(4.J?KZ#UT)O iQ4O hile(Rk5hit()) S if(iWF44) iQ4O putimage(i.gmodeO int iO void N5uffO initgraph(%gdriver.4.7F)O setfillstyle(S?@I/Z1I@@.-44.-44.K&/)O T void main() S int gdriver Q /&T&)T.744.7=4.5uff.7H4.5uff.-44.7=4))O getimage(4.744.5uff)O putimage(4.7F)O arc(744.7H4.5uff.-44.-44.5uff.

74) dra s the first >uarter of the circle. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . int end.-44)O 5ar(int $-.-4) arc(int $. Ans.4. int y7)! This dra s a filled rectangle ith diagonal from ($-.ultimedia =2 . int r)! This dra s a circle ith center at ($.F4. 0hat is the use of malloc() function in ). y-) to ($7. &$ample! circle(F4. y-) to ($7. 6. y7) &$ample! line(-4. @ist the different graphics functions along ith e$ample. int r)! This dra s an arc of circle ith the center at ($. y) and radius of r.-4. int y-. int start.-44. 7.4. The num5er of 5ytes of memory to 5e allocated is specified as its parameter. The code given here has 5een tested on Tur5o ) =. int $7.y). int y. radius r and start and end specified in degrees to mention the portion of the circle that forms the arc. Ans.-44) and radius 74. int y.y7) 5ar(-4. int $7.-44.7F. such as!     line(int $-. int y7)! This dra s a line from position ($-. The malloc() function allocates memory for an o59ect.24. int y-.T Inform the students that the path Xd!PPtcPP5giY should 5e changed according to the machine settings. &$ample! arc(-44.F4. ) supports various graphics functions. arc ith center (-44.HF) circle(int $.

8. 1or e$ample. hich is specified as the last parameter of getimage(). 1or e$ample. -7F). $7. The getimage() function captures the image inside the rectangle hose diagonal is defined 5y ($-. and ($7. animate a rectangle as it is you can use the )?#6Z#UT option in putimage! putimage(-4. y). here $-. The fourth parameter of this function specifies ho the image has to 5e copied and takes any of the follo ing values!      )?#6Z#UT or 4. The image to 5e captured is specified as the third parameter. hich inverts the pi$els of the image. you can use the getimage() function as! int area Q imagesi:e(-4.F4. The captured image is stored in an array. and y7 are the first four parameters of getimage().y7). here $ and y are the first t o parameters of this function. starting at location ($.F4. 5uf.F4.F4. to capture a rectangle hose diagonal is defined 5y (-4.-7F)O unsigned char N 5uf Q malloc(arear)O getimage(-4.F4. y-). &$plain the use of getimage() and putimage() ith e$amplesC Ans. hich performs an e$clusive ?K 5et een the 5ackground pi$els and the image pi$els ?KZ#UT or 7. hich copies the image as it is J?KZ#UT or -. 0hat are the various fill patterns in )C E4 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . 5uf)O The putimage() function copies the image captured using getimage(). )?#6Z#UT)O FAQ 1.ultimedia '(IIT . hich performs an A(/ 5et een the 5ackground pi$els and the image pi$els (?TZ#UT or E. hich performs an inclusive ?K 5et een the 5ackground pi$els and the image pi$els A(/Z#UT or =. F4) and (F4.-7F. y-.

Ans: The various fill patterns include! &attern Constant 10985:F(// SO/(-:F(// /(&1:F(// /8S/;S<:F(// S/;S<:F(// +=S/;S<:F(// /8+=S/;S<:F(// <;8;?<:F(// !<;8?<:F(// (&81@/1;41:F(/ / A(-1:-O8:F(// 1 # . 4 " 6 $ 8 9 1 Value 'escri tion +ac%ground color fill Solid fill ''''''' 22222 22222 *thic% lines, >>>> *thic% lines, >>>> <atch fill *light, ?ross hatch fill *heavy, (nterleaving line fill -ot fill *widely spaced, -ot fill *closely spaced, Bser'defined fill pattern

?/OS1:-O8:F(// 11 BS1@:F(// 1#

2. 8o can you create user<defined fill patternsC Ans: A pattern is stored as a se>uence of D 5ytes. ith each 5yte corresponding to a set of D pi$els. The value of a pi$el is set in


)oordinator *uide + *raphics and ,ultimedia E-

the current color. if the value of the corresponding 5it is -. 1or e$ample. you can define a pattern as! char pattern[\ Q S4$)). 4$AA. 4$==. 4$7D.4$AB.4$-4.4$-H.4$11TO 6ou use setfillstyle() for predefined patterns. 1or user<defined patterns. such as the one given a5ove. you can use setfillpattern(char N pattern. int color). 3. ) supports a graphics mode and a te$t mode. /oes that mean that you cannot output graphics in graphics modeC Ans: 6ou can print graphics in the graphics mode as ell. The various te$t functions availa5le in the graphics mode are!

outte$t$y(int $.int y. char N te$t). hich displays the te$t specified as its third parameter at position specified 5y the first and second parameters. in current font. si:e and direction. sette$tstyle(int font. int direction. int charsi:e). hich allo s you to set the font. si:e. and direction of the te$t. 1onts can 5e any of the --(value 4 < -4) predefined fonts. direction can 5e 8?KI]Z/IK or ;&KTZ/IK. and si:e can 5e 4 or any non<:ero value positive value. The si:e manipulation involves various other functions also such as te$theight(). te$t idth(). and setusercharsi:e(). 1or more information you can refer to .cs.colorado.eduB^mainB5giBdocBsette$tstyle.html. sette$t9ustify(int hori:Z9usti. int vertZ9usti). allo s you to 9ustify and align te$t. The possi5le values for the parameters are. @&1TZT&JT (only hori:Z9usti). )&(T&KZT&JT (5oth hori:Z9usti and vertZ9usti). KI*8TZT&JT (only hori:Z9usti). B?TT?,ZT&JT (only vertZ9usti). T?#ZT&JT (only vertZ9usti).

4. 8o can you make an o59ect animate infinitely till you press the &nter key to e$itC Ans:
E7 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and ,ultimedia '(IIT

6ou can make an o59ect animate till you hit a key using the k5hit() function. 0hen this function is called it returns true if an input character is availa5le in the read 5uffer for reading. If there is nothing to 5e read. it returns false. 6ou can use this function as! int continue Q-O hile(continue) S if(k5hit()) S ch Q getch()O if(ch QQ7H) 5reakO T else S BBanimation code T T 5. It is easy to dra lines or plot points in relation to the screen coordinate system. 8o can you move the cursor 5y a position relative to another point on the screenC Ans: 6ou can do this using the moverel(int $. int y) function. It moves the cursor $ pi$els in the J direction and y pi$els in 6 direction from the current position. (ote that it does not dra any line hile doing so. To dra a line from a point to a relative point use the linerel(int $. int y) function.


)oordinator *uide + *raphics and ,ultimedia E=

Chapter Four Objectives In this chapter. e$plain digital imaging. /iscuss the origin and development of multimedia 5riefly. the students have learned to!          /escri5e the origin. #rompt students to identify common formats for these components as ell as tools used for creating. At this stage list each of the components of multimedia including te$t.ultimedia '(IIT . Introduce some of the multimedia packages and products 5eing used in the field of multimedia no adays. sound. atching video. &$plain the difference 5et een a normal desktop #) and a multimedia system. editing. tools. )ommon ans ers ould 5e listening to music. and surfing e5sites. and video. and development of multimedia Identify the components of multimedia @ist the digital imaging technologies /escri5e video as a component of multimedia /escri5e audio as a component of multimedia Identify types of animation /escri5e =/ animation techni>ues Apply digital filtering and special effects @ist latest multimedia technologies. te$t. EE )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . and using these components. graphics. /iscuss video and audio as multimedia components. audio. hich are rich in graphics. Tell the students that these are the components that are collectively kno n as multimedia. video. (e$t. and accessories Focus Areas Introduce multimedia 5y asking students the various reasons hy they ould use a computer. 6ou may e$plain this concept ith reference to the additional inputs given in the Additional Inputs sectionInputs section. and animation.

hen it is digiti:ed is the sampling rate. The more the num5er of frames. 6ou could link the latter topic to #hotoshop. sampling rate is e$pressed in 8: as t ice the highest fre>uency of sound in the analog aveform. hich is discussed in the ne$t chapter and create conte$t for it. you could compare a sample to a frame in an animation or video. 0hen these analog signals are digiti:ed for use on computers. the higher the sampling rate. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . Informally.T o other important topics in this chapter are Animation and /igital 1iltering and Special &ffects. . A itiona! Inputs The follo ing section provides some e$tra inputs on the important topics covered in the S*! Sampling !ate of Audio An important characteristic of audio. the 5etter is the >uality of digiti:ed sound. Similarly.ultimedia EF . /iscuss these topics in an interactive manner ith the students. A high sampling rate ould therefore mean that the sound as digiti:ed from its analog aveform more precisely. the sound aveforms is measured or sampled at specific intervals.athematically. The num5er of samples taken per second is the sampling rate. Sound is in the form of analog signals. the smoother is the animation or video.

/ynamic Kange Q /. An image ith 5it depth of . Therefore. 1or e$ample. can represent over -3 million tones. Therefore . a higher 5it depth makes it possi5le to store more information so that the dynamic range can 5e higherO ho ever it does not ensure a higher dynamic range. hich has shado s may appear to 5e completely 5lack in certain shado y regions if the dynamic range is lo and may not allo all shado s to 5e depicted appropriately. 1or e$ample. Although. The notations commonly used to donate densities are /. E3 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . hich use ))/s do not have high dynamic ranges. Bits contain color information.Q 7 tones (5lack and hite). modern scanners are supporting higher 5it depths. Apart from resolution other important characteristics to 5e considered during digital imaging are!   'it depth! Bit depth is the num5er of 5its per pi$el. an This is actually 5ecause the tones in an image depend on 5it depth. 1or e$ample.a$ </min.a$ and /. dynamic range is the difference 5et een the ma$imum and minimum values of image density that a scanner can capture. most good 8# scanners no support ED< 5it depth. ?nly /rum scanners have a high dynamic range.7. images ith 5it depth 7E. "ynamic ran!e! /ynamic range is the ratio of the 5rightest signal to the darkest signal that a scanner can detect and represent it in the digital image. the num5er of 5its defining a pi$el in an image.Important Scanner Characteristics for Digital Imaging The resolution (dpi) of a scanner is a crucial characteristic to 5e considered during digital imaging.ultimedia '(IIT . . The dynamic range affects the >uality of shado s and highlights in an image. Some scanners such as those of )anon and (ikon claim of dynamic ranges up to E. 0ith the popularity of digital imaging.ill 5e a5le to represent 7. affects the >uality of the GrealismG of the digital image as compared to the original image.athematically. The desktop scanners. An image ith more 5it depth can represent more num5er of tones.

ultimedia EH .erms of Scanner Characteristics The file si:e of a scanned o59ect depends on the follo ing!    #i$el dimensions Bit depth Kesolution A simple formula for estimating the si:e of a file in hich an o59ect ill 5e scanned can 5e calculated from the follo ing formula! 1ile si:e Q (#i$el Kesolution $ Bit depth $ Kesolution)BD 5ytes 1or e$ample. It indicates the actual pi$els that scanned image uses. if a 7E<5it. -4I $ --Iimage is scanned at =44 dpi. hich is the resolution of the scanned image. a =I J EI image scanned at 744 dpi ill 5e stored using (height J dpi) 344 pi$els $ ( idth J dpi) D44 pi$els. its file si:e ould 5e! 1ile si:e Q (=444 $ ==44 $ 7E $ =44) B D Q D2-4444444 5ytes. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . #i$el dimension! #i$el dimension is the height and idth of an image in pi$els. Calculating File Si)e of a Scanned O*+ect in . 1or e$ample.

udio ED )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .ultimedia '(IIT .41 Format A. sounds that are played when you perform an action in Aindows such as logging on to Aindows are all in 7wav format7 (t stores uncompressed ?Euality audioF however the file siCe of a 7wav file is very large7 8ypically the file siCe if a 7wav file is 1 0+ for a minuteGs audio7 Specifically developed with the (nternet as the target.$opular Audio Formats The four most popular audio file formats include! (ormat 0(-( 'escri tion 0usical (nstrument -igital (nterface or 0(-( was developed in 198#7 (t stores digital music instructions instead of actual sound data7 (t can play only music as it records notes not sounds7 8he siCe of a 0(-( file is very small and its e6tension is 7mid or 7midi 8ypically the file siCe of a 7midi file is #" =+ for " minutes audio7 A.41 Format was developed 3y (+0 and 0icrosoft7 (t is AindowsD inherent file format for storing audio7 For e6ample. its main advantage is streaming audio7 7ra files can only 3e played with a @eal One player 3ecause it is a proprietary format7 @eal .

0indo s .aif or. $opular #ideo Formats The most popular video formats include! (ormat 091) 'escri tion (t is one of the most popular formats. and 7mpga7 8ypically a " minutes audio is stored 3etween 47" to "7" 0+7 Apart from the a5ove formats.flac). 091)#.players7 8he Euality is the same as that of 4?@s7 091) actually encompasses versions. is a highly compressed 3ut good Euality sound file format.ultimedia E2 . S(/ format (. AI11 format (.edia Audio format (. 091)1. 'escri tion 091) /ayer .(ormat 09.snd). which has revolutioniCed digital music sharing and storing7 09. flac format (. ma).4( *7avi.aiff).ogg). and ogg format (.au). files have the e6tension 7mp. which can 3e played on computers as well as most 4?-2-4. other kno n formats include AU format (. considering their siCe7 ?ommonly used on 0acintosh systems7 (t is also compati3le with the Aindows platform7 (ts Euality is good. or 09. and 091)47 . considering the siCe of the files7 8his format also provides streaming video7 Huic%8ime *7mov. Bsed on the Aindows platform7 8he Euality of these files is not good. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .

The components of .ideo F4 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . Scanning Images for -e* . /ivJ.ultimedia '(IIT ... 'escri tion Bsed for streaming video7 8he Euality is considered to 3e decent7 Some other video formats include. animation soft are. 1iles destined for print need much higher resolution than files to 5e displayed on screen only.ultimediaC Ans. This media includes graphic soft are. save it at H7 dpi for use on the Internet. scanners and cameras. So!utions to Chapter Four Questions 1.ultimedia are as follo s!      Te$t *raphics Sound Animation . 8o ever. .(ormat @eal4ideo*7rm . Anything more than H7<dpi causes files to 5e unnecessarily large and increase do nload time. Intel .se 0hen you scan an image or create one. and 0. video.ultimedia can 5e defined as presentation of information ith integration of multiple media elements that can 5e used on and manipulated 5y computer. AS#. 0hat is multimediaC Ans.1). a file used for the 0e5 cannot 5e used for the print media. audio.ideo Technology (I. and computer hard are such as )/ players. 2. 0hat are the main components of .

8o ever. These chips contained hard are engines for operations re>uiring high computing po er and also integrated processors that can 5e programmed to control data flo ithin the chip. These limitations ere overcome through the introduction of compressionBdecompression engines for reducing the si:es of these files. 0ith illustration 5riefly narrate the origin and development of multimedia technologyC Ans. parallel processing architecture. pictures. Such technologies made audio and video 5oards capa5le of transferring data to computer systems efficiently. in real time.ultimedia is an effective medium to e$press information in a more attractive ay. and scientific visuali:ation. optical disk drives and a variety of interfacing devices made it possi5le to design computer systems that have multimedia features as standards. in some cases. It as started more then 7F years ago.ultimedia F- . and video. These have presented ne opportunities such as video conferencing. displayed and stored on a computer disk ith the help of digital overlay and capture 5oards installed on any ordinary computer. the use of audio and video on desktop computers as limited due to their large si:e and high computing po er re>uirements. In addition. ith the introduction of sound5oards 5uilt around the tone<synthesis chips. The advent of KIS) technology. audio.3. high speed hard disk. medical imaging. several manufacturers introduced a ne generation of compression chips that supported soft are programming. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . it only 5ecame popular ith the advent of desktop computers. 8o ever. video could also 5e captured. animation. It makes use of te$t. Audio as the first multimedia data incorporated into desktop computing. . As the demand increased for multi standard compression on the same system. The latest 5reakthrough in the field of multimedia as the advent of the Internet and other high<speed net orking technologies.

5. 5roadcasting. In addition. *ive different applications for multimediaC Ans.ultimedia '(IIT . There are three different choices for digital imaging!  A film less camera may capture an image electronically F7 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . film less camera may capture an image electronically. . /irect graphics can 5e created on a computer in sophisticated. and . headphones. The last option is here graphics help digital imaging.I/I. training.ultimedia finds application in the field of entrainment. colla5orative engineering. graphics packages also help to edit digital images. 8o do graphics help in digital imagingC Ans.4.0av. 7. hich have 5een scanned or captured in digital cameras. and microphones to record and play sound. or an image may 5e traditionally created and scanned. telecommunications. and design manufacturing process 5ecause of its user<friendly operation. In digital imaging. Some sound cards also include . It is used ith speakers. or it may 5e created directly on the computer using graphics packages. These graphics editing packages allo creation of realistic digital images for use in multimedia applications. feature<rich packages such as #hotoshop. pu5lication. 0hat are the different choices for digital imagingC Ans. Sound card is the hard are for sound input and output.#=. advertising. 6. 0hat are sound cardsC Ans. . marketing.

'(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .)IA )ameras 1ilmless )amera 5acks Still . An artist can create illustrations using illustration soft are such as Ado5e Illustrator.ideo floppy disk )ameras /igital )ameras #). Ans.ultimedia F= . In addition. 8e can also apply special effects to e$isting and ne images through filters such as those in #hotoshop and Illustrator. There are five different types of film less cameras suita5le for digital imaging availa5le in the market!      . 0hat are the different kinds of film less cameras availa5le in the marketC Ans. he can scan hand<dra n illustrations and apply effects to or edit them.  The image may 5e created ithin the computer using various paints and illustration programs The image may 5e created traditionally and than scanned into digital form 8. &$plain ho an artist can make use of multimedia soft are for his ork.ideo )ameras 9. 8e can also create animation and add sound to his art ork using such soft are.

0hat are the ma9or types of sound filesC Ans. 12. and more presenta5le.ultimedia '(IIT .10.I/I files. 13. /igital cameras K1 or audio and video ports are connected to the corresponding K1 of Audio video ports availa5le in the capture 5oard. entertaining. The ma9or types of sound file formats include 0ave files and . and presentations. . Ans. &$plain ho moving images are recorded on the hard disk. such as video or animation. It helps to make a multimedia application. Sound in multimedia can include speech.oving images can 5e captured or copied on the hard disk ith the help of a capture 5oard. Animation is the process in hich each frame of a film or movie is produced individually and vie ed in rapid succession to give FE )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . Sound is an essential component of a multimedia production. Ans. 11. 1or e$ample. 0hat is animationC &$plain different types of animation techni>ues.ideo studio soft are live images can 5e captured and stored on the hard disk. special effect sounds. 0hat is samplingC Ans. 0ith the help of any . a presentation used for computer<5ased training can 5e more effective for students. easy to understand. The process of transfer of information from analog to digital is called sampling. if the te$t is also read out as it is displayed. &$plain ho sound helps in multimedia. and music.

1or e$ample! the *I1 file format used for 0e5 page images is a standard format that can 5e opened 5y any program that supports that standard format. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . 0hat is the meaning of file formatC Ans. Ans. The file name e$tension or suffi$es indicate the format or usage of the file.orphing. The method 5y hich soft are organi:es the data in the saved file is called the file format.rame animation! Is made of different frames on screen here they are rapidly displayed to simulate motion. &enderin!! The process of converting your designed o59ects ith te$turing and animation into an image or a series of images is called rendering. 8ead can alone 5e marked and rapped. The 5est e$ample ill 5e Ka asaki advertisement here the motor5ike changes into a cheetah.rappin!! It is the process here certain parts of the image could 5e marked for a change and made to change to different one for e$ample legs of cheetah to 5e morphed ith the heels and head ith head lights. Several different types of file formats are used 5y various kinds of soft are.ultimedia FF . 15.    -orphin!! It is the process of transformation of one image to another 5y the transformation and distortion of corresponding points in 5oth the images. . illusion of continuous movement. 14. ?n #)s the t o main types of animation techni>ues are as follo s!   ()*ect animation! Is the moment of unchanged te$t and o59ect around the screen %ell animation+. Kendering. &$plain the meaning of the follo ing terms! .

a graphic can 5e F3 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . 1or e$ample. 0hat are the components of a multimedia systemC Ans. Scanner is a peripheral device. and the applications ith hich the file ill 5e compati5le. 1ile formats organi:e and store data in a specific format.ultimedia '(IIT . The components of a multimedia system are as follo s!             .onitor )#U . Ans. /ifferent types of scanner are as follo s!     1lat5ed or Sheet<fed Scanner 1ilm Scanner 8andheld Scanner = / Scanner 17.16.ouse Key5oard . &$plain the significance of file e$tensions and file formats. The >uality and characteristics of the format decide the >uality and usage of the data stored in the file. 0hy do e use a scannerC (ame the different types of scannersC Ans.icrophone )/ drive and disc Speaker /igital camera "oystick Scanner #rinter 0e5 camera 18. hich captures real o59ect or image and saves it in a digital file as a graphic.

saved as a 5itmap file or a *I1 file. you can identify a graphic file 5y its e$tension such as . =. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . 1or e$ample. The process of removal of e$traneous noise that inevita5le creeps into a recording is called 2ilterin!. 1ile e$tensions help a user as ell as an application to identify the file format. 5itmap graphics cannot 5e used on e5 pages 5ecause they take a lot of time to load. .a1e or . hereas *I1 does.9pg. a1 files are . F. "#&* uses lossy compression techni>ues. hereas *I1 graphics can 5e used. The amount of data that can 5e transmitted from one computer to another in a given time frame is called )it rate. E. and animation elements. 0indo s ould read the e$tension and select the appropriate program for opening the file. Similarly hen you dou5le click on a . In the first case. the >uality of the graphic is good 5ecause 5itmap format does not compress data.gif or .ultimedia FH . the si:e of the file in the first case ill 5e much more than the si:e of the file in the second case. -0ltimedia constitutes an integration of multiple media such as te$t.ill in the 'lan/s -. 8o ever.gif file. audio.icrosoft standard file format for storing aveform audio data. Therefore. 7. . video. graphics.

ultimedia '(IIT . /o scanner characteristics such as 5it depth also apply to digital camerasC Ans: 6es. home stereo speakers do have magnetic shield protection and can damage your monitor or data in disks such as hard disk or floppy.FAQ 1. 4. 3. A sound of 4dB is hardly audi5le to the human ear. It is used for compressingBdecompressing audio data to a file format or a FD )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . )an you attach your home stereo speakers directly to your computer for 5etter sound >ualityC Ans: The speakers are po ered 5y the sound card and essentially the >uality of sound produced 5y them ould depend on the sound card itself. 2. This is 5ecause the po er that these speakers need is much more than hat the sound cardGs amplifier can provide. . 0hat is a deci5elC Ans: /eci5el is a relative measure of the loudnessBintensity of sound. 0hat is an audio codecC Ans: A codec is soft are that implements a compressionBdecompression techni>ue.oreover. It is actually measured as a ratio. in most cases it does apply 5ecause they mostly ork on similar principles. It is not advisa5le to attach your home stereo speakers to your computer 5ecause the >uality of sound may still 5e 5ad. 8earing a sound a5ove D4<DF dB can 5e painful and damaging for the human ear.

ultimedia (or Sound in some systems). The Sound and . visit ttp!BBen. To see a list of codecs. video codecs are used to compressBdecompress video. and 0indo s .streaming audio format. (e$t.ultimedia F2 . ikipedia. @ike audio codecs. click the #roperties 5utton. To vie the list of codecs installed on your system. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . a dialog 5o$ sho ing the codecs installed ill open. (avigate to the 8ard are ta5 and select Audio )odecs in the list.ideoZcodecs. Specific audio <codecs act as interfaces to audio players such as 0inamp.ultimedia #roperties dialog 5o$ opens.orgB ikiB@istZofZcodecsU. open the )ontrol #anel and select Sound and .edia players.

ar>uee tool • @asso tool • #ainting tools • &diting tools • )olor selection and cropping tools • Selection tools • #rinting features • *raphics file formats supported Use the layers palette Focus Areas Introduce #hotoshop as one of the most popular image editing and graphics creation tool. here they can actually merge the 5ody of one person ith the face of another. &mphasi:e the advantages of #hotoshop in various fields.ultimedia '(IIT . #rovide the students a 5rief list of the various tools supported 5y #hotoshop and kind of image editing and graphic creation that can 5e done using these tools. 34 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .4 included various ne features. Tell them that 7/ morphing is also possi5le in #hotoshop. as shipped in -224. The latest version of #hotoshop is #hotoshop )S. hich made #hotoshop very popular. Inform the students that #hotoshopGs first version. hich is an Ado5e product.ersion 3. . hich includes revolutionary features in the field of image editing.Chapter Five Objectives In this chapter. Since then various versions have 5een launched. the students have learned to!      &dit 5itmap and vector graphics )hange color modes )ompare different file formats Use #hotoshop tools and features! • Kectangle . such as printing and media. -. Ask the students to refer to the official Ado5e site to get an overvie of the ne features of #hotoshop )S.4.

5elo lists key5oard shortcuts of some commonly used operations in #hotoshop! Short cuts 11F 13 1H 1D 12 ShiftA Alt )trl AK ]oom In ]oom In 1it on Screen @ock *uides #ools #hotoshop 8elp Brush #alette )olor #alette @ayer #alette (avigator. Tool #resets )opy same layer Kulers )trlAA )trl<< )trlA4 Alt A)trlA 1ill 1oreground color )trl A /elete or )trl A Backspace 1ill 5ackground color Alt A /elete or Alt A Backspace '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . Info 8istory. Actions.A itiona! Inputs The follo ing section provides some e$tra inputs on the important topics covered in the S*! $hotoshop Shortcuts Ta5le F..ultimedia 3- .

@ ? BlurBSharpenBSmudge K Tool Type Tool #en Tool &raser Tool )rop Tool . Tool .ultiple 8istory (Step Back ards) /irect selection /ecrease 5rush si:e Increase 5rush si:e #revious 5rush (e$t 5rush 1ree Transform T # & ) )trl AAltA ] )trlA Any Arro [ \ V W )trl A T 37 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .ar>uee .Short cuts Brush Tool (B) B #ools Kectangular .ultimedia '(IIT .ove Tool @asso Tool /odgeBBurnBSponge Tool .

place the mouse cursor in the image area. )lick the #en tool icon. #en tool ena5les creation of vector illustration through lines and curves.$en . E. hich can 5e edited during creation or even after creation.ool in $hotoshop #ersion / An important graphics creation and tracing tool in #hotoshop is the #en tool. (o . A line ill 5e created 5et een the t o anchor points as sho n in the follo ing figure! (ote that the point. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . Unlike a #encil tool. )lick at another location in the canvas to connect the anchor point created in Step = to the ne point.ultimedia 3= . ?pen a ne image in #hotoshop. in the tool5o$. a #en tool does not merely create an outlineO it creates the outline of an illustration as a path. This point is called an anchor point or a node. A point ill appear on the canvas. =. )lick at any point in the 5lank canvas from here you ant to start creating the illustration. hich is filled ith solid color is the one. hich as created in this step and is currently selected. 7. #erform the follo ing steps to create a face of a person using the #en tool! -. Using the #en tool you can create your o n illustrations.

)lick ?K in the . 5. 1ill color in the selection using the #aint Bucket tool as sho n in the follo ing figure! 3E )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .indo 34ho #aths. 3.F. )lick the W sign on the right side of the #aths palate. Similarly. The follo ing figure sho s the outline of the face after the last anchor point has 5een connected to the first anchor point to form a closed path! 0hen you are at the first and the last anchor points.ake Selection dialog 5o$ that appears. The 0orkpath ill 5e converted to a selection. c. from the menu. To fill color in the illustration created using #en tool.ultimedia '(IIT . the more curved ill the path 5e. you must convert the path to a selection 5y performing the follo ing steps! a. you can keep clicking to connect points in the shape of a face. ?nce a path is closed you can only edit it. (ote that the closer you click to create anchor points. ?pen the #aths palate 5y selecting . you cannot e$tend it. and select -a/e 4election.. the mouse cursor (representing the pen tool) ill appear ith a small circle 5elo it to indicate that the path ill 5e closed if the points are connected..

The procedure e$plained a5ove is only one of the ays. (e$t. click and drag to create the ne$t anchor point.(ote that you can convert a selection 5ack to a path in the same ay 5y selecting -a/e .or/ #ath. and not a versatile ay. of using the #en tool. To dra a curve using the #en tool. 6ou can use the #en tool to create curves 5y dragging hile you click to create an anchor point.ultimedia 3F .. in the #aths palate.. A curve ill 5e created as sho n in the follo ing figure! (otice the t o e$tended lines e emanating out of the selected anchor point in the a5ove figure. These are called the handles of '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . click to create the starting anchor point. 6ou can also edit individual anchor points.

Apart from the )onvert Anchor #oint tool under the #en tool. )onvolution is an integral 5ased mathematical operation 5et een t o functions. By dragging the handles. Similarly. Creating Custom Filters in $hotoshop Apart from the filter effects availa5le in #hotoshopGs 1ilter menu. you can also create your o n custom filter for applying on images. hich is often said to G5lendG the functions.ultimedia '(IIT . Using a custom filter. 6ou can then use the handles of this anchor point. 6ou can move the handles simultaneously or individually using the )onvert Anchor #oint tool (availa5le in the #en tool options if you right click on it). to modify the shape of the path at that point. you can delete an anchor point in a path using the /elete Anchor #oint tool. perform the follo ing steps! -. t o other useful options are Add Anchor #oint Tool and /elete Anchor #oint Tool. As a result of the application of convolution each pi$el in an image on hich a custom filter is applied is reassigned a value 5ased on the values of surrounding pi$els.the anchor point. These t o tools along ith the )onvert Anchor #oint tool can 5e used to impart a smooth shape to an illustration. 33 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . To create a custom filter. ?pen the image to hich you ant to apply the filter. you can change the 5rightness value of each pi$el in the image according to a predefined mathematical operation kno n as convolution. you change the orientation of the curve as desired. 6ou can select the Add Anchor point tool to add an anchor point at any location in a path.

ultimedia 3H .A)1 5y clicking on the Save 5utton. 5y clicking the @oad 5utton and 5ro sing to the desired . in the Scale te$t 5o$. The follo ing figure sho s the effect of a custom filter on an image in the previe 5o$! '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . E. &nter the value 5y hich you ant to multiply that pi$elGs 5rightness value. In addition. This value can 5e 5et een <222 to A222. Select .7. )lick ?K to apply the filter in the image after you have entered all the desired values. (ote that you do not have to enter values in all the te$t 5o$es.ilter 3 (ther 3 %0stom from the main menu of #hotoshop. The )ustom dialog 5o$ opens as sho n here! The )ustom dialog 5o$ sho s the previe of the image in the right hand side 5o$. if the #revie check5o$ on the left side is selected. 6ou can also enter a value in the ?ffset te$t 5o$ to add it to the result of the scale calculation. you can set the value 5y hich you ant to divide the sum of the 5rightness values entered in the unla5eled te$t 5o$es. =. you can save the custom filter as a . hich represents the pi$el 5eing evaluated. 6ou can load an already saved custom filter.A)1 file. In addition. Using the values entered in the various te$t5o$es 6ou can ad9ust the image 5rightness at a micro level and create a filter of your o n 5y entering different values in the te$t5o$es. )lick in any unla5eled te$t 5o$.

ultimedia '(IIT . This 0orkspace features are availa5le under the . the *UI appears the same as you had left it 5efore closing. and placing the palates. 3D )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . ho you separate grouped palates can 5e saved even after you close #hotoshop. the ay you place palates and the tool5o$. That is. and rulers. 8o ever.indo 3.Impro"ed . so that the ne$t time you open it. tool5o$.or/*ility in $hotoshop CS #hotoshop in general allo s users to customi:e the graphical user interface according to their convenience 5y sho ingBhiding. a remarka5le feature in #hotoshop )S is the a5ility to save the #hotoshop orking environment as a 0orkspace.

Bitmap Images ). at the time of re<sampling. A #hotoshop file can contain vector % raster data. 1ill in the 5lanks! a.ultimedia 32 . )omputer *raphics can 5e classified into ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ and ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ. Kesolution d. hich are called vectors. . Ans. True c. 8o many colors are there in K*B )olor modeC '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ . Ans.ethod is used to assign color values to any ne pi$el. Ans.ectors graphics are made of ZZZZ and ZZZZZZ defined 5y mathematical o59ects. Interpolation e. ZZZZZZZZZZ is defined as the num5er of pi$el along the height % idth of 5itmap. Ans. @ine )urves 2.So!utions to Chapter Five Questions 1. Ans.

ultimedia '(IIT . K*B images use three colors. )reating a layered image refers to putting different o59ects on different levels in a se>uence.Ans. A color that can 5e displayed in K*B may 5e out of gamut. @ayer sets help you organi:e and manage layers. Ked. and to reduce clutter in the @ayers palette. and #ath selection tool. #en tools. Ans. 6. and therefore unprinta5le. . @ayers can 5e visuali:ed as transparent sheets placed over one another in an image. and Blue. or you can create ne layers from e$isting content. 6ou cannot create a ne layer set ithin an e$isting layer set. it appears either a5ove the selected layer or ithin the selected layer set in the @ayers>uee Tool. 4. 6ou can create empty layers and add content to them. These colors are kno n as primary colors. 5.6K setting. 0hat is gamut in #hotoshopC Ans. (ame the different selections tools. The series of colors that a color system can demonstrate or print is called gamut in #hotoshop. 3. 6ou can use layer sets to easily move layers as a group. The selection tools in #hotoshop include the @asso tool. to apply attri5utes and masks to groups of layers. 0hen you create a ne layer. 0hat is a layerC Ans. for your ). . *reen. 0hat are editing ToolsC H4 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .

to select the source point for cloning. 7. &diting tools are used to fine<tune or modify graphic elements. Select Use All @ayers to sample data from all visi5le layersO deselect Use All @ayers to sample only from the active layer. The image ill 5e cloned in that area. opacity. and composition tools. *ive the steps to use ru55er stamp tool. perform the follo ing steps! -. Use the 5rush to clone the image 5y dragging the mouse on another area. such as . and . To use the ru55er stamp tool ()lone tool). the sampled pi$els are applied from the initial sampling point each time you stop and resume painting.ultimedia H- . Select an appropriate 5rush si:e and style from the Brush drop do n in the options 5ar at the top. If you select Aligned. /etermine ho you ant to align the sampled pi$els. Ad9ustment @ayers and 1ill @ayers. ?pen the image that you ant to clone. 8. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . you can release the mouse 5utton ithout losing the current sampling point. Ans.Ans. the sampled pi$els are applied continuously. As a result.asking @ayers to help you get professional<>uality results. 7. #hotoshop delivers high<po ered image editing. =. #ress Alt and click the image that you ant to clone. E. and flo . Auto )olor )ommand. Also set values for other options such as 5lending mode. no matter ho many times you stop and resume painting. 0hat is 1ile 1ormatC (ame the different image file formatsC Ans. It also supports features. photo retouching.aking )olor Ad9ustments. If you deselect Aligned. Select ru55er stamp tool. F.

ultimedia '(IIT . the *I1 file format used for 0e5 page images are standard formats that can 5e opened 5y any program that supports it. The file name e$tension or suffi$es indicate the format or usage of a file and a 5rief description of that format.The method 5y hich the soft are organi:es the data in the saved file is called the file format. Several different types of file format are used 5y various kind of soft are to save files. 1or e$ample. The various image file format are as follo s!        Tagged<Image 1ile 1ormat (TI11) *raphics Interchange 1ormat (*I1) "oint #hotographic &$perts *roup ("&#*) &ncapsulated #ostScript (&#S) #orta5le /ocument 1ormat (#/1) #orta5le (et ork *raphics (#(*) T*A< Targa H7 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and .

select 1ile <<W #rint from the main menu (or press )trl A #). To print a selected area. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . #hotoshop prints all visi5le layers and channels. *ive the steps to use the image printing utility of #hotoshopC Ans. If you ant to print 9ust certain layers or channels. After making the desired print settings click ?K to print. or even one or more layers. Select the Selection option 5utton in the #rint dialog 5o$ and click ?K. make a selection in the image using the Kectangular .ultimedia H= . In #hotoshop. selected area of an image. 6ou can also set the print resolution 5y selecting it from the #rint _uality drop<do n. you can print a complete image. The #rint dialog 5o$ opens up as sho n in the follo ing figure! &nsure that the All radio 5utton is selected. make them the only ones that are visi5le and then print. To print a complete image. (ote that 5y>uee tool and select 1ile W#rint.

and choose )aption from the Section drop<do n list. %ali)ration 'ars! Select this check5o$ to print the cali5ration and color 5ars for your image.6ou can also choose to print the filename. The #age Setup dialog 5o$ opens as sho n in the follo ing figure! 6ou can select the check5o$es if you ant to include the corresponding options in the printed image!   %aption! Selecting this check5o$ ill print a caption ith the image. This caption can 5e set in the 1ile Info dialog 5o$. To set such options. This option is availa5le only for a #ostScript printer. These 5ars can 5e helpful hen trying to cali5rate to a specific printer. along ith crop marks. To open the 1ile Info dialog 5o$ select 1ile W 1ile Info. registration marks and a caption along ith the image. A cali5ration 5ar is a ro of -gray s>uares of different values. A color 5ar is a ro of -colors. HE )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . select 1ile W#age Setup in #hotoshop 3.ultimedia '(IIT . Type a caption in the )aption te$t area and click ?K.

5a)els! Select this check5o$ to print the file name ne$t to the image. 0ith this option selected. '(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . 6ou can also print the name of the appropriate color channel if you are using color separations. 8nterpolation! Interpolation refers to a printerGs a5ility to resample an image as they print it to improve its resolution. These marks can 5e helpful for aligning color separations. %orner %rop -ar/s! Select this check5o$ to vie hori:ontal and vertical lines around the corners of the image.ultimedia HF . 6e!ati1e! Select this check5o$ to print an image that appears like a negative of the original image. The 5uttons on the left side also present some useful options such as printing a 5order around the image and printing a 5ackground ith the image. 7m0lsion "o n! Select this check5o$ to print the image as a hori:ontal mirror image of the original image. %enter %rop -ar/s! Select this check5o$ to vie the e$act center of the image defined 5y t o crossed lines. This option is useful in case of lo <resolution images. defining here the image should 5e trimmed.       &e!istration -ar/s! Select this check5o$ to print a registration mark such as 5ullGs eyes around the image. the colors are reversed.

1or e$amples.4 file in #hotoshop )SC Ans: 6es. a gradient on an e$isting image can 5e applied using _uick . assuming that an image is open. select the *radient tool and apply a gradient in the ne image.ode 5utton in the tool5o$. 4.4. 0hy are options under the 1ilter menu grayed or not availa5le sometimesC Ans: The most common reason for this. the file may not appear e$actly as created in #hotoshop 3. )an you delete the path created as an outline of an illustration using the #en toolC Ans: H3 )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . (o open a ne image and click the &dit in _uick . )an you apply a gradient on an e$isting imageC Ans: 6es. a #hotoshop 3. is that the )olor mode of the image is not supported 5y the 1ilter commands. )an you open a #hotoshop 3.asking. open the image and copy the area (or the hole image) to hich you ant to apply a gradient.ultimedia '(IIT .4 file can 5e opened in #hotoshop )S. (e$t. The image opened first ill 5e pasted in the selection and a gradient ill 5e applied to it. the ne features of #hotoshop )S may not 5e availa5le to that file. Select &ditW#aste Into from the main menu. )lick the &dit in Standard . In addition.FAQ 1.ode 5utton. 8o ever. 2. filters cannot 5e applied to Inde$ images.ask . To do this. A selection ill 5e formed on the ne image. 3.

'(IIT )oordinator *uide + *raphics and . 5. it is possi5le to merge all layers 5y selecting @ayerW1latten Image from the main menu. right<click 0ork #ath.ultimedia HH . To do this. An image has 5een created using multiple layers.6es. and select /elete #ath from the shortcut menu. )an you merge all layers into one layer 5efore saving the imageC Ans: 6es. the path created as an outline of an illustration using the #en tool can 5e deleted. open the #aths palate.